Abraham, Abram, Ibrahim石禮謙,亞伯蘭,易卜拉欣

General Information 一般資料

Abraham, originally called Abram, was Israel's first great patriarch. He probably lived in the late 3d or early 2d millennium BC, but the earliest source for information on his life is Genesis 11-25, written about 10 centuries later. 石禮謙,最初叫亞伯蘭,是以色列的第一次大牧首,他可能住在已故的三維或明年初二維公元前3000年,但最早的信息源就他的一生也就成因11月25日,書面約有10世紀之後。 He was born at Ur in Chaldea, where he married his half-sister Sarah.他出生在烏拉圭回合中chaldea ,在那裡他娶了半年的姐姐莎拉。 Under divine inspiration, he went to Haran in Mesopotamia.根據神的啟示,他又到haran在美索不達米亞平原。 Later God commanded him to leave his home for a new land; in return God offered Abraham fame, land, and descendants, promising that he would become a blessing to all nations.後來上帝命令他離開他的家,為新的土地;回報上帝給予亞伯拉罕名利,土地和子孫,有前途的,他會成為一個祝福所有國家。 Abraham obeyed and migrated to Canaan, where he lived as a nomadic chieftain.亞伯拉罕聽從指揮,並遷移到迦南,他在那裡住了作為一個游牧民族的首領。 He soon became wealthy, but he still had no son.他很快就成了有錢人,但他仍然沒有兒子。 Because Sarah was advanced in years, she substituted her Egyptian slave Hagar, who bore Ishmael, Abraham's first son.因為莎拉是先進來,她取代她的埃及奴隸hagar ,負有伊斯梅爾,亞伯拉罕的第一個兒子。 Later, in accord with a divine promise, Sarah gave birth to Isaac.後來,我們在與神的諾言,莎拉生下艾薩克。

Abraham's faith was put to a severe test when God commanded that he sacrifice Isaac, his only son by Sarah.亞伯拉罕的信仰是一個嚴峻的考驗時,神將他犧牲艾薩克,他唯一的兒子,由莎拉。 Abraham did not waver and he prepared for the sacrifice, but God spared the boy at the last moment, substituting a ram.亞伯拉罕沒有動搖,他準備犧牲了,但上帝倖免男孩在最後一刻,而以新的RAM 。 The Bible portrays Abraham as a man struggling to trust God's promises. By his faith Abraham became the father of the Israelite people and is still honored in three different religions.聖經中描繪了亞伯拉罕的,作為一名男子掙扎信任上帝的承諾, 通過他的信仰亞伯拉罕成為父親的israelite人,目前仍在榮幸,在三個不同的宗教。 Jewish tradition stresses Monotheism. 猶太傳統,講一神教。 Christians see him as a model for the man of faith and recognize him as their spiritual ancestor. 基督徒看到他作為一個模式,該名男子的信仰,並承認他當作自己的精神先祖。 Muslims accept him as an ancestor of the Arabs through Ishmael. Numerous works of art are based on the story of the sacrifice of Isaac. 穆斯林接受他作為祖先的阿拉伯人通過伊斯梅爾。眾多藝術作品的基礎上的故事,犧牲艾薩克。

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(Editor's Note: Muslims believe that God commanded Abraham to sacrifice Ishmael instead of Isaac. Where the Hebrew and Christian Bibles present later genealogies as based on Isaac, the Islam Koran indicates that Arabs descended through Ishmael. There is no agreement on this matter, but in all cases, it is agreed that Abraham, and therefore his ancestor Shem was an ancestor, which means that both Jews and (Sunnite) Arabs are Semites (descended from Shem).) (編者注:穆斯林相信上帝指揮的亞伯拉罕以犧牲伊斯梅爾不是艾薩克。那裡希伯來和基督教的聖經,目前稍後族譜作為基於艾薩克,伊斯蘭教古蘭經表明阿拉伯人後裔,伊斯梅爾,有沒有協議,就這件事,但在所有案件中,大家一致表示,石禮謙,因此,他的祖先SHEM後,是一個祖先,即猶太人和(遜尼派) ,阿拉伯人是閃米特人(史提芬SHEM後) ) 。

JJM Roberts jjm羅伯茨

Bright, John, A History of Israel (1972); Neusner, Jacob, Genesis Rabbah: The Judaic Commentary on the Book of Genesis, 3 vols.光明的,約翰,歷史,以色列( 1972年) ; neusner ,雅各,成因rabbah :猶太評這本書的成因, 3卷。 (1985); van Seters, John, Abraham in History and Tradition (1975). ( 1985年) ;車seters ,約翰亞伯拉罕在歷史傳統( 1975年) 。

A'braham a'braham

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Abraham, father of a multitude, son of Terah, was named (Gen. 11:27) before his older brothers Nahor and Haran, because he was the heir of the promises.亞伯拉罕的父親千頭萬緒,兒子terah ,被命名(創11:27 ) ,然後他的哥哥拿鶴和haran ,因為他是王位繼承人的承諾。 Till the age of seventy, Abram sojourned among his kindred in his native country of Chaldea.直至年滿七十,亞伯蘭sojourned他的骨肉,他的國家chaldea 。 He then, with his father and his family and household, quitted the city of Ur, in which he had hitherto dwelt, and went some 300 miles north to Haran, where he abode fifteen years.然後,他,與他的父親和他的親人和家庭,辭去市烏爾,他在迄今白景富,並到一些300英里的北haran ,在那裡他居留權十五年。 The cause of his migration was a call from God (Acts 7:2-4).導致他移徙是一個號召,從神(行為7:2-4 ) 。 There is no mention of this first call in the Old Testament; it is implied, however, in Gen. 12.但沒有提到這首先要求在舊約,它是隱含的,但是,在將軍12 。 While they tarried at Haran, Terah died at the age of 205 years.雖然他們守侯在haran , terah死亡年齡為205歲。

Abram now received a second and more definite call, accompanied by a promise from God (Gen. 12:1, 2); whereupon he took his departure, taking his nephew Lot with him, "not knowing whither he went" (Heb. 11:8).亞伯蘭現在已收到第二次和更明確的要求,並附有一份承諾,從神(創12:1 , 2 ) ;這種情況下,他自己的離開,同時他的侄子投靠他, "不知道著他去" (希伯來書11日: 8 ) 。 He trusted implicitly to the guidance of Him who had called him.他相信,含蓄,以指導他的人打電話給他。 Abram now, with a large household of probably a thousand souls, entered on a migratory life, and dwelt in tents.亞伯蘭而今,隨著大批住戶的可能是一個人靈魂,進入了一個遷徙的生活,住在帳篷裡。 Passing along the valley of the Jabbok, in the land of Canaan, he formed his first encampment at Sichem (Gen. 12:6), in the vale or oak-grove of Moreh, between Ebal on the north and Gerizim on the south.通過沿山谷的jabbok ,在土地的迦南,他形成了他的第一次集結在sichem (創12時06分) ,在谷或櫟樹林的moreh之間, ebal對北方和蓋裡濟姆於南。 Here he received the great promise, "I will make of thee a great nation," etc. (Gen. 12:2, 3, 7).他在這裡獲得了巨大的承諾, "我將讓祢是一個偉大的國家"等(創12:2 , 3日, 7日) 。 This promise comprehended not only temporal but also spiritual blessings.這個承諾理解,不僅時間,而且是精神的祝福。 It implied that he was the chosen ancestor of the great Deliverer whose coming had been long ago predicted (Gen. 3:15).它暗示說,他所選的祖先偉大送其來已久前的預言(創3:15 ) 。 Soon after this, for some reason not mentioned, he removed his tent to the mountain district between Bethel, then called Luz, and Ai, towns about two miles apart, where he built an altar to "Jehovah."此後不久,出於某種原因沒有提及,他除去他的帳篷裡,以山區之間貝瑟爾,那時叫luz ,和AI ,鎮約兩個遠隔萬里,他在那裡建立了一個神龕,以"耶和華" 。 He again moved into the southern tract of Palestine, called by the Hebrews the Negeb; and was at length, on account of a famine, compelled to go down into Egypt.他又搬進南道的巴勒斯坦,所謂由希伯來人的尼革;並且在長度,對帳戶的飢荒,迫使走上進入埃及。

This took place in the time of the Hyksos, a Semitic race which now held the Egyptians in bondage.這件事發生在當時的希克索斯,反猶的比賽中,現在舉行埃及人在勞役。 Here occurred that case of deception on the part of Abram which exposed him to the rebuke of Pharaoh (Gen. 12:18).在這裡,發生了案件欺騙手段對一部分亞伯蘭這暴露了他去責備的法老王(創12時18分) 。 Sarai was restored to him; and Pharaoh loaded him with presents, recommending him to withdraw from the country. : Sarai就恢復了他;老王裝他介紹,建議他退出該國。 He returned to Canaan richer than when he left it, "in cattle, in silver, and in gold" (Gen. 12:8; 13:2. Comp. Ps. 105:13, 14).他回到迦南較富裕的時候,他離開它" ,在牛,在白銀和黃金" (創12時08分; 13時02分。可比。聚苯乙烯。 105:13 , 14 ) 。 The whole party then moved northward, and returned to their previous station near Bethel.全黨,然後向北遷移,並歸還其先前站附近貝瑟爾。 Here disputes arose between Lot's shepherds and those of Abram about water and pasturage.此糾紛產生之間有很多的牧羊人和那些亞伯蘭關於水和牧草。 Abram generously gave Lot his choice of the pasture-ground.亞伯蘭慷慨了很多,他選擇了草場地上。 (Comp. 1 Cor. 6:7.) He chose the well-watered plain in which Sodom was situated, and removed thither; and thus the uncle and nephew were separated. ( comp.一肺心病。 6時07分) ,他選擇了行之有效的澆水平原,其中路透社是坐落,被免去上去;因此,叔叔和侄子被分開。 Immediately after this Abram was cheered by a repetition of the promises already made to him, and then removed to the plain or "oakgrove" of Mamre, which is in Hebron.剛剛處理完這亞伯蘭被歡呼聲中重複的承諾,已經向他提出,然後再遷移到平原或" oakgrove " mamre ,這是在希伯倫。 He finally settled here, pitching his tent under a famous oak or terebinth tree, called "the oak of Mamre" (Gen. 13:18).他最後定居在這裡,俯仰他的帳篷下,一位著名的橡樹或terebinth樹,被稱為"橡樹的mamre " (創13時18分) 。

