General Information 一般信息

A Jewish nationalist movement, Zionism was responsible for establishing the modern state of Israel as the Jewish homeland. Although generally attributed to Theodor Herzl and other 19th century groups, Zionism dates back to the beginning of the Jewish Diaspora, the Babylonian Exile of the 6th century BC.猶太人民族主義運動,猶太复國主義是負責建立現代以色列國的猶太家園。雖然一般歸因於西奧多赫茨爾和其他19世紀的團體,猶太复國主義可以追溯到開始的猶太人散居地,巴比倫流亡6世紀公元前。 The Lamentations of Jeremiah and Psalm 137 speak of the exiled Jews' longing for Zion (Jerusalem).該耶利米哀歌耶利米和詩篇137講的流亡猶太人嚮往錫安(耶路撒冷) 。

Jewish history during the Diaspora was marked by the appearance of a succession of pseudo messiahs - among them Sabbatai Zevi - who claimed that they would return the Jews to Zion.猶太人的歷史期間,散居的特點是出現了一連串的假救星-其中S abbatai賽維-誰聲稱,他們將返回的猶太人錫安。 Equally unsuccessful was the scheme of the Italian Nasi family, which obtained a permit from the Turks to establish a Jewish community in Galilee in the late 16th century.同樣是失敗的計劃,意大利納西家族,獲得了許可證,土耳其人建立一個猶太人社區在加利利在16世紀後期。

Until 1791 and the Jewish emancipation during the French Revolution, Jews lacked the mobility essential to the success of Zionism.直到1791年和猶太人在解放法國大革命,猶太人缺乏流動性的成功至關重要猶太复國主義。 In the 19th century, however, rising national sentiment in Europe inspired Moses Hess, David Luzatto, Leo Pinsker, Zvi Kalischer, and Yehudah Alkalai to attempt to raise the national consciousness of ghetto Jewry.在19世紀,但是,民族情緒上升在歐洲的啟發赫斯摩西,大衛Luzatto ,利奧Pinsker ,茲維Kalischer ,並Yehudah Alkalai試圖以提高民族意識的猶太人聚居區。 Financial assistance came from philanthropists Moses Montefiore, Edmond de Rothschild, and Maurice de Hirsch, and various programs for the return of Jews to the Middle East were implemented.財政援助來自慈善家摩西蒙特弗洛爾,愛德蒙得洛希爾,和莫里斯的赫斯基,以及各種程序返回的猶太人在中東得到執行。

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Not until 1897, however, with Herzl's World Zionist Congress at Basel, Switzerland, was an effective worldwide political movement created.直到1897年,然而,赫茨爾的世界猶太复國主義者大會在瑞士巴塞爾,是一種有效的全球政治運動的創建。 Despite opposition from fundamentalist and assimilationist Jews and internal divisions (at the 1905 Congress one group withdrew when the majority of delegates rejected a British proposal for establishing a Jewish homeland in Uganda), the Zionist organization gathered strength.儘管反對原教旨主義者和同化猶太人和內部分歧( 1905年在美國國會一組撤回時,多數代表拒絕了英國提出的關於建立一個猶太人的家園烏干達) ,猶太复國主義組織的聚集力量。 Eventually it secured approval for its program of establishing a homeland in Palestine from the British government (with the Balfour Declaration, 1917) and the League of Nations (with the creation of a mandate for Palestine in 1922).最終擔保批准其計劃建立一個家園的巴勒斯坦由英國政府(與貝爾福宣言, 1917年)和國家聯盟(建立一個巴勒斯坦任務在1922年) 。 During the period of the mandate, which was held by Britain, increasing violence occurred between the Jewish settlers and the Arabs in Palestine.在此期間的任務,這是由英國,越來越多的暴力事件之間的猶太定居者和阿拉伯人在巴勒斯坦。 Finally, the United Nations voted in November 1947 to partition Palestine, and the State of Israel was proclaimed on May 14, 1948.最後,在聯合國表決1947年11月在分割巴勒斯坦和以色列國宣布成立, 5月14日, 1948年。

Saul S Friedman索爾語弗里德曼

Bibliography 目錄
B Halpern, The Idea of the Jewish State (1969); W Laqueur, A History of Zionism (1972); M Selzer, ed., Zionism Reconsidered: The Rejection of Jewish Normalcy (1970); D Vital, Origins of Zionism (1975).彭乙的想法猶太國( 1969年) ; W Laqueur史猶太复國主義( 1972年) ; M塞爾澤,編輯。 ,猶太复國主義的再思考:排斥猶太人Normalcy ( 1970年) ; D生命,猶太复國主義的起源( 1975年) 。


