General Information 一般信息

Realism denotes two distinct sets of philosophical theories, one regarding the nature of universal concepts and the other dealing with knowledge of objects in the world.現實主義是指兩個不同的兩套哲學理論,一個關於普遍性質的概念和其他處理的物體的知識在世界上。

In late - classical and medieval philosophy, realism was a development of the Platonic theory of Forms and held, generally, that universals such as "red" or "man" have an independent, objective existence, either in a realm of their own or in the mind of God.在已故-古典與中世紀哲學,現實主義是發展的理論,柏拉圖的形式和舉行,一般來說,是共性,如“紅色”或“人”有一個獨立的,客觀存在的,無論是在境界本國或在心中的上帝。 Medieval realism is usually contrasted with Nominalism, and the classic critiques of realism from this point of view were provided by Peter Abelard and William of Occam.中世紀的現實對比,通常是與唯名論,以及經典的現實主義批評從這個觀點提供了彼得亞伯拉德和奧卡姆的威廉。

In modern philosophy realism is a broad term, encompassing several movements whose unity lies in a common rejection of philosophical Idealism.在現代哲學的現實主義是一個廣泛的,包括一些運動的團結是一個共同的反對唯心主義哲學。 In its most general form realism asserts that objects in the external world exist independently of what is thought about them.在其最一般形式的現實主義聲稱,物體在外部世界獨立存在什麼是思考它們。 The most straightforward of such theories is usually known as naive realism.最簡單的就是這種理論通常被稱為天真的現實。 It contends that in perception humans are made directly aware of objects and their attributes and thus have immediate access to the external world.它認為,人類的看法是直接了解對象及其屬性,因此立即獲得外部世界。 This view fails, however, to explain perceptual mistakes and illusions, and most realists argue that causal processes in the mind mediate, or interpret, directly perceived appearances.這種看法是不夠,但解釋知覺錯誤和幻想,最現實主義者認為,因果關係的過程中考慮到調解,或解釋,直接感知亮相。 Thus the objects remain in essence independent, although the causal mechanism may distort, or even wholly falsify, the individual's knowledge of them.因此,物體在本質上仍然是獨立的,雖然因果機制可能扭曲,甚至完全捏造,個人的知識人。

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Bibliography 目錄
AH Armstrong, The Cambridge History of Later Greek and Early Medieval Philosophy (1967); DM Armstrong, Universals and Scientific Realism (1978); RM Chisholm, Realism and the Background of Phenomenology (1960); J Leplin, ed., Scientific Realism (1985); H Putnam, Meaning and the Moral Sciences (1978); RM Rorty, Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature (1979); J Smart, Philosophy and Scientific Realism (1963); P Smith, Realism and Progress of Science (1982); H Veatch, Realism and Nominalism Revisited (1954); J Wild, Introduction to Realistic Philosophy (1984).的AH阿姆斯特朗,劍橋的歷史後來希臘和中世紀早期哲學( 1967年) ;馬克阿姆斯特朗,共性和科學實在論( 1978年) ;產品奇澤姆,現實主義和現象學的背景( 1960年) ; J Leplin ,編輯。 ,科學實在論( 1985 ) ; H普特南,意義和道德科學( 1978年) ;產品羅蒂,哲學和鏡子自然( 1979年) ; J智能,哲學和科學實在論( 1963年) ; P史密斯,現實主義與科學的進展( 1982年) ; H威奇,現實主義和唯名論回顧( 1954年) ; J野生,介紹現實哲學( 1984年) 。


Advanced Information 先進的信息

The theory of knowledge that maintains that "universals" (general concepts representing the common elements belonging to individuals of the same genus or species) have a separate existence apart from individual objects.理論知識,堅持“共性” (一般概念代表的共同要素屬於個人的同一屬或種)有一個單獨的存在除了個別的對象。 It stands in contrast to nominalism, which held that universals had no reality apart from their existence in the though of an individual.它站在相反,唯名論,認為沒有普遍的現實除了他們的存在雖然個人。 Plato's insistence that there is a realm of universals above the material universe as real as individual objects themselves had a great influence on medieval thought.柏拉圖的堅持是有共性的領域上面的物質宇宙真正作為單獨的物體本身有很大的影響中世紀的思想。

