Roman Catholic Church, Catholicism羅馬天主教,天主教

General Information 一般信息

The Roman Catholic church, the largest of the Christian churches, although present in all parts of the world, is identified as Roman because of its historical roots in Rome and because of the importance it attaches to the worldwide ministry of the bishop of Rome, the pope.羅馬天主教會,最大的基督教教堂,儘管目前在世界所有地區,被確定為羅馬,因為它的歷史根源在羅馬,因為它重視在世界範圍內部的主教羅馬,教宗。 Several Eastern Rite Churches , whose roots are in regional churches of the Eastern Mediterranean, are in full communion with the Roman Catholic church.一些東歐教會禮儀 ,其根源在於區域教堂的東地中海,是完全共融的羅馬天主教教堂。

In 1980 there were some 783 million Roman Catholics, approximately 18% of the world's population.在1980年大約有7.83億羅馬天主教徒,大約有18 %的世界人口。 The 51 million Roman Catholics in the United States (1982) constitute 22% of that country's population.在5100萬美元的羅馬天主教徒在美國( 1982年)的22 % ,該國的人口。 These statistics are based on baptisms, usually conferred on infants, and do not necessarily imply active participation in the church's life nor full assent to its beliefs.這些統計數據的基礎上洗禮,通常授予的嬰兒,並不一定意味著積極參與教會的生活,也不完全贊同其信仰。

A growing estrangement between the Catholic church in the West and the Orthodox church of the East in the first millennium led to a break between them in the 11th century, and the two regions diverged in matters of theology, liturgy, and disciplinary practices. 越來越隔閡,天主教在西方和東正教教堂東在第一個千年導致打破它們之間在11世紀,而且這兩個區域的不同事項的神學,禮儀和紀律的做法。 Within Western Christianity beginning with the 16th - century Reformation, the Roman Catholic church came to be identified by its differences with the Protestant churches.在西方基督教開始, 16 -世紀的宗教改革,羅馬天主教來確定其差異與新教。

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Our List of 2,300 Religious Subjects我們所列出的2300名宗教科目

Roman Catholic Beliefs羅馬天主教的信仰

The basic religious beliefs of Roman Catholics are those shared by other Christians as derived from the New Testament and formulated in the ancient Creeds of the early ecumenical councils, such as Nicaea (325) and Constantinople (381). The central belief is that God entered the world through the Incarnation of his Son, the Christ or Messiah, Jesus of Nazareth. The founding of the church is traced to the life and teachings of Jesus, whose death is followed by resurrection from the dead after which he sends the Holy Spirit to assist believers. 基本信仰羅馬天主教的是那些共享的其他基督徒來自新約,並制定在古代信仰的早期基督教理事會,如尼西亞( 325 )和君士坦丁堡( 381 ) 。 中央相信,上帝進入世界各地的體現他的兒子,基督或救世主,拿撒勒的耶穌。創立的教堂是追溯到生命和耶穌的教誨,其死亡之後是復活的死亡之後,他向聖靈來協助信徒。 This triple mission within the Godhead is described doctrinally as the divine Trinity, God one in nature but consisting in three divine persons .這三重任務的神體描述doctrinally作為神聖的三位一體人組成的性質,但在三個神聖的人。

Roman Catholics attach special significance to the rites of Baptism and Eucharist. Baptism is sacramental entry into Christian life, and the Eucharist is a memorial of Christ's death and resurrection in which he is believed to be sacramentally present. 羅馬天主教會特別重視儀式的洗禮和聖體。洗禮聖禮進入基督徒的生活,與聖體是一個紀念基督的死亡與復活,他被認為是本sacramentally 。 The Eucharist is celebrated daily in the Roman Catholic church. Catholics also regard as Sacraments the forgiveness of sins in reconciliation with the church (Confession), ordination to ministry (Holy Orders), marriage of Christians, postbaptismal anointing (Confirmation), and the Anointing of the Sick.聖體聖事是每天都在慶祝羅馬天主教教堂。 天主教徒也認為聖禮免除罪孽在和解與教會(自白) ,協調,以省(羅馬訂單) ,結婚的基督徒, postbaptismal anointing (確認) ,並Anointing病態的。

Catholic ethical doctrines are based ultimately on the New Testament teachings but also on the conclusions reached by the church, especially by the popes and other teachers. In recent times the pope and bishops have formulated guidelines regarding social justice, racial equality, disarmament, human rights, contraception, and abortion. 天主教的道德理論的基礎上最終新約的教導,而且對所得出的結論教堂,尤其是教皇和其他教師。最近教皇和主教已制定指導方針社會正義,種族平等,裁軍,人權,避孕和墮胎。 The official opposition to artificial contraception is not accepted by a large number of practicing Catholics.這位官員反對人工避孕是不接受了大量的實踐天主教徒。 The Roman Catholic church's prohibition of remarriage after divorce is the strictest of the Christian churches, although the church does admit the possibility of annulments for marriages judged to be invalid.羅馬天主教會的禁止離婚後再婚是嚴格的基督教教堂,但教堂也承認有可能無效的婚姻被認為是無效的。

The Worship of the Church崇拜的教會

The public worship of the Roman Catholic church is its liturgy, principally the Eucharist, which is also called the Mass. After the recitation of prayers and readings from the Bible, the presiding priest invites the faithful to receive communion, understood as sharing in the sacramental presence of Christ. 公眾崇拜的羅馬天主教會是它的禮儀,主要是聖體,也被稱為馬薩諸塞州後背誦祈禱和讀的聖經,主持神父請忠實於收到共融,理解為分享聖禮基督的存在。 At the Sunday liturgy the priest preaches a sermon or homily, applying the day's biblical texts to the present lives of believers.在週日禮儀神父宣揚布道或講道,申請當日的聖經文本本生命的信徒。 The church observes a liturgical calendar similar to that of other Christians, following a cycle of Advent, Christmas, Epiphany, Lent, Easter, and Pentecost.教會禮儀觀察一日曆類似的其他基督徒後,一個週期來臨,聖誕節,主顯節,四旬期,復活節,和聖靈降臨節。 It also follows a distinctive cycle of commemoration of the saints. The worship of the church is expressed as well in rites of baptism, confirmation, weddings, ordinations, penitential rites, burial rites or funerals, and the singing of the Divine Office. A distinguishing mark of Catholic worship is prayer for the dead.它還如下獨特的週期紀念聖人。崇拜教會表示,以及在儀式的洗禮,確認,婚禮,祝,悔罪的儀式,葬禮或葬禮,並演唱的神聖辦公室。 一個顯著紀念天主教祈禱禮拜的死亡。

The Roman Catholic church also fosters devotional practices, both public and private, including Benediction of the Blessed Sacrament (a ceremony of homage to Christ in the Eucharist), the Rosary, novenas (nine days of prayer for some special intention), pilgrimages to shrines, and veneration of saints' relics or statues. The devotional importance attached to the Saints (especially the Virgin Mary) distinguishes Roman Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy from the churches of the Reformation. In the last two centuries the Roman Catholic church has taught as official doctrine that Mary from her conception was kept free of original sin (the Immaculate Conception) and that at the completion of her life was taken up body and soul into heaven (the Assumption). Catholics are also encouraged to practice private prayer through meditation, contemplation, or spiritual reading. 羅馬天主教會也促進了虔誠的做法,公共和私營部門,包括祝福的祝福聖(儀式的敬意基督聖體)中,玫瑰, novenas ( 9天的祈禱對一些特殊的意圖) ,參拜神社和崇拜的聖人'的文物或雕像。 虔誠的重視聖徒(特別是聖母)區分羅馬天主教和東正教的教堂改革。在過去的兩個世紀的羅馬天主教教導作為官方學說瑪麗從她的觀念一直沒有原罪(聖母無染原罪堂) ,並在完成她的生活被帶到了身體和靈魂進入天堂(升天) 。天主教徒還鼓勵私人祈禱的做法通過冥想,沉思,或精神閱讀。 Such prayer is sometimes done in a retreat house with the assistance of a director.這種祈禱有時是做了一次務虛房子的協助下,一名董事。

The Organization of the Church該組織的教會

The Roman Catholic church is structured locally into neighborhood parishes and regional dioceses administered by bishops.羅馬天主教會的結構是當地教區到街道和區域管理的教區主教。 In recent times national episcopal conferences of bishops have assumed some importance.近年來,全國主教會議的主教們承擔一些重要的意義。 Catholic church policy is characterized, however, by a centralized government under the pope, who is regarded as the successor to the apostle Peter, entrusted with a ministry of unity and encouragement.天主教政策的特點是,然而,由一個中央集權政府的教宗,誰被看作是繼承使徒彼得,委託省統一和鼓勵。 The First Vatican Council (1869 - 70) further enhanced the role of the papacy by declaring that the church's Infallibility (or inability to err on central issues of the Christian faith) can be exercised personally by the pope in extraordinary circumstances. This teaching of the pope's primacy and infallibility is a major stumbling block to the unification of the Christian churches.第一屆梵蒂岡理事會( 1869年至1870年)進一步加強的作用,教皇宣布該教會的犯錯誤(或無法寧可核心問題基督教信仰)可以行使親自教皇在特殊情況下。 這一教學教皇的首要和絕對是一個重大的絆腳石統一的基督教教堂。

The pope is elected for life by the College of Cardinals (about 130).教宗當選為生命的樞機主教(約130 ) 。 He is assisted in the governance of the church by the bishops, especially through the World Synod of Bishops that meets every three years.協助他治理教會的主教,特別是通過世界主教會議,以滿足每3年。 More immediately in the Vatican City, the papal city - state within Rome, the pope is aided by the cardinals and a bureaucracy known as the Roman Curia.更直接在梵蒂岡,教皇城市-在狀態,羅馬教皇是計算機輔助的樞機主教和官僚被稱為羅馬教廷。 The Vatican is represented in many countries by a papal nuncio or apostolic delegate and at the United Nations by a permanent observer.梵蒂岡的代表在許多國家,由教皇大使或宗座代表和聯合國的常駐觀察員。

By tradition the all - male ordained clergy (bishops, priests, and deacons) are distinguished from the laity, who assist in the ministry of the church. In the Western (Latin) rite of the Catholic church, bishops and priests are ordinarily celibate. In many of the Eastern Rite churches, priests are allowed to marry. Some Catholics live together in Religious Orders, serving the church and the world under vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience. Members of these orders of congregations include sisters (or Nuns), brothers, and priests. 按照傳統的一切-祝男性神職人員(主教,神父,和執事)是有別於俗人,誰協助部教堂。在西方(拉丁美洲)禮儀的天主教教堂,主教和司鐸通常是獨身。在許多東歐禮教堂,神父可以結婚。 一些天主教徒共同生活在宗教訂單,服務教會和世界的誓言下的貧窮,貞潔,服從。成員的這些訂單包括教會姐妹(或修女) ,兄弟,和神父。 Priests who belong to religious orders are sometimes called regular clergy, because they live according to a rule (Latin regula).神父誰屬於宗教的命令有時被稱作經常神職人員,因為他們生活根據規則(拉丁美洲調節) 。 Most priests, however, are ordained for ministry in a diocese under a bishop and are called diocesan or secular priests.大多數神職人員,但是,祝為省在下教區主教,並要求各教區神職人員或世俗。

Church discipline is regulated by a code of Canon Law.教會紀律受守則佳能法。 A revised code for the Latin rite went into effect in 1983.修訂代碼拉丁美洲儀式開始生效於1983年。 A code for the Eastern Rite churches is in preparation. A碼東區麗教堂正在編寫之中。

