General Information 一般信息

Universalism is the theological doctrine that all souls will ultimately be saved and that there are no torments of hell. Universalism has been asserted at various times in different contexts throughout the history of the Christian church, as for example by Origen in the 3d century.共性是神學理論,所有的靈魂最終將被保存的,並且沒有痛苦的地獄。普遍聲稱已在不同時間在不同情況下整個歷史的基督教教堂,例如由奧利在3D世紀。

As an organized religious movement, however, universalism dates from the late 1700s in America, where its early leaders were Hosea Ballou, John Murray, and Elhanan Winchester.作為一項有組織的宗教運動,但普遍的日期從18世紀後期在美國,其早期領導人何西阿巴羅,約翰墨累,並埃爾赫南溫徹斯特。 As a form of religious liberalism, it has had close contacts with Unitarianism throughout its history.作為一個形式的宗教自由主義,它有密切聯繫Unitarianism其整個歷史。 The Universalist Church of America and the American Unitarian Association merged in 1961 to form a single denomination - the Unitarian Universalist Association - which currently has about 173,000 members.教會的普遍性美國和美國統一協會於1961年合併,形成一個單一的面額-在統一世界主義協會-目前大約有1 7 .30萬成員。

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Bibliography 參考書目
E Casara, ed., Universalism in America (1984). é Casara ,編輯。 ,普遍在美國( 1984年) 。


Advanced Information 先進的信息

Universalism is a belief which affirms that in the fullness of time all souls will be released from the penalties of sin and restored to God. Historically known as apokatastasis, final salvation denies the biblical doctrine of eternal punishment and is based on a faculty reading of Acts 3:21; Rom.普遍主義是一種信念,其中申明,在時機成熟所有的靈魂將被釋放的刑罰的罪惡和恢復上帝。歷史上被稱為apokatastasis ,最後得救否認聖經的原則和永恆的處罰是根據教師閱讀行為3時21分;光盤。 5:18 - 19; Eph. 5點18分-1 9;厄。 1:9 - 10; 1 Cor. 1時09分-1 0; 1肺心病。 15:22; and other passages. 15:22 ;和其他通道。 Belief in universal salvation is at least as old as Christianity itself and may be associated with early Gnostic teachers.在普遍信仰拯救至少是一樣古老基督教本身以及可能與早期諾斯底教師。 The first clearly universalist writings, however, date from the Greek church fathers, most notably Clement of Alexandria, his student Origen, and Gregory of Nyssa.第一次明確普遍性著作,然而,迄今為止從希臘教會的父親,最主要的是克萊門特的亞歷山德里亞,他的學生奧利和格雷戈里的果樹。 Of these, the teachings of Origen, who believed that even the devil might eventually be saved, were the most influential.其中,俄利根的教誨,誰相信,即使是魔鬼可能最終被保存,是最有影響力的。 Numerous supporters of final salvation were to be found in the postapostolic church, although it was strongly opposed by Augustine of Hippo.許多支持者的最後拯救被發現的postapostolic教堂,雖然有人強烈反對奧古斯丁的河馬。 Origen's theology was at length declared heretical at the fifth ecumenical council in 553.奧利的神學是異端長度宣布在第五屆基督教理事會553 。

In Western Europe universalism almost completely disappeared during the Middle Ages, save for the Irish scholar John Scotus Erigena and some of the lesser - known mystics.在西歐普遍幾乎完全消失在中世紀,除了愛爾蘭學者約翰司各脫Erigena和一些較小的-稱為神秘主義。 Following Augustine, the Protestant Reformers Luther and Calvin also rejected final salvation.繼奧古斯丁,新教改革者路德和加爾文還拒絕最後得救。 Some spiritualist and Anabaptist writers of the Radical Reformation, however, revived the doctrine.一些spiritualist和再洗禮派作家的激進改革,但恢復的理論。 In the sixteenth century it was embraced by the south German scholar Hans Denck and spread through his convent Hans Hut. 16世紀是接受南部德國學者漢斯Denck和傳播通過他的修道院漢斯必勝客。 The impact of Denck's universalism for the wider Anabaptist movement has probably been overemphasized.的影響Denck的普遍性更廣泛的再洗禮派運動可能已經過分。 Mennonites and Hutterites, for example, have largely rejected a belief in the restoration of all things.門諾派和Hutterites舉例來說,基本上否決了信仰恢復所有的事情。

