Scholasticism, Schoolmen士林, Schoolmen

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Scholasticism is a form of Christian philosophy and theology developed by scholars who came to be called schoolmen.士林是一種形式的基督教哲學和神學學者制定誰來到被稱為schoolmen 。 It flourished during the medieval period of European history.它在蓬勃發展的中世紀時期的歐洲歷史。 The heart of scholasticism insisted upon a system that was clear and definitional in tone.中心院堅持一項制度,明確和界定的基調。 The system attempted to synthesize ideas expressed in classical Roman and Greek writings and in Christian Scripture, the writings of the patristic fathers, and other Christian writings preceding the medieval period.該系統綜合試圖表達的意見古典羅馬和希臘的著作和基督教聖經的著作教父的父親,和其它基督教著作前面的中世紀時期。 Aristotle's views helped give scholasticism a systematic structure, but Platonism also played a large part in the enterprise.亞里士多德的看法,有助於讓墨守成規的系統結構,但柏拉圖也起到了很大一部分的企業。

Some persons consider scholasticism to have been a boring, dry system emphasizing sheer memorization.有些人認為院曾是乏味,乾燥系統,強調純粹的記憶。 However, in many respects it was dynamic, truly seeking to settle questions concerning reality.然而,在許多方面,它是動態的,真正謀求解決問題的現實。 The Disputed Questions of Thomas Aquinas, rather than his Summa, point out the vibrancy of the system.有爭議的問題的托馬斯阿奎那,而不是他的神學,指出充滿活力的制度。 The philosophical aspects of scholasticism were not dicated strictly by a set of theological dogmas but rather worked with both faith and reason in an attempt to understand reality from the viewpoint of a human being.哲學方面的院沒有嚴格dicated一套神學教條,而是與這兩個信仰與理性,試圖了解從現實的角度看一個人。

BELIEVE Religious Information Source web-site相信宗教信息來源
Our List of 2,300 Religious Subjects我們所列出的2300名宗教科目
The method of scholasticism sought to understand the fundamental aspects of theology, philosophy, and law.該方法院的目的是了解的基本方面神學,哲學和法律。 Apparently contradictory viewpoints were offered in order to show how they possibly could be synthesized through reasonable interpretation.顯然矛盾的觀點提供了以顯示他們如何可能合成可通過合理的解釋。 A problem would first be "exposed," and then it would be "disputed" in order to cause a new "discovery" in the mind of the person who was seeking new personal knowledge.一個問題首先是“暴露” ,然後將“有爭議” ,以造成新的“發現”的思想的人誰是尋求新的個人知識。 Each text investigated had a commentary.每個文字進行了評論。 The master helped the student to read the text in such a way that he could really understand what it was saying.主幫助學生閱讀的文本以這樣一種方式,他可以真正理解它的意思。 This experience was to be much more than just memorative.這方面的經驗將不僅僅是memorative 。 There were yes - and - no positions to various texts, which sought to keep the student from merely memorizing the text.有是-和-沒有立場的各種文字,試圖讓學生從單純記憶的文字。 Abelard developed the yes - and - no method with great precision.亞伯拉德開發的是-和-沒有方法非常精確。 The two most exciting types of disputations were the quaestio disputata, which was a disputed question, and the quodlibet, which was a very subtle form of disputed question that could be publicly disputed only by a truly great master, whereas the disputed questions could be talked about by lesser minds still growing in knowledge.這兩個最令人興奮的類型disputations是quaestio disputata ,這是一個有爭議的問題,並quodlibet ,這是一個非常微妙的形式有爭議的問題,可以公開爭議只能由一個真正的大師,而有爭議的問題可以討論由較小的頭腦仍然增長了知識。

Anselm of Canterbury is the first great developer of scholasticism. His Monologion investigates problems surrounding God from a reasonable and yet prayerful viewpoint.安瑟倫的坎特伯雷是第一大開發院。 Monologion調查他的問題,圍繞著上帝從一個合理的,但虔誠的觀點。 He developed the famous principle "faith seeking to know."他制定了著名的原則“信仰尋求知道。 ”

Peter Abelard sought to show various ways in which contradictory texts could be synthesized.彼得亞伯拉德試圖表明各種方式的矛盾文本可合成。 He became involved in the disputed question concerning whether "universals" were really things or merely names.他參與了有爭議的問題是否“共性”的東西是真的或僅僅是名字。

Gilbert de la Porree continued to develop various views in a scholastic manner.吉爾伯特德拉魯阿Porree繼續開發各種不同意見在學術的方式進行。 Hugh of St. Victor sought to give scholasticism more of a mystical flare; he was criticized by many because of his lack of reasonableness.休聖維克多努力使院更神秘的耀斑;他批評了許多,因為他缺乏合理性。 He was deeply indebted to Augustine for his views.他深感感激奧古斯丁對他的看法。 Bernard of Clairvaux developed a psychological view in scholasticism which, although wedded to a form of mysticism, sought to be more reasonable than mystical.貝爾納的伯爾納制定了心理在院認為,雖然拘泥於一種形式的神秘主義,尋求更合理的多神秘。

Peter Lombard developed a series of "sentences" that were to be taught to seminarians studying for the priesthood in the twelfth century.彼得倫巴第制定了一系列的“判決”是要教導修生學習的神職人員在12世紀。 These scholastic sentences were usually simple and also capable of being memorized by the students.這些學校通常是句子簡單,也能背誦的學生。 It is this form of scholasticism that has caused many persons to discredit it as an uncreative experience.正是這種形式的煩瑣哲學,造成許多人詆毀它作為一個有點類似於經驗。

Albert the Great (Albertus Magnus) was not much of an improvement over Peter Lombard, but he deeply influenced Thomas Aquinas, who was the apogee of scholastic thought.阿爾貝大(阿爾貝馬格努斯)沒有多大的改善彼得倫巴第,但他深刻地影響多瑪斯,誰是遠地點學術思想。 Thomism has many forms, but they are all trying to interpret the system of thought developed by Thomas Aquinas. Thomism有許多形式,但它們都試圖解釋系統的思想制定的托馬斯阿奎那。 His great effort was to combine what could be called non - Christian philosophy with both Christian philosophy and theology.他的偉大的努力,把所謂的非-基督教哲學與基督教哲學和神學。 Christian Scripture could be combined with elements of ideas discovered by natural thought unaided by the grace of Scripture.基督教聖經可以配合的思想內容發現的外援自然想到的恩典聖經。 Thomas Aquinas was heavily influenced by not only Aristotelianism but also Platonism.托馬斯阿奎那是嚴重影響不僅亞里士多德,而且柏拉圖。 He also attempted to combine the thought of Averroes into his system.他還企圖把思想阿威羅伊他的系統。 Some of his contemporaries considered some of his ideas to be heretical.他的一些同時代人認為他的一些想法是邪教。 Cardinal Tempier of Paris was especially disturbed by his view concerning the resurrection of the body as it was presented in his Disputed Questions.紅衣主教Tempier巴黎特別不安的是他認為關於復活的身體因為這是他提出的有爭議的問題。

Bonaventure was another great schoolman, but his style of presentation is turgid and pales somewhat in relation to the presentations of Aquinas.新疆是另一個偉大的煩瑣哲學家,但他的風格介紹turgid和有點相形見絀有關介紹阿奎那。 Bonaventure was quite polemical in his attacks against Aristotelianism, which undermined his attempt to be reasonable.新疆是相當論戰在他的攻擊亞里士多德,這有損他的企圖是合理的。

In the fourteenth century Giles of Rome presented some brilliance within the scholastic tradition, but he was not very consequential in relation to Aquinas.在14世紀賈爾斯羅馬提出了一些輝煌的學術傳統,但他並不十分必然涉及阿奎那。 The great scholastic thinker of the fourteenth century was John Duns Scotus.偉大的思想家學年14世紀是約翰鄧司各脫。 He had an extremely subtle understanding of the use of words.他有一個極其微妙的理解使用的話。 He was chiefly interested in the problem of epistemology.他主要是關心的問題,認識論。 His school of thought, Scotism, influenced many people in later ages, including Martin Heidegger and Ludwig Wittgenstein.他的學校的思想, Scotism的影響,許多人在以後的年齡,包括馬丁海德格爾和維特根斯坦。 William of Ockham rounds out the glorious age of scholasticism.奧卡姆的威廉發了光榮院年齡。 He was called a nominalist because he wondered if exterior reality to the human mind was given a series of words which remained primarily in the mind.他是所謂的唯名論,因為他不知道,如果外部的現實的人的心靈得到了一系列的話仍然主要集中在一點。 For William of Ockham it was unclear that the human mind could actually know exterior reality.對於奧卡姆的威廉目前還不清楚這人的頭腦實際上可能知道外部的現實。

Scholasticism went into desuetude in the fifteenth century, but it was revived in the sixteenth century.士林走進廢止的15世紀,但它恢復在十六世紀。 The twentieth century has experienced a renewed attempt to make the Thomistic form of scholasticism credible as a system of thought.在二十世紀經歷了一個新的嘗試,使Thomistic形式的煩瑣哲學可信作為一個系統的思路。 This movement within Roman Catholic circles has been partially successful.這一運動在羅馬天主教界已經取得了部分成功。

TJ German德國的TJ
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (規矩福音字典)

Bibliography 目錄
J Pieper, Scholasticism; E Gilson, The Christian Philosophy of St. Thomas Aquinas and The Unity of Philosophical Experience. J皮珀,士林;電子郵件吉爾森,基督教哲學多瑪斯和統一的哲學經驗。