The Church in A Time of Change教會在一個變革的時代

To initiate renewal in the Roman Catholic church, the late Pope John XXIII convoked a general council, the Second Vatican Council (1962 - 65).要開始重建的羅馬天主教會,已故的教皇約翰二十三世召開一般理事會,第二次梵蒂岡會議( 1962年至1965年) 。 This meeting of bishops and their advisors from around the world was also attended by Orthodox, Anglican, and Protestant observers.本次會議的主教和他們的顧問來自世界各地也出席了東正教,聖公會,新教和觀察員出席了會議。 The council initiated changes that are still being carried out in the postconciliar era. The chief reforms in church practices were: changes in liturgical language (from Latin to the vernacular) and reformulation of sacramental rituals; a new ecumenical openness toward other Christian churches; increased stress on the collective responsibility of bishops in the church's mission (collegiality); more acute concern for political and social issues, especially where moral questions are involved; attempts to adapt the Gospel to diverse cultural traditions; reform of priestly education; and partial acceptance of diversity in theology and local practices.該委員會發起的變化,仍在進行的postconciliar時代。 首席改革教會的做法是:變化的禮儀語言(來自拉丁美洲的方言)和重新聖禮儀式;一個新的基督教走向開放其他基督教教會;增加強調集體責任的主教在教會的使命(集體) ;更為嚴重關切的政治和社會問題,尤其是在道德問題都參與;企圖福音適應不同的文化傳統;改革祭司教育;和部分接受多樣性的神學和地方的做法。

These changes led to uneasiness and concern in some who felt that innovation had gone too far.這些變化導致的不安和關注的一些誰認為,創新已經走得太遠了。 For others the changes were seen as insufficient and painfully slow.對於其他的變化被看作是不夠的,痛苦的緩慢。 Church leaders now recognize that implementation of the conciliar program will involve a long process of ongoing renewal.教會領導人現在認識到,實施conciliar計劃將涉及一個長期的過程不斷更新。

Michael A Fahey邁克爾阿費伊

Bibliography 目錄
W Buhlmann, The Coming of the Third Church (1977); A Dulles, Models of the Church (1974); G Gallup and J Castelli, The American Catholic People: Their Beliefs, Practices, and Values (1987); EO Hanson, The Catholic Church in World Politics (1987); R Haughton, The Catholic Thing (1979); P Hebblethwaite, The Runaway Church (1978); H Kung, On Being a Christian (1976); R McBrien, Catholicism (1980); G Noel, The Anatomy of the Catholic Church (1980); K Rahner, The Shape of the Church to Come (1974) W Buhlmann ,即將到來的第三次會( 1977年) ;阿杜勒斯,模型教會( 1974年) ; G蓋洛普和J卡斯泰利,美國天主教的人:他們的信仰,習俗和價值觀( 1987年) ; 13224漢森,該天主教會在世界政治( 1987年) ; R霍頓,天主教的事( 1979年) ; P Hebblethwaite ,失控的教會( 1978 ) ; H西貢,被一個基督教( 1976年) ; R McBrien ,天主教( 1980年) ; G諾埃爾,解剖天主教教會( 1980年) ; K拉內,形狀的教會來( 1974年)

Roman Catholicism羅馬天主教

Advanced Information 先進的信息

The term has been in general use since the Reformation to identify the faith and practice of Christians in communion with the pope. 這個詞已普遍使用以來的改革確定的信仰和實踐中的基督信徒與教宗共融。

Although it has a reputation for conservatism and reaction, Roman Catholicism is a genuinely evolving religious system, valuing the deepening and development of its understanding of the Christian faith.雖然它的聲譽保守主義和反應,羅馬天主教是一個真正的宗教體系不斷發展,估價深化和發展的認識基督教信仰。 The Ignatian principles of accommodation and JH Newman's theory of development have been two expressions of this process. This development sometimes goes beyond biblical data, but Catholic scholars contend that the church's doctrines, eg, on the sacraments, the blessed Virgin Mary, and the papacy, are suggested by a "trajectory of images" in the NT; postbiblical developments are said to be consistent with the "thrust" of the NT. Ignatian原則的住宿和紅紐曼理論的發展有兩個表達這一進程。 這種發展有時超越了聖經的數據,但天主教學者認為,教會的學說,例如,關於聖禮,聖母瑪利亞,和教皇,提出了“軌跡的圖片”在NT ; postbiblical的發展被認為符合“推力”新台幣。

At other times this evolution has involved the rediscovery of truths that the church once possessed but which it subsequently lost in the course of its long history. The church has even at times recognized as error what it had earlier decreed authoritatively. Vatican Council II's Declaration on Religious Freedom is seen by reputable Catholic scholars to be in conflict with the condemnations of religious freedom in Gregory XVI's encyclical Mirari vos of 1832. The conflict was recognized by members of the council, but they supported the declaration on the principle of doctrinal development. Protestants hostile to Catholicism should be wary of attacking allegedly unalterable Catholic positions: the Catholic Church has reversed its position on basic issues.在其他時候這種變化涉及到重新發現真理,教會一旦擁有,但它後來失去了在其悠久的歷史。 教堂,甚至有時承認錯誤是它早先頒布權威性。梵蒂岡理事會第二宣言宗教自由看作是有信譽的天主教學者將在衝突的譴責宗教自由格里高利十六世的通諭Mirari沃斯的1832年。衝突承認了安理會成員,但他們支持聲明的原則,理論上的發展。新教徒敵對的天主教應該警惕的攻擊據稱不可改變的天主教的立場:天主教扭轉了自己的立場基本問題。

If, then, Roman Catholicism cannot be fixed within a single monolithic theological system, it is nevertheless helpful to distinguish between two tradition within Catholicism.如果,那麼,羅馬天主教不能固定在一個單片的神學體系,但它仍然是有用的區分兩個傳統的天主教。

The mainstream tradition has stressed the transcendence of God and the church as a divinely commissioned institution (the "vertical church"). 主流的傳統一直強調超越上帝和教會的神委託的機構 (以下簡稱“垂直教會” ) 。 This authoritarian, centralizing tradition has been variously labeled, mainly by its critics as "medievalism," "Romanism," "Vaticanism," "papalism," "Ultramontanism," "Jesuitism," "Integralism," and "neoscholasticism."這專制的,集中了傳統的各種標記,主要是通過其批評為“中世紀” , “羅馬” , “ Vaticanism ” , “ papalism ” , “ Ultramontanism ” , “ Jesuitism ” , “整體論”和“ neoscholasticism 。 ”

A minority reformist tradition has stressed the immanence of God and the church as community (the "horizontal church"). 少數改革派的傳統,強調了內在的上帝和教會作為社區 (以下簡稱“橫向教會” ) 。 Reform Catholicism has nourished such movements as Gallicanism, Jansenism, liberal Catholicism, and modernism.改革天主教營養等運動Gallicanism ,詹森主義,自由主義天主教和現代。

The two traditions coalesced at Vatican II, facilitated by John XXIII's dictum, "The substance of the ancient doctrine is one thing... and the way in which it is presented is another."這兩個傳統聚集在梵蒂岡第二,促進了約翰二十三世的格言, “物質的古代學說是一回事...和方式,它提出的是另一回事。 ” An understanding, then, of modern - day Roman Catholicism requires a description of the characteristics of conservative Catholicism which dominated the church especially from the Council of Trent (1545 - 63) until Vatican II, plus an outline of the changes in emphasis inaugurated at Vatican II.一項諒解,那麼,現代-天羅馬天主教需要說明的特點,保守的天主教教堂為主特別是安理會的遄達( 1 545年至1 563年) ,直到梵蒂岡第二,另加大綱的變化,重點在梵蒂岡揭幕二。

The Church教會

The most distinctive characteristic of Roman Catholicism has always been its theology of the church (its ecclesiology). The church's role in mediating salvation has been emphasized more than in other Christian traditions. Supernatural life is mediated to Christians through the sacraments administered by the hierarchy to whom obedience is due.最鮮明的特點,羅馬天主教一直是其神學教會(其教會學) 。 教堂中的作用調解拯救一直強調超過在其他基督教傳統。神仙生活是介導的基督徒通過聖禮管理的層次,以其中原因是服從。 The church is monarchical as well as hierarchical since Christ conferred the primacy on Peter, whose successors are the popes.該教堂是君主以及等級,因為基督的首要賦予的彼得,其繼任者的教皇。 Pre - Vatican II theology taught that the Roman Catholic Church is the only true church of Christ, since it alone has a permanent hierarchy (which is apostolic) and primacy (which is Petrine) to ensure the permanence of the church as Christ instituted it. All other churches are false churches insofar as they lack one of the four properties possessed by the Roman Catholic Church: unity, holiness, catholicity, and apostolicity.預-梵二神學教導羅馬天主教會是唯一真正的基督教會,因為它本身有一個常任理事國等級(這是使徒)和至高無上(這是伯) ,以確保持久的教堂基督提起它。 所有其他教會是虛假的教堂,因為他們缺乏一個擁有4個屬性的羅馬天主教:團結,聖潔,共通性,並apostolicity 。

The most important document of Vatican II, the Dogmatic Constitution on the Church, transformed rather than revolutionized the church's ecclesiology.最重要的文件梵蒂岡第二,憲法的教條主義的教會,轉化,而不是革命性的教會的教會學。 The traditional emphasis on the church as means of salvation was supplanted by an understanding of the church as a mystery or sacrament, "a reality imbued with the hidden presence of God" (Paul VI).傳統的重點放在教堂的手段拯救被取代的理解,教會作為一個謎或聖禮, “一個現實充滿著隱藏的上帝的存在” (保羅六世) 。 The conception of the church as a hierarchical institution was replaced by a view of the church as the whole people of God.這個概念的教堂作為一個等級制度取代了以教堂為全體人民的上帝。 To the traditional understanding of the church's mission as involving (1) the proclamation of the gospel and (2) the celebration of the sacraments, the council added (3) witnessing to the gospel and (4) service to all in need. The Tridentine emphasis on the church universal was supplemented by an understanding of the fullness of the church in each local congregation. 傳統理解,教會的使命,涉及( 1 )宣布福音( 2 )慶祝聖禮,安理會增加( 3 )見證的福音( 4 )服務於所有需要幫助的人。的Tridentine重點是教會普遍進行了補充了解豐滿的教堂在每個地方聚集。

In the Decree on Ecumenism the council recognized that both sides were at fault in the rupture of the church at the Reformation, and it sought the restoration of Christian unity rather than a return of non - Catholics to "the true Church." For the church is greater than the Roman Catholic Church: other churches are valid Christian communities since they share the same Scriptures, life of grace, faith, hope, charity, gifts of the Spirit, and baptism.在該法令的合一安理會認識到,雙方都在斷層破裂教堂的改革,並設法恢復聯合政府,而不是返回的非-天主教徒“真正的教會。 ” 於教會大於羅馬天主教:其他教會是有效的基督教社區,因為它們共享相同的聖經,生命的寬限期,信仰,希望,慈善,饋贈的精神,和洗禮。

Further, the traditional identification of the kingdom of God with the church, into which everyone must therefore be brought or salvation will elude them, is replaced by an understanding of the church as the sign and instrument by which God calls and moves the world toward his kingdom.此外,傳統的鑑定上帝王國的教堂,到人人因此必須提請或將無法拯救他們,是取代了解教會的簽署和工具,上帝要求和推動世界走向自己的王國。