This was his third resting-place in the land.這已經是他第三次休息位,在土地。 Some fourteen years before this, while Abram was still in Chaldea, Palestine had been invaded by Chedorlaomer, King of Elam, who brought under tribute to him the five cities in the plain to which Lot had removed.一些14年在此之前,而亞伯蘭仍chaldea ,巴方已侵占chedorlaomer ,國王elam ,誰受到讚揚他的5個城市中平原,其中不少已拆除。 This tribute was felt by the inhabitants of these cities to be a heavy burden, and after twelve years they revolted.這種敬意是感受到居民的這些城市是一個沉重的負擔,經過十二年他們反抗。 This brought upon them the vengeance of Chedorlaomer, who had in league with him four other kings.這帶給他們復仇的chedorlaomer ,曾在聯賽與他的其他四個國王隊。 He ravaged the whole country, plundering the towns, and carrying the inhabitants away as slaves.他蹂躪整個國家,掠奪城鎮,並進行居民去充當奴隸。 Among those thus treated was Lot.其中,因此治療是很多。 Hearing of the disaster that had fallen on his nephew, Abram immediately gathered from his own household a band of 318 armed men, and being joined by the Amoritish chiefs Mamre, Aner, and Eshcol, he pursued after Chedorlaomer, and overtook him near the springs of the Jordan.聽證會的災難已落在他的侄子,亞伯蘭立即聚集在他自己的家庭樂隊的318名武裝官兵,並正在參加由amoritish酋長mamre , aner , eshcol ,他便去追尋後chedorlaomer ,並超越了他近泉水該約旦。 They attacked and routed his army, and pursued it over the range of Anti-Libanus as far as to Hobah, near Damascus, and then returned, bringing back all the spoils that had been carried away.他們襲擊並改為他的軍隊,並執行它的各種反libanus據以hobah ,大馬士革附近,然後再返回,帶回了全部贓物已被運走。

Returning by way of Salem, ie, Jerusalem, the king of that place, Melchizedek, came forth to meet them with refreshments.回流的方式,塞勒姆,即耶路撒冷,國王的那個地方, melchizedek ,站出來,以滿足這些需求與茶點。 To him Abram presented a tenth of the spoils, in recognition of his character as a priest of the most high God (Gen. 14:18-20).他亞伯蘭介紹了十分之一的戰利品,以表彰他的性格和一名牧師的最高級神(創14:18-20 ) 。 In a recently-discovered tablet, dated in the reign of the grandfather of Amraphel (Gen. 14:1), one of the witnesses is called "the Amorite, the son of Abiramu," or Abram.在最近發現的片劑,過時,在腥風血雨的祖父的amraphel (創14時01分) ,證人之一是所謂的" amorite ,兒子的abiramu " ,或者亞伯蘭。 Having returned to his home at Mamre, the promises already made to him by God were repeated and enlarged (Gen. 13:14).回到他的家在mamre ,曾經作出的承諾,以他的上帝被反复放大(創13時14分) 。 "The word of the Lord" (an expression occurring here for the first time) "came to him" (15:1). "天主聖言" (一種表現此起彼伏,為第一次) "來找他" ( 15:1 ) 。 He now understood better the future that lay before the nation that was to spring from him.他現在更好地理解未來奠定之前,民族,那就是讓春天從他的。 Sarai, now seventy-five years old, in her impatience, persuaded Abram to take Hagar, her Egyptian maid, as a concubine, intending that whatever child might be born should be reckoned as her own. Ishmael was accordingly thus brought up, and was regarded as the heir of these promises (Gen. 16). : Sarai ,現在75年歲,在她的不耐煩,說服亞伯蘭採取hagar ,她的埃及侍女,作為一個妾,有意無論孩子可能誕生應該算是她自己。 伊斯梅爾相應地,因此帶來了,並被視為繼承人的這些諾言 (創16 ) 。

When Ishmael was thirteen years old, God again revealed yet more explicitly and fully his gracious purpose; and in token of the sure fulfilment of that purpose the patriarch's name was now changed from Abram to Abraham (Gen. 17:4, 5), and the rite of circumcision was instituted as a sign of the covenant.當伊斯梅爾是十三歲,上帝再次揭示了,但更加明確和充分,他殷勤的目的,而且在象徵性的確保實現這一目的,老人家的名字,現在改由亞伯蘭到亞伯拉罕(創17時04分, 5人) ,並禮樂割包皮被提起,作為一種標誌,該公約。 It was then announced that the heir to these covenant promises would be the son of Sarai, though she was now ninety years old; and it was directed that his name should be Isaac.它當時宣布說,王位繼承人向這些公約的承諾,將兒子: Sarai ,雖然她現在九十年歲,並且是針對他的姓名必須與艾薩克。 At the same time, in commemoration of the promises, Sarai's name was changed to Sarah.在同一時間內,為紀念承諾, : Sarai的名稱變更為莎拉。 On that memorable day of God's thus revealing his design, Abraham and his son Ishmael and all the males of his house were circumcised (Gen. 17).就這一值得紀念的日子上帝的,從而暴露了他的設計,亞伯拉罕和他的兒子伊斯梅爾和所有男性的他的房子被接受割禮(創17 ) 。

Three months after this, as Abraham sat in his tent door, he saw three men approaching. 3個月後,這方面,正如亞伯拉罕坐在帳篷門口,他看到三名男子逼近。 They accepted his proffered hospitality, and, seated under an oak-tree, partook of the fare which Abraham and Sarah provided. One of the three visitants was none other than the Lord, and the other two were angels in the guise of men. The Lord renewed on this occasion his promise of a son by Sarah, who was rebuked for her unbelief.他們接受了他的proffered款待,並在座位下的櫟樹, partook的票價,其中亞伯拉罕和薩拉所提供的, 其中一人三個visitants不是別人,耶和華,其他兩位是天使,在花樣翻新的男人。主續約這次他的承諾,提出了一個兒子,由莎拉,他們被斥責為她不信。 Abraham accompanied the three as they proceeded on their journey.石禮謙的陪同下三個,因為他們開始對自己的旅程。 The two angels went on toward Sodom; while the Lord tarried behind and talked with Abraham, making known to him the destruction that was about to fall on that guilty city.兩個天使,又對路透社11 ,而主滯在後面,並與亞伯拉罕,使他所知的破壞,這是即將降臨在這有罪的城市。 The patriarch interceded earnestly in behalf of the doomed city.牧交錯,切實在代表該注定的城市。 But as not even ten righteous persons were found in it, for whose sake the city would have been spared, the threatened destruction fell upon it; and early next morning Abraham saw the smoke of the fire that consumed it as the "smoke of a furnace" (Gen. 19: 1-28).但由於不是甚至超過10正義人士被發現在它,而那些城市已經無一倖免,威脅毀滅下跌後,它和早期第二天早晨亞伯拉罕看到濃煙的火災消耗它看作是"煙霧一爐" (創19 : 1-28 ) 。

After fifteen years' residence at Mamre, Abraham moved southward, and pitched his tent among the Philistines, near to Gerar.經過十五年居住在mamre ,亞伯拉罕南下,並定他的帳篷之中philistines ,近至gerar 。 Here occurred that sad instance of prevarication on his part in his relation to Abimelech the King (Gen. 20).在這裡,發生了悲慘的實例推諉對他的部分,他與亞比米勒國王(創20 ) 。 Soon after this event, the patriarch left the vicinity of Gerar, and moved down the fertile valley about 25 miles to Beer-sheba.一旦這次事件之後,元老離開附近gerar ,並降了肥沃的山谷大約25英里的啤酒-謝巴。 It was probably here that Isaac was born, Abraham being now an hundred years old.它可能是這裡艾薩克出生,亞伯拉罕正在現在是一個百年老。 A feeling of jealousy now arose between Sarah and Hagar, whose son, Ishmael, was no longer to be regarded as Abraham's heir.的感覺,嫉妒,現在之間出現Sarah和hagar ,他的兒子,伊斯梅爾,不再被視為亞伯拉罕的繼承人。 Sarah insisted that both Hagar and her son should be sent away.莎拉堅持說,雙方hagar和她的兒子要送到距離。 This was done, although it was a hard trial to Abraham (Gen. 21:12).這樣做,雖然這是一場艱苦的審訊亞伯拉罕(創21時12分) 。 At this point there is a blank in the patriarch's history of perhaps twenty-five years.在這一點上是一個空白,在元老的歷史或許二十五年。 These years of peace and happiness were spent at Beer-sheba.這些年來,和平與幸福,都用在啤酒-謝巴。