In America universalism developed out of roots from both radical German pietism and the English evangelical revival.在美國,普遍建立了基層從根本德國和虔誠主義的英文福音的復興。 The pietist influence was strongly shaped by the mystic Jakob Boehme.該pietist強烈影響所形成的神秘雅各布伯梅。 Several noted radical pietists such as Johann Wilhelm Peterson (1649 - 1727) and Ernst Christoph Hochmann (1670 - 1721) were Boehmist in their development of final restoration, which became one of the most distinguishing characteristics of radical pietist theology.一些激進的虔誠主義者指出,如德國威廉彼德森( 1649年至1727年)和克里斯托夫Hochmann恩斯特( 1770至21年)的Boehmist在其發展的最終恢復,成為一個最顯著特點根治pietist神學。 This type of universalism was brought to the colonies by the physician George DeBenneville (1703 - 1793) and, to a lesser extent, by the German Baptist Brethren.這種類型的普遍性被帶到殖民地的醫生喬治DeBenneville ( 1703年至1793年) ,並在較小的程度上,由德國浸信會弟兄。 DeBenneville, who had close contacts with Hochmann, is widely regarded as the father of American universalism. DeBenneville ,誰曾密切接觸Hochmann ,被廣泛視為美國的父親的普遍性。 As a separatist he preached frequently, but neither belonged to nor founded any church.作為一個分裂,他經常鼓吹,但既不屬於沒有成立任何教堂。 As with most radical pietists, universalism was an implicit but not central focus of his faith.至於最激進的虔誠主義,普遍主義是一個隱含的而不是中央集中自己的信仰。

Universalism which was explicit and the center of doctrine emerged out of Calvinism in England.共性是明確的,中心的學說產生了加爾文主義在英格蘭。 Several sects which embraced final salvation developed out of seventeenth century Puritanism, among them the Philadelphians, founded by Jane Lead.這幾個教派擁抱最後得救了發達國家17世紀清教,其中包括Philadelphians ,成立由簡鉛。 It was not, however, until a century later, when James Relly broke with the Wesley - Whitefield revival, that an organized universalist movement appeared.這不是,但是,直到一個世紀之後,當詹姆斯Relly打破了韋斯利-W hitefield的復興,即一個有組織的具有普遍性的運動出現。 His Union (1759) rejected Calvinism and argued that all souls are in union with Christ.他的聯盟( 1759 )拒絕加爾文主義,並認為所有的靈魂是工會與基督。 Christ's sacrificial punishment and death therefore brought salvation to all, not merely an elect few.基督的犧牲和死亡的懲罰因此,拯救了所有人,不只是一個選舉等等。 One of Relly's converts was John Murray, another Methodist preacher, who was excommunicated for his universalist views.其中Relly的轉換是約翰墨累,另一循道衛理牧師,誰是他逐出教會的普遍看法。 While Murray believed that all souls were corrupted with original sin, his view of universalism was based on Christ as the head of the human family.雖然穆雷認為,所有被損壞的靈魂與原罪,他的觀點普遍是基於基督為團長的人類大家庭。 Just as all men had participated in Adam's sin, so through Christ's sacrifice all would receive salvation.正如所有的人參加了亞當的罪孽,所以通過基督的犧牲都將得到拯救。

Murray arrived in New England in 1770 and organized the first Universalist congregation at Gloucester, Massachusetts, in 1779. A General Convention was formed a few years later.穆雷抵達新英格蘭在1770和組織了第一屆世界主義聚集在告士打道,馬薩諸塞州,在1779年。一般公約,形成了幾年以後。 Organized Universalism thus became primarily an American phenomenon.有組織的共性從而成為美國主要的現象。

Meanwhile similar ideas were emerging elsewhere.另外類似的想法出現了其他地方。 Certain liberal Congregationalist clergy such as Jonathan Mayhew and Charles Chauncy helped to prepare the foundation for the spread of universalism.某些自由公理的神職人員,如喬納森梅休和查爾斯昌西協助編制的基礎蔓延的普遍性。 The latter's Salvation of All Men (1784) completely rejected a "limited" atonement view.後者的救國所有男人( 1784年)完全拒絕了“有限的”贖罪的看法。 The former Baptist Elhanan Winchester founded a Universalist congregation in Philadelphia in 1781 and developed a compelling restorationist position in his Dialogues on the Universal Restoration (1788).這位前浸信會埃爾赫南溫徹斯特成立了普救聚集在費城,並在1781年制定了一項引人注目的restorationist在他的位置上對話世界維新( 1788年) 。 Winchester, an Arminian, argued that future punishment is measured for each sin and results ultimately in the eternal happiness of all souls.溫徹斯特,一個Arminian ,認為未來的懲罰是衡量每一個罪惡和最終結果在永恆的幸福,所有的靈魂。