Advanced Information 先進的信息

The term scholasticism (from the Latin schola, "school") refers properly both to the doctrine and method of teaching in the medieval European schools and to their successive revivals to the present day.任期院(從拉丁美洲schola , “學校” )是指既正確的理論和教學方法在中世紀歐洲的學校和他們連續revivals到今天。 As a method, scholasticism involves (1) the close, detailed reading (lectio) of a particular book recognized as a great or authoritative work of human or divine origin - for example, Aristotle in logic, Euclid in geometry, Cicero in rhetoric, Avicenna and Galen in medicine, the Bible in theology - and (2) the open discussion (disputatio) in strict logical form of a relevant question (quaestio) arising from the text.作為一種方法,墨守成規涉及( 1 )收盤時,詳細閱讀( lectio )的特定書籍承認是一個偉大的或權威性的工作的人或神的原產地-例如,亞里士多德的邏輯,歐幾里德幾何,西塞羅的言論,阿維森納和蓋倫在醫藥,聖經神學-( 2 )公開討論( d isputatio)在嚴格的邏輯形式的有關問題( q uaestio)所產生的文字。 As a doctrine, scholasticism refers to the kind of philosophy, theology, medicine, and law (canon and civil) taught by the faculties responsible for these disciplines.作為一個原則,院指的是一種哲學,神學,醫學,法律(佳能和民間)任教的教師負責這些學科。 These four faculties constituted the medieval universities that began to be organized in the 12th century, beginning in Bologna, Paris, and Oxford.這四個學院構成了中世紀大學開始舉辦的12世紀,開始在博洛尼亞,巴黎和牛津大學。

The most important faculties, however, were arts (philosophy) and theology, and the term scholasticism is usually understood in the context of those disciplines.最重要的院系,但是,藝術(哲學)和神學,並長期墨守成規的理解通常是在這些學科。

The basic philosophy of the faculty of arts was Aristotelian because the greatest and most authoritative books in philosophy were believed to be Aristotle's.基本的哲學藝術系,因為是亞里士多德的最大和最權威的哲學書籍被認為是亞里士多德的。 Aristotle, however, was interpreted differently by different professors depending on the commentaries used, notably those of "the Commentator," Averroes; the Christian Neoplatonist, Saint Augustine; or the pagan Neoplatonist, Avicenna.亞里士多德,但是,不同的解釋不同的教授取決於所使用的評注,特別是那些對“評論員” ,阿威羅伊;基督教Neoplatonist ,聖奧古斯丁;或異教徒Neoplatonist ,阿維森納。

Similarly in theology, the Bible was variously interpreted depending on the kind of philosophy used to understand the Christian faith systematically.同樣,在神學,聖經是不同的解釋,而這樣的哲學用於了解基督教信仰的系統。 Among the numerous ways of systematizing the faith, certain schools of theology stand out as particularly notable and viable throughout the Middle Ages and to the present day.在眾多的方法系統化的信仰,某些學校的神學脫穎而出,特別顯著的和可行的整個中世紀到今天。 The most important of these scholastic theologies were Thomism, developed from the teaching of Saint Thomas Aquinas; Augustinism, developed from Saint Augustine; Scotism, from John Duns Scotus; Nominalism, from William of Occam; and Suarazianism, formulated by Francisco Suarez, a 16th century Jesuit who tried to synthesize various schools.其中最重要的學術theologies被Thomism ,發達國家從教學的聖托馬斯阿奎那; Augustinism ,發達國家從聖奧古斯丁; Scotism ,從約翰鄧司各脫;唯名論,從奧卡姆的威廉和Suarazianism ,制定舊金山蘇亞雷斯16世紀耶穌誰試圖綜合各學校。 The basic principle underlying all forms of scholasticism was rational consistency with the Christian faith as taught in the Bible and as understood by the living Church of Rome through the writings of the ancient Greek and Latin Fathers, the rulings of the ecumenical councils, the liturgy, and the continuing teaching and practice of the church.的基本原則的一切形式的煩瑣哲學是理性的一致性與基督教信仰的教導在聖經和理解的生活羅馬教會的著作通過對古代希臘和拉丁教父,裁決的基督教議會,禮儀,和持續不斷的教學和實踐中的教堂。

Scholasticism is generally divided into three periods: medieval scholasticism, extending from Boethius (5th - 6th century) to the 16th century, with its Golden Age in the 13th century; "second scholasticism," beginning in the 16th century with Thomas de Vio Cajetan, Conrad Koellin, Peter Crokert, Francesco de Vittoria, and Francisco Suarez; and neoscholasticism, beginning in the early 19th century, given impetus by the encyclical Aeterni Patris (1879) of Pope Leo XIII, and continuing at least until the Second Vatican Council (1962 - 65).士林一般分為三個時期:中世紀的經院,從Boethius (第5 -6世紀) 1 6世紀,其黃金時代在1 3世紀; “第二院” ,開始在1 6世紀的托馬斯V ioC ajetan,康拉德Koellin ,彼得Crokert ,弗朗切斯科德維多利亞,和弗朗西斯蘇亞雷斯;和neoscholasticism ,自19世紀初,有力地推動了通諭Aeterni祖國報( 1879年)教皇利奧十三世,並持續至少在第二次梵蒂岡會議( 1962年-6 5) 。

Medieval Scholasticism.中世紀經院哲學。

Boethius is generally called "the first scholastic" because he provided the first Latin translations of Aristotle's logic and other basic works used in the schools of the early Middle Ages as a prerequisite to understanding the Bible and the Latin Church Fathers and to becoming an educated person. Boethius通常是所謂的“第一學年” ,因為他提供了第一個拉丁美洲翻譯亞里士多德的邏輯和其他基本工程中使用的學校,中世紀早期的一個先決條件,以了解聖經和拉丁美洲教會神父,並成為一個受過教育的人。 In this early period, however, the dominant philosophical influence was Platonism or Neoplatonism, particularly as it was reflected in the work of Saint Augustine.在這個早期階段,但佔主導地位的哲學是柏拉圖的影響或新柏拉圖主義,特別是體現在工作的聖奧古斯丁。 Augustine formulated the maxim "Understand so that you may believe, believe so that you may understand" - an approach that lay at the heart of scholasticism - and urged the use of dialectics in examining Christian doctrine. His principles were applied with rigor by such early scholastics as John Scotus Erigena, Saint Anselm, Peter Abelard, Alan of Lille, and numerous teachers in the cathedral schools of Laon, Chartres, Paris, Poitiers, and the abbey school of Saint - Victor in Paris.奧古斯丁制定的格言“理解,這樣您可以相信,認為這樣您就可以理解” -這種方法的核心所在院-並敦促使用辯證法在審查基督教教義。他的原則是適用於這種嚴謹的初scholastics約翰司各脫Erigena ,降再降,彼得亞伯拉德,艾倫的里爾,和許多教師在學校的教堂拉昂,沙特爾,巴黎,普瓦捷,和修道院學校的聖-維克多在巴黎舉行。

In a stricter sense, scholasticism began with the Sentences (c. 1150) of Peter Lombard, the Decretum (c. 1150) of Gratian, and the flood of new Latin translations of classical philosophers, including all of Aristotle, made from Greek and Arabic throughout the second half of the 12th century. Assimilation of this new learning took place in the universities of the 13th century through the genius of the Dominicans Saint Albertus Magnus and his great pupil Thomas Aquinas, whose Summa Theologiae is widely regarded as the pinnacle of scholastic theology; and of the Franciscans Saint Bonaventure, John Duns Scotus, and William of Occam (early 14th century), who challenged the Dominican school.在嚴格的意義上講,院開始與句( 11時50角)彼得隆巴德的教令(角1150年)的格拉提安,以及大量的新的拉丁美洲翻譯的古典哲學家,包括所有的亞里士多德,從希臘和阿拉伯語整個下半年的12世紀。同化這一新的學習發生在大學的13世紀通過的天才多米尼加聖艾伯塔斯Magnus和他的偉大的學生托馬斯阿奎那的神學神學被廣泛認為是巔峰學習神學;和聖方濟文德,約翰鄧司各脫,並奧卡姆的威廉( 14世紀初) ,誰挑戰多米尼加學校。

With the multiplication of universities between the 14th and 16th centuries came a decline in the standard of teaching and the caliber of teachers, and a "logicism" or formalism of thought that aroused the animosity of a new humanism that arose mainly outside university circles.隨著大學的乘法之間的第14和第16世紀是下降的教學水平和高素質的教師,和一個“ logicism ”或形式主義的思想,引起的仇恨一個新的人文主義認為主要是由於大學圈子外面。 The term scholasticism then began to be used in a derogatory sense.在長期墨守成規然後開始用在貶義。