The next time we see him his faith is put to a severe test by the command that suddenly came to him to go and offer up Isaac, the heir of all the promises, as a sacrifice on one of the mountains of Moriah.在我們下一次看到他,他的信仰是把一個嚴峻的考驗,由指揮突然來到他竟然去了,並提供了艾薩克,繼承人的所有承諾,作為一個犧牲的一個山上的moriah 。 His faith stood the test (Heb. 11:17-19).他的信仰,經受了考驗(希伯來書11:17-19 ) 。 He proceeded in a spirit of unhesitating obedience to carry out the command; and when about to slay his son, whom he had laid on the altar, his uplifted hand was arrested by the angel of Jehovah, and a ram, which was entangled in a thicket near at hand, was seized and offered in his stead.他是在精神,毫不猶豫的順從,進行指揮;時,要斬他的愛子,他已奠定了在祭壇上,他賺的手被逮捕,由天使的耶和華,並採用沖壓,這是糾纏在一個叢林在即,被繳獲,並在他而起。 From this circumstance that place was called Jehovah-jireh, ie, "The Lord will provide."從這一情況發生了被稱為耶和華- jireh ,即"耶和華將提供" 。 The promises made to Abraham were again confirmed (and this was the last recorded word of God to the patriarch); and he descended the mount with his son, and returned to his home at Beer-sheba (Gen. 22:19), where he resided for some years, and then moved northward to Hebron.所作出的承諾,以亞伯拉罕再次證實了(這是最後一個記錄上帝的話,以牧)和他的後裔山與他的兒子,然後返回他的家在啤酒-謝巴(創22時19分) ,在那裡他居住了很多年,然後向北遷移至希布倫。 Some years after this Sarah died at Hebron, being 127 years old.一些年後,這莎拉死在希伯倫被一百二十七年歲。

Abraham acquired now the needful possession of a burying-place, the cave of Machpelah, by purchase from the owner of it, Ephron the Hittite (Gen. 23); and there he buried Sarah.亞伯拉罕後天,現在需要的,藏有埋位,洞窟machpelah ,購買到由該財產權, ephron了赫梯(創23 ) ;和他在那裡埋葬莎拉。 His next care was to provide a wife for Isaac, and for this purpose he sent his steward, Eliezer, to Haran (or Charran, Acts 7:2), where his brother Nahor and his family resided (Gen. 11:31).他的下照顧,是提供一個妻子,以撒,並為此目的,他派了他的管家,埃利澤, haran (或charran行為, 7時02分) ,在那裡他的弟弟拿鶴和他的家人居住(創11時31分) 。 The result was that Rebekah, the daughter of Nahor's son Bethuel, became the wife of Isaac (Gen. 24).其結果是rebekah ,女兒拿鶴的兒子bethuel ,成了妻子的艾薩克(創24 ) 。 Abraham then himself took to wife Keturah, who became the mother of six sons, whose descendants were afterwards known as the "children of the east" (Judg. 6:3), and later as "Saracens."石禮謙,然後自己拿了給妻子keturah ,他成為母親的六個兒子,其後裔後來被稱為"兒童的東方" ( judg. 6:3 ) ,後來因為"這部電影" 。 At length all his wanderings came to an end.長度在他的所有wanderings落下帷幕。 At the age of 175 years, 100 years after he had first entered the land of Canaan, he died, and was buried in the old family burying-place at Machpelah (Gen. 25:7-10).在年滿175年, 100年後,他曾首次進入了土地的迦南,他真的死了,被掩埋在舊家庭埋位在machpelah (創25:7-10 ) 。 The history of Abraham made a wide and deep impression on the ancient world, and references to it are interwoven in the religious traditions of almost all Eastern nations.歷史上的亞伯拉罕作出了廣泛和深刻的印象,對古老的世界,以及提述,它是交織在一起,在宗教傳統,幾乎所有東歐國家。 He is called "the friend of God" (James 2:23), "faithful Abraham" (Gal. 3:9), "the father of us all" (Rom. 4:16).他是所謂的"朋友的上帝" (詹姆斯2時23分) , "忠實亞伯拉罕" ( gal. 3時09分) , "父親對我們所有人" (羅馬書4時16分) 。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (伊斯頓說明字典)


Advanced Information 先進的信息

Abraham stands in the unique position of being the father of a nation and the father of all believers.亞伯拉罕在地的獨特地位,作為父親的一個民族和父親的所有信徒。 God told Abraham to leave his homeland and go to the land of Canaan.上帝告訴亞伯拉罕要離開自己的家園,前往該地的迦南。 There God entered into a covenant with him (Gen. 12:1-3; 15:12-21).有上帝進入了一個盟約與他(創12:1-3 ; 15:12-21 ) 。 Abraham was the progenitor of the Hebrew nation and of several Arabic peoples.亞伯拉罕是progenitor的希伯來民族和幾個阿拉伯語人民。 All Jews regard themselves as his descendants, a special people chosen by God (Isa. 51:1-2).所有猶太人把自己當成他的子孫,一個特殊的人所選擇的神(以賽亞書51:1-2 ) 。

But beyond the physical posterity lies the spiritual dimension, for "all peoples on earth will be blessed through you" (Gen. 12:3; 18:18; 22:18; 26:4; 28:14).但除了身體的後代在於精神方面, "所有的人民在地球上,將祝福通過你" (創12時03分; 18時18分; 22時18分; 26:4 ; 28:14 ) 。 This is perhaps the first great missionary text in the Bible.這也許是第一個偉大的宣教士文在聖經。 Paul referred to it as the same gospel which he preached (Gal. 3:8).保羅提到的把它當作福音,同時他所鼓吹( gal. 3時08分) 。 The blessing came through Christ, "the son of David, the son of Abraham" (Matt. 1:1).祝福來到透過基督, "大衛之子,兒子亞伯拉罕的" 。 ( 1:1 ) 。 All who believe in Christ are the children of Abraham, even the Gentiles (Gal. 3:7-14).所有的人認為,在基督裡說是兒童的亞伯拉罕,甚至外邦人( gal. 3:7-14 ) 。 They too are "Abraham's seed, and heirs according to the promise" (Gal. 3:29).他們也都是"亞伯拉罕的種子和繼承人據諾言" ( gal. 3時29分) 。 In fact, faith in Christ is more important than physical descent when it comes to determining who the children of Abraham really are (Matt. 3:9; John 8:33).事實上,在基督裡的信仰,更重要的,比物理出身,當談到確定誰是孩子的亞伯拉罕真的是。 ( 3時09分;約翰8時33分) 。 God's promises to Abraham and the rest of the patriarchs find their unique fulfillment in Christ (Acts 3: 25-26), though in a limited sense any godly king who sat on David's throne fulfilled the Abrahamic covenant (cf. Ps. 72:17).上帝的承諾,到亞伯拉罕與其餘的patriarchs找到自己獨特的圓滿,在基督(使徒3 : 25-26 ) ,儘管在有限的意義上的任何神聖國王,他們就坐在大衛的寶座,實現了亞伯拉罕盟約(參見聚苯乙烯。 72:17 ) 。 The covenant was unconditional and eternal, but kings and other individuals who disobeyed God would find themselves cut off from the covenant (Gen. 17:13-14; 18:18-19).該公約是無條件的和永恆的,但國王和其他的人不服從上帝會發現自己被切斷盟約(創17:13-14 ; 18:18-19 ) 。

The NT mentions Abraham more than any other OT figure except Moses, and it stresses his significance as a man of faith.新台幣提到亞伯拉罕比其他任何城市旅遊局的數字,除摩西,它強調了他的意義,因為一個人的信仰。 When called to leave Mesopotamia, Abraham "obeyed and went, even though he did not know where he was going" (Heb. 11:8).當所謂離開美索不達米亞平原,亞伯拉罕"服從和每到一地,即使他不知道他在哪裡,是正在進行的" (希伯來書11時08分) 。 Even after reaching Canaan, Abraham still remained a stranger and did not live to see the fulfillment of the promises (Heb. 11:9-10).即使達到迦南,亞伯拉罕仍然是一個陌生人,並沒有能夠活著看到履行該諾言(希伯來書11:9-10 ) 。 He did believe that God would give him a son and that his offspring would someday become as numerous as the stars.他相信上帝會給予他的兒子和他的後代會有朝一日成為一樣多的星星。 On the basis of this faith God "credited it to him as righteousness" (Gen. 15:4-6).在此基礎上信仰上帝" ,貸記它以他為正義" (創15:4-6 ) 。 Paul cites this passage as his first illustration of justification by faith in Rom.保羅引用了這段話作為他的第一個例證因信稱義的ROM 。 4:1-3. 4:1-3 。 In the same chapter Paul notes that Abraham dared to believe that Sarah would give birth to the promised child, even though she was past the age of childbearing and he was a hundred years old (Rom. 4:18-19).在同一章中保羅指出亞伯拉罕不敢相信莎拉會出生到答應孩子,她雖然是過去時代的生育和他是一個百年老(羅馬書4:18-19 ) 。 Abraham's unwavering faith in the promises of God remains a challenge to all people to "believe in Him who raised Jesus our Lord from the dead" (Rom. 4:20-24).亞伯拉罕的堅定信念,在承諾的上帝仍然是一個挑戰,所有的人, "相信在他的人提出耶穌我們的主從死裡復活" (羅馬書4:20-24 ) 。

The greatest test of Abraham's faith came when God instructed him to sacrifice Isaac on Mt. Moriah.是最大的考驗亞伯拉罕的信仰來到時,上帝指示他的犧牲艾薩克山moriah 。 In spite of the fact that God's previous promises were intertwined with the life of Isaac, Abraham obeyed and was ready to plunge the knife into his dear son.儘管事實,即上帝的前許諾相互交織在一起的生活,以撒,亞伯拉罕聽從指揮,並隨時準備投身刀到他親愛的兒子。 According to Heb.根據希伯來書。 11:17-19, Abraham reasoned that God would bring Isaac back to life, so deep was his confidence in God's promises. 11:17-19亞伯拉罕的理由是,上帝會帶來艾薩克活回來,如此之深,是他的信心,對上帝的承諾。 This experience of nearly sacrificing his only son placed Abraham in the position of God the Father, who sent his one and only Son to Mt. Calvary, not far from Mt. Moriah (II Chr. 3:1).這方面的經驗幾乎犧牲他唯一的兒子放在亞伯拉罕在位置在上帝父親,他派了他的一次,也是唯一的兒子噸。 calvary ,不遠處的山。 moriah (二人權委員會。 3:1 ) 。 The Greek word that describes Christ as the "only begotten" or "one and only son," monogenes, is applied to Isaac in Heb.希臘字,描述基督為"唯一造物主"或"一獨生子, " monogenes ,是適用於艾薩克在希伯來書。 11:17. 11:17 。 A ram was substituted on the altar for Isaac (Gen. 22:13), but God "did not spare his own son" (Rom. 8:32).公羊取代了對供奉艾薩克(創22時13分) ,但上帝" ,沒有放過自己的兒子" (羅馬書8時32分) 。 The pain and agony felt by Abraham at the prospect of sacrificing Isaac in some small way helps us understand the suffering of the Father when he offered up his Son for us all.疼痛和痛苦,感受到亞伯拉罕在展望犧牲艾薩克在一些小方法,有助於我們了解痛苦的父親時,他提出了他的兒子,為我們所有人。

