Radical Reformation激進改革

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Also known as the Left Wing of the Reformation and the Third Reformation, it includes all reforming elements not identified with the magisterial reformation.也被稱為左翼的改革和第三次改革,它包括所有的改革內容尚未確定的權威改革。 Common to all its participants was disappointment with moral aspects of territorial Protestantism and the rejection of some of its doctrines and institutions.共同所有與會者感到失望,道德方面的領土新教和反對它的一些理論和機構。 While various interlocking historical connections and doctrinal variations limit the validity of typological and ideological classifications, three main groupings of radicals have been identified: Anabaptists, spiritualists, and evangelical rationalists.雖然各種聯鎖的歷史淵源和理論的變化限制了有效的類型學和意識形態的分類,三大集團的激進分子已經確定: Anabaptists ,招魂,理性主義和福音。


The Anabaptist movement had a varied cast of characters.運動的再洗禮派了不同的人物。 From it has evolved the Free Church tradition.它已演變的自由教會的傳統。

From Luther to twentieth century scholar Karl Holl, the opinion prevailed that Anabaptism began with revolutionaries and spiritualizers such as the Zwickau Prophets and Thomas Munzer and reached its logical conclusion with the violent Munsterites.從路德至二十世紀的學者卡爾霍爾,普遍的意見認為Anabaptism開始革命家和spiritualizers如茨維考先知和托馬斯閔采爾和達到其合乎邏輯的結論與暴力Munsterites 。 In the 1940s Harold S Bender inaugurated a new era in American Anabaptist studies.在1940年代哈羅德語班德成立一個新的時代,美國的再洗禮派的研究。 Using primary sources and following up directions indicated earlier by CA Cornelius and other Europeans, Bender distinguished between Anabaptists and revolutionaries.利用主要來源和採取後續行動的方向如前所述由CA科尼利厄斯和其他歐洲人,本區分Anabaptists和革命家。 He placed Anabaptist origins in the circle of Conrad Grebel, which left Zwingli's reformation when Zwingli compromised its biblical basis. From Zurich the movement was spread by missionaries from Switzerland to Austria and Moravia, South Germany, and the Low Countries.他把再洗禮派起源於循環康拉德Grebel ,造成茨溫利的改革時,茨溫利損害其聖經基礎。從蘇黎世的運動是由傳教士傳播從瑞士到奧地利和摩拉維亞,南非德國和低地國家。 Bender described the movement as the logical culmination of the reform begun but left unfinished by Luther and Zwingli.本德爾介紹了運動的邏輯高潮的開始,但改革未完成的路德和茨溫利。 Its principal characteristics were discipleship, biblicism, and pacifism其主要特點是門徒, biblicism ,以及和平

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Beginning in the late 1960s scholars challenged and, to a considerable measure, reoriented Bender's findings.從20世紀60年代末學者提出質疑,並在相當大的措施,調整本德爾的調查結果。 They described a pluralistic rather than a homogenous movement with several points of origin and a multiplicity of reforming impulses.他們還描述了一個多元化的,而不是單一運動與幾個點的原產地和眾多的改革衝動。

Swiss Anabaptism瑞士Anabaptism

Anabaptism in Switzerland developed from Zwingli's early supporters. Anabaptism在瑞士從茨溫利的早期支持者。 These future radicals included the Grebel circle, which gathered in the home of Andreas Castelberger for Bible study, and priests from the outlying towns of Zurich.這些未來的自由基包括Grebel循環,聚集在這家安德烈Castelberger為研究聖經,和神父從外圍城鎮的蘇黎世。 For different reasons the urban and rural radicals became disillusioned with Zwingli's reform.對於不同的原因,城市和農村的自由基成為幻滅茨溫利的改革。

Seeing the Bible as an alternative authority to Rome, the Grebel circle desired Zwingli to proceed rapidly to purify the city's religious establishment of such corruptions as the Mass. When Zwingli allowed the city council to determine the speed of reformation, it seemed to the radicals the substitution of one oppressive authority for another.看聖經作為替代權力,羅馬, Grebel循環所需的茨溫利迅速著手淨化城市的宗教建立這樣的腐敗作為馬薩諸塞州允許當茨溫利市議會來確定改革的速度,它似乎激進的一個替代壓迫另一個權力。 The radical movement developed social as well as religious dimensions when its members joined forces with rural priests such as Simon Stumpf at Hongg and Wilhelm Reublin at Wittikon, who sought to establish self - governing Volkskirchen in the rural communities, independent of Zurich's central authority, both religious and civil.激進的運動發達的社會,以及宗教方面時,其成員加入農村司鐸,如西蒙施通普夫在Hongg和Wilhelm Reublin在Wittikon ,誰尋求建立自我-理事V olkskirchen在農村社區,獨立的蘇黎世中央權威,無論宗教和民間。 The rebaptisms which occurred first on January 21, 1525, and from which come the name Anabaptism, originally expressed an anticlerical opposition to civil and religious authority outside of the local parish rather than a Free Church theological concept.該rebaptisms第一次發生在1525年一月21日,從其中的名稱來Anabaptism ,最初表示反對反聖職者的民間和宗教的權力以外的地方教區,而不是自由教會的神學概念。