Although DeBenneville, Murray, and Winchester approached universalism from different theological positions, all were restorationists in that they denied eternal punishment in hell. Otherwise eighteenth century universalism was a diverse and noncoherent movement.雖然DeBenneville ,穆雷,以及溫徹斯特走近普遍從不同的神學立場,都是重修的,他們否認永恆的懲罰在地獄裡。否則, 18世紀是一個普遍多樣化和非相干運動。 A loosely agreed - upon statement of faith, the Winchester Profession (adopted at Winchester, New Hampshire), was drawn up in 1803.一個鬆散同意-籲請聲明信仰,職業的溫徹斯特(上通過的溫徹斯特,新罕布什爾州) ,制定了在1 803年。 Doctrinal statements were also formulated in 1899 and 1935.理論上的報表還制定了在1899年和1935年。

Hosea Ballou, another former Baptist, proved to be the dominant theological spokesman for the movement in the early nineteenth century.何西阿巴羅,另一名前浸信會,證明是佔主導地位的神學發言人運動在19世紀初。 His Treatise on the Atonement (1805) posited a "moral" view of Christ's sacrifice rather than the "legal" or substitutionary position of Relly and Murray.他的論贖罪( 1805年)假定一個“道義”鑑於基督的犧牲,而不是“合法”或substitutionary立場Relly和穆雷。 Christ suffered on behalf of mankind but not in their place.基督遭受代表人類而不是在自己的位置。 Christ's death demonstrated God's unchangeable loving concern for the restoration of the soul from sin.基督的死亡證明上帝的熱愛不變關注的恢復從罪惡的靈魂。 Ballou also taught what opponents called a "death and glory" view that death brings the unregenerate soul to repentance.巴羅還教什麼反對者稱為“死亡和榮耀”認為,死亡帶來了unregenerate的靈魂懺悔。 Because of his stress on reason and his rejection of miracles, the Trinity, and the deity of Christ, Ballou moved the Universalists closer to Unitarianism.由於他的壓力和他的理由拒絕奇蹟,三位一體,以及神的基督,巴羅動議Universalists接近Unitarianism 。 His "no hell" theology struck most orthodox Christians, however, as one that would lead to immorality.他的“沒有地獄”神學擊中最正統的基督徒,但是,作為一個將導致不道德行為。

Nineteenth century universalism took on the familiar characteristics of an American denomination.十九世紀上普遍採取了熟悉的特點,美國面額。 It grew steadily in several midwestern and New England states, and in frontier and rural areas it assumed a more evangelical posture than has commonly been recognized. Several periodicals were started and state or regional associations formed.它穩步增長的幾個中西部和新英格蘭州,並在邊境和農村地區承擔了更多的福音派姿勢比通常為人們所認識。一些期刊已經開始和國家或地區協會的成立。 Tufts College (1852) and a theological school (1869) at Medford, Massachusetts, became the leading educational institutions. Controversy over the future punishment question led to the formation of a minority restorationist faction in 1831.塔夫茨大學( 1852年)和神學院( 1869年)在梅德福,馬薩諸塞州,成為領先的教育機構。爭論未來的懲罰問題導致形成少數restorationist在1831年派。 This was dissolved in 1841, however, as most universalists placed less and less emphasis on the earlier doctrine of apokatastasis.這是在1841年解散,但是,因為大多數universalists放在少側重於理論的早期apokatastasis 。

Twentieth century universalism, now clearly a liberal faith, was largely shaped by the theologian Clarence Skinner.二十世紀普遍性,現在顯然是一個自由的信仰,基本上形成了神學克拉倫斯斯金納。 A wider conception of universalism was articulated which rejected the deity of Jesus and which sought to explore the "universal" bases of all religions.更廣泛的普遍性概念是明確的拒絕了神的耶穌,並力求探索“普遍”基地的所有宗教。 Accordingly, closer ties were sought with the major world non - Christian and native American religions.因此,更密切的關係是尋求與世界主要非-基督教和印第安人的宗教。 Universalists continue to stress such beliefs as the dignity and brotherhood of mankind, tolerance of diversity, and the reasonableness of moral actions. Universalists繼續強調這種信仰的尊嚴和人類的博愛,寬容的多樣性,以及合理的道德行為。 Because of the close kinship which many universalists felt toward Unitarians, there had always been a close cooperation between the two groups.由於血緣關係的密切,許多universalists認為對Unitarians ,還有一直密切合作,兩國之間的群體。 This cooperation led to a formal merger and the organization of the Unitarian Universalist Association in 1961, having a combined membership of 70,500 in nearly four hundred congregations.這種合作導致了正式合併,並組織統一世界主義協會於1961年,有一個組合的成員70500近400頒授學位。