Abraham's fellowship with God is also illustrated through his prayer life.亞伯拉罕的團契與上帝,也表明通過他的禱告生活。 In Gen. 20:7 Abraham is called a prophet who will pray for the healing of a Philistine king and his family.在將軍20時07亞伯拉罕是所謂的先知,他們會祈求醫治一個庸俗的國王和他的家人。 Earlier, in Gen. 18:22-33, Abraham stood before the Lord and interceded in behalf of the city of Sodom.此前,在將軍18:22-33亞伯拉罕站在耶和華面前的交錯中,代表市路透社11 。 His boldness in prayer encourages the believer to lay petitions before the throne of grace.他的氣魄,在祈禱鼓勵信徒所奠定的請願寶座前的寬限期。 Because of his close walk with the Lord, Abraham is sometimes called the friend of God (II Chr. 20:7; Isa. 41:8; James 2:23).因為他的親密散步主,亞伯拉罕是有時被稱為朋友的神(二人權委員會。 20時07分;伊薩。 41:8 ;詹姆斯2時23分) 。 Both the Hebrew and the Greek words for "friend" include the idea of "the one who loves God."無論是希伯來語和希臘文的"朋友"包括構思, "一個有愛心的上帝" 。 Abraham loved God more than anything else in the world (Gen. 22:2).亞伯拉罕愛上帝比任何事情都重要,在世界上(創22時02分) 。 His obedience to the Lord is emphasized also in Gen. 26:5.他敬畏耶和華是還強調,在將軍26:5 。 Before the law was written, Abraham kept God's requirements, commands, and laws.在法律面前寫,亞伯拉罕保持上帝的要求,命令和法律。

Abraham was rightly called a prophet because he received divine revelation (Gen. 12:1-3).亞伯拉罕是正確的所謂先知,因為他收到了神聖的啟示(創12:1-3 ) 。 God spoke to him in a vision (Gen. 15:1) and appeared to him in a theophany (Gen. 18:1).上帝以他的遠見(創15:1 ) ,並依他看來,在一個theophany (創18:1 ) 。

HM Wolf狼陛下

(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) ( Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 參考書目
J. Walvoord, "Premillennialism and the Abrahamic Covenant," BS 109:37-46, 293-303; G. von Rad, OT Theology, I, 170-75; JB Payne, The Theology of the Older Testament; J. Jeremias, TDNT, I, 8-9; R. Longenecker, "The 'Faith of Abraham,'" JETS 20:203-12; W. Kaiser, Jr., Toward an OT Theology; RE Clements, TDOT,I, 52-58. j. walvoord , " premillennialism和亞伯拉罕盟約, "布109:37-46 , 293-303 ; g.馮RAD數據通信公司,酒店神學,我, 170-75 ;了JB佩恩,神學的老遺囑的J. jeremias , tdnt ,我,第8-9頁;傳譯朗格內克說, " 『信仰亞伯拉罕的"喉20:203-12 ;凱塞小,小,對一個城市旅遊局神學;重新某種控制, tdot ,我52歲- 58 。

Abrahamic Covenant亞伯拉罕盟約

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From: Home Bible Study Commentary by James M. Gray 來自:主頁聖經研究評論詹姆斯米灰色

GENESIS CHAPTERS 14, 15成因章第十四條,第十五條

The Confederated KIngs該confederated國王

Gen. 14: 1-12 How does the Revised Version translate "nations" in verse 1?將軍14 : 1-12如何修訂版翻譯"國"在韻文1 ? In what valley was the battle joined (3)?在什麼山谷戰鬥中加入( 3 ) ? How is that valley now identified?如何達到這一山谷現在確定了嗎? Against what six peoples did Chedorlaomer and his confederates campaign in the fourteenth year (5-7)?對什麼六名人民做chedorlaomer和他的confederates運動,在今年第14 ( 5-7 ) ? You will find these peoples located on the east and south of the Dead Sea.你會發現,這些民族坐落於東部和南部的死海。 Who were victors in this case (10)?那些勝利者在這種情況下, ( 10 ) ? How did they reward themselves (11)?他們是如何獎勵自己( 11 ) ? What gives us a special interest in this story (12)?是什麼讓我們特別有興趣,在這個故事( 12 ) ? Objectors have denied the historicity of it, but the monuments of Assyria, Babylonia and Egypt, with their inscriptions and paintings, confirm it.反對者都否認了歷史性的,但該紀念碑的assyria ,巴比倫王國和埃及之後,他們的題字和畫作,證實這一消息。 The names of some of these kings are given, and it would appear that Chedorlaomer was the general name of a line of Elamite kings corresponding to the several pharaohs and Caesars of later times.姓名一些這類國王給出了,這樣看來, chedorlaomer是一般的名字一排埃蘭文國王相對應的幾個法老和凱撒的稍後的時間。

Abram's Exploit of Arms亞伯蘭的利用武器

Gen. 14: 13-24 By what name was Abram distinguished among these heathen peoples (13)?將軍14 : 13-24什麼名字亞伯蘭傑出其中異教徒人民( 13 ) ? What hint have we of his princely power (14)?什麼暗示,我們有他的princely電源( 14 ) ? What was the manner of his attack (15)?是什麼方式,他的攻擊( 15 ) ? The motive for it (16)?動機,因為它( 16 ) ? We are not surprised at Abram's meeting with the king of Sodom on his return, but what other king is named (18)?我們不會感到驚訝,亞伯蘭的會議,與國王路透社對他的回報,但其他什麼國王的名字命名( 18 ) ? What office did he hold beside that of king?什麼辦公室,他持有旁邊就是國王? Was he a heathen like the others (19)?他是異教徒像其他人一樣, ( 19 ) ? Who gave the tithes, Abram or he?是誰給了tithes ,亞伯蘭還是他? (Compare Heb. 7:6.) Melchizedek seems to have been a king of Salem, later called Jerusalem, who like Job had not only retained the knowledge of the true God but also like him was in his own person a prince and a priest. (比較以弗所書7時06分) 。 melchizedek似乎已被國王的塞勒姆,後來所謂的耶路撒冷,他們喜歡工作,不僅保留了知識的真正上帝,但也和他一樣,是在他自己的人,王子和一名牧師。 (Compare Job 1:5-8; 29; 25.) Recent discoveries of correspondence of the Egyptian kings written at about the time of the Exodus refute the theory once held that Melchizedek was an imaginary character and that this incident never occurred. (比較就業1:5-8 29 , 25 ) ,最近發現的信件,埃及國王寫在關於時間的流失,駁斥了理論一旦認為melchizedek是一個虛字,並認為這件事從未發生過。

This correspondence includes letters of the king of Jerusalem, Ebed-Tob by name, which means "the servant of the Good One," who speaks of himself in the very phrases used by his predecessor Melchizedek (Heb. 7).此對應,包括信用證國王在耶路撒冷, ebed -來的名字,意思是"僕人的好, "誰講的他自己在非常句話用他的前任melchizedek (希伯來書7 ) 。 The probability is that Melchizedek, like Chedorlaomer, was the common name of a race or dynasty of priest-kings ruling over that city.概率是melchizedek ,像chedorlaomer ,是通用名稱一個種族或王朝的牧師-國王統治這個城市。 He is employed as a type of Christ in the 110th Psalm and in Hebrews 7.他所任職的,作為一種基督在110詩篇,並在希伯來人7 。 How does the king of Sodom probably the successor to him who had been slain (10), express his gratitude to Abram (21)?請問王路透社可能的繼任者,他已被殺害( 10 ) ,表達他的謝意亞伯蘭( 21 ) ? What is Abram's response (22-24)?什麼是亞伯蘭的反應( 22-24 ) ? How does this response show that Melchizedek worshipped the same God?請問這個反應表明melchizedek崇拜,同時上帝嗎? What elements of character does it show in Abram?哪些要素的性質是否顯示在亞伯蘭?