Ultimately the attempts to become a mass movement failed and there emerged the idea of the church of the separated, persecuted, and defenseless minority.最終,試圖成為群眾運動失敗和出現的想法教會的分離,遭受迫害,手無寸鐵的少數民族。 The Schleitheim Articles of 1527, edited by Michael Sattler, consolidated this Swiss Anabaptism.該Schleitheim的1527條,編輯邁克爾薩特勒,鞏固了這一瑞士Anabaptism 。 Its goal was not the purification of existing Christianity, as it was for the early Zurich radicals, but rather the separation of congregations of believers from the world.它的目標是不是淨化現有的基督教,因為這是為早日蘇黎世自由基,而是分離的教會的信徒從世界。 Thus at Schleitheim first emerged the idea of a "free church."因此,在Schleitheim首次出現的想法, “自由教會。 ” These Swiss Brethren came to be known for their legalistic approach to the Bible, a salvation manifesting itself in the creation of separated congregations, and baptism which symbolized that salvation and made the baptizand a member of the congregation.瑞士弟兄這些後來被稱為他們的法律的辦法來聖經,一個拯救體現在建立離散聚會,和洗禮的象徵和見證了baptizand成員的聚集。

South German Anabaptism南非德國Anabaptism

In spite of the mutual practice of adult baptism, Anabaptism in South Germany was a quite different movement from the Swiss Brethren.儘管在實踐中相互成人洗禮, Anabaptism德國在南非是一個完全不同的運動,瑞士弟兄。 South German Anabaptism stems from the reformulation of ideas from Thomas Munzer by Hans Hut and Hans Denck (c. 1500 - 1527).南非德國Anabaptism源於思想重新托馬斯閔采爾漢斯必勝客和漢斯Denck (角1500年至1527年) 。 Reflecting a medieval, mystical outlook, Munzer envisioned the inner transformation of persons through the Spirit and an accompanying external transformation of the entire society, with the newly transformed individuals acting in revolutionary fashion to usher in the kingdom of God.反映了中世紀,神秘的世界觀,閔采爾設想的內在轉化人員通過精神和相應的外部改造整個社會,與新改造的個人行事方式的革命,開創了王國的上帝。 This revolution, along with Munzer, died in the May 1525 massacre of peasants at Frankenhausen.這場革命,隨著閔采爾,死於1525年5月屠殺了農民Frankenhausen 。

Hans Denck's concept of inner transformation was pacifist in expression, with focus more on the renewal of individuals than of society.漢斯Denck的概念轉化為內在的和平表達,與更多的精力放在個人續期的,而不是社會。 This inner, transforming Christ served Denck as an alternative authority both to the Roman hierarchy and to the learned exegesis of the Reformers.這內,把基督送達Denck作為替代權力都羅馬層次和教訓註釋的改革者。 Positing the inner Christ as ultimate authority made Denck less than absolute in his approach to adult baptism and the written word, both positions which brought upon him the criticism of the Swiss Brethren.定位的內在基督為最終權力作出Denck不到絕對在他的辦法,成人洗禮和文字,這兩種立場使他的批評瑞士弟兄。

Hans Hut understood the inner transformation to be accomplished through the experience of both inner and outer struggle and suffering.漢斯必勝客理解的內在轉變是通過經驗的內部和外部的鬥爭和苦難。 Hut modified Munzer's revolutionary outlook, commanding the transformed believers to keep the revolutionary sword sheathed until God called for it.必勝客修改閔采爾的革命人生觀,指揮轉化信徒保持革命鞘劍,直到上帝要求它。 Unlike the Swiss Brethren, Hut's practice of rebaptism was not to form separated congregations, but rather to mark the elect for the end - time judgment.不同的是瑞士弟兄們,必勝客的做法, rebaptism不是分離的形式聚會,而是為了慶祝選舉結束-時間的判斷。 Hut's movement gradually died out following his death in a jail fire.必勝客的運動逐漸熄滅他去世後在監獄火災。