Clearly, however, many who have professed a belief in final salvation have remained outside the Unitarian Universalist tradition.但是很顯然,誰擁有許多宣稱相信最後救贖仍然以外的統一世界主義的傳統。 In the twentieth century universalism (apokatastasis) has been associated with the neo - orthodox theology as shaped by the Swiss theologian Karl Barth.在二十世紀的普遍性( apokatastasis )已經與新-正統神學的形狀由瑞士神學家卡爾巴特。 Although he did not teach final salvation directly, certain passages of his massive Church Dogmatics stress the irresistible universal triumph of God's grace.他雖然沒有教的最後救贖直接,某些段落的大規模教會教義學強調不可抗拒的普遍勝利,上帝的恩典。 Barth was led in this direction by the doctrine of double predestination.巴斯是導致這一方向的理論的雙重預定。 In Christ, the representative of all men, adoption and reprobation merge.在基督的代表,所有的人,通過和非難合併。 There are not two groups, one saved and the other damned.有沒有兩個組,一個是保存和其他該死的。 Mortal man may still be a sinner, but the election of Christ demands a final judgment of salvation.真人男子仍可能是一個罪人,但選舉的基督要求的最後判決的救贖。 Other neo - orthodox writers have suggested that divine punishment is a purifying or disguised form of God's love, which results ultimately in restoration.其他新-正統的作家認為,神聖的懲罰是一種淨化或變相形式的天主的愛,從而最終恢復。

Some from a more conservative Protestant tradition have also defended a universalist view.一些來自較保守的基督教傳統,也防守普遍的看法。 One position is that a "Hades Gospel" gives a second chance for those who did not have an opportunity to confess Christ in the world.其中的立場是, “閻王福音”賦予了第二次機會的人誰沒有機會承認基督在世界上。 Another approach has been articulated by Neal Punt in Unconditional Good News (1980).另一種做法已闡明了奧尼爾在無條件地標好消息( 1980年) 。 Punt reverses the traditional Calvinist view that all are lost except those whom the Bible indicates are among the elect.邦特推翻了傳統的加爾文主義認為,所有損失,除非那些人的聖經表明屬於選舉。 His "biblical universalism" counters that all are saved in Christ except those whom the Bible directly declares are lost.他的“聖經普遍性”的櫃檯,所有保存在基督的人除了聖經直接宣布都將丟失。 Clearly universalism, in a variety of forms, continues to have appeal for contemporary faith, in both liberal and conservative circles.顯然普遍性,在各種形式,繼續呼籲當代的信仰,在自由派與保守派人士。

DB Eller數據庫埃勒
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (規矩福音字典)

Bibliography 目錄
JH Allen and R Eddy, History of the Unitarians and the Universalists in the United States; H Ballou, Ancient History of Universalism; AD Bell, The Life and Times of Dr. George DeBenneville, 1703 - 1793; R Eddy, Universalism in America, a History; T Engelder, "The Hades Gospel" and "The Argument in Support of the Hades Gospel," CTM 16; RE Miller, The Larger Hope; WO Pachull, Mysticism and Early South German - Austrian Anabaptist Movement, 1525 - 1531; CR Skinner and AS Cole, Hell's Ramparts Fell: The Life of John Murray; CR Skinner, A Religion for Greatness and The Social Implications of Universalism; T Whittmore, The Modern History of Universalism; GH Williams, American Universalism.華阿倫和R渦流,歷史Unitarians和Universalists在美國; H巴羅,古代史的普遍性;公元貝爾的生平與時代喬治DeBenneville博士, 1703年至1793年; R渦流,普遍在美國,史; Ť Engelder說: “閻王福音”和“論據支持閻王福音, ”澳門電訊16 ;稀土米勒,較大的希望;沃Pachull ,神秘主義和南方的早期德國-奧地利再洗禮派運動, 1 525年至1 531年;責任斯金納和AS ,科爾地獄城牆下跌:生命的約翰墨累;責任斯金納,宗教的偉大和社會影響的普遍性和t Whittmore ,現代史上的普遍性;生長激素威廉姆斯,美國的共性。

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