The Pope教皇

The dogmas of papal primacy and infallibility were promulgated as recently as Vatican I (1869 - 70), but they have a long history which Roman Catholics trace ultimately to the will of Christ (Matt. 16:18 - 19; Luke 22:32; John 21:15 - 17) and the roles exercised by the apostle Peter (fisherman, shepherd, elder, rock, etc.) in the NT church. In succeeding centuries the prestige of the church of Rome increased since it was located at the Imperial capital and because of its association with the apostles Peter and Paul.在教皇的教條和犯錯誤的首要頒布了最近梵蒂岡口( 1869至1870年) ,但他們有著悠久的歷史的羅馬天主教徒跟踪最終的意願,基督(瑪特泰16:18 -1 9;盧克2 2時3 2分;約翰21:15 -1 7)和角色行使的使徒彼得(漁民,牧羊人,老,岩石等)在N T教堂。在幾個世紀的威望羅馬教會增加,因為它位於皇城資本,因為它與使徒彼得和保羅。 It was increasingly looked to as the arbiter of orthodoxy. Pope Leo I maintained that Peter continues to speak to the whole church through the bishop of Rome, the first known such claim. 人們越來越希望作為仲裁者的正統。教皇利奧一世堅持認為,彼得繼續談論整個教堂的主教,羅馬,第一次知道這種說法。 The rise of the pope's temporal power, which for over a millennium buttressed his claims to supremacy, is commonly traced to the middle of the eighth century, when a vacuum in civil leadership was created by the collapse of the Western Empire.的興起,教皇的時間功率,其中超過千年支撐他的說法,以至高無上,一般追溯到中間的8世紀,當一個真空民間的領導是由崩潰的西方帝國。

In 1234 Gregory IX combined and codified all previous papal decisions into the Five Books of Decretals.在1234年格里高利九合併和編纂以前的所有教皇決定將五本書的Decretals 。 By now the church was understood primarily as a visible hierarchical organization with supreme power vested in the pope. Bishops were required to take an oath of obedience to the pope similar to the feudal oath binding a vassal to his lord. The supreme pontiff was no longer only consecrated; he was also crowned with the triple tiara used originally by the deified rulers of Persia.現在教堂被理解主要是作為一個有形的組織層次最高權力屬於教皇。 主教都必須宣誓服從教宗的類似封建宣誓約束力的附庸他的領主。最高教皇已不再只有奉獻;他還獲得三重頭飾使用原來的統治者神化波斯。 The coronation rite was continued until 1978, when John Paul I refused the crown, a symbolic action repeated by his successor, John Paul II.加冕禮是一直持續到1978年,當約翰保羅我拒絕的皇冠,一個象徵性的行動重複了他的繼任者約翰保羅二世。 The height of papal pretensions was reached in 1302 with Boniface VIII's bull, Unam Sanctam, which decreed that the temporal power was subject to the spiritual, and that submission to the Roman pontiff "is absolutely necessary to salvation."高度教皇自稱是在1302年達成的波尼法爵八世的牛市,國立Sanctam ,其中規定,顳權力受到的精神,並提交給羅馬教皇“是絕對必要的救助。 ”

These papal claims were resisted not only by national rulers but by some scholars, notably William of Ockham and Marsilius of Padua, and by conciliarism, a movement in the church to subject the pope to the judgment and legislation of general councils.這些教皇索賠被拒絕不僅是國家的統治者,而是由一些學者,特別是奧卡姆的威廉和馬西帕多瓦,並conciliarism ,一個運動在教堂裡接受教宗的判斷和一般的立法議會。 Its greatest triumph was the Council of Constance (1414 - 15) with its law Haec Sancta, decreeing the supremacy of a general council and the collegiality of bishops.其最大的勝利是理事會的康斯坦( 1414年至1415年)及其法律Haec聖,至高無上頒布的總理事會和集體的主教。 Conciliarism was condemned by succeeding popes until Vatican I declared that the pope's authoritative teachings are not subject to the consent of the entire church. Conciliarism譴責,直至取得成功教宗梵蒂岡我宣布教皇的權威的教義,不受同意整個教堂。 The pope was declared to be infallible (immune from error) when he speaks ex cathedra (from the chair) on matters of faith and morals with the intention of binding the whole church.教皇被宣布為萬無一失(免於錯誤)當他談到前教堂(從椅子)問題上的誠意和道德的意圖結合整個教堂。

Vatican II stressed the role of the pope as "perpetual and visible source and foundation of the unity of the bishops and of the multitude of the faithful," a role received sympathetically by some Protestant churches since the council (see, eg, RE Brown et al., Peter in the New Testament, sponsored by the United States Lutheran - Roman Catholic Dialogue).梵二強調的作用,教皇為“永久的和可見的來源和基礎的統一的主教和眾多的忠實”的作用得到一些同情新教教會理事會以來的(例如,見布朗等可再生能源基地。 ,彼得在新約,由美國路德-羅馬天主教的對話) 。 Vatican II also revived the collegiality of bishops, thus modifying the monarchical governance of the church: "Together with its head, the Roman Pontiff, and never without its head, the episcopal order is the subject of supreme and full power over the universal church."梵二也恢復了集體的主教,從而改變君主治理的教堂: “連同其頭部,羅馬教皇,決不未經其頭部,為了主教的主題是最高法院和充分的權力的普遍教堂。 “

The Sacraments在聖禮

The sacramental principle is another characteristic tenet of Roman Catholicism. The sacramental system worked out especially in the Middle Ages by the schoolmen and subsequently at the Council of Trent envisaged sacraments primarily as causes of grace that could be received independent of the merit of the recipient. 在聖事的原則是另一個特點宗旨,信奉羅馬天主教。聖禮制度的制定尤其是在中世紀的schoolmen ,隨後在安理會的遄設想聖禮的原因主要是因為寬限期,可收到獨立的優點是收件人。 Recent Catholic sacramental theology emphasizes their function as signs of faith.最近天主教聖事神學強調其功能為標誌的信念。 Sacraments are said to cause grace insofar as they are intelligible signs of it, and that the fruitfulness, as distinct from the validity, of the sacrament is dependent on the faith and devotion of the recipient.聖禮據說事業的寬限期,因為他們是可理解的跡象,並說,豐產,有別於的有效性,在聖依賴於信念和獻身精神的收件人。 Sacramental rites are now administered in the vernacular, rather than in Latin, to increase the intelligibility of the signs.聖禮儀式現在管理中的方言,而不是在拉丁美洲,以增加可理解的跡象。

Conservative Catholicism connected sacramental theology to Christology, stressing Christ's institution of the sacraments and the power of the sacraments to infuse the grace of Christ, earned on Calvary, to the recipient.保守的天主教聖連接到基督神學,強調基督的機構的聖禮和權力的聖禮注入的恩典基督,各各賺得的,給收件人。 The newer emphasis connects the sacraments to ecclesiology.新的重點聖禮連接到教會學。 We do not encounter Christ directly, but in the church, which is his body. The church mediates the presence and action of Christ.我們不直接遇到基督,但在教堂,這是他的身體。 教堂介導的存在和行動的基督。

The number of sacraments was finally fixed at seven during the medieval period (at the councils of Lyons 1274, Florence 1439, and Trent 1547). 數量聖禮最終定在7個在中世紀時期 (議會在1274年里昂,佛羅倫薩1439年,和遄達1547 ) 。 In addition Roman Catholicism has innumerable sacramentals, eg, baptismal water, holy oil, blessed ashes, candles, palms, crucifixes, and statues.此外羅馬天主教已經無數sacramentals ,如洗禮的水,神聖的石油,得天獨厚的骨灰,蠟燭,棕櫚樹,十字架,和雕像。 Sacramentals are said to cause grace not ex opere operanto like the sacraments, but ex opere operantis, through the faith and devotion of those using them. Sacramentals據說原因寬限期不前opere operanto聖禮一樣,但前opere operantis ,通過信念和獻身精神的人使用。

Three of the sacraments,三個聖禮,
baptism, confirmation, Eucharist,洗禮,確認,體,
are concerned with Christian initiation所涉及的是基督教啟動


The sacrament is understood to remit original sin and all personal sin of which the recipient sincerely repents. 聖禮被理解為免除原罪,所有的個人罪惡的收件人真誠懺悔。 All must be baptized or they cannot enter the kingdom of heaven. But not all baptism is sacramental baptism by water. 所有必須的洗禮或者是他們不能進入天國。但是,並非所有的洗禮聖事的洗禮是水。 There is also "baptism of blood," which is received by dying for Christ (eg, the "holy innocents," Matt. 2:16 - 18), and "baptism of desire," which is received by those who, implicitly or explicitly, desire baptism but are prevented from receiving it sacramentally. "Even those who through no fault of their own do not know Christ and his church may be counted as anonymous Christians if their striving to lead a good life is in fact a response to his grace, which is given in sufficient measure to all."也有“血的洗禮, ”這是收到的死亡基督(例如, “神聖的無辜, ”馬特。 2點16 -1 8)和“洗禮的願望” ,這是收到的那些誰,暗示或明確,願望的洗禮,但無法接收sacramentally 即使是那些通過誰沒有過錯自己不知道基督和他的教會可算作匿名的基督徒,如果他們的努力導致一個良好的生活其實是針對他的寬限期,這是給予足夠的措施,所有。 “


A theology of confirmation was not developed until the Middle Ages.神學確認不發達國家,直到中世紀。 Confirmation was said to be the gift of the Spirit for strengthening (ad robur) while baptismal grace is for forgiveness (ad remissionem).確認被說成是禮物的精神,以加強(廣告robur ) ,而洗禮的寬限期是寬恕(廣告remissionem ) 。 This distinction has no basis in the Scriptures or the fathers, but has been retained to the present following ratification by the Council of Trent.這種區分毫無根據的聖經或父親,但保留了本下列批准理事會的遄達。 Today, however, the rite is sometimes administered at the same time as baptism and by the priest, not the bishop, to emphasize that both are really aspects of the one sacrament of initiation.然而今天,有時會儀式經管在同一時間的洗禮和牧師,而不是主教,強調的是,這兩個方面是真正的一個開始聖禮。


Distinctively Catholic doctrines on the Eucharist include the sacrificial nature of the Mass and transubstantiation. Both were defined at Trent and neither was modified at Vatican II. The unbloody sacrifice of the Mass is identified with the bloody sacrifice of the cross, in that both are offered for the sins of the living and the dead. 天主教教義獨特的體包括祭祀性質的質量和transubstantiation 。都被界定在特倫特和既不是修改梵二。 unbloody犧牲的地下發現的血淋淋的犧牲交叉,在這兩者都提供為罪惡的生活和死亡。 Hence Christ is the same victim and priest in the Eucharist as he was on the cross.因此,基督是相同的受害者和神父在聖他在十字架上。 Transubstantiation, the belief that the substance of bread and wine is changed into the body and blood of Christ, was first spoken of at the Fourth Lateran Council (1215). The Eucharist is also known as Holy Communion. Transubstantiation ,認為物質的麵包和酒變成了身體和血液的基督,是第一次談到了第四次拉特蘭會議( 1215 ) 。 聖體也被稱為聖餐。

Two sacraments,兩項聖禮,
penance and anointing the sick,懺悔和anointing的病人,
are concerned with healing關注癒合