A Hut legacy continued through several metamorphoses.一間小屋的遺產繼續通過幾個變形記。 One form developed in Moravia, out of the conflict in the congregation at Nikolsburg between the pacifist Stabler (staff bearers), influenced by Hut and Swiss Brethren refugees, and the Schwertler (sword bearers), the majority party under the influence of Balthasar Hubmaier, who had established a state church form of Anabaptism in the city.一種形式發達國家在摩拉維亞,在衝突中聚集在Nikolsburg之間的和平斯特布勒(工作人員承擔) ,必勝客的影響和瑞士的弟兄難民,並Schwertler (劍者) ,多數黨的影響下,巴爾塔薩Hubmaier ,誰建立了一個國家教會形式的Anabaptism在城市。 Forced to leave Nikolsburg in 1529, the Stabler pooled their few possessions as a survival necessity.被迫離開Nikolsburg在1529年,匯集了斯特布勒他們幾個的財產作為一個生存的必要條件。 This community of goods, which became the movement's trademark, soon received a theological justification, making it a social expression of the inner mystical transformation of believers envisioned by Hut. Following the dispute - filled early years Jacob Hutter's strong leadership from 1533 to 1536 consolidated this Anabaptist form. His name still identifies the Hutterites in the twentieth century.該社區的貨物,成為該運動的商標,很快收到了神學的理由,使其成為社會表達內心神秘的轉變信徒所設想的小屋。爭端之後-初來填補雅各布胡特爾的堅強領導1 533年至1 536年鞏固了這一再洗禮派的形式。他的名字仍然確定了Hutterites在二十世紀。

Another form of the Hut legacy developed in South Germany around Pilgram Marpeck.另一種形式的遺產的必勝客發達國家在南非德約皮爾格拉姆Marpeck 。 Although he left his native Tyrol after adopting Anabaptism, and while he was forced further to move several times because of his Anabaptist views, Marpeck's skills as a civil engineer enabled him to live in relative security.雖然他離開本土後,蒂羅爾州通過Anabaptism ,雖然他被迫進一步推動幾次,因為他再洗禮派的觀點, Marpeck的技能作為一個土木工程師,使他生活在相對安全的。 Marpeck's view was not widely held and therefore is not normative for Anabaptism; but he did develop a mediating position on the Bible, critical both of the legalist Swiss and of spiritualist views. Marpeck的觀點是不普遍,因此不規範的Anabaptism ;但他沒有建立一個調解的立場聖經,關鍵的兩個法家瑞士和spiritualist意見。 Rather than the radical social separation of the Swiss Brethren, Marpeck held to a separation of church and state which did not withhold all cooperation by believers.而不是激進的社會分離的瑞士弟兄們, Marpeck舉行了政教分離和國家沒有扣留所有合作的信徒。

Low Countries Anabaptism低的國家Anabaptism

The third major Anabaptist movement was planted in the Low Countries by Melchior Hofmann (c. 1495 - 1543). An erstwhile Lutheran preacher in Sweden and Schleswig - Holstein, always zealously interested in eschatological speculation, Hofmann found in the Strasbourg Anabaptists influenced by Hans Denck the ideas which precipitated his break with Luther and enabled him to develop his own form of Anabaptism.第三個主要再洗禮派運動是種植在低地國家的梅爾基奧爾霍夫曼(角1495年至1543年) 。一個昔日路德牧師在瑞典和石勒蘇益格-荷爾斯泰因州,總是熱心感興趣的末世論投機,霍夫曼發現了斯特拉斯堡A nabaptists影響漢斯D enck其中的思想沉澱他打破路德和使他能夠發展自己的形式Anabaptism 。 Hofmann believed in the near inbreaking of God's kingdom into the world, with divine vengeance upon the wicked.霍夫曼認為在不久的inbreaking上帝的王國融入世界,與神聖的復仇的邪惡。 The righteous would participate in this judgment, not as agents of vengeance but as witnesses to the coming peace. Hofmann's baptism served to gather the elect into an end - time congregation to build this new Jerusalem.正義將參加這一判決,而不是作為報復,但作為證人即將到來的和平。霍夫曼的洗禮送達收集到選舉結束-時間教會建立這一新的耶路撒冷。 He died after ten years imprisonment in Strasbourg.他去世後10年徒刑在斯特拉斯堡舉行。