Second Scholasticism.第二士林。

The Protestant Reformation in the 16th century stimulated a revival of theology by a return to the language of the Bible, the Fathers of the Church, and the great scholastics of the 13th century.新教改革在16世紀復甦刺激了神學的回歸語言的聖經,父親教會,偉大的scholastics 13世紀。 This second scholasticism was aided by the founding (1540) of the Society of Jesus (the Jesuits) by Saint Ignatius Loyola with the approval of Pope Paul III.這是第二院的協助下成立( 1540年)的耶穌會(耶穌)的聖依納爵羅耀拉的批准教皇保羅三世。 Foremost among the Jesuit scholastics of this period were Saint Robert Bellarmine, Francisco Suarez, and Gabriel Vazquez.其中最主要的耶穌scholastics此期間,羅伯特貝拉明聖弗朗西斯科蘇亞雷斯,巴斯克斯和加布里埃爾。 Due largely to the scientific revolution of the 17th century (beginning with Galileo), the quest for philosophic originality (beginning with Rene Descartes), the rise of nationalism and colonization, and the splintering of Protestant religions, second scholasticism declined.主要原因是科技革命的17世紀(從伽利略) ,尋求哲學的原創性(從笛卡爾) ,崛起的民族主義和殖民統治,以及分裂的新教,第二院拒絕。 Some forms of schoolbook scholasticism, however, remained for a time in Catholic countries, particularly Spain and Latin America.某些形式的教科書院,但仍然是今後一個時期的天主教國家,尤其是西班牙和拉丁美洲。 By the 18th century, scholasticism had again become a derogatory term, especially in non - Catholic countries.到18世紀,院再次成為一個貶義詞,尤其是在非-天主教國家。

Neoscholasticism. Neoscholasticism 。

Early in the 19th century in Italy certain Catholic professors of philosophy began to see in Aquinas's teaching basic principles that might resolve the problems associated with Kantian and Hegelian Idealism, British Empiricism, current Rationalism, Skepticism, and Liberalism.早在19世紀在意大利的某些天主教哲學教授開始看到在阿奎那的教學基本原則,可以解決相關問題的康德和黑格爾的唯心主義,英國經驗主義,當前的理性,懷疑主義,與自由主義。 By 1850, neo - Thomism or neoscholasticism began to be heard through the writings of Gaetano Sanseverino in Naples, Matteo Liberatore in Rome, and the Jesuit periodical Civilita Cattolica founded in Naples in 1850.到1850年,新-T homism或n eoscholasticism開始通過聽取著作加埃塔諾S anseverino在那不勒斯,利瑪竇L iberatore在羅馬,和耶穌期刊C ivilita天主教在那不勒斯成立於1 850年。 These efforts were brought to a head by Josef Kleutgen in Germany, Henri Lacordaire in France, Zeferino Gonzales in the Philippines and Spain, and Tommaso Zigliara and Pope Leo XIII in Italy.這些努力使頭由約瑟夫Kleutgen在德國,法國拉科代爾在法國, Zeferino岡薩雷斯在菲律賓和西班牙,和托馬索Zigliara和教皇利奧十三世在意大利。 The charter of this neo - Thomism was Leo's Aeterni Patris (1879). Through subsequent encyclicals, Leo exemplified the applicability of Thomistic ideas to contemporary problems.該憲章的這一新-T homism是獅子座的A eterni祖國報( 1 879年) 。通過以後的通諭,利奧體現的適用性T homistic思想對當代的問題。 All subsequent popes, including John Paul II, reiterated the need for a Christian philosophy based on Thomistic principles.後來所有的教皇,其中包括約翰保羅二世,重申需要一個基督教哲學的基礎上Thomistic原則。

The rise of Modernism in the Roman Catholic church after 1900, however, resulted in a multiplicity of ecclesiastical condemnations, a legislated Thomism, and a failure to realize the hopes of Leo XIII.崛起的現代主義在羅馬天主教後, 1900年,但是,由於多種宗教的譴責,法律規定的Thomism ,並未能實現的希望利奧十三世。 Despite this and two world wars, much fruitful work was accomplished by outstanding scholars, numerous periodicals, and editors of historical texts, including the critical edition of the works of Aquinas (the Leonine Edition). Among the great number of modern scholars who called themselves Thomists (but not neo - Thomists or neoscholastics) were Jacques Maritain, Etienne Gilson, Martin Grabmann, and Yves Congar.儘管這和兩次世界大戰,大量卓有成效的工作是由傑出的學者,許多期刊,和編輯的歷史文本,其中包括關鍵的版本的作品阿奎那(在Leonine版) 。其中大量的現代學者的人稱自己是誰Thomists (但不是新-T homists或n eoscholastics)是雅克馬里丹,艾蒂安吉爾森,馬丁G rabmann,和Y vesC ongar。

For reasons still not fully understood, a decided reaction against Aquinas and neoscholasticism occurred in the 1960s. Some have erroneously associated this with the Second Vatican Council, which turned people's minds toward social rather than doctrinal issues.出於還沒有完全理解,一個決定對阿奎那的反應和neoscholasticism發生在20世紀60年代。有些人誤與此相關的第二次梵蒂岡會議之際,人們的思想走向社會,而不是理論上的問題。 Aquinas was, however, the only scholastic doctor mentioned by name in all the conciliar documents.阿奎那然而,只有學習的醫生中點名提到的所有conciliar文件。 The real reasons for the decline of neoscholasticism must be sought in the wider sociological and psychological concerns of contemporary society.真正的原因,下降neoscholasticism必須尋求在更廣泛的社會和心理關注的當代社會。

James A Weisheipl詹姆斯Weisheipl

Bibliography 目錄
FP Cassidy, Molders of the Medieval Mind (1944); Y Congar, A History of Theology (1968); E Gilson, The Christian Philosophy of Saint Thomas Aquinas (1957) and History of Christian Philosophy in the Middle Ages (1955); RM McInerny, ed., New Themes in Christian Philosophy (1968); J Pieper, Scholasticism: Personalities and Problems of Medieval Philosophy (1960); B Smalley, The Becket Conflict and the Schools: A Study of Intellectuals in Politics (1973); JR Weinberg, A Short History of Medieval Philosophy (1964).計劃生育卡西迪,模塑中世紀的心靈( 1944 ) ; Y Congar ,歷史神學( 1968年) ;電子郵件吉爾森,基督教哲學的聖托馬斯阿奎那( 1957年)和基督教的歷史哲學在中世紀( 1955年) ;產品McInerny ,編輯。 ,新的主題在基督教哲學( 1968年) ; J皮珀,士林:人格及存在的問題中世紀哲學( 1960年) ;乙斯莫利,貝克特衝突與學校:研究知識分子在政治( 1973年) ;乘坐JR溫伯格,簡史中世紀哲學( 1964年) 。


Catholic Information 天主教新聞

Scholasticism is a term used to designate both a method and a system.士林是一個長期用於指定一個方法和制度。 It is applied to theology as well as to philosophy.它是適用於神學和哲學。 Scholastic theology is distinguished from Patristic theology on the one hand, and from positive theology on the other.士林神學有別於教父神學一方面,從積極的神學問題。 The schoolmen themselves distinguished between theologia speculativa sive scholastica and theologia positiva. schoolmen自己的區分神學speculativa性scholastica和神學positiva 。 Applied to philosophy, the word "Scholastic" is often used also, to designate a chronological division intervening between the end of the Patristic era in the fifth century and the beginning of the modern era, about 1450.適用於哲學,改為“學校”是經常被用來同時,指定一個時間間隔之間的分工結束的教父時代在第五世紀交替之際,當今時代,大約1450年。 It will, therefore, make for clearness and order if we consider:它將因此,讓您清晰和秩序,如果我們考慮:

I. The origin of the word "Scholastic";一,原產地改為“學業” ;

II.二。 The history of the period called Scholastic in the history of philosophy;的歷史時期所謂的學術歷史上的哲學;

III.三。 The Scholastic method in philosophy, with incidental reference to the Scholastic method in theology; and學習方法的哲學,並附帶提到學術方法在神學和

IV.四。 The contents of the Scholastic system.內容的學習制度。

The revival of Scholasticism in recent times has been already treated under the head NEO-SCHOLASTICISM.振興院最近已經下處理物體的頭部,士林。


There are in Greek literature a few instances of the use of the word scholastikos to designate a professional philosopher.有在希臘文學少數情況下使用這個詞scholastikos指定一個專業哲學家。 Historically, however, the word, as now used, is to be traced, not to Greek usage, but to early Christian institutions.從歷史上看,然而,這個詞,因為現在使用的,要追查,而不是希臘的使用,但早期基督教機構。 In the Christian schools, especially after the beginning of the sixth century, it was customary to call the head of the school magister scholae, capiscola, or scholasticus.在基督教學校,特別是在年初六世紀,有人習慣打電話給負責學校的教師scholae , capiscola ,或scholasticus 。 As time went on, the last of these appellations was used exclusively.隨著時間的推移,在過去的這些稱謂是專門用於。 The curriculum of those schools included dialectic among the seven liberal arts, which was at that time the only branch of philosophy studied systematically.該課程的這些學校包括辯證除7個文科,這是當時唯一的哲學分支系統的研究。 The head of the school generally taught dialectic, and out of his teaching grew both the manner of philosophizing and the system of philosophy that prevailed during all the Middle Ages.負責學校普遍教授的辯證,並從他的教學都增長方式的哲思和哲學體系的過程中普遍存在的所有中世紀。 Consequently, the name "Scholastic" was used and is still used to designate the method and system that grew out of the academic curriculum of the schools or, more definitely, out of the dialectical teaching of the masters of the schools (scholastici).因此,命名為“學術”一詞,目前仍在使用指定的方法和制度,增加了對學術課程的學校,或更明確,從辯證的教學當家作主的學校( scholastici ) 。 It does not matter that, historically, the Golden Age of Scholastic philosophy, namely, the thirteenth century, falls within a period when the schools, the curriculum of which was the seven liberal arts, including dialectic had given way to another organization of studies, the studia generalia, or universities.不要緊,從歷史上看,黃金時代的學術思想,即13世紀,屬於一個時期的學校,課程的是文科7個,包括辯證已讓位給另一組織的研究, generalia的學科,或大學。 The name, once given, continued, as it almost always does, to designate the method and system which had by this time passed into a new phase of development.的名稱,一旦考慮,繼續,因為它幾乎總是這樣,到指定的方法和系統,這個時候進入一個新的發展階段。 Academically, the philosophers of the thirteenth century are known as magistri, or masters; historically, however, they are Scholastics, and continue to be so designated until the end of the medieval period.學術,哲學家的13世紀被稱為magistri ,或主人;歷史,但是,它們Scholastics ,並繼續這樣做指定直至中世紀時期。 And, even after the close of the Middle Ages, a philosopher or theologian who adopts the method or the system of the medieval Scholastics is said to be a Scholastic.而且,即使結束後,中世紀,一個哲學家或神學家採用誰的方法或制度的中世紀Scholastics說是一個學校。