Anselm's form of realism led him to the belief that by giving proper attention to universal concepts one could prove the truths of theology.安瑟倫的形式,現實使他相信,通過給予適當注意一個普遍的概念,可以證明的真理神學。 He accepted revealed truth, but was convinced that one should exercise reason in apprehending the truth.他接受揭示事實真相,但相信應該行使的理由逮捕真相。 For example, he was convinced that by "necessary reasons" he could demonstrate the existence of God.例如,他相信由“必要的理由” ,他可以證明上帝存在。 Because God is the greatest of beings, Anselm reasoned in his Proslogion, he must exist in reality as well as in thought, for if he existed in thought only, a greater being could be conceived of.因為上帝是最偉大的人,安瑟倫的理由在他的Proslogion ,他必須在現實中存在的以及在思想,如果他存在的思想只有一個更大的可以設想的。 Thus from consideration of an ideal or universal Anselm believed that he could derive truth about what actually exists.因此,從審議的一個理想的或普遍的安瑟倫認為,他可以得到什麼真相確實存在。

Augustine had modified Plato's realism by holding that universals existed before the material universe in God's creative mind.奧古斯丁修改了柏拉圖的現實主義地認為,以前存在的共性的物質宇宙中的上帝的創意思維。 This viewpoint was expanded by twelfth century ultrarealists, such as Duns Scotus, Odo of Tournai, and William of Champeaux (in his early years), to posit that the logical and real orders are exactly parallel.這種觀點是擴大了12世紀ultrarealists ,如鄧司各脫, Odo在圖爾奈和威廉Champeaux (早年) ,以假定的邏輯和真實的訂單是完全平行的。 By proposing that universals come before individuals, the ultrarealists maintained that the reality of individuals came from the universal.提出這一共性來到個人, ultrarealists堅持認為,現實的個人來自普遍性。 Thus humanity as a universal preceded individual men. In this fashion they explained theological concepts such as transmission of original sin in the human race and the oneness of the Trinity: God comes first; Father, Son and Holy Spirit share together in God.因此,人類作為一個普遍性之前個別男子。這種方式解釋他們的神學概念,如傳輸原罪在人類和統一性的三位一體:上帝第一;父,子和聖靈一起分享上帝。

Thomas Aquinas in his Summa Theologica amended this ultrarealist position by developing Aristotle's doctrine that universals have a being only in material objects.托馬斯阿奎那在他的神學大全修訂本ultrarealist發展中國家的立場,亞里士多德的理論,普遍有一個只有在物質對象。 According to Aquinas we cannot assert that universals exist wholly apart from individual objects inasmuch as we know of them only through sensory impressions of individual objects.根據阿奎那我們不能斷言,共性存在全除了個別的物體,因為我們知道他們的感覺只有通過展示個人的對象。 Thus universals are abstracted from the knowledge rooted in individual things.因此,共性是抽象的知識根植於個人的事情。 This "moderate realism" stressed that human reason could not totally grasp God's being. One could profitably use reason, then, to determine universals, and one could use reason in theology whenever it was concerned with the connection between universals and individual objects.這種“溫和的現實主義”強調,人類理性不能完全掌握上帝的福祉。一個可以盈利的使用理由,然後,以確定共性,其中可利用的原因,神學時,關注的是共性之間的聯繫和個人物品。

Realism had a great effect on the "natural theology" of medieval scholasticism.現實主義有很大影響的“自然神學”的中世紀經院。 It affected both the method of demonstration and the shape of the theological dogmas which resulted.這既影響的方法,示範和形狀的神學教條導致。 One notes its influence to a lesser extent after the Reformation in both Roman Catholic Neo - Thomist circles and among Protestants who emphasize the "unity" of the human race in the passing on of original sin (eg, WGT Shedd).一個注意到其影響程度較輕改革後,在羅馬天主教新-托馬斯主義各界和新教徒之間誰強調“團結”人類在傳遞原罪(例如, W GT謝德) 。

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Bibliography 目錄
DM Armstrong, Universals and Scientific Realism: Nominalism and Realism, II; F Copleston, History of Philosophy, II; R Seeberg, Textbook of the History of Doctrines; M deWulf, History of Medieval Philosophy, I; WGT Shedd, Dogmatic Theology; E Gilson, History of Christian Philosophy in the Middle Ages.馬克阿姆斯特朗,共性和科學實在論:唯名論與現實主義,二,女Copleston ,哲學史,二; R西貝爾格,教科書的歷史理論; M deWulf ,中世紀的歷史哲學,我; WGT謝德,教條主義的神學;電子郵件吉爾森,歷史的基督教哲學在中世紀。

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