Two lines carried on in transformed fashion the Hofmann legacy.兩條線路上進行改造的方式霍夫曼的遺產。 One, the revolutionary Melchiorites, founded the short - lived kingdom of Munster, 1534 - 35.一,革命Melchiorites ,成立了短期-生活王國的穆斯特, 1 534年至1 535年。 Under Jan Matthys, baptized as a disciple of Hofmann, and then under Jan van Leiden, who seized power at the death of Matthys, the revolutionary Melchiorites in the city of Munster gave a political and social expression to Hofmann's end - time kingdom.根據1月Matthys ,受洗作為一個弟子霍夫曼,然後根據揚凡萊頓,誰掌權的去世Matthys ,革命Melchiorites的城市明斯特了政治和社會表達霍夫曼的結束-時間王國。 They transformed his idea of divine vengeance so that in Munster the members of the kingdom carried out vengeance upon anyone who opposed them.他們改變自己的想法神聖復仇,以便在明斯特成員王國進行報復時人誰反對他們。 Following the fall of the city revolutionary Melchioritism died out, although it was carried on for a time by personages such as Jan van Batenburg.淪陷後的城市革命Melchioritism去世了,雖然進行了一段時間的人士,如揚凡Batenburg 。

The pacifist line from Hofmann runs through Menno Simons, who left the priesthood in 1536 and whose name twentieth century Mennonites carry.在和平霍夫曼線穿過門諾西門子,誰離開了在1536年晉鐸的名字和二十世紀的門諾派進行。 After the fall of Munster, Menno rallied the peaceful Melchiorites as well as the surviving Munsterites disillusioned with violence.淪陷後穆斯特,門諾反彈和平Melchiorites以及尚存的Munsterites幻想與暴力。 Menno replaced Hofmann's near end time with the idea of a time of peace which had already begun with Jesus.門諾取代霍夫曼接近結束時間的想法,和平時期已經開始與耶穌。 Using the aberrant "celestial flesh" Christology of Hofmann which he adopted, Menno developed concepts of the transformation of the individual and of the assembly of a spotless church.使用異常的“天體肉”基督的霍夫曼,他通過門諾發展概念的轉變,個人和組裝的一塵不染教堂。

Although beginning from different presuppositions, Menno's positions on transformed individuals and a pure, separated church resembled closely the outlook of the Schleitheim Articles.雖然從不同的前提,門諾上的立場轉變個人和一個純粹的,失散的教堂相似的前景密切的Schleitheim文章。 The heirs of the various Anabaptist groups came to recognize their common emphases on the Bible, adult baptism, pacifism, and sense of separation from the state church and worldly society.繼承人的各種再洗禮派團體來承認其共同重點聖經,成人洗禮,和平主義,意識和脫離國家教會和世俗社會。 They had contacts and discussions and divisions.他們的接觸和討論和分歧。 While they never united into one homogeneous body, some sense of unity developed, as represented by the Concept of Cologne signed in 1591 by fifteen preachers, the first confession of faith accepted simultaneously by Dutch and High and Low German Mennonites.雖然他們從來沒有團結成一個單一的機構,一些的團結意識發達,所代表的概念科隆簽署了1591年的15傳教士,第一個認罪的信念同時接受荷蘭和高低壓德國門諾派。


Radicals characterized as spiritualizers downplayed significantly or rejected altogether external forms of church and ceremonies, opting instead for inner communion through the Holy Spirit.自由基的特點是顯著spiritualizers淡化或完全拒絕外部形式的教堂和儀式,而是選擇內共融通過聖靈。 Thus for example Silesian nobleman Kasper Schwenckfeld held that there had been no correct baptism for a thousand years, and in 1526 he recommended suspension of the observance of the Lord's Supper, the Stillstand observed by his followers until 1877, until the question of its proper form could be settled.因此,例如西里西亞的貴族卡斯佩Schwenckfeld舉行,沒有正確的洗禮了一千多年,並在1526年他建議暫停遵守上帝的晚餐,在Stillstand觀察他的追隨者,直到1877年,直至這一問題的適當形式可以得到解決。 Sebastian Franck (1499 - 1542) rejected altogether the idea of an external church.塞巴斯蒂安弗蘭克( 1499年至1542年)完全拒絕的想法外部教堂。 He saw external ceremonies as mere props to support an infant church and which in any case had been taken over by the antichrist immediately after the death of the apostles.他認為,外部儀式僅僅作為道具,以支持一個嬰兒教堂,並在任何情況下,採取了由反基督後立即死亡的使徒。 Franck held the true church to be invisible, its individuals nurtured by the Spirit but remain scattered until Christ gathered his own at his second coming. Marpeck combated this individualistic, invisible church as the principal threat to South German Anabaptism.弗蘭克舉行了真正的教會是無形的,其個人所培育的精神,但仍分散收集到基督自己在他第二次來了。 Marpeck打擊這種個人主義,無形教會的主要威脅南非德國Anabaptism 。