The period extending from the beginning of Christian speculation to the time of St.延長的期限從一開始的基督教投機的時間街 Augustine, inclusive, is known as the Patristic era in philosophy and theology.奧古斯丁,包容性,被稱為教父的時代,哲學和神學。 In general, that era inclined to Platonism and underestimated the importance of Aristotle.總之,那個時代傾向於柏拉圖和低估的重要性亞里士多德。 The Fathers strove to construct on Platonic principles a system of Christian philosophy.父親致力於構建柏拉圖原則上一個系統的基督教哲學。 They brought reason to the aid of Revelation. They leaned, however, towards the doctrine of the mystics, and, in ultimate resort, relied more on spiritual intuition than on dialectical proof for the establishment and explanation of the highest truths of philosophy.他們把原因援助的啟示。他們傾斜,但對理論的神秘主義,並在最終的手段,依靠更多的精神直覺,而不是辯證的證明建立和解釋的最高真理的哲學。 Between the end of the Patristic era in the fifth century and the beginning of the Scholastic era in the ninth there intervene a number of intercalary thinkers, as they may be called, like Claudianus Mamertus, Boethius, Cassiodorus, St. Isidore of Seville, Venerable Bede etc., who helped to hand down to the new generation the traditions of the Patristic age and to continue into the Scholastic era the current of Platonism.至年底,教父時代在第五世紀交替之際,時代的學校在第九干預有一些閏思想家,因為他們可能被要求一樣, Claudianus Mamertus , Boethius , Cassiodorus ,聖伊西多爾的塞維利亞,尊者貝德等,幫助誰手,以新的一代傳統的教父年齡和繼續到學校當前時代的柏拉圖。 With the Carolingian revival of learning in the ninth century began a period of educational activity which resulted in a new phase of Christian thought known as Scholasticism.隨著加洛林復興學習在第九世紀開始,為期教育活動,這導致了一個新階段的基督教思想被稱為士林。 The first masters of the schools in the ninth century Alcuin, Rabanus, etc., were not indeed, more original than Boethius or Cassiodorus; the first original thinker in the Scholastic era was John the Scot (see ERIUGENA, JOHN SCOTUS).第一次當家作主的學校在第九世紀阿爾昆,拉巴努等,並沒有確實比原來更多的Boethius或Cassiodorus ;的第一原始的思想家的學術時代的蘇格蘭人約翰(見ERIUGENA ,約翰司各脫) 。 Nevertheless they inaugurated the Scholastic movement because they endeavoured to bring the Patristic (principally the Augustinian) tradition into touch with the new life of European Christianity.但是,他們成立了學術運動,因為他們力圖使教父(主要是奧古斯丁)傳統接觸到新的生活的歐洲基督教。 They did not abandon Platonism.他們沒有放棄柏拉圖。 They knew little of Aristotle except as a logician.他們知道什麼亞里士多德除非是作為logician 。 But by the emphasis they laid on dialectical reasoning, they gave a new direction to Christian tradition in philosophy.但是,他們的重點放在辯證推理,他們給一個新的方向,以基督教傳統哲學。 In the curriculum of the schools in which they taught, philosophy was represented by dialectic.在課程的學校,他們在學習,哲學的代表是辯證的。 On the textbooks of dialectic which they used they wrote commentaries and glosses, into which.關於教科書的辯證,他們用他們寫的評論和粉飾,納入其中。 Little by little, they admitted problems of psychology, metaphysics, cosmology, and ethics.一點一滴,他們承認問題的心理學,形而上學,宇宙學,和職業道德。 So that the Scholastic movement as a whole may be said to have sprung from the discussions of the dialecticians.所以說,士林運動作為一個整體可以說如雨後春筍般湧現的討論dialecticians 。

Method, contents, and conclusions were influenced by this origin.方法,內容,結論是影響這一來源。 There resulted a species of Christian Rationalism which more than any other trait characterizes Scholastic philosophy in every successive stage of its development and marks it off very definitely from the Patristic philosophy, which, as has been said, was ultimately intuitional and mystic.有導致一個物種的基督教理性其中超過任何其他性狀特點士林哲學在每一個連續的發展階段,標誌著它關閉非常肯定的教父哲學,因為已經說了,最終被直覺和神秘。 With Roscelin, who appeared about the middle of the eleventh century, the note of Rationalism is very distinctly sounded, and the first rumbling is heard of the inevitable reaction, the voice of Christian mysticism uttering its note of warning, and condemning the excess into which Rationalism had fallen.隨著Roscelin ,誰出現的中間的11世紀,說明理性是非常明顯的聲音,而且是第一次聽到隆隆的必然反應,聲音說出基督教神秘主義的說明警告,並譴責這種過剩成理性下降。 In the eleventh and twelfth centuries, therefore, Scholasticism passed through its period of storm and stress.在第十一屆和第十二屆世紀,因此,士林通過其內的風暴和壓力。 On the one side were the advocates of reason, Roscelin, Abelard, Peter Lombard; on the other were the champions of mysticism, St. Anselm, St. Peter Damian, St. Bernard, and the Victorines.一方面是倡導理性, Roscelin ,亞伯拉德,彼得隆巴德;其他的冠軍神秘主義,聖安瑟倫,聖彼得達米安,聖伯納德,並Victorines 。 Like all ardent advocates, the Rationalists went too far at first, and only gradually brought their method within the lines of orthodoxy and harmonized it with Christian reverence for the mysteries of Faith.像所有熱心倡導者,在理性主義走得太遠首先,只有逐步使他們的法系內的正統和協調它與基督教崇敬的神秘信仰。 Like all conservative reactionists, the mystics at first condemned the use as well as the abuse of reason; they did not reach an intelligent compromise with the dialecticians until the end of the twelfth century.像所有的保守reactionists的神秘主義者首先譴責使用以及濫用的原因,他們沒有達成妥協的智能與dialecticians直至12世紀。 In the final outcome of the struggle, it was Rationalism that, having modified its unreasonable claims, triumphed in the Christian schools, without, however driving the mystics from the field.在最後結果的鬥爭,這是理性,在修改了其不合理的要求,在取得勝利的基督教學校,但駕駛的神秘主義者來自外地。

Meantime, Eclectics, like John of Salisbury, and Platonists, like the members of the School of Chartres, gave to the Scholastic movement a broader spirit of toleration, imparted, so to speak, a sort of Humanism to philosophy, so that, when we come to the eve of the thirteenth century, Scholasticism has made two very decided steps in advance.與此同時, Eclectics ,像索爾茲伯里的約翰,並Platonists ,如成員的沙特爾學校,給學校運動的更廣泛的精神,容忍,傳授,這麼說吧,一種人文哲學,所以,當我們來的前夕, 13世紀,士林取得了兩個非常決定的步驟推進。 First, the use of reason in the discussion of spiritual truth and the application of dialectic to theology are accepted with. out protest, so long as they are kept within the bounds of moderation.首先,使用原因的討論,真理和精神文明的辯證應用,以神學的接受。了抗議,只要他們保持在適度的範圍。 Second, there is a willingness on the part of the Schoolmen to go outside the lines of strict ecclesiastical tradition and learn, not only from Aristotle, who was now beginning to be known as a metaphysician and a psychologist, but also from the Arabians and the Jews, whose works had begun to penetrate in Latin translations into the schools of Christian Europe.第二,我們有意願的一部分, Schoolmen外出按照嚴格的宗教傳統和學習,不僅從亞里士多德,誰現在開始被稱為metaphysician和一名心理學家,但也從阿拉伯人和猶太人,其作品已開始滲入拉美翻譯成學校的基督教歐洲。 The taking of Constantinople in 1204, the introduction of Arabian, Jewish, and Greek works into the Christian schools, the rise of the universities, and the foundation of the mendicant orders -- these are the events which led to the extraordinary intellectual activity of the thirteenth century, which centered in the University of Paris.採取君士坦丁堡在1204年,引進阿拉伯,猶太和希臘的作品進入基督教學校,崛起的大學,和基礎的行乞的命令-這些事件導致了非凡的智力活動的13世紀,這集中在巴黎大學。 At first there was considerable confusion, and it seemed as if the battles won in the twelfth century by the dialecticians should be fought over again.首先有相當混亂,好像戰鬥中贏得12世紀的dialecticians應該打了。 The translations of Aristotle made from the Arabian and accompanied by Arabian commentaries were tinged with Pantheism, Fatalism, and other Neoplatonic errors.翻譯亞里士多德提出從阿拉伯和阿拉伯的陪同下評注帶有泛神論,宿命論和其他Neoplatonic錯誤。 Even in the Christian schools there were declared Pantheists, like David of Dinant, and outspoken Averroists, like Siger of Brabant, who bade fair to prejudice the cause of Aristoteleanism.即使是在基督教學校有宣布Pantheists ,就像大衛的迪南,並直言不諱Averroists一樣, Siger的布拉邦,誰吩咐公平損害的原因Aristoteleanism 。