By the Middle Ages the sacrament of penance had four components which were confirmed by the Council of Trent: satisfaction (the doing of an act of penance), confession, contrition, and absolution by a priest. All grave sins had to be confessed to a priest who acted as judge.由中世紀的聖事的懺悔有四個組成部分確認了安理會的遄: 滿意(做行為的懺悔) ,懺悔,懺悔,並赦免了一名神父。所有嚴重的罪孽,必須交待了神父誰擔任法官。 Since Vatican II the role of the priest in penance is understood as healer, and the purpose of the sacrament is reconciliation with the church rather than the restoration of friendship with God.自從梵蒂岡第二的作用,在懺悔神父被理解為醫治,和宗旨的聖是和解與教會,而不是恢復與上帝的友誼。 Through contrition the sinner's union with God is restored, but he is still required to seek forgiveness in the sacrament of penance because his sin compromises the mission of the church to be a holy people.通過懺悔的罪人工會與上帝恢復,但他仍然需要尋求寬恕的聖禮的懺悔,因為他的罪惡妥協的使命,教會是一個神聖的人。

Anointing the Sick Anointing的病態

During the Middle Ages the rite of anointing the sick was reserved increasingly for the dying, hence the description of Peter Lombard: extreme unctio (last anointing). Vatican II relabeled the sacrament "anointing of the sick," stating explicitly that it "is not a sacrament reserved for those who are at the point of death."在中世紀的儀式anointing的病人越來越多地被保留的死亡,因此,說明彼得隆巴德:極端unctio (去年anointing ) 。 relabeled梵二聖禮“ anointing的病人, ”明確指出,它“不是1聖禮留給誰是這些點上的死亡。 “ The last sacrament is now known as viaticum, received during Mass if possible. Earlier, this was called Extreme Unction.最後聖禮是現在被稱為viaticum ,期間收到的群眾如果可能的話。 早些時候,這是所謂的臨終。

There are two sacraments有兩個聖禮
of vocation and commitment:的使命和承諾:
marriage and orders婚姻和訂單


The sacramentality of marriage was affirmed by the councils of Florence and Trent.該sacramentality的婚姻肯定了理事會的佛羅倫薩和特倫特。 Marriage is understood to be indissoluble, although dispensations, chiefly in the form of annulment (a declaration that a valid marriage never existed), are permitted.婚姻被理解為牢不可破的,但特許,主要的形式廢除(一項宣言,一個有效的婚姻根本不存在) ,是被允許的。 The grounds of nullity so carefully delimited in the 1918 Code of Canon Law have now been broadened to embrace many deficiencies of character.理由是無效的,以便仔細分隔在1918年佳能碼法現在已經擴大到包括許多缺陷的性質。


Vatican II recognized that all the baptized participate in some way in the priesthood of Christ, but confirmed Catholic tradition on the clerical hierarchy by decreeing that there is a distinction between the priesthood conferred by baptism and that conferred by ordination. 梵二承認,所有參加的洗禮以某種方式在基督的神職人員,但證實天主教會傳統的辦事員階層的頒布是有區別的神職人員所賦予的洗禮,並賦予協調。

The ordained priesthood has three orders: bishops, priests, and deacons. The first and third are offices of the NT church. 晉鐸的有三個命令:主教,神父,和執事。第一和第三的辦事處新台幣教堂。 The office of priest emerged when it was no longer practical to continue recognizing the Jewish priesthood (owing to the destruction of the temple and the great influx of Gentiles into the church) and with the development of a sacrificial understanding of the Lord's Supper.該辦公室的神父出現時,已不再實際,繼續承認以色列鐸(由於破壞廟宇和大量湧入的外邦人進入教堂) ,並發展成了理解上帝的晚餐。

Canon Law佳能法

In the eleventh and twelfth centuries a new branch of theological studies, canon law, emerged as an adjunct of papal supremacy. Legal decrees rather than the gospel became the basis for moral judgments. The church was understood primarily as an institution in its juridical aspect.在第十一屆和第十二屆世紀一個新的分支的神學研究,教會法,成為一種輔助的教皇至高無上。 法律法令,而不是成為福音的基礎道德判斷。教堂被理解主要是作為一個機構在其法律方面的問題。 The legal aspects of the sacraments and matrimony were paramount.法律方面的聖禮和婚姻是至高無上。 Until the post - Vatican II period a knowledge of canon law was the chief prerequisite for ecclesiastical advancement.在此之前的職位-梵蒂岡第二期知識教會法是首席先決條件,教會進步。

The Cult of the Blessed Virgin Mary邪教的祝福聖母

At the Council of Ephesus (431) Mary was declared to be the Mother of God (Theotokos) and not only the mother of Christ (Christotokos). This gave an impetus to Marian devotion and by the seventh century four Marian feasts were being observed in Rome: the annunciation, the purification, the assumption, and the nativity of Mary. To these feasts the Eastern churches added the feast of the conception of Mary at the end of the same century. 在安理會的以弗所( 431 )瑪麗被宣布為天主之母(子) ,並不僅是耶穌的母親( Christotokos ) 。這推動了瑪麗安奉獻精神和七世紀四個節日瑪麗安被發現羅馬:在榜文,淨化,假設,以及耶穌的瑪麗。為了這些節日東部教會增加了節日的概念,瑪麗結束時相同的世紀。 Bernard of Clairvaux influenced Mariology decisively by arguing that while Christ is our mediator he is also our judge, and that therefore we need a mediator with the mediator, so that in popular devotion the merciful Mary was contrasted with the fierce Christ. Marian devotion blossomed between the eleventh and fifteenth centuries. The rosary (three groups of fifty Hail Marys counted on beads) was in popular use by the twelfth century and the angelus also appeared (the recitation of prayers to Mary, morning, noon, and evening, at the sound of a bell).貝爾納的伯爾納的影響Mariology果斷認為,雖然基督是我們的調解人,他也是我們的法官,因此我們需要一個調解與斡旋,以便在大眾奉獻仁慈瑪麗對照的是激烈的基督。 瑪麗安之間的奉獻開花第十一和第十五世紀。玫瑰( 3組50冰雹瑪麗指望珠)在流行使用的12世紀和鐘也出現(在背誦祈禱瑪麗,早上,中午和傍晚,在健全一個鐘) 。

In 1854, following another revival of Marian spirituality, Pius IX promulgated the dogma of the immaculate conception, that Mary was free from original sin from the moment of her conception. In 1950 Pius XII defined the dogma of bodily assumption of the Virgin Mary, that on her death she was preserved from "the corruption of the tomb" and was "raised body and soul to the glory of heaven, to shine refulgent as Queen at the right hand of her Son." 在1854年之後,又恢復瑪麗安精神,碧岳九頒布了教條的完美無暇的概念,即瑪麗擺脫原罪的時刻,她的概念。皮烏斯在1950年十二大確定了教條的身體擔任聖母,即她的去世,她保存的“腐敗的墳墓” ,是“提高身體和靈魂的榮耀天堂,發光refulgent作為女王的右手她的兒子。 ”

Since Vatican II Catholic scholars have questioned if denial of these two Marian dogmas means exclusion from the Catholic Church, since that denial must be "culpable, obstinate, and externally manifested." Vatican II also tended to disassociate Mariology from Christology, thus removing an emphasis on her involvement in our redemption and attaching her to ecclesiology, so that Mary is seen rather as the type, model, mother, and preeminent member of the church.自從梵蒂岡第二天主教學者質疑,如果否認這兩個瑪麗安教條手段排斥天主教,因為這剝奪必須是“有罪,頑固性,和外部表現。 ” 梵二也往往取消Mariology從基督,從而消除重點她參與我們的贖回和重視她的教會學,所以瑪麗是相當的類型,型號,母親,和卓越的成員的教堂。


The Council of Trent declared tradition to be equally authoritative with Scripture and the definitive interpretation of both to be the preserve of the church. In its Dogmatic Constitution on Divine Revelation Vatican II sought to remove the sharp distinction perceived by Protestants between Scripture and tradition by defining tradition as the successive interpretations of the Scriptures given by the church throughout the ages. That the church somehow stood above both sources of revelation was specifically denied: "This teaching office is not above the word of God, but serves it... It is clear, therefore, that sacred tradition, sacred Scripture, and the teaching authority of the Church... are so linked and joined together that one cannot stand without the others." 安理會的遄達宣布的傳統,也同樣與聖經權威和明確的解釋都將保存的教堂。教條主義在其憲法上神聖的啟示梵二設法消除尖銳的區別察覺到新教徒之間的聖經和傳統的界定傳統的連續解釋聖經所給予整個教堂的年齡。 ,教會站在上面不知這兩個來源的啟示是專門否認: “這是教學辦公室沒有上述的話,上帝,而是它...它是因此,顯然神聖的傳統,神聖的經文,和教學權威的教會...是如此的聯繫和結合在一起,一個不能袖手旁觀的人。 “

The failure of post - Vatican II Catholicism to give a clear preeminence to the Bible leaves some Protestants dissatisfied, but there is no doubt that the scholarly and popular study of the Bible by Roman Catholics has increased markedly since 1965. 失敗後-梵蒂岡天主教第二給一個明確的優越聖經留下一些新教徒不滿,但毫無疑問的是,學術和民間的研究聖經的羅馬天主教徒有明顯增加自1 965年以來。 Roman Catholicism is no longer simply reacting and polemical, devoted to defending truth through the condemnation of error.羅馬天主教不再是簡單的反應和爭論,討論通過捍衛真理的譴責錯誤。 It is now an innovative and irenical movement, more devoted to illustrating the Christian faith than defining it.現在是一個創新和和平的運動,更致力於說明基督教信仰比界定它。

FS Piggin財政司司長Piggin

(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (規矩福音字典)

Bibliography 目錄
WM Abbott and J Gallagher, eds., the Documents of Vatican II; L Boettner, Roman Catholicism; A New Catechism: Catholic Faith for Adults; G Daly, Transcendence and Immanence: A Study in Catholic Modernism and Integralism; J Delumeau, Catholicism Between Luther and Voltaire; JP Dolan, Catholicism: An Historical Survey; JD Holmes, The Triumph of the Holy See; P Hughes, A Short History of the Catholic Church; B Kloppenberg, The Eclesiology of Vatican II; R Lawler, DW Wuerl, and TC Lawler, eds., The Teaching of Christ: A Catholic Catechism for Adults; RP McBrien, Catholicism.西醫雅培和J加拉格爾編。 ,文件的梵蒂岡第二; L伯特納,羅馬天主教;一種新的問答:信仰天主教的成人; G達利,超越與內在:研究天主教現代主義與整體論; J Delumeau ,天主教之間路德和伏爾泰;太平紳士蘭,天主教:一個歷史考察;第納爾霍姆斯的勝利羅馬教廷; P休斯簡史天主教;乙Kloppenberg ,該Eclesiology的梵蒂岡第二; R勞勒,倉庫Wuerl ,並熱電偶勞勒編。 ,教學基督:一個天主教要理成人; McBrien反相,天主教。

Roman Catholic羅馬天主教

Catholic Information 天主教新聞

A qualification of the name Catholic commonly used in English-speaking countries by those unwilling to recognize the claims of the One True Church.限定天主教的名稱中常用的英語國家的人不願意承認的主張一個真正的教會。 Out of condescension for these dissidents, the members of that Church are wont in official documents to be styled "Roman Catholics" as if the term Catholic represented a genus of which those who owned allegiance to the pope formed a particular species.屈尊了這些持不同政見者,成員的教會習慣在正式文件中被稱為“羅馬天主教”彷彿這個詞代表了天主教屬那些誰擁有效忠教皇成立了一個特別的物種。 It is in fact a prevalent conception among Anglicans to regard the whole Catholic Church as made up of three principal branches, the Roman Catholic, the Anglo-Catholic and the Greek Catholic.它實際上是一個普遍的概念之間的聖公會把整個天主教教會作為由三個主要分支,羅馬天主教,英國天主教和希臘天主教。 As the erroneousness of this point of view has been sufficiently explained in the articles CHURCH and CATHOLIC, it is only needful here to consider the history of the composite term with which we are now concerned.正如erroneousness的這一觀點已經充分的解釋條款中教會和天主教會,它是這裡唯一必需考慮歷史的綜合長期與我們現在正在關注。