Advanced Information 先進的信息

This term refers to the philosophy of the Jewish people's restoration to "Zion," which early in Jewish history was identified with Jerusalem.這個詞是指哲學的猶太人民的恢復“錫安” ,這在早期猶太歷史被確定以耶路撒冷。 After the Roman expulsion of the Jews from Jerusalem in AD 135 this "Zion" idea was never divorced from Jewish thinking, and Jewish prayers (both individual and corporate) emphasized the desire to return to their homeland.在羅馬驅逐來自耶路撒冷的猶太人在公元135本“錫安”的想法從來沒有脫離猶太思想,猶太人的祈禱(包括個人和公司)強調,希望返回家園。 The religious Jew dreamed of an end period of ultimate release from his dispersion among the nations and a return to the land of promise.猶太人的宗教夢想結束的最終期限從他的釋放分散的國家之一,並恢復土地的承諾。 A handful of Jews had always remained in Palestine, and their numbers were augmented by refugees of the Spanish Inquisition in 1492. Nevertheless, to many Jews the notion of a physical return to Palestine seemed an illusive, if not impossible, dream.少數猶太人一直留在巴勒斯坦,他們的人數增加了難民的西班牙在1492年探討。儘管如此,許多猶太人的概念身體返回巴勒斯坦似乎是虛幻的,甚至是不可能的夢想。

During the nineteenth century the rise of Hebrew literature, Jewish nationalism, and most importantly a fresh outbreak of anti - Semitism stimulated groups such as Hoveve Zion ("Lovers of Zion") to raise money to send Jewish settlers to Palestine.在19世紀崛起的希伯萊文學,猶太的民族主義,最重要的一個新爆發的反-主義刺激的群體,如H oveve錫安( “情人錫安” ) ,以籌集資金向猶太定居者對巴勒斯坦。 Pogroms in czarist Russia after 1881 resulted in thousands of panic - stricken refugees who realized that Palestine was their safest place of refuge. Agricultural settlements were also sponsored by benefactors such as Baron Edmond de Rothschild.在大屠殺後,沙俄1881年導致數以千計的恐慌-受災難民誰認識到,巴勒斯坦是他們安全的地方避難。農業定居點也贊助的恩人,如男爵愛德蒙得洛希爾。

Premodern Zionism emphasized a religious motive and quiet territorial settlement.前現代猶太复國主義強調了宗教的動機和安靜的領土解決辦法。 With the publication of Der Judenstaat ("The Jewish State") by Theodor Herzl in 1896, however, political Zionism was born and with it the modern conception of Zionism.隨著出版明鏡Judenstaat ( “猶太國” )的西奧多赫茨爾在1896年,然而,政治猶太复國主義的誕生和它的現代概念的猶太复國主義。 A new era in Jewish history unfolded when Herzl, an Austrian journalist, changed from an advocate of Jewish assimilation to a belief that anti - Semitism was inevitable as long as the majority of Jewish people lived outside their homeland.一個新的時代,猶太人的歷史展現在赫茨爾,奧地利記者,從提倡猶太人同化的信仰,反-主義是不可避免的,只要大多數的猶太人民住在自己的家園。 He expounded political, economic, and technical efforts that he believed were necessary to create a functioning Jewish state.他闡述了政治,經濟和技術的努力,他認為有必要建立正常運作的猶太國家。 The first Zionist Congress met in 1897, and over two hundred delegates from all over the world adopted the Basel Program.第一次會見了猶太复國主義者大會於1897年,超過200的代表來自世界各地的通過了巴塞爾計劃。 This stressed that Zionism sought to create a legal home in Palestine for the Jewish people and would promote settlement, create worldwide organizations to bind Jews together, strengthen Jewish national consciousness, and obtain consent of the governments of the world.這強調指出,猶太复國主義試圖建立一個法律家中的巴勒斯坦人對以色列人民和促進和解,創造全球組織猶太人結合在一起,加強猶太人的民族意識,並取得同意的情況下世界各國政府。