These developments were suppressed by the most stringent disciplinary measures during the first few decades of the thirteenth century.這些事態發展都被鎮壓最嚴格的紀律措施,在幾十年前的13世紀。 While they were still a source of danger, men like William of Auvergne and Alexander of Hales hesitated between the traditional Augustinianism of the Christian schools and the new Aristoteleanism, which came from a suspected source.雖然他們仍然是危險的來源,男子喜歡威廉的奧弗涅和亞歷山大的黑爾斯毫不猶豫地之間的傳統奧古斯丁的基督教學校和新的Aristoteleanism ,其中來自涉嫌來源。 Besides, Augustinianism and Platonism accorded with piety, while Aristoteleanism was found to lack the element of mysticism.此外,奧古斯丁和柏拉圖符合孝道,而Aristoteleanism被發現缺乏神秘主義的因素。 In time, however, the translations made from the Greek revealed an Aristotle free from the errors attributed to him by the Arabians, and, above all, the commanding genius of St. Albertus Magnus and his still more illustrious disciple, St. Thomas Aquinas, who appeared at the critical moment, calmly surveyed the difficulties of the situation, and met them fearlessly, won the victory for the new philosophy and continued successfully the traditions established in the preceding century.隨著時間的推移,然而,翻譯了從希臘發現了亞里士多德擺脫錯誤歸咎於他的阿拉伯人,以及最重要的是,天才的指揮街艾伯塔斯Magnus和他更傑出的弟子,多瑪斯,誰出現在關鍵時刻,冷靜地調查的困難局勢,並會見了他們無畏無懼,贏得了勝利為新的理念和成功地繼續下去的傳統設在前面的世紀。 Their contemporary, St. Bonaventure, showed that the new learning was not incompatible with mysticism drawn from Christian sources, and Roger Bacon demonstrated by his unsuccessful attempts to develop the natural sciences the possibilities of another kind which were latent in Aristoteleanism.他們的當代,聖文德表明,新的學習是不相抵觸的神秘主義取自基督教來源,羅傑培根所表現出他的嘗試失敗,發展自然科學的可能性,另一種是潛伏在Aristoteleanism 。

With Duns Scotus, a genius of the first order, but not of the constructive type, begins the critical phase, of Scholasticism.隨著鄧司各脫,一個天才的第一個命令,而不是建設性的類型,開始了關鍵階段,在士林。 Even before his time, the Franciscan and the Dominican currents had set out in divergent directions.即使在他的時間,方濟和多米尼加電流提出了在不同的方向。 It was his keen and unrelenting search for the weak points in Thomistic philosophy that irritated and wounded susceptibilities among the followers of St. Thomas, and brought about the spirit of partisanship which did so much to dissipate the energy of Scholasticism in the fourteenth century.這是他渴望和不懈尋找薄弱環節在Thomistic哲學惱火,受傷的敏感性之間的追隨者聖托馬斯,並帶來了精神的黨派而沒有這麼多消散的能量士林在14世紀。 The recrudescence of Averroism in the schools, the excessive cultivation of formalism and subtlety, the growth of artificial and even barbarous terminology, and the neglect of the study of nature and of history contributed to the same result.復發的Averroism在學校,過度種植的形式主義和微妙的增長,甚至人工野蠻的術語,忽視和研究的性質和歷史貢獻,以同樣的結果。 Ockham's Nominalism and Durandus's attempt to "simplify" Scholastic philosophy did not have the effect which their authors intended.奧卡姆的唯名論和Durandus企圖“簡化”學哲學沒有影響它們的作者意圖。 "The glory and power of scholasticism faded into the warmth and brightness of mysticism," and Gerson, Thomas à Kempis, and Eckhart are more representative of what the Christian Church was actually thinking in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries than are the Thomists, Scotists, and Ockhamists of that period, who frittered away much valuable time in the discussion of highly technical questions which arose within the schools and possess little interest except for adepts in Scholastic subtlety. “榮譽和權力院褪色的溫暖和亮度的神秘主義, ”和格爾森,托馬斯馬肯培,並克哈特更代表了基督教思想實際上是在第十四屆和第十五屆百年以上的Thomists , Scotists ,和Ockhamists的這期間,誰揮霍很多寶貴的時間在討論技術性很強的問題,產生內的學校和擁有沒有多大興趣除了在學校adepts微妙。 After the rise of Humanism, when the Renaissance, which ushered in the modern era, was in full progress, the great Italian, Spanish, and Portuguese commentators inaugurated an age of more healthy Scholasticism, and the great Jesuit teachers, Toletus, Vasquez, and Francisco Suárez, seemed to recall the best days of thirteenth century speculation.後崛起的以人為本,當文藝復興時期,這開創了現代的時代,是在全面進步,偉大的意大利語,西班牙語,葡萄牙語和評論家成立這樣一個時代,更健康的士林,偉大的耶穌教師, Toletus ,巴斯克斯和弗朗西斯科蘇亞雷斯,似乎還記得最好天的13世紀猜測。 The triumph of scientific discovery, with which, as a rule, the representatives of Scholasticism in the seats of academic authority had, unfortunately, too little sympathy, led to new ways of philosophizing, and when, finally, Descartes in practice, if not in theory, effected a complete separation of philosophy from theology, the modern era had begun and the age known as that of Scholasticism had come to an end.勝利的科學發現,與作為一項規則,代表院中的席位的學術權威了,不幸的是,太少的同情,導致新的方式哲思,當最後,笛卡爾在實踐中,如果不是在理論上講,一個完整的實施分離的哲學從神學,現代的時代已經開始的年齡被稱為是士林已經結束。


No method in philosophy has been more unjustly condemned than that of the Scholastics.沒有哲學的方法一直受到不公正的譴責更比Scholastics 。 No philosophy has been more grossly misrepresented.沒有哲學更加嚴重歪曲。 And this is true not only of the details, but also of the most essential elements of Scholasticism.這是真正的不僅是細節,但也是最重要的組成部分士林。 Two charges, especially, are made against the Schoolmen: First, that they confounded philosophy with theology; and second, that they made reason subservient to authority.兩項罪名,尤其是對Schoolmen :首先,他們混淆哲學與神學;第二,他們的理由屈從於權威。 As a matter of fact, the very essence of Scholasticism is, first, its clear delimitation of the respective domains of philosophy and theology, and, second, its advocacy of the use of reason.事實上,根本士林是,第一,明確劃定各自領域的哲學和神學,第二,其宣傳使用的原因。

A. Theology and Philosophy字母a.神學和哲學

Christian thinkers, from the beginning, were confronted with the question: How are we to reconcile reason with revelation, science with faith, philosophy with theology?基督教思想家,從一開始就面臨一個問題:我們如何調和的原因與啟示,科學與信仰,哲學與神學? The first apologists possessed no philosophy of their own.第一辯護士擁有哲學,沒有自己。 They had to deal with a pagan world proud of its literature and its philosophy, ready at any moment to flaunt its inheritance of wisdom in the face of ignorant Christians. The apologists met the situation by a theory that was as audacious as it must have been disconcerting to the pagans.他們不得不處理異教世界感到自豪的是它的文學和哲學,準備在任何時候,以炫耀其繼承的智慧,面對無知的基督徒。會見的辯護士局勢的理論,是因為大膽的,因為它必須是令人不安的異教徒。 They advanced the explanation that all the wisdom of Plato and the other Greeks was due to the inspiration of the Logos; that it was God's truth, and, therefore, could not be in contradiction with the supernatural revelation contained in the Gospels.他們先進的解釋,所有的智慧,柏拉圖和其他希臘人是由於靈感的標識; ,這是上帝的真理,因此,不能在矛盾與超自然的啟示中所載的福音。 It was a hypothesis calculated not only to silence a pagan opponent, but also to work constructively.這是一個假設計算不僅要保持沉默異教徒的對手,而且還作出建設性努力。 We find it in St. Basil, in Origen, and even in St. Augustine. The belief that the two orders of truth, the natural and the supernatural, must harmonize, is the inspiration of intellectual activity in the Patristic era.我們認為,在聖巴西爾,在奧利,甚至在聖奧古斯丁。堅信,這兩個命令的真理,自然和超自然的,必須統一,是靈感的智力活動中的教父時代。 But that era did little to define the limits of the two realms of truth.但是,時代並沒有界限的兩個境界的真理。 St. Augustine believes that faith aids reason (credo ut intelligam) and that reason aids faith (intelligo ut credam); he is, however, inclined to emphasize the first principle and not the second.聖奧古斯丁認為,信仰艾滋病的原因(信條UT斯達康intelligam ) ,並為此艾滋病信仰( intelligo UT斯達康credam ) ;他,但傾向於強調的第一原則,而不是第二。 He does not develop a definite methodology in dealing with them.他沒有制定一個明確的方法處理這些問題。 The Scholastics, almost from the first, attempted to do so.該Scholastics ,幾乎從第一次嘗試這樣做。