In the "Oxford English Dictionary", the highest existing authority upon questions of English philology, the following explanation is given under the heading "Roman Catholic".在“牛津英語詞典” ,現有的最高權力問題時的英語語言學,下面的解釋是根據的標題是“羅馬天主教” 。

The use of this composite term in place of the simple Roman, Romanist, or Romish; which had acquired an invidious sense, appears to have arisen in the early years of the seventeenth century.使用這種複合長期代替簡單的羅馬, Romanist ,或Romish ;已獲得了反感意義上來說,似乎已經出現了最初幾年的17世紀。 For conciliatory reasons it was employed in the negotiations connected with the Spanish Match (1618-1624) and appears in formal documents relating to this printed by Rushworth (I, 85-89). After that date it was generally adopted as a non-controversial term and has long been the recognized legal and official designation, though in ordinary use Catholic alone is very frequently employed.對於和解的原因,採用在談判中與西班牙賽事( 1618年至1624年) ,並出現在正式文件中與本印刷詩(我, 85-89段) 。在此日期後,一般通過了一項不具爭議長期一直是公認的法律和官方指定,但在普通的天主教單獨使用非常頻繁就業。 (New Oxford Dict., VIII, 766) (新牛津辭典。 ,八, 766 )

Of the illustrative quotations which follow, the earliest in date is one of 1605 from the "Europae Speculum" of Edwin Sandys: "Some Roman Catholiques will not say grace when a Protestant is present"; while a passage from Day's "Festivals" of 1615, contrasts "Roman Catholiques" with "good, true Catholiques indeed". Although the account thus given in the Oxford Dictionary is in substance correct, it cannot be considered satisfactory.的報價這說明後續的最早日期是1605年從“ Europae反射鏡”的埃德溫桑迪斯: “一些羅馬天主教不會說的寬限期時,新教是本” ;而從日通過的“節日”的1615年,對照“羅馬天主教”與“善,真正的天主教確實。 ”雖然帳戶從而給出了牛津詞典的實質內容是正確的,它不能被認為是令人滿意的。 To begin with the word is distinctly older than is here suggested.首先,這個詞是明顯的年齡比在這裡建議。 When about the year 1580 certain English Catholics, under stress of grievous persecution, defended the lawfulness of attending Protestant services to escape the fines imposed on recusants, the Jesuit Father Persons published, under the pseudonym of Howlet, a clear exposition of the "Reasons why Catholiques refuse to goe to Church".當大約1580年天主教某些英文,壓力之下的嚴重迫害,捍衛了合法性出席新教服務,以逃避罰款的recusants ,耶穌會神父出版人,根據Howlet假名的,明確闡述了“的原因天主教拒絕專家組教會“ 。 This was answered in 1801 by a writer of Puritan sympathies, Percival Wiburn, who in his "Checke or Reproofe of M. Howlet" uses the term "Roman Catholic" repeatedly.這是在1801年回答了一個作家的清教徒的同情,珀西瓦爾Wiburn ,誰在他的“ Checke或Reproofe先生Howlet ”使用的術語是“羅馬天主教”多次。 For example he speaks of "you Romane Catholickes that sue for tolleration" (p. 140) and of the "parlous dilemma or streight which you Romane Catholickes are brought into" (p. 44).例如,他談到, “你羅馬Catholickes的控告tolleration ” (第140頁)和“危險的困境或streight你Catholickes羅馬被帶進” (第44頁) 。 Again Robert Crowley, another Anglican controversialist, in his book called "A Deliberat Answere", printed in 1588, though adopting by preference the forms "Romish Catholike" or "Popish Catholike", also writes of those "who wander with the Romane Catholiques in the uncertayne hypathes of Popish devises" (p. 86).羅伯特再次克勞利,另一聖公會controversialist ,在他的書中稱為“ Deliberat Answere ” ,印在1588年,但通過優惠的形式“ Romish Catholike ”或“ Popish Catholike ” ,書中還對這些“誰遊蕩的羅馬天主教在在uncertayne hypathes的Popish制訂“ (第86頁) 。 A study of these and other early examples in their context shows plainly enough that the qualification "Romish Catholic" or "Roman Catholic" was introduced by Protestant divines who highly resented the Roman claim to any monopoly of the term Catholic.研究這些問題和其他早期的例子表明其背景顯然是不夠的資格“ Romish天主教”或“羅馬天主教”是由新教divines誰高度不滿羅馬聲稱任何壟斷的任期天主教。 In Germany, Luther had omitted the word Catholic from the Creed, but this was not the case in England.在德國,路德省略了這個詞從天主教信條,但情況不是這樣,在英格蘭。 Even men of such Calvinistic leanings as Philpot (he was burned under Mary in 1555), and John Foxe the martyrologist, not to speak of churchmen like Newel and Fulke, insisted on the right of the Reformers to call themselves Catholics and professed to regard their own as the only true Catholic Church.即使是男子的傾向,例如加爾文作為Philpot (他被燒毀根據瑪麗在1555年)和約翰福克斯的martyrologist ,更不用說像牧師和Fulke墩,堅持正確的改革者把自己稱為天主教徒和宣稱把他們的自己作為唯一的真正的天主教教會。 Thus Philpot represents himself as answering his Catholic examiner: "I am, master doctor, of the unfeigned Catholic Church and will live and die therein, and if you can prove your Church to be the True Catholic Church, I will be one of the same" (Philpot, "Works", Parker Soc., p. 132).因此Philpot表示自己作為他的天主教回答考官: “我,碩士醫生,慥的天主教教會,將生活和死亡,並如果你能證明你會成為真正的天主教會,我將是相同的“ ( Philpot , ”工程“ ,學會帕克。 ,第132頁) 。 It would be easy to quote many similar passages.這將是很容易引用許多類似的通道。 The term "Romish Catholic" or "Roman Catholic" undoubtedly originated with the Protestant divines who shared this feeling and who were unwilling to concede the name Catholic to their opponents without qualification.術語“ Romish天主教”或“羅馬天主教”毫無疑問,源自同誰divines新教分享這種感覺,誰不願意承認天主教的名義對他們的對手沒有資格。 Indeed the writer Crowley, just mentioned, does not hesitate throughout a long tract to use the term "Protestant Catholics" the name which he applies to his antagonists. Thus he says "We Protestant Catholiques are not departed from the true Catholique religion" (p. 33) and he refers more than once to "Our Protestant Catholique Church," (p. 74)事實上,作家克勞利,剛才提到的,不猶豫整個呼吸道長期使用的“新教天主教”的名字,他適用於他的對手。因此,他說: “我們新教天主教不是背離了真正的天主教宗教” (第。 33歲)和他提到一次以上,才能“我們的新教天主教教會” (第74頁)

On the other hand the evidence seems to show that the Catholics of the reign of Elizabeth and James I were by no means willing to admit any other designation for themselves than the unqualified name Catholic.另一方面,證據似乎表明,天主教徒的統治伊麗莎白和詹姆斯我是絕不願意承認任何其他指定為自己多名稱的不合格天主教。 Father Southwell's "Humble Supplication to her Majesty" (1591), though criticized by some as over-adulatory in tone, always uses the simple word.父親Southwell的“卑微祈求她陛下” ( 1591年) ,儘管批評了一些過度adulatory色彩,總是使用簡單的詞。 What is more surprising, the same may be said of various addresses to the Crown drafted under the inspiration of the "Appellant" clergy, who were suspected by their opponents of subservience to the government and of minimizing in matters of dogma.什麼是更令人吃驚,同樣可以說各種地址官方下起草的啟示“上訴人”神職人員,誰懷疑他們的對手所從屬的政府部門及盡量減少事項的教條。 This feature is very conspicuous, to take a single example, in "the Protestation of allegiance" drawn up by thirteen missioners, 31 Jan., 1603, in which they renounce all thought of "restoring the Catholic religion by the sword", profess their willingness "to persuade all Catholics to do the same" and conclude by declaring themselves ready on the one hand "to spend their blood in the defence of her Majesty" but on the other "rather to lose their lives than infringe the lawful authority of Christ's Catholic Church" (Tierney-Dodd, III, p. cxc).這一特點很突出,採取單一例如,在“抗議效忠”擬定了13個傳教士, 1603年1月31號,他們在放棄一切思想的“恢復天主教的劍” ,信奉自己的願意“說服所有的天主教徒也這樣做” ,並宣布結束自己的準備,一方面“花他們的血液在捍衛她的陛下” ,但對其他“ ,而失去他們的生命比侵犯合法授權的基督天主教會“ (蒂爾尼-多德,三,山口趨) 。 We find similar language used in Ireland in the negotiations carried on by Tyrone in behalf of his Catholic countrymen.我們發現,類似的語言在愛爾蘭使用的談判中進行的泰隆在代表他的天主教同胞。 Certain apparent exceptions to this uniformity of practice can be readily explained.某些明顯的例外,這個統一的做法可以很容易解釋。 To begin with we do find that Catholics not unfrequently use the inverted form of the name "Roman Catholic" and speak of the "Catholic Roman faith" or religion.首先,我們發現,天主教徒不能unfrequently使用倒置形式的名稱是“羅馬天主教” ,並說“羅馬天主教信仰”或宗教。 An early example is to be found in a little controversial tract of 1575 called "a Notable Discourse" where we read for example that the heretics of old "preached that the Pope was Antichriste, shewing themselves verye eloquent in detracting and rayling against the Catholique Romane Church" (p. 64).一個早期的例子是要找到一個沒有爭議的1575道所謂的“顯著的話語”如果我們讀到例如,在異教徒的老“鼓吹,教皇是Antichriste , shewing自己verye雄辯地貶低和rayling反對羅馬天主教教會“ (第64頁) 。 But this was simply a translation of the phraseology common both in Latin and in the Romance languages "Ecclesia Catholica Romana," or in French "l'Eglise catholique romaine".但是,這僅僅是翻譯的用語共同在拉丁美洲和浪漫的語言“教會Catholica大同” ,或在法國“歐萊雅克天主教教堂。 ” It was felt that this inverted form contained no hint of the Protestant contention that the old religion was a spurious variety of true Catholicism or at best the Roman species of a wider genus.有人認為,這倒形式沒有暗示新教的論點,即舊的宗教是一種虛假的各種真正的天主教或在羅馬最好的種屬擴大。 Again, when we find Father Persons (eg in his "Three Conversions," III, 408) using the term "Roman Catholic", the context shows that he is only adopting the name for the moment as conveniently embodying the contention of his adversaries.同樣,當我們發現父親的人(例如在他的“三個轉換” ,三, 408 )使用“羅馬天主教”的背景表明,他是唯一採用的名稱為方便時刻體現了他的論點的敵人。