The Second Test and Reward of Faith第二次試驗,並懸賞信仰

Gen. 15: 1-6 "After these things" Abram might have feared that the defeated warriors would return in force and overwhelm him, nor is it improbable that misgivings arose as to relinquishing the spoil he was entitled to as the conqueror.將軍15 : 1-6 : "這事以後, "亞伯蘭可能害怕說,打敗勇士將返回有效,並壓倒了他的,也不是難以琢磨的疑慮,即出現以放棄溺愛他有權作為征服者。 But God could deliver him from fear in the one case and make up to him the loss in the other.但神可以送他免於恐懼的是在一個個案,並作出了向他的損失,在其他。 How does He express both ideas in verse 1?他是如何表達這兩個想法在韻文1 ? But what burdens Abram heavier than either of these things (2)?但什麼負擔較重亞伯蘭比的,這些東西( 2 ) ? God promised him a seed to inherit Canaan, which should be multiplied as the dust of the earth, yet he was going hence childless.上帝答應他一個種子繼承迦南,應乘以由於灰塵的地球,但他會因此不要孩子。 He who should be possessor of his house under these circumstances would be Dammesek Eliezer (RV).他的人,應該擁有他的房子,在這種情況下,將dammesek埃利澤( RV )的。 Just how to explain this is difficult, but Eliezer was his steward, and oriental custom may have entailed the possessions of his master on such an one where no natural heir existed.只是怎樣去解釋,這是困難的,但埃利澤是他的管家,與東方習俗,可能引起該財產的主人對這樣的人,那裡沒有天然繼承人存在。 We cannot explain this but would call attention to the reply of Jehovah, that it is not an adopted son he shall have but a supernatural one (4).我們現在還不能解釋這個,但會提醒注意的答复耶和華,說,這不是一種通過兒子,他有權,但有神靈,一( 4 ) 。

And now what does Jehovah do to Abram (5)?現在是什麼耶和華做亞伯蘭( 5 ) ? And what does He ask Abram to do?以及什麼是他問亞伯蘭做什麼? And what does He then promise him?以及什麼是他當時承諾,他呢? Was Abram's faith able to measure up to this stupendous declaration (6)?當時亞伯蘭的信心,能達到這一驚人宣言( 6 ) ? And in what did this faith of Abram result to him (v. 6, last clause)?以及用什麼做這種信仰的亞伯蘭結果,讓他(指五,六,最後條款) ? These words, "COUNTED IT TO HIM FOR RIGHTEOUSNESS," reveal a fact more important to Abram personally than the promise of a seed, except that the seed, considered as the forerunner and type of Christ, was the only ground at length on which Abram might be counted righteous.上面這些話, "算到他主持正義" ,揭示一個事實,更重要的亞伯蘭親自比承諾的種子,除了種子,視為先行者和類型的基督,是唯一的理由,在長度上,亞伯蘭也許算正義。 To understand these words is vital to an understanding of our own redemption, and an apprehension of the Gospel.要了解這句話是非常重要的一種認識,我們自己的救贖,並逮捕了福音。 Abram was a sinner, born into a state of wrongness, but God now puts him by an act of grace into a state of rightness, not because of Abram's righteous character but on the ground of his belief in God's word.亞伯蘭是一個罪人,出生在一個國家的錯,但現在上帝把他的行為恩典到一個國家的正確性,而不是因為亞伯蘭的正義性質,但在地面上的他的信仰,在上帝的話語。 Nor does this righteous state into which he is brought make it true that thereafter he is without a flaw in his character, for he is guilty of much.這也不正義的國家納入其中,他帶來了令是否屬實,此後他沒有瑕疵,他的性格,因為他是無罪的。

But he has a right standing before God and because of it God can deal with him in time and eternity as He cannot deal with other men who do not have this standing.但他有權利站在上帝面前,因為它神只要一想就能對付他,在時間和永恆的,因為他不能處理與其他男子,他們並沒有本次常委會。 The significance of this to us is seen in Romans 4:23-25, which you are urged to read prayerfully.的意義,這對我們是看到在羅馬4:23-25 ,我們敦促閣下務必閱讀禱告。 The question is sometimes asked whether Abram, and for that matter, any Old Testament saint, was justified or made righteous just as we are in these days.但問題是,有時詢問亞伯蘭,為這件事,任何舊約聖,是有道理或作出正義的,正如我們在這些日子。 The answer is yes, and no.答案是肯定的,並沒有。 They were made righteous just as we are in that Christ took away their guilt on the cross and wrought out a righteousness for them, but they were not made righteous just as we are in that they knew Christ as we do.他們分別作出了正義的,正如我們在基督拿走他們有罪就兩岸關係及鍛出正氣,為他們,但他們沒有作出了正義的,正如我們在這方面,他們知道基督為我們所做的一切。 Christ indeed said that Abram rejoiced to see His day, and he saw it and was glad (John 8:56), but this does not mean that he saw and understood what we now do of the Person and finished work of Christ.基督確說,亞伯蘭很高興看到他的一天,他看到它,並很高興(約翰8時56分) ,但是這並不等於說,他看到和理解的,我們現在做的人,下班的喊聲。 The fact is this: God set a certain promise before Abram.事實是這樣的:上帝定某前承諾亞伯蘭。 He believed God's testimony concerning it and was counted righteous in consequence.他相信上帝的證詞,有關它和計數正義的後果。

God sets a certain promise before us, and if we believe God's testimony concerning it we are counted righteous in consequence.上帝定下某承諾,擺在我們面前的,如果我們相信上帝的證詞,有關它,我們必須算正義的後果。 The promise to Abram was that of a natural seed; the promise to us is that of salvation through Jesus Christ, the anti-type of that seed.承諾亞伯蘭是一種天然種子;許諾給我們的是救恩透過耶穌基督,反類型的種子。 We have but to believe His testimony concerning Jesus Christ, as Abram believed it concerning the seed, to obtain the same standing before God forever.我們有,但相信他的證詞中有關耶穌基督,為亞伯蘭相信,它涉及種子,以獲得同樣站在上帝永遠。 It is not our character that gives it to us, nor does our change of standing immediately produce a change of character, but this does not affect the standing, which is the important thing because the character grows out of it.這不是我們的品格,給人以美,也沒有改變我們的常委會立即產生一個性格的變化,但是這並不影響到常委會,這是重要的事,因為這個字出自於它。 The reward of the first test of faith brought Abram a country (Gen. 12), but that of the second brought him a better country, that is, a heavenly (Heb. 11: 8-16).該獎勵的第一次考驗,信仰帶來亞伯蘭一個國家(創12 ) ,但對第二次他帶來更美好的國家,即是天堂(希伯來書11 : 8-16 ) 。

The Covenant of God該公約的上帝

Gen. 15: 7-12, 17-21 In what words does God now identify Himself and renew the promise of the land (7)?將軍15 : 7-12 , 17-21 ,在什麼話沒有上帝,現在他的身份,並重新承諾的土地( 7 ) ? Is Abram altogether satisfied about the land (8)?亞伯蘭是完全滿意的土地( 8 ) ? What does God tell him to do (9)?什麼是上帝告訴他,這樣做( 9 ) ? What now happens to Abram (12)?現在該怎麼辦恰巧亞伯蘭( 12 ) ? What next takes place with reference to the sacrifice (17)?下一步怎麼辦時參考的犧牲( 17 ) ? And in connection with this what does God do with Abram?並結合這究竟有沒有上帝與亞伯蘭? How does He define the boundaries of His gift?他是如何界定的邊界他的禮物? We ought to say that "the river of Egypt," can hardly mean the Nile, although some so regard it.我們應該說, "河的埃及" ,也難以意味著尼羅河,雖然有些人,所以把它。 Others think it is that wady or brook of Egypt lying at the southern limit of the land of Israel, referred to in Num.有些人認為它是wady或布魯克的埃及倒臥於南部極限以色列土地上,轉介,在序號。 34:5; Josh. 34:5 ;喬什。 15:4, and Isaiah 27:12. 15時04分,和以賽亞書27:12 。 The strange incident recorded here is of symbolic importance.但奇怪的事件記錄在這裡,是具有象徵意義。 Men entered into covenant with one another in this way, that is, they would slay an animal, divide it into parts, walk up and down between them and thus solemnly seal the bond they had made.男子進入盟約形成一個以這種方式,即他們將殺死動物,分成部分,步行上下之間以及它們因此鄭重密封債券,他們取得了。

Afterward part of the victim would be offered in sacrifice to their gods, while the remainder would be eaten by the parties to the covenant.事後部分受害人提供在犧牲自己的神,而其餘的將被吃掉各方盟約。 It was the highest form of an oath.這是最高形式的一種宣誓。 God thus condescended to assure Abram, since the smoking furnace and burning lamp, passing between the pieces and doubtless consuming them, typified His presence and acceptance of the bond.上帝因此condescended保證亞伯蘭的,因為吸煙爐及燃燒燈,及格之間件無疑會對他們的消費,其典型的存在和接受的債券。 Among men it takes two to make a covenant, but not so here.其中男性需兩至作出盟約,但並非如此。 God is alone in this case, and asks of Abram nothing in return but the repose of confidence in His faithfulness.上帝是孤立無援,在這種情況下,並要求對亞伯蘭任何回報,但repose的信心,他的虔誠信仰。 It is thus that God covenants with us in Christ.因此,它是神盟約,與我們在基督裡。 He gives, and we take.他給人的,我們採取的。 He promises, and we believe.他承諾,我們相信。 But dwelling on what Abram saw we passed over what he heard, and this is an essential part of God's covenant with him (13-16).但在談到什麼亞伯蘭看到,我們通過什麼他聽不到,這將是一個不可或缺的部分上帝的盟約與他( 13-16 ) 。

What did He say would be true of Abram's seed for a while?什麼叫他說,將真實的亞伯蘭的種子有一陣子? It is a matter of dispute how these four hundred years are computed, but Anstey's Romance of Chronology says that Abraham's seed here means Isaac and his descendants from the time of the weaning of the former when he became his father's heir, to the date of the Exodus, which was precisely 400 years.這是一個有爭議的如何將這些四百年計算,但anstey的浪漫年表說,亞伯拉罕的種子在這裡指艾薩克和他的後裔的時候,該斷奶的前,當他成為他父親的接班人,當日至使用該逃亡,其中恰恰是400年。 What two-fold promise is given Abram personally (15)?有什麼可分為兩方面的承諾是給予亞伯蘭親自( 15 ) ? What particular reason does God give for the delay in possessing Canaan (16)?有什麼特別的理由都是站不住腳的,讓上帝為拖延藏迦南( 16 ) ? "The Amorite" here is the name used doubtless for all the inhabitants of Canaan, of which they were a chief nation and a very wicked one. " amorite "這裡是使用的名稱,無疑為所有居民的迦南人,其中,他們是一個行政民族,一個非常險惡的。 The long-suffering of God will wait while they go on filling up the measure of their iniquity, but at last the sword of divine justice must fall.長期受苦受難的上帝將拭目以待,而他們去填補了衡量他們的邪惡中,但最後一把神聖的正義必須下降。 The same thing happens with sinners in general, and as another says, it ought to embitter the cup of their pleasures.同樣的事情發生,與罪人一般,並作為另一項說,它應該embitter杯他們的樂趣。

Questions 1. 問題 1 。 What corroborative evidence of the historicity of Chapter 14 can you name?什麼佐證的證據歷史性的第14章,可你的名字嗎? 2. 2 。 Recall in detail what has been taught or suggested about Melchizedek.記得詳細一直教導或建議約melchizedek 。 3. 3 。 How would you explain Genesis 15:6?你會如何解釋成因15時06分? 4. 4 。 Can you repeat from memory Romans 4:23-25?你能重複背誦羅馬書4:23-25 ? 5. 5 。 In a word, what is the significance of the transaction in 15:7-21?總的來說,有什麼重要意義的交易,在15:7-21 ?