John Scotus Eriugena, in the ninth century, by his doctrine that all truth is a theophany, or showing forth of God, tried to elevate philosophy to the rank of theology, and identify the two in a species of theosophy.約翰司各脫Eriugena ,在第九世紀,他的理論,所有的真理是神,或上帝的規定,試圖提高哲學職級的神學,並確定了兩個物種的神智學。 Abelard, in the twelfth century, tried to bring theology down to the level of philosophy, and identify both in a Rationalistic system.亞伯拉德,在12世紀,試圖把神學到哲學層次,並確定雙方在理性制度。 The greatest of the Scholastics in the thirteenth century, especially St. Thomas Aquinas, solved the problem for all time, so far as Christian speculation is concerned, by showing that the two are distinct sciences, and yet that they agree.最大的Scholastics在13世紀,特別是多瑪斯,解決了這個問題的所有時間,就基督教的猜測感到關切的是,表明這兩個是不同的科學,但他們同意。 They are distinct, he teaches, because, while philosophy relies on reason alone, theology uses the truths derived from revelation, and also because there are some truths, the mysteries of Faith, which lie completely outside the domain of philosophy and belong to theology.它們是不同的,他教的,因為,雖然哲學依賴於唯一的原因,神學用途的真理來自啟示,而且還因為有一些真理,奧秘的信仰,這是完全不在域的哲學屬於神學。 They agree, and must agree, because God is the author of all truth, and it is impossible to think that He would teach in the natural order anything that contradicts what He teaches in the supernatural order.他們同意,而且必須同意,因為上帝是作者的所有真相,就不可能認為他會教自然秩序的任何違背教什麼,他的超自然的秩序。 The recognition of these principles is one of the crowning achievements of Scholasticism.認識到這些原則是一種至高無上的成就士林。 It is one of the characteristics that mark it off from the Patristic era, in which the same principles were, so to speak, in solution, and not crystallized in definite expression.這是一個特點,它標誌著從時代的教父,在同樣的原則是,這麼說吧,在溶液中,並沒有體現在明確的表達。 lt is the trait which differentiates Scholasticism from Averroism. It is the inspiration of all Scholastic effort.低溫特性是它從不同士林Averroism 。它是靈感的所有學校的努力。 As long as it lasted Scholasticism lasted, and as soon as the opposite conviction became established, the conviction, namely, that what is true in theology may be false in philosophy, Scholasticism ceased to exist.只要持續士林持續,並盡快相反的信念成為建立的信念,即什麼是真正的神學可能是虛假的哲學,士林不復存在。 It is, therefore, a matter of constant surprise to those who know Scholasticism to find it misrepresented on this vital point.因此,這是一個令人驚喜不斷向那些誰知道士林找到它歪曲就這一重要點。

B. Scholastic Rationalism灣學術理性

Scholasticism sprang from the study of dialectic in the schools.士林源自研究辯證的學校。 The most decisive battle of Scholasticism was that which it waged in the twelfth century against the mystics who condemned the use of dialectic.在最具有決定性的戰役士林的是,它在發動12世紀的神秘主義者誰譴責利用的辯證。 The distinguishing mark of Scholasticism in the age of its highest development is its use of the dialectical method.顯著標誌士林時代的最高發展是其使用的辯證方法。 It is, therefore, a matter, once more, for surprise, to find Scholasticism accused of undue subservience to authority and of the neglect of reason.因此,這是一個問題,一旦更多的驚喜,找到士林被告不當屈從權力和忽視的原因。 Rationalism is a word which has various meanings.理性是一個詞有不同的含義。 It is sometimes used to designate a system which, refusing to acknowledge the authority of revelation, tests all truth by the standard of reason.它有時被用來指定一個系統,拒絕承認的權威,啟示,測試所有真理的標準的原因。 In this sense, the Scholastics were not Rationalists.從這個意義上講, Scholastics不理性主義。 The Rationalism of Scholasticism consists in the conviction that reason is to be used in the elucidation of spiritual truth and in defence of the dogmas of Faith.在理性的士林組成的信念,原因是用來解釋精神真理和捍衛信仰的教條。 It is opposed to mysticism, which distrusted reason and placed emphasis on intuition and contemplation.這是不是神秘主義,這不信任的原因,並把重點放在直覺和沉思。 In this milder meaning of the term, all the Scholastics were convinced Rationalists, the only difference being that some, like Abelard and Roscelin, were too ardent in their advocacy of the use of reason, and went so far as to maintain that reason can prove even the supernatural mysteries of Faith, while others, like St. Thomas, moderated the claims of reason, set limits to its power of proving spiritual truth, and maintained that the mysteries of faith could not be discovered and cannot be proved by unaided reason.在這溫和一詞的含義,所有的Scholastics相信理性主義,唯一的區別是,有些像亞伯拉德和Roscelin ,過於強烈的宣傳使用的原因,竟然保持這個理由可以證明即使是超自然的神秘信仰,而另一些,像聖托馬斯主持了索賠的理由,限制其權力,以證明真理的精神,並堅持認為,神秘的信仰不能發現並不能證明了外援的原因。

The whole Scholastic movement, therefore, is a Rationalistic movement in the second sense of the term Rationalism.整個士林運動,因此,是一種理性運動的第二個意義上的理性。 The Scholastics used their reason; they applied dialectic to the study of nature, of human nature and of supernatural truth.該Scholastics利用其原因,他們運用辯證法研究的性質,人的本性和超自然的真理。 Far from depreciating reason, they went as far as man can go -- some modern critics think they went too far -- in the application of reason to the discussion of the dogmas of Faith.遠離貶值的原因,他們甚至可以去的人-一些現代評論家認為,他們走的太遠-在適用理由的討論信仰的教條。 They acknowledged the authority of revelation, as all Christian philosophers are obliged to do.他們承認權威的啟示,因為所有的基督教哲學家有義務這樣做。 They admitted the force of human authority when the conditions of its valid application were verified.他們承認武力的人的權力的條件時,其有效申請進行核實。 But in theology, the authority of revelation did not coerce their reason and in philosophy and in natural science they taught very emphatically that the argument from authority is the weakest of all arguments.但是,在神學,權威的啟示沒有強迫其原因,並在哲學和自然科學教他們非常強調,從權威的論點是最弱的所有論點。 They did not subordinate reason to authority in any unworthy sense of that phrase.他們不服從權威的理由不配在任何意義上的詞組。 It was an opponent of the Scholastic movement who styled philosophy "the handmaid of theology", a designation which, however, some of the Schoolmen accepted to mean that to philosophy belongs the honourable task of carrying the light which is to guide the footsteps of theology.這是一個反對誰士林運動風格的哲學“的侍女神學”的稱號,但是,一些Schoolmen接受意味著哲學所屬的光榮任務,攜帶輕這是指導的足跡,神學。 One need not go so far as to say, with Barthélemy SaintHilaire, that "Scholasticism, in its general result, is the first revolt of the modern spirit against authority."一個需要還不至於說,與巴泰勒米SaintHilaire ,即“經院哲學,在其總的結果,是第一次起義的現代精神的權威。 ” Nevertheless, one is compelled by the facts of history to admit that there is more truth in that description than in the superficial judgment of the historians who describe Scholasticism as the subordination of reason to authority.儘管如此,一個是強迫的歷史事實不得不承認的是,更多的真理在這說明比膚淺的判斷誰的歷史學家描述士林作為處於從屬地位權威的理由。

C. Details of Scholastic Method角的細節學年方法

The Scholastic manner of treating the problems of philosophy and theology is apparent from a glance at the body of literature which the Schoolmen produced. The immense amount of commentary on Aristotle, on Peter Lombard, on Boethius, on Pseudo-Dionysius, and on the Scriptures indicates the form of academic activity which characterizes the Scholastic period.該學校的方式處理問題的哲學和神學顯然從一眼的屍體文學的Schoolmen生產。數額巨大的評亞里士多德,對彼得倫巴第,在Boethius ,偽狄奧尼修斯,以及聖經顯示的形式的學術活動,學術特點的時期。 The use of texts dates from the very beginning of the Scholastic era in philosophy and theology, and was continued down into modern times.使用文本日期從一開始就在學校的時代,哲學和神學,並延續到近代。 The mature teacher, however, very often embodied the results of his own speculation in a Summa, which, in time became a text in the hands of his successors.成熟的教師,但往往結果體現了他自己的猜測在神學,這在當時成為一個文字的手中,他的繼任者。 The Questiones disputatae were special treatises on the more difficult or the more important topics, and as the name implied, followed the method of debate prevalent in the schools, generally called disputation or determination. Questiones disputatae的特殊論文就更加困難或更重要的議題,並暗示的名字,然後該方法的辯論普遍存在的學校,一般稱為爭論或決心。 The Quodlibeta were miscellanies generally in the form of answers to questions which as soon as a teacher had attained a widespread renown, began to come to him, not only from the academic world in which he lived, but from all classes of persons and from every part of Christendom.該Quodlibeta被雜記普遍的形式,解答問題,盡快教師達到了廣泛的聲譽,開始來找他,不僅從學術世界中,他所住,而是來自各個階層的人,並從各個基督教的一部分。 The division of topics in theology was determined by the arrangement followed in Peter Lombard's "Books of Sentences" (see SUMMA, SIMMULAE), and in philosophy it adhered closely to the order of treatises in Aristotle's works.該部門的主題是神學所確定的安排,遵循彼得倫巴第的“圖書句” (見神學, SIMMULAE ) ,以及它的哲學密切合作,遵守秩序的論文在亞里士多德的作品。 There is a good deal of divergence among the principal Scholastics in the details of arrangement, as well as in the relative values of the sub-titles, "part", "question", "disputation", "article", etc.這是一個很好的解決分歧的主要Scholastics的細節安排,以及在相對價值的字幕, “一部分” , “問題” , “糾紛” , “文章” ,等等 All, however, adopt the manner of treatment by which thesis, objections, and solutions of objections stand out distinctly in the discussion of each problem.然而,採取的方式治療,其中論文,反對和解決方案的反對立場的明顯的討論每一個問題。 We find traces of this in Gerbert's little treatise "De rational) et ratione uti" in the tenth century, and it is still more definitely adopted in Abelard's "Sic et non".我們發現,這個痕跡在熱爾貝特的小論文“得合理)等泌尿道感染的理由”在10世紀,它仍是更多的肯定阿貝拉爾通過的“碳化矽等非” 。 It had its root in Aristotelean method, but was determined more immediately by the dialectical activity of the early schools, from which, as was said, Scholasticism sprang.它有根Aristotelean方法,但更直接決定了辯證的活動,早期的學校,其中,因為有人說,士林興起。