Once more in a very striking passage in the examination of one James Clayton in 1591 (see Cal. State Papers, Dom. Eliz., add., vol. XXXII, p. 322) we read that the deponent "was persuaded to conforme himself to the Romaine Catholique faith."一旦更多的一個非常突出的通行在審查一名詹姆斯克萊頓在1591年(見卡爾。國家文件,大教堂。 Eliz 。 ,補充。 ,第二卷。三十二,第322頁)我們讀到,宣誓“是說服自己conforme對羅曼天主教的信仰。 “ But there is nothing to show that these were the actual words of the recusant himself, or that, if they were, they were not simply dictated by a desire to conciliate his examiners.但是,沒有任何東西可以表明,這些都是實際的話, recusant自己,或者說,如果他們,他們不只是出於希望他的主考調解。 The "Oxford Dictionary" is probably right in assigning the recognition of "Roman Catholic" as the official style of the adherents of the Papacy in England to the negotiations for the Spanish Match (1618-24).在“牛津英語詞典”可能是在分配權利的承認“羅馬天主教”作為正式風格的追隨者的教皇在英國的談判,為西班牙賽事( 1618年至1624年) 。 In the various treaties etc., drafted in connection with this proposal, the religion of the Spanish princess is almost always spoken of as "Roman Catholic".在各種條約等,起草這方面的建議,宗教的西班牙公主幾乎總是談到的是“羅馬天主教” 。 Indeed in some few instances the word Catholic alone is used. This feature does not seem to occur in any of the negotiations of earlier date which touched upon religion, eg those connected with the proposed d'Alencon marriage in Elizabeth's reign, while in Acts of Parliament, proclamations, etc., before the Spanish match, Catholics are simply described as Papists or Recusants, and their religion as popish, Romanish, or Romanist.事實上,在少數情況下一些字天主教僅使用。這項功能似乎並沒有出現在任何談判早日其中涉及宗教,例如那些與擬議德阿朗松婚姻伊麗莎白的統治地位,而在行為議會,通告等,在西班牙比賽中,天主教徒只是描述為Papists或Recusants ,他們的宗教作為popish , Romanish ,或Romanist 。 Indeed long after this period, the use of the term Roman Catholic continued to be a mark of condescension, and language of much more uncomplimentary character was usually preferred.事實上很久以後此期間,這一用語的使用羅馬天主教仍然是一個標誌恩賜,和語言更uncomplimentary性質通常是首選。 It was perhaps to encourage a friendlier attitude in the authorities that Catholics themselves henceforth began to adopt the qualified term in all official relations with the government.也許這是鼓勵友善的態度,當局天主教徒自己從此開始通過合格的任期在所有正式關係的政府。 Thus the "Humble Remonstrance, Acknowledgment, Protestation and Petition of the Roman Catholic Clergy of Ireland" in 1661, began "We, your Majesty's faithful subjects the Roman Catholick clergy of Ireland".因此, “細說抗辯,致謝,抗議和請願的羅馬天主教神職人員的愛爾蘭”在1661年,開始“我們,你的陛下的忠實科目羅馬Catholick愛爾蘭神職人員” 。 The same Practice seems to have obtained in Maryland; see or example the Consultation entitled "Objections answered touching Maryland", drafted by Father R Blount, SJ, in 1632 (B. Johnston, "Foundation of Maryland, etc., 1883, 29), and wills proved 22 Sep., 1630, and 19 Dec., 1659, etc., (in Baldwin, "Maryland Cat. of Wills", 19 vols., vol. i. Naturally the wish to conciliate hostile opinion only grew greater as Catholic Emancipation became a question of practical politics, and by that time it would appear that many Catholics themselves used the qualified form not only when addressing the outside public but in their domestic discussions. A short-lived association, organized in 1794 with the fullest approval of the vicars Apostolic, to counteract the unorthodox tendencies of the Cisalpine Club, was officially known as the "Roman Catholic Meeting" (Ward, "Dawn of Cath. Revival in England", II, 65). So, too, a meeting of the Irish bishops under the presidency of Dr. Troy at Dublin in 1821 passed resolutions approving of an Emancipation Bill then before a Parliament, in which they uniformly referred to members of their own communion as "Roman Catholics". Further, such a representative Catholic as Charles Butler in his "Historical Memoirs" (see eg vol. IV, 1821, pp. 185, 199, 225, etc.,) frequently uses the term "roman-catholic" [sic] and seems to find this expression as natural as the unqualified form.同樣的做法似乎已獲得在馬里蘭州;例如看到或諮詢題為“反對馬里蘭回答感人” ,起草了父親R布朗特,律政司司長,在1632 (灣約翰斯頓, “基金會馬里蘭等, 1883年, 29歲) ,並證明遺囑9月22日, 1630年和1659年十二月19號等, (在鮑德溫, “馬里蘭貓。遺囑” , 19卷。 ,第二卷。島當然希望調解敵對意見僅增長更大作為天主教解放成為一個實際問題的政治,到那個時候,似乎許多天主教徒自己使用合格的形式不僅在處理外部公職,但在其國內的討論。短暫協會,舉辦了1794年的充分批准vicars使徒,抵制非正統的傾向Cisalpine俱樂部,被正式稱為“羅馬天主教會議” (區, “黎明的蛋白酶。英格蘭復興” ,二65 ) 。所以,也一次會議愛爾蘭主教的主持下特洛伊博士在都柏林在1821年通過決議,批准一項法案然後解放之前,議會,他們在信中提到的統一成員自己共融的“羅馬天主教徒” 。此外,這種代表天主教作為查爾斯巴特勒在他的“歷史回憶錄” (見如卷。四, 1821年,頁。 185 , 199 , 225等)經常使用的術語是“羅馬天主教” [原文] ,似乎認為這是自然的表達作為不合格的形式。

With the strong Catholic revival in the middle of the nineteenth century and the support derived from the uncompromising zeal of many earnest converts, such for example as Faber and Manning, an inflexible adherence to the name Catholic without qualification once more became the order of the day.隨著強大的天主教恢復在十九世紀中葉和支持源於不妥協的熱情,許多認真的轉換,例如例如作為法伯和曼寧,一個僵硬的堅持天主教的名字沒有資格再次成為秩序的一天。 The government, however, would not modify the official designation or suffer it to be set aside in addresses presented to the Sovereign on public occasions.然而,政府不會修改官方指定或遭受這是預留的地址提交給了主權在公開場合。 In two particular instances during the archiepiscopate of Cardinal Vaughan this point was raised and became the subject of correspondence between the cardinal and the Home Secretary.在兩個特殊情況在archiepiscopate樞機沃恩這一點有人提出,並成為主題的對應關係的基本和內政大臣。 In 1897 at the Diamond Jubilee of the accession of Queen Victoria, and again in 1901 when Edward VII succeeded to the throne, the Catholic episcopate desired to present addresses, but on each occasion it was intimated to the cardinal that the only permissible style would be "the Roman Catholic Archbishop and Bishops in England". 1897年在大慶的鑽石加入維多利亞女王,並再次在1901年時,愛德華七世繼承王位,天主教主教希望本地址,但每次有人暗示的樞機主教說,只允許風格將“羅馬天主教大主教和主教在英格蘭。 ” Even the form "the Cardinal Archbishop and Bishops of the Catholic and Roman Church in England" was not approved.即使是形式“樞機主教和主教的天主教會和羅馬教會在英格蘭”沒有獲得批准。 On the first occasion no address was presented, but in 1901 the requirements of the Home Secretary as to the use of the name "Roman Catholics" were complied with, though the cardinal reserved to himself the right of explaining subsequently on some public occasion the sense in which he used the words (see Snead-Cox, "Life of Cardinal Vaughan", II, 231-41).第一次沒有提出解決,但在1901年的要求,作為內政大臣使用的名稱是“羅馬天主教”是遵守,但基本保留自己的權利,解釋後來在一些公開場合的意義他在信中使用的話(見史立德,考克斯, “生命的樞機漢” ,二, 231-41 ) 。 Accordingly, at the Newcastle Conference of the Catholic Truth Society (Aug., 1901) the cardinal explained clearly to his audience that "the term Roman Catholic has two meanings; a meaning that we repudiate and a meaning that we accept."因此,在紐卡斯爾會議的天主教真理協會( 8月, 1901年)基本解釋清楚,以他的聽眾說, “長期羅馬天主教有兩個含義,一個含義,我們拒絕和意義,我們接受。 ” The repudiated sense was that dear to many Protestants, according to which the term Catholic was a genus which resolved itself into the species Roman Catholic, Anglo-Catholic, Greek Catholic, etc.否定意義的是,親愛的許多新教徒,其中天主教的任期是屬這本身解決的物種羅馬天主教,英國天主教,希臘天主教等 But, as the cardinal insisted, "with us the prefix Roman is not restrictive to a species, or a section, but simply declaratory of Catholic."但是,正如紅衣主教堅持, “我們的前綴羅馬不是限制一個物種,或一節,而只是宣告天主教。 ” The prefix in this sense draws attention to the unity of the Church, and "insists that the central point of Catholicity is Roman, the Roman See of St. Peter."前綴在這個意義上提請注意的團結教會,和“堅持認為,中心點是羅馬天主教,羅馬教廷的聖彼得。 ”

It is noteworthy that the representative Anglican divine, Bishop Andrewes, in his "Tortura Torti" (1609) ridicules the phrase Ecclesia Catholica Romana as a contradiction in terms.值得注意的是神聖的代表聖公會主教安德魯斯,在他的“傷神Torti ” ( 1609年) ridicules短語Catholica大同教會作為一個矛盾。 "What," he asks, "is the object of adding 'Roman'? The only purpose that such an adjunct can serve is to distinguish your Catholic Church from another Catholic Church which is not Roman" (p. 368). “什麼, ”他問: “是的對象添加'羅馬' ?的唯一目的,這種兼職可以是區分您的天主教教會從另一個天主教教會這不是羅馬” (第368頁) 。 It is this very common line of argument which imposes upon Catholics the necessity of making no compromise in the matter of their own name.正是這種非常常見的論點實行天主教徒時,必須作出任何妥協在這個問題上自己的名字。 The loyal adherents of the Holy See did not begin in the sixteenth century to call themselves "Catholics" for controversial purposes.忠實信徒,羅馬教廷才開始在16世紀把自己稱為“天主教”的有爭議的目的。 It is the traditional name handed down to us continuously from the time of St. Augustine.這是傳統的名字給我們不斷從時間的聖奧古斯丁。 We use this name ourselves and ask those outside the Church to use it, without reference to its signification simply because it is our customary name, just as we talk of the Russian Church as "the Orthodox Church", not because we recognize its orthodoxy but because its members so style themselves, or again just as we speak of "the Reformation" because it is the term established by custom, though we are far from owning that it was a reformation in either faith or morals.我們使用這個名字,並要求自己以外的人會使用它,而不參照其意義僅僅因為它是我們習慣的名字,就像我們談論俄羅斯教會“東正教” ,不是因為我們認識到它的正統,但因為它的成員,使自己的風格,或再次就像我們講“改革” ,因為它是長期設立的習俗,但我們還遠遠沒有擁有,這是一個改革或者信仰或道德。 The dog-in-the manger policy of so many Anglicans who cannot take the name of Catholics for themselves, because popular usage has never sanctioned it as such, but who on the other hand will not concede it to the members of the Church of Rome, was conspicuously brought out in the course of a correspondence on this subject in the London "Saturday Review" (Dec., 1908 to March, 1909) arising out of a review of some of the earlier volumes of THE CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA.狗在馬槽的政策,如此眾多的聖公會誰可以不採取的名字為自己的天主教徒,因為流行的使用從來沒有批准它作為等,但誰另一方面將不會承認它的成員羅馬教會是顯眼帶出過程中的信件就這一問題在倫敦“星期六評論” ( 12月, 1908年3月, 1909年)所產生的審查一些較早卷的天主教百科全書。