Catholic Information 天主教資訊

The original form of the name, Abram, is apparently the Assyrian Abu-ramu.原始形式的名稱,亞伯蘭,看來是因為亞述人阿布- ramu 。 It is doubtful if the usual meaning attached to that word "lofty father", is correct.這是令人懷疑的,如果一般的意義,重視這個詞"高尚之父" ,是正確的。 The meaning given to Abraham in Genesis 17:5 is popular word play, and the real meaning is unknown.含義亞伯拉罕在成因17時05分,是流行的文字遊戲,真正的意義是未知之數。 The Assyriologist, Hommel suggests that in the Minnean dialect, the Hebrew letter Hê ("h") is written for long a.該assyriologist , hommel建議,在minnean方言,希伯來語信hê (為" H " )是寫給長甲 Perhaps here we may have the real derivation of the word, and Abraham may be only a dialectical form of Abram.也許在這裡,我們可能有真正的推導字,和亞伯拉罕可能只是一個辯證的形式,亞伯蘭。

The story of Abraham is contained in the Book of Genesis, 11:26 to 25:18.故事中的亞伯拉罕是包含在這本書的成因, 11:26至25:18 。 We shall first give a brief outline of the Patriarch's life, as told in that portion of Genesis, then we shall in succession discuss the subject of Abraham from the viewpoints of the Old Testament, New Testament, profane history, and legend.我們首先概述了老人家的生活,並說,在這部分的成因,那麼,我們應在繼承,討論的主題從亞伯拉罕的觀點舊約,新約聖經,褻瀆歷史,傳說眾多。


Thare had three sons, Abram, Nachor, and Aran. thare有三個兒子,亞伯蘭, nachor , aran 。 Abram married Sarai.亞伯蘭已婚: Sarai 。 Thare took Abram and his wife, Sarai, and Lot, the son of Aran, who was dead, and leaving Ur of the Chaldees, came to Haran and dwelt there till he died. thare了亞伯蘭和他的妻子: Sarai ,及批號,他們兒子的aran ,人已經死了,留下烏爾的新巴比倫王國,來到haran和白景富延續到他去世。 Then, at the call of God, Abram, with his wife, Sarai, and Lot, and the rest of his belongings, went into the Land of Chanaan, amongst other places to Sichem and Bethel, where he built altars to the Lord: A famine breaking out in Chanaan, Abram journeyed southward to Egypt, and when he had entered the land, fearing that he would be killed on account of his wife, Sarai, he bade her say she was his sister.然後,在這些電話的上帝,亞伯蘭,與他的妻子: Sarai ,及批號,其餘他的財物,都深入到土地的chanaan ,除其他地方sichem和貝瑟爾,他在那裡建立了神壇,向上帝禱告:飢荒爆發在chanaan ,亞伯蘭旅南下到埃及,當他進入了土地,怕他將被殺死就交代他的妻子: Sarai ,他的下屬,她說她是他的妹妹。 The report of Sarai's beauty was brought to the Pharao, and he took her into his harem, and honoured Abram on account of her.報告: Sarai的美麗被帶到了pharao ,他帶她到他的harem ,並榮幸亞伯蘭就交代她。 Later, however finding out that she was Abram's wife, he sent her away unharmed, and, upbraiding Abram for what he had done, he dismissed him from Egypt. ,但後來得知她是亞伯蘭的妻子,他給她遠離傷害,而且, upbraiding亞伯蘭為他做了,他開除了,從埃及。 From Egypt Abram came with Lot towards Bethel, and there, finding that their herds and flocks had grown to be very large, he proposed that they should separate and go their own ways.從埃及亞伯蘭來到同地段走向貝瑟爾,並在那裡找到自己的畜群和成群已發展到非常大,他建議他們應該分開走自己的方式。 So Lot chose the country about the Jordan, whilst Abram dwelt in Chanaan, and came and dwelt in the vale of Mambre in Hebron.所以很多選擇了該國對約旦,而亞伯蘭白景富在chanaan ,來到和白景富在谷芒布雷在希伯倫。 Now, on account of a revolt of the Kings of Sodom and Gomorrha and other kings from Chodorlahomor King of Elam, after they had served him twelve years, he in the fourteenth year made war upon them with his allies, Thadal king of nations, Amraphel King of Senaar, and Arioch King of Pontus.現在,也帳戶一個反抗國王的路透社和gomorrha和其他國王從chodorlahomor國王elam後,他們曾擔任他十二年,他在第14年取得了戰爭後,他們與他的盟友, thadal國王的國家, amraphel國王senaar , arioch王橋。 The King of Elam was victorious, and had already reached Dan with Lot a prisoner and laden with spoil, when he was overtaken by Abram.國王elam是戰勝國,並已達成丹同地段還有一名犯人和拉丹與溺愛,當他超越了亞伯蘭。 With 318 men the patri arch surprises, attacks, and defeats him, he retakes Lot and the spoil, and returns in triumph.與318名男子帕特里拱驚喜,攻擊,並戰勝他,但他retakes地段和溺愛,並返回凱旋。 On his way home, he is met by Melchisedech, king of Salem who brings forth bread and wine, and blesses him And Abram gives him tithes of all he has; but for] himself he reserves nothing.就在回家途中,他會見了由melchisedech ,國王的塞勒姆人帶來了麵包和酒,並祝福他和Abram給他tithes所有他,但為]他自己的儲備一無所獲。 God promises Abram that his seed shall be as the stars of heaven, and he shall possess the land of Chanaan.上帝應許亞伯蘭說,他的種子應當作為星級的天堂,他應具備的土地chanaan 。 But Abram does not see how this is to be, for he has already grown old.但亞伯蘭並不見如何,這是值得的,他已老。 Then the promise is guaranteed by a sacrifice between God and Abram, and by a vision and a supernatural intervention in the night.當時承諾是保證犧牲與上帝和Abram ,由遠見和超自然干預過夜。 Sarai, who was far advanced in years and had given up the idea of bearing children, persuaded Abram to take to himself her hand-maid, Agar. : Sarai ,他們遠遠先進於年內已經放棄了想法生育,說服亞伯蘭採取自己的,她手的姑娘,瓊脂。 He does so, and Agar being with child despises the barren Sarai.他這樣做,瓊脂正在與孩子鄙視荒蕪: Sarai 。 For this Sarai afflicts her so that she flies into the desert, but is persuaded to return by an angel who comforts her with promises of the greatness of the son she is about to bear.為此: Sarai折磨她,讓她飛入沙漠,而且是說服返回一個天使,他們安慰她許諾的偉大兒子,她大約是難以承受。 She returns and brings forth Ismael.她回報,並提出了伊斯梅爾。 Thirteen years later God appears to Abram and promises him a son by Sarai, and that his posterity will be a great nation. 13年後的上帝似乎亞伯蘭和承諾,他的兒子: Sarai ,並認為他的子孫將是一個偉大的民族。 As a sign, he changes Abram's name to Abraham, Sarai's to Sara, and ordains the rite of circumcision.作為一種標誌,他的變化亞伯蘭的名稱,以亞伯拉罕: Sarai的向薩拉,並ordains了成年禮的割禮。 One day later, as Abraham is sitting by his tent, in the vale of Mambre, Jehovah with two angels appears to him in human form.一天後,由於亞伯拉罕是坐在他的帳篷裡,在谷芒布雷,耶和華與兩個天使,在他看來,在人類形式。 He shows them hospitality.他表明,他們的盛情款待。 Then again the promise of a son named Isaac is renewed to Abraham.然後再次承諾,提出了一個兒子叫艾薩克續約到亞伯拉罕。 The aged Sarah hears incredulously and laughs.老人莎拉聽見難以置信地發出一陣笑聲。 Abraham is then told of the impending destruction of Sodom and Gomorrha for their sins but obtains from Jehovah the promise that he will not destroy them if he finds ten just men therein.亞伯拉罕則表示,該行將毀滅的路透社和gomorrha為他們的罪孽,但如取得耶和華許諾說,他將不會把他們消滅如果他發現10只男人。 Then follows a description of the destruction of the two cities and the escape of Lot.然後如下說明會毀了這兩個城市,並逃脫了很多東西。 Next morning Abraham, looking from his tent towards Sodom, sees the smoke of destruction ascending to heaven.第二天早晨,石禮謙,從他的帳篷裡對路透社認為,硝煙銷毀升天圓滿。 After this, Abraham moves south to Gerara, and again fearing for his life says of his wife, "she is my sister".在此之後,亞伯拉罕的舉動南gerara ,並再次擔心他的生命表示,他的妻子說: "她是我妹妹" 。 The king of Gerara, Abimelech, sends and takes her, but learning in a dream that she is Abraham's wife he restores her to him untouched, and rebukes him and gives him gifts.國王gerara ,亞比米勒發出,並邀請她,但在學習的一個夢想,她是亞伯拉罕的妻子,他恢復了,她向他也不放過,並指責他,並賦予他的禮物。 In her old age Sarah bears a son, lsaac, to Abraham, and he is circumcised on the eighth day.在她的晚年莎拉熊一個兒子, lsaac ,亞伯拉罕,他是接受割禮就第八天。 Whilst he is still young, Sarah is jealous, seeing Ismael playing with the child Isaac, so she procures that Agar and her son shall be cast out.雖然他仍然年輕,莎拉是嫉妒,看到伊斯梅爾玩兒童艾薩克,所以她勾引即瓊脂和她的兒子應要被趕出去。 Then Agar would have allowed Ismael to perish in the wilderness, had not an angel encouraged her by telling her of the boy's future.瓊脂,然後將允許伊斯梅爾滅亡在荒無人煙的戈壁灘上,已不是天使,就鼓勵她,告訴她該男童的未來。