Much has been said both in praise and in blame of Scholastic terminology in philosophy and theology.已經說了很多在讚揚和責備的學術術語在哲學和神學。 It is rather generally acknowledged that whatever precision there is in the modern languages of Western Europe is due largely to the dialectic disquisitions of the Scholastics.這是相當普遍承認,無論是精密的現代語言,西歐的主要原因是辯證disquisitions的Scholastics 。 On the other hand, ridicule has been poured on the stiffness, the awkwardness, and the barbarity of the Scholastic style.另一方面,嘲笑已投入剛度的尷尬,以及野蠻的學術風格。 In an impartial study of the question, it should be remembered that the Scholastics of the thirteenth century-and it was not they but their successors who were guilty of the grossest sins of style-were confronted with a terminological problem unique in the history of thought.在一個公正的研究這個問題,它應該記住, Scholastics的13世紀和它不是他們,但他們的繼任者是誰犯了嚴重的罪過的風格,都面臨一個獨特的用語問題的歷史思考。 They came suddenly into possession of an entirely new literature, the works of Aristotle.他們突然擁有一個全新的文學,亞里士多德的作品。 They spoke a language, Latin, on which the terminology of Aristotle in metaphysics psychology etc., had made no impression.他們以一種語言,拉丁語,該術語在亞里士多德形而上學心理學等,沒有提出任何的印象。 Consequently, they were obliged to create all at once Latin words and phrases to express the terminology of Aristotle, a terminology remarkable for its extent, its variety, and its technical complexity.因此,他們必須創造一切一次拉丁美洲的單詞和詞組表達的術語亞里士多德,一個術語顯著的程度,其品種,其技術的複雜性。 They did it honestly and humbly, by translating Aristotle's phrases literally; so that many a strange-sounding Latin phrase in the writings of the Schoolmen would be very good Aristotelean Greek, if rendered word for word into that language.他們這樣做,是誠實和謙虛,翻譯亞里士多德的詞組字面上;這樣一個奇怪的許多冠冕堂皇的拉丁短語著作的Schoolmen將是非常好的Aristotelean希臘,如果提供逐字逐句到該語言。 The Latin of the best of the Scholastics may be lacking in elegance and distinction; but no one will deny the merits of its rigorous severity of phrase and its logical soundness of construction.拉美最佳的Scholastics可能缺乏優雅和區別; ,但沒有人會否認的優點,其嚴格程度短語和它的邏輯合理性建築。 Though wanting the graces of what is called the fine style, graces which have the power of pleasing but do not facilitate the task of the learner in philosophy, the style of the thirteenth-century masters possesses the fundamental qualities, clearness, conciseness, and richness of technical phrase.雖然想的青睞的所謂的優良作風,登上了權力的愉悅,但不便利的任務學習哲學,風格的十三世紀的主人擁有的基本素質,清晰,簡潔,和豐富技術用語。


In logic the Scholastics adopted all the details of the Aristotelean system, which was known to the Latin world from the time of Boethius.在邏輯Scholastics通過了所有的細節Aristotelean系統,這是已知的世界拉丁美洲的時間Boethius 。 Their individual contributions consisted of some minor improvements in the matter of teaching and in the technic of the science.他們的個人捐款包括一些小的改進在這個問題上的教學和技術科學。 Their underlying theory of knowledge is also Aristotelean.其基本理論知識也是Aristotelean 。 It may be described by saying that it is a system of Moderate Realism and Moderate Intellectualism.它可描述說,它是一個系統的普通現實主義和適度智識。 The Realism consists in teaching that outside the mind there exist things fundamentally universal which correspond to our universal ideas.構成的現實主義教學中,外部的思想存在著根本的普遍的東西對應於我們的普遍想法。 The Moderate Intellectualism is summed up in the two principles:適度智識是在總結了兩個原則:

all our knowledge is derived from sense-knowledge; and我們所有的知識來自感官的知識;和

intellectual knowledge differs from sense-knowledge, not only in degree but also in kind.知識產權知識不同於常識的知識,不僅在一定程度,而且在實物。

In this way, Scholasticism avoids Innatism, according to which all our ideas, or some of our ideas, are born with the soul and have no origin in the world outside us.通過這種方式,避免Innatism士林,根據所有我們的想法,或者我們的一些想法,是與生俱來的靈魂,沒有原產地在外面的世界我們。 At the same time, it avoids Sensism, according to which our so-ealled intellectual knowledge is only sense-knowledge of a higher or finer sort.同時,它避免Sensism ,根據我們的所謂ealled知識產權知識是唯一意義的知識更高或更精細排序。 The Scholastics, moreover, took a firm stand against the doctrine of Subjectivism.該Scholastics此外,採取了堅定的立場,反對主觀主義。 In their discussion of the value of knowledge they held that there is an external world which is real and independent of our thoughts.在討論知識的價值,他們認為,有一個外部的世界是真實的,獨立的想法。 In that world are the forms which make things to be what they are.在這世界上的形式,使事情是他們的。 The same forms received into the mind in the process of knowing cause us not to be the object but to know the object.同樣的形式收到納入考慮的過程中,我們知道原因不反對,但知道的對象。 This presence of things in the mind by means of forms is true representation, or rather presentation.這種存在的東西在頭腦的手段,形式是真正的代表性,或者介紹情況。 For it is the objective thing that we are first aware of, not its representation in us.因為這是客觀的事情,我們第一次意識到,而不是代表我們。

The Scholastic outlook on the world of nature is Aristotelean.該學校的世界觀的性質是Aristotelean 。 The Schoolmen adopt the doctrine of matter and form, which they apply not only to living things but also to inorganic nature. Schoolmen採取的理論問題和形式,它們不僅適用於生活的東西,而且無機性質。 Since the form, or entelechy is always striving for its own realization or actualization, the view of nature which this doctrine leads to is teleological.由於形式或entelechy始終是努力爭取實現自己的或現實,認為性質的這一理論導致的目的。 Instead, however, of ascribing purpose in a vague, unsatisfactory manner to nature itself, the Scholastics attributed design to the intelligent, provident author of nature.相反,但是,歸咎於目的模糊,不能令人滿意的方式向大自然本身, Scholastics歸咎於設計的智能化,作者公積金的性質。 The principle of finality thus acquired a more precise meaning, and at the same time the danger of a Pantheistic interpretation was avoided.的原則,從而最終獲得了更多的確切含義,並在同一時間的危險Pantheistic解釋是可以避免的。 On the question of the universality of matter the Schoolmen were divided among themselves, some, like the Franciscan teachers, maintaining that all created beings are material, others, like St. Thomas, holding the existence of "separate forms", such as the angels, in whom there is potency but no matter.關於這個問題的普遍性的問題的Schoolmen分為它們之間,有些像濟教師,維護,所有創造都是材料,其他,像聖托馬斯舉行的存在“單獨形式” ,如天使在那些有潛力但沒有問題。 Again, on the question of the oneness of substantial forms, there was a lack of agreement.此外,關於這個問題的統一性大量的形式,缺乏一致意見。 St. Thomas held that in each individual material substance, organic or inorganic, there is but one substantial form, which confers being, substantiality and, in the ease of man, life, sensation, and reason.聖托馬斯認為,在每一個人的材料物質,有機或無機,有一個實質性的形式,賦予目前,實體,並在方便的人,生活的感覺,和理由。 Others, on the contrary, believed that in one substance, man, for instance, there are simultaneously several forms, one of which confers existence, another substantiality, another life, and another, reason.其他與此相反,認為在一個物質,人,例如,同時有幾種形式,其中之一授予的存在,另一個實體,另一種生活,另一個原因。 Finally, there was a divergence of views as to what is the principle of individuation, by which several individuals of the same species are differentiated from one another.最後,有意見分歧,以什麼原則的個性,其中幾個人在同一物種的區別彼此。 St. Thomas taught that the principle of individuation is matter with its determined dimensions, materia signata. In regard to the nature of man, the first Scholastics were Augustinians.聖托馬斯教授的原則是個性化的問題與確定尺寸,質料signata 。關於人的本質,第一次Scholastics了奧古斯丁。 Their definition of the soul is what may be called the spiritual, as opposed to the biological, definition.其定義的靈魂就是可稱為精神,而不是生物的定義。 They held that the soul is the principle of thought-activity, and that the exercise of the senses is a process from the soul through the body not a process of the whole organism, that is, of the body animated by the soul.他們認為,靈魂的原則是思想活動,並行使感官是一個進程,從靈魂到身體的其他部位不是一個進程的整個機體,也就是說,身體動畫的靈魂。 The Scholastics of the thirteenth century frankly adopted the Aristotelean definition of the soul as the principle of life, not of thought merely.該Scholastics的13世紀坦率地通過了Aristotelean定義的靈魂為原則的生活,而不是僅僅的思想。 Therefore, they maintained, man is a compound of body and soul, each of which is an incomplete substantial principle the union being, consequently, immediate, vital, and substantial.因此,他們堅持,人是一種化合物的身體和靈魂,其中每一項是一個不完整的重大原則,工會正,因此,立即極其重要的,實質性的。 For them there is no need of an intermediary "body of light" such as St. Augustine imagined to exist.對他們來說沒有必要的中間人, “身體輕” ,如聖奧古斯丁想像的存在。 All the vital activities of the individual human being are ascribed ultimately to the soul, as to their active principle, although they may have more immediate principles namely the faculties, such as intellect, the senses, the vegetative and muscular powers.所有重要活動的個別人是屬於最終的靈魂,他們的積極原則,儘管他們可能有更直接的原則,即院系,如智力,感官,營養和肌肉的權力。 But while the soul is in this way concerned with all the vital functions, being, in fact, the source of them, and the body enters as a passive principle into all the activities of the soul, exception must be made in the ease of immaterial thought-activities.但是,雖然靈魂是這樣,有關的所有重要職能,是事實上,來源,並進入人體作為一個被動的原則納入所有活動的靈魂,除必須在便於無關緊要令人深思的活動。 They are, like all the other activities, activities of the individual.他們象所有其他活動,活動的個人。 The soul is the active principle of them.靈魂是積極的原則,他們。 But the body contributes to them, not in the same intrinsic manner in which it contributes to seeing, hearing, digesting etc., but only in an extrinsic manner, by supplying the materials out of which the intellect manufactures ideas.但是,機構有助於他們,而不是在同一個內在的方式,它有助於視覺,聽覺,消化等,但只能在一個外在的方式,通過提供的材料,其中智力製成品的想法。 This extrinsic dependence explains the phenomena of fatigue, etc. At the same time it leaves the soul so independent intrinsically that the latter is truly said to be immaterial.這說明外在的依賴現象的疲勞等,同時葉片的靈魂,使獨立的本質,後者是真正的說是無關緊要的。