Publication information Written by Herbert Thurston.發布信息撰稿:赫伯特瑟斯頓。 Transcribed by Nicolette Ormsbee. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XIII.轉錄的妮可Ormsbee 。天主教百科全書,卷十三。 Published 1912. 1912年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, February 1, 1912. Nihil Obstat , 1912年2月1號。 Remy Lafort, DD, Censor. Imprimatur.雷米Lafort ,日,檢查員。認可。 +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰法利樞機主教,大主教紐約


The historical facts summarized in this article are given in an extended form in a paper contributed by the present writer to The Month (Sept. 1911).歷史事實的總結這篇文章中給出了一個延長形式的一份文件中,由本作家的一個月( 1911年9月) 。 See also "The Tablet" (14 Sept., 1901), 402, and Snead-Cox, Life of Cardinal Vaughan, cited above.又見“平板” ( 1901年9月14號) , 402 ,和立德,考克斯,生活沃恩樞機上文提到的。

Roman Catechism羅馬問答

Catholic Information 天主教新聞

This catechism differs from other summaries of Christian doctrine for the instruction of the people in two points: it is primarily intended for priests having care of souls (ad parochos), and it enjoys an authority equalled by no other catechism.這理不同於其他摘要基督教教義的指示,人民兩點:它主要是為照顧神父有靈魂(廣告parochos ) ,並享有同樣的權力沒有其他理。 The need of a popular authoritative manual arose from a lack of systematic knowledge among pre-Reformation clergy and the concomitant neglect of religious instruction among the faithful.需要全民的權威性手冊是由缺乏系統知識的前神職人員和改造的同時忽略了宗教教育之間的忠誠。

The Reformers had not been slow in taking advantage of the situation; their popular tracts and catechisms were flooding every country and leading thousands of souls away from the Church.改革者沒有慢利用情況;其受歡迎的傳單和catechisms被洪水每一個國家和領先的數以千計的靈魂遠離教會。 The Fathers of Trent, therefore, "wishing to apply a salutary remedy to this great and pernicious evil, and thinking that the definition of the principal Catholic doctrines was not enough for the purpose, resolved also to publish a formulary and method for teaching the rudiments of the faith, to be used by all legitimate pastors and teachers" (Cat. praef., vii).父親的遄達,因此, “希望申請一個有益的彌補這一巨大的和有害的邪惡,和思維的定義,天主教的主要理論是不夠的目的,也解決發布處方和教學方法的雛形的信念,將使用一切合法的牧師和教師“ ( Cat. praef 。 ,七) 。 This resolution was taken in the eighteenth session (26 February, 1562) on the suggestion of St. Charles Borromeo; who was then giving full scope to his zeal for the reformation of the clergy.這項決議是在第十八屆會議( 1562年2月26號)的建議,聖查爾斯鮑羅麥歐,誰當時充分發揮他的熱情改革的神職人員。 Pius IV entrusted the composition of the Catechism to four distinguished theologians: Archbishops Leonardo Marino of Lanciano and Muzio Calini of Zara, Egidio Foscarini, Bishop of Modena, and Francisco Fureiro, a Portuguese Dominican.皮烏斯四委託組成的問答四個傑出的神學:聖馬力諾大主教列奧納多的Lanciano和Muzio Calini的扎拉, Egidio Foscarini ,主教的摩德納,並舊金山Fureiro ,葡萄牙多米尼加。 Three cardinals were appointed to supervise the work.三樞機主教被任命為監督工作。 St. Charles Borromeo superintended the redaction of the original Italian text, which, thanks to his exertions, was finished in 1564. Cardinal William Sirletus then gave it the final touches, and the famous Humanists, Julius Pogianus and Paulus Manutius, translated it into classical Latin.聖查爾斯鮑羅麥歐superintended編輯原來的意大利文,其中,由於他的exertions ,是在1564年完成。樞機主教威廉Sirletus然後賦予它的最後潤色,和著名的人文主義,朱利葉斯Pogianus和保盧斯Manutius ,翻譯成經典拉丁美洲。 It was then published in Latin and Italian as "Catechismus ex decreto Concilii Tridentini ad parochos Pii V jussu editus, Romae, 1566" (in-folio). Translations into the vernacular of every nation were ordered by the Council (Sess. XXIV, "De Ref.", c. vii).當時出版的拉美和意大利的“ Catechismus前法令Concilii Tridentini廣告parochos有價證券投資收益V jussu editus , Romae , 1566 ” (在開本) 。翻譯成白話文的每一個國家都被下令由理事會( Sess.二十四, “德參。 “角七) 。

The Council intended the projected Catechism to be the Church's official manual of popular instruction.安理會打算預測的問答是教會的官方手冊流行的指示。 The seventh canon, "De Reformatione", of Sess.第七屆佳能, “德Reformatione ”的Sess 。 XXIV, runs: "That the faithful may approach the Sacraments with greater reverence and devotion, the Holy Synod charges all the bishops about to administer them to explain their operation and use in a way adapted to the understanding of the people; to see, moreover, that their parish priests observe the same rule piously and prudently, making use for their explanations, where necessary and convenient, of the vernacular tongue; and conforming to the form to be prescribed by the Holy Synod in its instructions (catechesis) for the several Sacraments: the bishops shall have these instructions carefully translated into the vulgar tongue and explained by all parish priests to their flocks . . .".二十四,運行: “這可能忠實地對待聖禮更大的崇敬和獻身精神,羅馬主教的所有費用約主教管理他們解釋他們的運作和使用的方式適應了理解的人;地看到,而且,他們的教區神職人員遵守同樣的規則,並虔誠地謹慎,利用他們的解釋,在必要時方便,白話的舌頭,並符合形式訂明由羅馬主教在其指示(理)的幾個聖事:主教應具有這些指示認真翻譯成庸俗的舌頭,並解釋所有的教區神職人員的雞群。 。 。 “ 。 In the mind of the Church the Catechism, though primarily written for the parish priests, was also intended to give a fixed and stable scheme of instruction to the faithful, especially with regard to the means of grace, so much neglected at the time.在考慮到教會的問答,但主要是書面的教區神職人員,也打算放棄固定和穩定的教學計劃,忠實地,特別是關於手段的寬限期,這麼多被忽視的時間。 To attain this object the work closely follows the dogmatic definitions of the council.為了實現這一目標的工作密切關注教條式的定義委員會。 It is divided in four parts:它分為四個部分:

I. The Apostles' Creed;一,使徒信經;

II.二。 The Sacraments;在聖禮;

III.三。 The Decalogue;十誡;

IV.四。 Prayer, especially The Lord's Prayer.祈禱,特別是主禱文。

It deals with the papal primacy and with Limbo, points which were not discussed or defined at Trent; on the other hand, it is silent on the doctrine of Indulgences, which is set forth in the "Decretum de indulgentiis", Sess.它涉及的是羅馬教皇至高無上與英,法點沒有討論或定義特倫特;另一方面,它是無聲的理論Indulgences ,這是規定在“教令德indulgentiis ” , Sess 。 XXV. The bishops urged in every way the use of the new Catechism; they enjoined its frequent reading, so that all its contents would be committed to memory; they exhorted the priests to discuss parts of it at their meetings, and insisted upon its being used for instructing the people.二十五。主教敦促以各種方式使用新的問答,他們責成其經常閱讀,因此,它的全部內容將致力於記憶;他們告誡神父,討論部分在其會議,並堅持要求其正用於指示人。

To some editions of the Roman Catechism is prefixed a "Praxis Catechismi", ie a division of its contents into sermons for every Sunday of the year adapted to the Gospel of the day.一些版本的羅馬前綴問答是一個“實踐Catechismi ” ,即一個部門的內容納入說教為每個星期日的一年適應的福音一天。 There is no better sermonary.有沒有更好的sermonary 。 The people like to hear the voice of the Church speaking with no uncertain sound; the many Biblical texts and illustrations go straight to their hearts, and, best of all, they remember these simple sermons better than they do the oratory of famous pulpit orators. The Catechism has not of course the authority of conciliary definitions or other primary symbols of faith; for, although decreed by the Council, it was only published a year after the Fathers had dispersed, and it consequently lacks a formal conciliary approbation.人們希望聽到的聲音會講,沒有健全的不確定性;了許多聖經的文本和圖片直接進入他們的心,而且最重要的是,他們記住這些簡單的說教優於他們的演講壇的著名演講。在問答沒有,當然權威性conciliary定義或其他主要標誌的信念; ,儘管頒布了理事會,它只是發表了一份一年後,父親已分散,因此,它缺乏一個正式的conciliary讚許。 During the heated controversies de auxiliis gratiae between the Thomists and Molinists, the Jesuits refused to accept the authority of the Catechism as decisive.在激烈的爭論auxiliis gratiae德之間的Thomists和Molinists ,耶穌會拒絕接受權威的問答作為決定性的。 Yet it possesses high authority as an exposition of Catholic doctrine.然而,它具有較高的權威,闡述了天主教教義。 It was composed by order of a council, issued and approved by the pope; its use has been prescribed by numerous synods throughout the whole Church; Leo XIII, in a letter to the French bishops (8 Sept., 1899), recommended the study of the Roman Catechism to all seminarians, and the reigning pontiff, Pius X, has signified his desire that preachers should expound it to the faithful.這是為了組成一個委員會,印發並批准了教皇,其使用一直由無數synods整個教會;利奧十三世,在信中向法國主教( 1899年9月8日) ,建議研究羅馬問答向所有修,以及在位教宗碧岳十,已表示希望傳教士應闡述它的忠誠。

The earliest editions of the Roman Catechism are: "Romae apud Paulum Manutium", 1566; "Venetiis, apud Dominicum de Farrisö, 1567; "Coloniae", 1567 (by Henricus Aquensis); "Parisuis, in aedibus.最早版本的羅馬問答是: “ Romae羧Paulum Manutium ” , 1566 “ ; Venetiis羧Dominicum德Farrisö , 1567 ; ” Coloniae “ , 1567 (由圖斯亨里克斯Aquensis ) ; ” Parisuis ,在aedibus 。 Jac.江淮。 Kerver", 1568; "Venetiis, apud Aldum", 1575; Ingolstadt, 1577 (Sartorius). In 1596 appeared at Antwerp "Cat. Kerver “ , 1568 ” ; Venetiis羧Aldum “ , 1575 ;因戈爾施塔特, 1577 (首頁) 。在1596年出現在安特衛普的”貓。 Romanus . .羅馬。 。 . quaestionibus distinctus, brevibusque exhortatiunculis studio Andreae Fabricii, Leodiensis". (This editor, A. Le Fevre, died in 1581. He probably made this division of the Roman Catechism into questions and answers in 1570). George Eder, in 1569, arranged the Catechism for the use of schools. He distributed the main doctrines into sections and subsections, and added perspicuous tables of contents. This useful work bears the title: "Methodus Catechismi Catholici". The first known English translation is by Jeremy Donovan, a professor at Maynooth, published by Richard Coyne, Capel Street, Dublin, and by Keating & Brown, London, and printed for the translator by W. Folds & Son, Great Shand Street, 1829. An American edition appeared in the same year. Donovan's translation was reprinted at Rome by the Propaganda Press, in two volumes (1839); it is dedicated to Cardinal Fransoni, and signed: "Jeremias Donovan, sacerdos hibernus, cubicularius Gregorii XVI, PM" There is another English translation by RA Buckley (London, 1852), which is more elegant than Donovan's and claims to be more correct but is spoiled by the doctrinal notes of the Anglican translator. The first German translation, by Paul Hoffaeus, is dated Dillingen, 1568. quaestionibus菜, brevibusque exhortatiunculis工作室Andreae Fabricii , Leodiensis “ 。 (此編輯器,字母a.樂Fevre ,死於1581年。他可能使這一部門的羅馬問答成問題和答案在1570年) 。喬治琳達艾德,在1569年,安排了問答使用的學校。發給他的主要理論到章節和小節,並補充說明白表的內容。這項有益的工作的標題是: “ Methodus Catechismi Catholici 。 ”第一次已知的英文譯本是由傑里多諾萬教授梅努斯出版的理查德Coyne ,卡佩爾街,都柏林,以及基廷和布朗,倫敦和印刷的翻譯由美國褶皺父子,大尚德街, 1829年。美國版出現在同一年。多諾萬的翻譯在羅馬轉載的新聞宣傳,在兩卷( 1839年) ,它是專用於Fransoni樞機主教,並簽署了: “ Jeremias多諾萬, sacerdos hibernus , cubicularius Gregorii十六,下午”還有另外一個英文翻譯的類風濕性關節炎巴克利(倫敦, 1852年) ,這是更優雅比多諾萬和聲稱自己是正確的,但更多的是慣壞了的理論說明聖公會翻譯。第一德語翻譯,由保羅Hoffaeus ,日期是迪林根, 1568 。