Abraham is next related to have had a dispute with Abimelech over a well at Bersabee, which ends in a covenant being made between them.亞伯拉罕是在明年相關的,能夠有糾紛亞比米勒一個良好bersabee ,結束在一個公約所作出的差異。 It was after this that the great trial of the faith of Abraham takes place.它是經過如此大審判的信仰亞伯拉罕的發生。 God commands him to sacrifice his only son Isaac.上帝命令他要犧牲他唯一的兒子艾薩克。 When Abraham has his arm raised and is in the very act of striking, an angel from heaven stays his hand and makes the most wonderful promises to him of the greatness of his posterity because of his complete trust in God.當亞伯拉罕他的手臂提出的,是在非常行為的打擊,一個天使從天上停留他的手,並作出最精彩的承諾,以他的偉大,他的後代,因為他完全相信上帝。 Sarah dies at the age of 127, and Abraham, having purchased from Ephron the Hethite the cave in Machpelah near Mambre, buries her there.莎拉去世,當時年僅127 ,和亞伯拉罕,有購自ephron該hethite洞窟在machpelah近芒布雷,埋進她的存在。 His own career is not yet quite ended for first of all he takes a wife for his son Isaac, Rebecca from the city of Nachor in Mesopotamia.他自己的職業生涯尚未結束,不少為首次一切,他的妻子為他的兒子以撒,麗貝卡從市nachor在美索不達米亞平原。 Then he marries Cetura, old though he is, and has by her six children.然後他娶cetura ,老,雖然他現在是,有她的6個孩子。 Finally, leaving all his possessions to Isaac, he dies at age 170, and is buried by Isaac and Ismael in the cave of Machpelah.最後,在離開他的所有家產,以艾薩克,他去世時的年齡170 ,是由埋艾薩克和伊斯梅爾在洞窟machpelah 。


Abraham may be looked upon as the starting-point or source of Old Testament religion.石禮謙,可看作為工作的出發點或來源舊約宗教。 So that from the days of Abraham men were wont to speak of God as the God of Abraham, whilst we do not find Abraham referring in the same way to anyone before him.所以說,從天亞伯拉罕的男子won't的發言上帝亞伯拉罕的神,雖然我們並不覺得亞伯拉罕指在以同樣的方式向任何人在他面前。 So we have Abraham's servant speaking of "the God of my father Abraham" (Gen. xxiv, 12).所以我們有亞伯拉罕的僕人說到: "上帝為我父親亞伯拉罕" (創24條, 12條) 。 Jehovah, in an apparition to Isaac, speaks of himself as the God of Abraham (Gen. xxvi, 24), and to Jacob he is "the God of my father Abraham" (Gen. xxxi, 42).耶和華,在一個apparition以艾薩克,談到自己為亞伯拉罕的神(創26 , 24 ) ,並在雅各布他是"上帝為我父親亞伯拉罕" (創三十一, 42 ) 。 So, too, showing that the religion of Israel does not begin with Moses, God says to Moses: "I am the God of thy fathers, the God of Abraham" etc. (Ex. iii, 6).因此,也顯示出宗教的以色列不開始於摩西,上帝說摩西說: "我的神,你的父親,亞伯拉罕的神"等(如三,六) 。 The same expression is used in the Psalms (xlvi, 10) and is common in the Old Testament.同時表達是用在詩篇(四十六, 10 ) ,並共同在舊約。 Abraham is thus selected as the first beginning or source of the religion of the children of Israel and the origin of its close connection with Jehovah, because of his faith, trust, and obedience to and in Jehovah and because of Jehovah's promises to him and to his seed.石禮謙,因此獲選為第一的開始或來源的宗教子女以色列和源頭,它緊密結合耶和華,因為他的信仰,信任和服從,並在耶和華因為耶和華的承諾,他和他的種子。 So, in Genesis, xv, 6, it is said: "Abram believed God, and it was reputed to him unto justice."因此,在成因,十五,六,它是說: "亞伯蘭相信上帝,它是千里眼,他不欲,正義" 。 This trust in God was shown by him when he left Haran and journeyed with his family into the unknown country of Chanaan.這種信賴上帝,是表現出他的時候,他離開haran和旅與他的家人到未知國家的chanaan 。 It was shown principally when he was willing to sacrifice his only son Isaac, in obedience to a command from God.結果表明,主要是當他願意犧牲他唯一的兒子艾薩克,在服從指揮,由上帝。 It was on that occasion that God said: "Because thou hast not spared thy only begotten son for my sake I will bless thee" etc. (Genesis 22:16, 17).就是在這個場合表示,上帝說: "因為祢不能倖免你的獨生子為我,我會祝福你"等(創22:16 17 ) 。 It is to this and other promises made so often by God to Israel that the writers of the Old Testament refer over and over again in confirmation of their privileges as the chosen people.它是在這方面和其他的諾言,所以常常是由上帝給以色列這樣寫的舊約是指過去,一次又一次的在確認自己的特權,作為選擇的人。 These promises, which are recorded to have been made no less than eight times, are that God will give the land of Chanaan to Abraham and his seed (Genesis 12:7) that his seed shall increase and multiply as the stars of heaven; that he himself shall be blessed and that in him "all the kindred of the earth shall be blessed" (xii, 3).這些承諾,這是記錄在已取得不低於8倍,是上帝給予的土地chanaan到亞伯拉罕和他的種子(創12時07分) ,他的種子應當增加乘以作為星級的天堂;他本人應有福了,而且在他的" ,所有的骨肉的地球應有福" (第十二條) 。 Accordingly the traditional view of the life of Abraham, as recorded in Genesis, is that it is history in the strict sense of the word.因此傳統觀點的生命亞伯拉罕的,作為記錄的成因,是因為它是歷史,在嚴格意義上的字。 Thus Father von Hummelauer, SJ, in his commentary on Genesis in the "Cursus Scripturae Sacrae" (30), in answer to the question from what author the section on Abraham first proceeded, replies, from Abraham as the first source.因此,父親馮胡梅勞爾,律政司司長,在他的評論就起源於" cursus scripturae sacrae " ( 30 ) ,在回答問題,從作者一節亞伯拉罕最初的答复,從亞伯拉罕的,作為第一來源。 Indeed he even says that it is all in one style, as a proof of its origin, and that the Passage, xxv, 5-ll, concerning the goods, death, and burial of Abraham comes from Isaac.事實上,他甚至說,它是在同一個風格,作為一個證明其原產地,以及該通道,二十五, 5 - 11 ,有關貨物,死亡與埋葬的亞伯拉罕來自艾薩克。 It must, however, be added that it is doubtful if Father von Hummelauer still adheres to these views, written before 1895, since he has much modified his position in the volume on Deuteronomy.但是,它必須予以補充說,這是令人懷疑的,如果父親馮胡梅勞爾仍然堅持這些意見,以書面前1895年,因為他有很大的修飾他的立場,在體積上申命記。

Quite a different view on the section of Genesis treating of Abraham, and indeed of the whole of Genesis, is taken by modern critical scholars.不少不同的意見,對部分成因治療亞伯拉罕的,並帶動整個的成因,是由現代批判學者。 They almost unanimously hold that the narrative of the patriarch's life is composed practically in its entirety of three writings or writers called respectively the Jahvist, the Elohist, and the priestly writer, and denoted by the letters J, E, and P. J and E consisted of collections of stories relating to the patriarch, some of older, some of later, origin.他們幾乎一致認為,敘事的老人家的生活組成,幾乎將其全部三種著作或所謂的作家分別jahvist , elohist ,和司鐸的作家,和記字母J以來, E和第j和E其中收藏的故事涉及到元老,有些年紀大了,有的後來,原居地。 Perhaps the stories of J show a greater antiquity than those of E. Still the two authors are very much alike, and it is not always easy to distinguish one from the other in the combined narrative of J and E. From what we can observe, neither the Jahvist nor the Elohist was a personal author.也許故事律政司表現出更大古比權證仍是兩位作者都很一樣,它並不總是很容易區分,一名來自另一個是在敘事相結合的J , e.從什麼,我們可以觀察到,既不jahvist也不elohist是個人作者。 Both are rather schools, and represent the collections of many years.兩者都是,而不是學校,並代表收藏了很多年。 Both collections were closed before the time of the prophets; J some time in the ninth century BC, and E early in the eighth century, the former probably in the South Kingdom, the latter in the North.藏品都被關閉之前的時候,先知們; j一些時間在公元前9世紀,電子商務早在8世紀,前者可能是在英國南部,後者在北方。 Then towards the end of the kingdom, perhaps owing to the inconvenience of having two rival accounts of the stories of the patriarchs etc. going about, a redactor R.JE (?) combined the two collections in one, keeping as much as possible to the words of his sources, making as few changes as possible so as to fit them into one another, and perhaps mostly following J in the account of Abraham.然後在接近年底時的英國,也許是由於不便,有兩個競爭對手的帳目故事的patriarchs等前往約, redactor傳譯是( ? ) ,使兩者相結合,收藏,保存,盡可能地多的話,他的消息來源,使盡可能少作改動等,以適合他們成為彼此,也許大多是以下j單元的帳戶亞伯拉罕。 Then in the fifth century a writer who evidently belonged to the sacerdotal caste wrote down again an account of primitive and patriarchal history from the priestly point of view.然後在第五世紀成為一個作家,顯然屬於這個sacerdotal種姓寫下又是一個帳戶的原始和重男輕女的歷史,從司鐸的觀點。 He attached great importance to clearness and exactness; his accounts of things are often cast into the shape of formulas (cf. Genesis 1); he is very particular about genealogies, also as to chronological notes.他十分重視清晰和準確的,其賬戶的東西往往鑄造成的形狀公式(參見成因1 )他是一位非常特別的約族譜,也以時間順序排列的紙幣。 The vividness and colour of the older patriarchal narratives, J and E, are wanting in the later one, which in the main is as formal as a legal document, though at times it is not wanting in dignity and even grandeur, as is the case in the first chapter of Genesis.該可視性和色彩的舊宗法的敘述, J及英,法,是要在後來的一個,而這主要是由於正式作為一份法律文件,儘管有時是不想要尊嚴,甚至轟轟烈烈的情況一樣,在第一章的成因。 Finally, the moral to be drawn from the various events narrated is more clearly set forth in this third writing and, according to the critics the moral standpoint is that of the fifth century BC Lastly, after the time of Ezra, this last history, P was worked up into one with the already combined narrative JE by a second redactor R. JEP, the result being the present history of Abraham, and indeed the present book of Genesis; though in all probability insertions were made at even a later date.最後,道德,以取自各種活動解說的是更明確提出,在這第三個寫作,並根據批評者的道德立場,是強調在公元前五世紀,最後,經過的時候,以斯拉,這在過去歷史上,磷是致力於成為一個與已經結合的敘事是由第二redactor傳譯jep ,結果被本歷史亞伯拉罕的,而事實上本書的成因,雖然沒有在所有的概率插入作了甚至稍後日期。