From the immateriality of the soul follows its immortality.從immateriality的靈魂如下其不死。 Setting aside the possibility of annihilation, a possibility to which all creatures, even the angels are subject, the human soul is naturally immortal, and its immortality, St.撇開毀滅的可能性,一種可能性,所有的動物,即使是受到天使的人類靈魂自然是不朽的,其不死,聖 Thomas believes, can be proved from its immateriality.托馬斯認為,可以證明其immateriality 。 Duns Scotus, however, whose notion of the strict requirements of a demonstration was influenced by his training in mathematics, denies the conclusive force of the argument from immateriality, and calls attention to Aristotle's hesitation or obscurity on this point.鄧司各脫,但其概念的嚴格要求示範影響他的訓練,數學,否認了決定性的力量,從immateriality的論點,並要求注意亞里士多德的猶豫或含糊這一點。 Aristotle, as interpreted by the Arabians, was, undoubtedly, opposed to immortality.亞里士多德,解釋的阿拉伯人,是毫無疑問,反對永生。 It was, however, one of St. Thomas's greatest achievements in philosophy that, especially in his opusculum "De unitate intellectus", he refuted the Arabian interpretation of Aristotle, showed that the active intellect is part of the individual soul, and thus removed the uncertainty which, for the Aristoteleans, hung around the notions of immateriality and immortality.然而,它的一個聖托馬斯最偉大的成就在哲學,尤其是在他的opusculum “德unitate intellectus ” ,他駁斥了阿拉伯解釋亞里斯多德表明,積極的智力是個人的靈魂,從而取消了其中的不確定性,為Aristoteleans ,掛的概念immateriality和永生。 From the immateriality of the soul follows not only that it is immortal, but also that it originated by an act of creation.從immateriality的靈魂如下不僅在於它是不朽的,而且,它來源於行為的創造。 It was created at the moment in which it was united with the body: creando infunditur, et infundendo creatur is the Scholastic phrase.這是造成目前它是聯合國的機構: creando infunditur等infundendo creatur是學術用語。

Scholastic metaphysics added to the Aristotelean system a full discussion of the nature of personality, restated in more definite terms the traditional arguments for the existence of God, and developed the doctrine of the providential government of the universe.士林形而上學添加到Aristotelean系統進行充分的討論性質的人格,重申了更明確的條款傳統的論點存在的上帝,和發達國家的理論,政府的天賜的宇宙。 The exigencies of theological discussion occasioned also a minute analysis of the nature of accident in general and of quantity in particular.在緊急情況引起神學的討論也一分鐘分析事故的性質和一般的數量特別。 The application of the resulting principles to the explanation of the mystery of the Eucharist, as contained in St. Thomas's works on the subject, is one of the most successful of all the Scholastic attempts to render faith reasonable by means of dialectical discussion.應用所產生的原則,以解釋的神秘的聖體,載於聖托馬斯的作品,關於這個問題,是一個最成功的所有學校的企圖,使誠信合理的手段,辯證的討論。 Indeed, it may be said, in general, that the peculiar excellence of the Scholastics as systematic thinkers consisted in their ability to take hold of the profoundest metaphysical distinctions, such as matter and form, potency and actuality, substance and accident, and apply them to every department of thought.事實上,可以說,總的來說,這一獨特卓越的Scholastics作為思想家組成系統的能力把握深刻形而上學的區別,如物質和形式,潛力和現狀,實質和事故,並運用這些對每一個部門的思路。 They were no mere apriorists, they recognized in principle and in practice that scientific method begins with the observation of facts.他們不只是apriorists ,他們認識到在原則上和實踐中,科學的方法首先是觀察事實。 Nevertheless, they excelled most of all in the talent which is peculiarly metaphysical, the power to grasp abstract general principles and apply them consistently and systematically.儘管如此,他們最擅長的所有人才是獨有的形而上學,權力掌握抽象的一般原則和適用於他們一貫和系統。

So far as the ethics of Scholasticism is not distinctly Christian, seeking to expound and justify Divine law and the Christian standard of morals, it is Aristotelean.迄今為止的道德士林沒有明顯的基督徒,試圖闡述和解釋法律和神聖的基督教的道德標準,這是Aristotelean 。 This is clear from the adoption and application of the Aristotelean definition of virtue as the golden mean between two extremes. Fundamentally, the definition is eudemonistic.這是明確的通過和實施的Aristotelean定義的美德作為中庸之間的兩個極端。從根本上說,定義是eudemonistic 。 It rests on the conviction that the supreme good of man is happiness, that happiness is the realization, or complete actualization, of one's nature, and that virtue is an essential means to that end.它取決於信念,即最高利益的人是幸福,這幸福的實現,或完全實現,一個人的性質,而且憑藉是一個重要的手段實現這一目的。 But what is vague and unsatisfactory in Aristotelean Eudemonism is made definite and safe in the Scholastic system, which determines the meaning of happiness and realization according to the Divine purpose in creation and the dignity to which man is destined as a child of God.但什麼是含糊不清,不能令人滿意Aristotelean Eudemonism是明確的和安全的學術體系,它決定了幸福的含義和實現根據神聖的目的,建立和尊嚴的人注定是作為一個上帝的孩子。

In their discussion of the problems of political philosophy the philosophers of the thirteenth century while not discarding the theological views of St. Augustine contained in "The City of God", laid a new foundation for the study of political organizations by introducing Aristotle's scientific definition of the origin and purpose of civil society.在討論問題的政治哲學的哲學家的13世紀,而不是放棄神學的看法聖奧古斯丁在“上帝之城” ,奠定了新的基礎研究的政治組織通過引入亞里士多德的科學定義的起源和宗旨的民間社會。 Man, says St. Thomas, is naturally a social and political animal.男子說,聖托馬斯,自然是一個社會和政治的動物。 By giving to human beings a nature which requires the co-operation of other human beings for its welfare, God ordained man for society, and thus it is His will that princes should govern with a view to the public welfare.讓人類的性質,需要共同行動的其他人的福利,上帝祝人對社會,因此,這是他的意願,王子應以公共福利。 The end for which the state exists is, then, not merely vivere but bene vivere.結束該國存在,那麼,不僅活躍,但貝活躍。 All that goes to make life better and happier is included the Divine charter from which kings and rulers derive their authority.所有這一切去讓生活更美好和幸福的是包括神聖的包機從國王和統治者獲得其權威。 The Scholastic treatises on this subject and the commentaries on the "Polities" of Aristotle prepared the way for the medieval and modern discussions of political problems.論文的學術就這個問題和評注的“政治”的亞里士多德的方式編寫的中世紀和現代討論的政治問題。 In this department of thought, as in many others, the Schoolmen did at least one service which posterity should appreciate: they strive to express in clear systematic form what was present in the consciousness of Christendom in their day.在這一部門的思想,在許多其他國家一樣, Schoolmen並至少有一個服務,後人應該感激:他們努力表達系統的形式明確什麼是目前在基督教的意識在他們的一天。

Publication information Written by William Turner.出版信息撰稿威廉特納。 Transcribed by Tomas Hancil. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XIII.轉錄的托馬斯Hancil 。天主教百科全書,卷十三。 Published 1912. 1912年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, February 1, 1912. Nihil Obstat , 1912年2月1號。 Remy Lafort, DD, Censor. Imprimatur.雷米Lafort ,日,檢查員。認可。 +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰法利樞機主教,大主教紐約

This subject presentation in the original English language本主題介紹在原來的英文

Send an e-mail question or comment to us: E-mail發送電子郵件的問題或意見給我們:電子郵箱

The main BELIEVE web-page (and the index to subjects) is at主要相信網頁(和索引科目),是在