Publication information Written by J. Wilhelm.出版信息書面由J.威廉。 Transcribed by Nicolette Ormsbee. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XIII.轉錄由妮可Ormsbee 。天主教百科全書,卷十三。 Published 1912. 1912年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, February 1, 1912. Nihil Obstat , 1912年2月1號。 Remy Lafort, DD, Censor. Imprimatur.雷米Lafort ,日,檢查員。認可。 +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰法利樞機主教,大主教紐約

The Roman Rite羅馬禮

Catholic Information 天主教新聞

(Ritus romanus). (禮儀羅馬) 。

The Roman Rite is the manner of celebrating the Holy Sacrifice, administering Sacraments, reciting the Divine Office, and performing other ecclesiastical functions (blessings, all kinds of Sacramentals, etc.) as used in the city and Diocese of Rome.羅馬禮的方式慶祝聖祭祀,管理聖禮,背誦神聖的辦公室,並履行其他教會的職能(祝福,各種Sacramentals等) ,用於城市和教區羅馬。

The Roman Rite is the most wide-spread in Christendom.羅馬禮是最廣泛的傳播基督教。 That it has advantages possessed by no other -- the most archaic antiquity, unequalled dignity, beauty, and the practical convenience of being comparatively short in its services -- will not be denied by any one who knows it and the other ancient liturgies.它已經擁有的優勢沒有其他-最古老的文物,無與倫比的尊嚴,美感和實際的便利正在比較短的在其服務-將不會拒絕任何一個誰知道它與其他古代li turgies。 But it was not the consideration of these advantages that led to its extensive use; it was the exalted position of the see that used it.但沒有考慮這些優勢,導致其廣泛使用,它的崇高地位,認為使用它。 The Roman Rite was adopted throughout the West because the local bishops, sometimes kings or emperors, felt that they could not do better than use the rite of the chief bishop of all, at Rome.羅馬禮通過在整個西方,因為當地的主教,有時國王或皇帝,認為他們不能有更好的使用禮儀的首席主教的一切,在羅馬舉行。 And this imitation of Roman liturgical practice brought about in the West the application of the principle (long admitted in the East) that rite should follow patriarchate.這個仿羅馬禮儀實踐帶來了西方原則的適用(長承認,在東)的禮儀應遵循東正教。

Apart from his universal primacy, the pope had always been unquestioned Patriarch of the West.除了他的普遍至上,教宗一直是無可置疑的宗西。 It was then the right and normal thing that the West should use his liturgy.當時的權利和正常的事情,西方國家應該利用他的禮儀。 The irregular and anomalous incident of liturgical history is not that the Roman Rite has been used, practically exclusively, in the West since about the tenth or eleventh century, but that before that there were other rites in the pope's patriarchate.在非正常的和異常事件的禮儀歷史不是羅馬禮一直使用,幾乎完全是在西方以來的第十次或11世紀,但在此之前,還有其他儀式在教宗的主教。 Not the disappearance but the existence and long toleration of the Gallican and Spanish rites is the difficulty (see RITES).沒有消失,但存在和長期容忍的高盧聖和西班牙文儀式是難以(見禮記) 。

Like all others, the Roman Rite bears clear marks of its local origin.象所有其他情況下,羅馬禮負有明確標誌的地方來源。 Wherever it may be used, it is still Roman in the local sense, obviously composed for use in Rome.只要它可用於,但仍然是羅馬在當地意義上來說,顯然組成,用於在羅馬舉行。 Our Missal marks the Roman stations, contains the Roman saints in the Canon (See CANON OF THE MASS), honours with special solemnity the Roman martyrs and popes.我們Missal標誌著羅馬站,包含了羅馬聖人在佳能(見佳能大眾) ,榮譽,特別莊重的烈士和羅馬教皇。 Our feasts are constantly anniversaries of local Roman events, of the dedication of Roman churches (All Saints, St. Michael, S. Maria ad Nives, etc.). The Collect for Sts.我們的節日不斷週年紀念的地方羅馬事件,奉獻的羅馬教會(諸聖,聖邁克爾,由瑪麗亞廣告Nives ,等等) 。該收集的街。 Peter and Paul (29 June) supposes that it is said at Rome (the Church which "received the beginnings of her Faith" from these saints is that of Rome), and so on continually.彼得和保羅( 6月29日)假設這是說,在羅馬(教會的“收到的開端,她的信仰”從這些聖人是羅馬) ,所以就不斷。 This is quite right and fitting; it agrees with all liturgical history.這是非常正確和擬合;它同意與所有禮儀的歷史。 No rite has ever been composed consciously for general use.沒有成年禮以往任何時候都自覺組成的一般使用。 In the East there are still stronger examples of the same thing. The Orthodox all over the world use a rite full of local allusions to the city of Constantinople.在東部仍然有較強的例子同樣的事情。東正教世界各地的使用禮儀充分的地方典故城市君士坦丁堡。

The Roman Rite evolved out of the (presumed) universal, but quite fluid, rite of the first three centuries during the (liturgically) almost unknown time from the fourth to the sixth.羅馬禮演變出(推定)普遍的,但相當流暢,成年禮的頭三個世紀期間( liturgically )幾乎未知的時間從第四到第六位。 In the sixth we have it fully developed in the Leonine, later in the Gelasian, Sacramentaries.第六,我們有充分發展的Leonine ,後來在Gelasian , Sacramentaries 。 How and exactly when the specifically Roman qualities were formed during that time will, no doubt, always be a matter of conjecture (see LITURGY; LITURGY OF THE MASS).如何以及何時羅馬的素質特別是形成了在這段時間裡,毫無疑問,始終是一個令人猜想(見禮儀;禮儀大眾) 。 At first its use was very restrained.在第一次使用是非常克制。 It was followed only in the Roman province.其次是只有在羅馬省。 North Italy was Gallican, the South, Byzantine, but Africa was always closely akin to Rome liturgically.北意大利是高盧聖,韓國,拜占庭,但非洲始終密切類似於羅馬liturgically 。

From the eighth century gradually the Roman usage began its career of conquest in the West.從8世紀的古羅馬逐漸開始使用其職業生涯的征服西方。 By the twelfth century at latest it was used wherever Latin obtained, having displaced all others except at Milan and in retreating parts of Spain.到12世紀上最新的,它是用於何處獲得拉丁美洲後,流離失所,除非所有其他在米蘭和撤退的部分西班牙。 That has been its position ever since.這一直是它的立場至今。 As the rite of the Latin Church it is used exclusively in the Latin Patriarchate, with three small exceptions at Milan, Toledo, and in the still Byzantine churches of Southern Italy, Sicily, and Corsica.作為成年禮的拉丁教會它是專門用於在拉美宗主,有三個小的例外在米蘭,托萊多,並在拜占庭教堂仍然在意大利南部,西西里島和科西嘉島。

During the Middle Ages it developed into a vast number of derived rites, differing from the pure form only in unimportant details and in exuberant additions.在中世紀它已發展成為一個廣大衍生儀式,不同形式的純粹只在不重要的細節和旺盛的補充。 Most of these were abolished by the decree of Pius V in 1570 (see LITURGY OF THE MASS).其中大部分被廢除該法令的庇護V在1570年(見禮儀大眾) 。 Meanwhile, the Roman Rite had itself been affected by, and had received additions from, the Gallican and Spanish uses it displaced.與此同時,羅馬禮本身已受到影響,並收到了新增了來自高盧聖和西班牙文使用它流離失所。 The Roman Rite is now used by every one who is subject to the pope's patriarchal jurisdiction (with the three exceptions noted above); that is, it is used in Western Europe, including Poland, in all countries colonized from Western Europe: America, Australia, etc., by Western (Latin) missionaries all over the world, including the Eastern lands where other Catholic rites also obtain. No one may change his rite without a legal authorization, which is not easily obtained.羅馬禮現在所使用的每一個誰是受教宗的重男輕女的管轄權(與三個例外如上所述) ,也就是說,它是用來在西歐,包括波蘭,在所有國家殖民來自西歐:美國,澳大利亞等等,西方(拉丁美洲)傳教士在世界各地,包括東歐其他土地天主教儀式也獲得。任何人不得改變自己的成年禮未經法律授權,這是不容易獲得。 So the Western priest in Syria, Egypt, and so on uses his own Roman Rite, just as at home.因此,西方牧師敘利亞,埃及,等等用自己的羅馬禮,就像在家裡。 On the same principle Catholics of Eastern rites in Western Europe, America, etc., keep their rites; so that rites now cross each other wherever such people live together.在同樣的原則天主教徒東歐儀式在西歐,北美等,保持其儀式; ,以便儀式現在兩岸彼此的地方這樣的人生活在一起。 The language of the Roman Rite is Latin everywhere except that in some churches along the Western Adriatic coast it is said in Slavonic and on rare occasions in Greek at Rome (see RITES).語言的羅馬禮是拉美以外的地方,在一些教堂沿西部亞得里亞海岸說,它是在斯拉夫和罕見的情況下在希臘羅馬(見禮記) 。 In derived forms the Roman Rite is used in some few dioceses (Lyons) and by several religious orders (Benedictines, Carthusians, Carmelites, Dominicans).在派生形式羅馬禮是用來在一些少數教區(里昂)和一些宗教命令(篤, Carthusians , Carmelites ,多米尼加) 。 In these their fundamentally Roman character is expressed by a compound name.在這些古羅馬的根本性質所表達的是一種化合物的名稱。 They are the "Ritus Romano-Lugdunensis", "Romano-monasticus", and so on.他們是“禮儀羅馬Lugdunensis ” , “羅馬monasticus ” ,等等。

Publication information Written by Adrian Fortescue.出版信息撰稿阿德里安斯丘。 Transcribed by Catharine Lamb.轉錄由凱瑟琳羔羊。 Dedicated to the memory of my mother, Ruth F. Hansen The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XIII.為紀念我的母親,露絲樓漢森的天主教百科全書,卷十三。 Published 1912. 1912年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, February 1, 1912. Nihil Obstat , 1912年2月1號。 Remy Lafort, DD, Censor. Imprimatur.雷米Lafort ,日,檢查員。認可。 +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰法利樞機主教,大主教紐約


For further details and bibliography see BREVIARY; CANON OF THE MASS; LITURGY; MASS, LITURGY OF THE; RITES.如需進一步詳細資料和參考書目見祈禱;佳能的質量;禮儀;質量,禮儀的;儀式。

Also, see:此外,見:
Sacraments 聖禮
Popes 教皇
Papacy 教皇

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