Evangelical Rationalists福音理性主義

Other radicals, given significant weight to reason alongside the Scriptures, came to reject aspects of traditional theology, principally in Christological and Trinitarian matters.其他自由基,因為體重顯著理性與聖經,來拒絕方面的傳統神學,主要是在基督和三位一體的事項。 Michael Servetus, burned in Calvin's Geneva for his views, is a noteworthy example of antitrinitarianism. Antitrinitarianism attained institutional form in the pacifistic Polish Brethren, later known as Socinians, and in the Unitarian churches in Lithuania and Transylvania.邁克爾塞爾維特,燒毀在卡爾文的日內瓦,他的意見,是一個值得注意的例子antitrinitarianism 。 Antitrinitarianism實現體制形式的和平主義的波蘭弟兄們,後來被稱為蘇西尼,並在統一教會在立陶宛和特蘭西瓦尼亞。 A remnant of the latter survives into the twentieth century.殘餘後者的生存到20世紀。 Other modern Unitarians inherit the intellectual if not the historical legacy of antitrinitarianism.其他現代Unitarians繼承的智力如果不是歷史遺留的antitrinitarianism 。

JD Weaver韋弗約旦第納爾
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (規矩福音字典)

Bibliography 目錄
WR Estep, ed., Anabaptist Beginnings; EJ Furcha, ed., Selected Writings of Hans Dench; L Harder, ed., Grebeliana; W Klaassen, ed., Anabaptism in Outline; W Klaassen and W Klassen, eds., The Writings of Pilgram Marpeck; JC Wenger, ed., The Complete Writings of Menno Simons; GH Williams and A Mergal, eds., Spiritual and Anabaptist Writers; JH Yoder, ed., The Legacy of Michael Sattler; RS Armour, Anabaptist Baptism; RH Bainton, "Left Wing of the Reformation," in Studies in the Reformation, 2, and The Travail of Religious Liberty; HS Bender, The Anabaptist Vision and Conrad Grebel;水利Estep ,編輯。 ,再洗禮派開端;伯克利分校Furcha ,編輯。 ,所選著作漢斯丹奇; L哈德,編輯。 , Grebeliana ; W Klaassen ,編輯。 , Anabaptism在大綱; W Klaassen和W克拉森合編。 ,著作的皮爾格拉姆Marpeck ;巴埃納溫格版。 ,完整的著作門諾西門子;生長激素威廉姆斯和A Mergal合編。 ,精神和再洗禮派作家;家尤德,編輯。原有的邁克爾薩特勒;遙感盔甲,再洗禮派的洗禮;生殖健康Bainton , “左翼改革, ”在研究改革, 2 ,與勞動宗教自由;高速Bender表示,再洗禮派視覺和康拉德Grebel ;

T Bergsten, Balthasar Hubmaier; CJ Dyck, Introduction to Mennonite History and (ed.), A Legacy of Faith; R Friedmann, Hutterite Studies; HJ Hillerbrand, ed., A Bibliography of Anabaptism and A Fellowship of Discontent; W Klassen, Covenant and Community; M Lienhard, ed., The Origins and Characteristics of Anabaptism; Mennonite Encyclopedia, I - IV; JS Oyer, Lutheran Reformers Against Anabaptists; WO Packull, Mysticism and the Early South German - Austrian Anabaptist Movement; JM Stayer, Anabaptists and the Sword and "The Swiss Brethren,"; JM Stayer and WO Packull, eds., The Anabaptists and Thomas Munzer; JM Stayer, WO Packull, and K Deppermann, "From Monogenesis to Polygenesis," MQR 49; DC Steinmetz, Reformers in the Wings; GH Williams, The Radical Reformation. Ť伯格斯坦,巴爾塔薩Hubmaier ;菌戴克,介紹門歷史和(編) ,遺留下來的信仰; R弗里德曼, Hutterite研究;黃建忠Hillerbrand ,編輯。 ,參考書目的Anabaptism和A聯誼會不滿; W克拉森,盟約和社區; M林哈德,編輯。的起源與特點Anabaptism ;門百科全書,我-四;江蘇O yer,路德反對改革者A nabaptists;沃P ackull,神秘主義和南方的早期德國-奧地利再洗禮派運動;J M斯特耶,A n abaptists和劍和“瑞士弟兄” ; JM斯特耶及禾Packull合編。 ,該Anabaptists和托馬斯閔采爾; JM斯特耶,禾Packull和K Deppermann , “從Monogenesis以Polygenesis , ” MQR 49 ;直流斯坦梅茨,改革者中的翅膀;生長激素威廉姆斯,激進改革。

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