Herzl's thinking was purely secular; in fact, he was an agnostic. The majority of his followers, however, were Orthodox southeastern Europeans, and while Herzl opposed turning Zionism into a cultural, religious, or piecemeal settlement society, he did make concessions to these advocates.赫茨爾的思維純粹是世俗的,事實上,他是一個不可知的。絕大多數他的追隨者,然而,東正教東南部歐洲人,而赫茨爾反對把猶太复國主義到文化,宗教,或零敲碎打解決社會,他沒有作出讓步,這些倡導者。 This fragile alliance indicates the many facets of Zionism during the twentieth century.這表明脆弱聯盟的許多方面,猶太复國主義在二十世紀。 To Herzl, the main goal of Zionism was to obtain a political charter granting Jews sovereign rights in their homeland.為了赫茨爾,主要的猶太复國主義的目標是獲得政治章程賦予的主權權利的猶太人在自己的家園。 Shortly after his death in 1904 approximately seventy thousand Jews had settled in Palestine.不久他的死亡在1904年大約有7.0萬猶太人定居在巴勒斯坦。 A majority (at least 60 percent) lived in the cities.大多數(至少在百分之六十)居住在城市。 Zionism was metamorphosed into a mass movement and political power during World War I. In 1917 the British issued the Balfour Declaration, which bestowed favor upon the establishment in Palestine of a Jewish national home.猶太复國主義是演變成群眾運動和政治力量在第二次世界大戰期間一, 1917年英國發表了貝爾福宣言,這有利於賦予的在巴勒斯坦建立一個猶太國家家園。

Zionism was a minority movement and encountered opposition even within the Jewish community.猶太复國主義是少數運動和遇到的反對,甚至在猶太人社區。 American Reform Judaism, for example, believed that Jews were not suited for the rigors of Palestine, where disease and famine were rampant.美國猶太教改革,例如,認為猶太人不適合要求嚴格的巴勒斯坦,在疾病和飢荒的蔓延。 Furthermore, they claimed that Palestine was no longer a Jewish land and that the United States was "Zion."此外,他們聲稱,巴勒斯坦已不再是一個猶太人的土地和美國是“錫安” 。 To these non - Zionist Jews, Zionism was damaging to the fabric of Judaism and only served to stir up the Russians. It was only the horror of the mass murder of a hundred thousand Jews by Russian army units from 1919 to 1921 and, ultimately, the horror of the Nazi Holocaust during World War II in which six million Jews were exterminated that drew Zionists and non - Zionists together in support of Palestine as a Jewish commonwealth, a haven for the persecuted and homeless.這些非-猶太复國主義猶太人,猶太复國主義的破壞性織物的猶太教和只會挑起俄羅斯。只有恐怖的大規模屠殺十萬猶太人,俄羅斯陸軍部隊1 919年至1 921年,並最終恐怖的納粹大屠殺在二戰期間,其中600萬猶太人被消滅,吸引猶太复國主義者和非-猶太复國主義者共同支持巴勒斯坦作為一個猶太英聯邦,避風港的迫害和無家可歸。

In November, 1947, a partition plan creating a Jewish state, endorsed by both the United States and the Soviet Union, was adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations.去年11月, 1947年,分區計劃建立一個猶太國家,贊同美國和蘇聯,是大會通過的聯合國。 The State of Israel was formally recognized on May 14, 1948, when British rule ended. As the young state strengthened, the definition of Zionism and what its current goals and purpose should be have been heatedly debated within the World Zionist Organization itself.以色列國正式承認5月14日, 1948年,當英國的統治結束。隨著國家加強青年的定義,猶太复國主義和其當前的目標和目的應該是已經激烈辯論的世界猶太复國主義組織本身。 Since 1968 the emphasis of aliyah (personal migration to Israel) has been seen by many as an ultimate, yet controversial, goal.自1968年以來的重點aliyah (個人移民到以色列)已被許多人作為一個最終的,但有爭議的,目標。

Zionism has been aided in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries by "Christian Zionists."猶太复國主義一直資助的19世紀和20世紀的“基督教猶太复國主義者。 ” Because of their premillennial eschatology fundamentalist evangelicals have been particularly supportive of the restoration of the Jewish people to Israel and of Israel itself in the twentieth century.由於其premillennial末世論原教旨主義福音派一直特別支持恢復猶太人民對以色列和以色列本身在二十世紀。

DA Rausch多巴胺Rausch
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (規矩福音字典)

Bibliography 目錄
W Laqueur, A History of Zionism; A Hertzberg, The Zionist Idea: A Historical Analysis and Reader; NW Cohen, American Jews and the Zionist Idea; I Cohen, Theodor Herzl: Founder of Political Zionism; EJ , XVI. W Laqueur史猶太复國主義;阿赫茲伯格,猶太复國主義思想:一種歷史分析與讀者;西北科恩,美國猶太人和猶太复國主義思想,我科恩,西奧多赫茨爾:方正政治猶太复國主義;伯克利分校,十六。

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