The generation of Jesus Christ is traced back to Abraham by St. Matthew, and though in Our Lord's genealogy, according to St. Luke, he is shown to be descended according to the flesh not only from Abraham but also from Adam, still St. Luke shows his appreciation of the fruits of descent from Abraham by attributing all the blessings of God on Israel to the promises made to Abraham.一代耶穌基督是追溯到亞伯拉罕由聖馬太,雖然在我們的主的家譜,據聖盧克顯示,他被史提芬據肉中刺不僅從亞伯拉罕,而且從亞當,還有聖盧克顯出他讚賞的成果後裔,從亞伯拉罕的原因歸於所有的祝福,上帝對以色列所作出的承諾,以亞伯拉罕。 This he does in the Magnificat, iii, 55, and in the Benedictus, iii, 73.這不,他在Magnificat ) ,三, 55 ,並在benedictus ,三, 73 。 Moreover, as the New Testament traces the descent of Jesus Christ from Abraham, so it does of all the Jews; though as a rule, when this is done, it is accompanied with a note of warning, lest the Jews should imagine that they are entitled to place confidence in the fact of their carnal descent from Abraham, without anything further.此外,由於新約全書追溯後裔耶穌基督,從亞伯拉罕,所以它的所有猶太人,雖然沒有作為一項規則,如果這樣做,它是伴隨著注意的警告,以免猶太人應以為他們是有權位的信心,事實上,他們的肉體的後裔,從亞伯拉罕,在沒有作任何進一步。 Thus (Luke 3:8) John the Baptist says: "Do not begin to say: We have Abraham for our father, for I say to you God is able of these stones to raise up children to Abraham."因此, (路加福音3時08分)施洗約翰說: "你不要在開始說:我們有亞伯拉罕為我們的父親,因為我告訴你們,神是可以的,這些石塊,以提高孩子到亞伯拉罕" 。 In Luke 19:9 our Saviour calls the sinner Zacheus a son of Abraham, as he likewise calls a woman whom he had healed a daughter of Abraham (Luke 13:16); but in these and many similar cases, is it not merely another way of calling them Jews or Israelites, just as at times he refers to the Psalms under the general name of David, without implying that David wrote all the Psalms, and as he calls the Pentateuch the Books of Moses, without pretending to settle the question of the authorship of that work?在路加19時09分我們的救主呼喚罪人扎霍伊斯一個兒子亞伯拉罕的,因為他同樣呼籲女人,其中他曾治愈一個女兒的亞伯拉罕(盧克13時16分) ,但在這些和許多類似的案件,是不是只是另一個辦法稱他們是猶太人或以色列人,正如有時他指的詩篇根據一般的名字大衛,如果沒有暗示大衛寫的所有詩篇,並為他所稱的pentateuch書籍的摩西,沒有假裝要解決的問題對作者這方面的工作? It is not carnal descent from Abraham to which importance is attached; rather, it is to practising the virtues attributed to Abraham in Genesis.這不是肉體的後裔,從亞伯拉罕向受到重視,相反,它是執業的美德,是由於亞伯拉罕在成因。 Thus in John, viii, the Jews, to whom Our Lord was speaking, boast (33): "We are the seed of Abraham", and Jesus replies (39): "If ye be the children of Abraham, do the works of Abraham".因此,在約翰,八,猶太人,向誰提出我們的主說,誇( 33 )說: "我們是種子亞伯拉罕" ,而耶穌的答复( 39 )說: "如果你們是孩子的亞伯拉罕,做工程的亞伯拉罕" 。 St. Paul, too, shows that he is a son of Abraham and glories in that fact as in 2 Corinthians 11:22, when he exclaims: "They are the seed of Abraham, so am I".聖保祿,也反映了他的兒子亞伯拉罕和輝煌,在這一事實,因為在哥林多後11:22時,他exclaims : "他們是種子亞伯拉罕的,所以我會" 。 And again (Romans 11:50): "I also am an Israelite, of the seed of Abraham", and he addresses the Jews of Antioch in Pisidia (Acts 13:26) as "sons of the race of Abraham".並再次(羅馬書11:50 )說: "我也感到一種israelite ,種子亞伯拉罕的" ,他針對猶太人的安提皮西迪亞(使徒行13:26 ) ,因為"兒子的比賽亞伯拉罕的" 。 But, following the teaching of Jesus Christ St. Paul does not attach too much importance to carnal descent from Abraham; for he says (Galatians 3:29): "If you be Christ's, then you are the seed of Abraham", and again (Romans 9:6): "All are not Israelites who are of Israel; neither are all they who are the seed of Abraham, children".但是,隨著教學耶穌基督的聖保羅不太過重視肉慾的後裔,從亞伯拉罕;他說, (加拉太3時29分)說: "如果你是基督的,那你就是種子的亞伯拉罕" ,並再次(羅馬書9時06分)說: "一切都沒有以色列人,他們是以色列,也不是所有的人,他們是種子亞伯拉罕的子女" 。 So, too, we can observe in all the New Testament the importance attached to the promises made to Abraham.所以,我們也可以觀察到,在所有的新約聖經的重視,所作出的承諾,以亞伯拉罕。 In the Acts of the Apostles, iii, 25, St. Peter reminds the Jews of the promise, "in thy seed shall all the families of the earth be blessed".在行為的使徒,三, 25 ,聖彼得想起猶太人的承諾, "在你的種子應在所有家庭的大地才會有福了" 。 So does St. Stephen in his speech before the Council (Acts 7), and St. Paul in the Epistle to the Hebrews, vi, 13.那麼聖士提反灣,在他的講話前會(行為7 ) ,和聖保羅在希伯來人書中說,六, 13 。 Nor was the faith of the ancient patriarch less highly thought of by the New Testament writers.也不是信仰的古牧少高度思考,由新約聖經的作家。 The passage of Genesis which was most prominently before them was xv, 6: "Abraham believed God, and it was reputed to him unto justice."通過成因,其中最突出地擺在他們的是十五,六說: "亞伯拉罕信神,這是千里眼,他不欲,正義" 。 In Romans 4, St. Paul argues strongly for the supremacy of faith, which he says justified Abraham; ' for if Abraham were justified by works, he hath whereof to glory, but not before God." The same idea is inculcated in the Epistle to the Galatians, iii, where the question is discussed: "Did you receive the spirit by the works of the law, or by the hearing of faith?" St. Paul decides that it is by faith, and says: "Therefore they that are of faith shall be justified with faithful Abraham". It is clear that this language, taken by itself, and apart from the absolute necessity of good works upheld by St. Paul, is liable to mislead and actually has misled many in the history of the Church. Hence, in order to appreciate to the full the Catholic doctrine of faith, we must supplement St. Paul by St. James. In ii, 17-22, of the Catholic Epistle we read: "So faith also, if it have not works, is dead in itself.在羅馬4 ,聖保祿辯稱強烈,為至高無上的信念,他說,正當亞伯拉罕; ' ,因為如果亞伯拉罕是合理的,由工務,祂所whereof到榮耀,但不是上帝面前"的理念一致,是灌輸在書信到加拉太,三,如果問題是討論的問題有: "你有沒有獲得精神的作品,法律,或由聽證會的信仰" ?聖保祿決定,它是由信仰,並說: "因此,他們認為,有信仰的應提出理由,與忠實亞伯拉罕" ,它是清楚的,這個語言,所採取的本身,除了絕對必要的優秀作品,堅持由聖保祿,即屬違法,為了混淆視聽,實際上已經誤導了許多在過去的歷史教會,因此,為了欣賞到充滿了天主教教義的信仰,我們必須補充聖保祿由聖雅各福群會,在第二組, 17-22 ,天主教書信我們讀到: "所以信仰此外,如果它沒有工程,是死亡本身。 But some man will say: Thou hast faith, and I have works, show me thy faith without works, and I will show thee by works my faith.但有些人會說:祢信念,我有工程,拿給我看你的信德若沒有,我將顯示你的,由作品我的信仰。 Thou believest that there is one God.你believest有一個上帝。 Thou dost well; the devils also believe and tremble.你多斯特好;魔鬼也相信聞風喪膽。 But wilt thou know, O vain man, that faith without works is dead?但祢知道,哦,妄圖男子,即真誠,沒有作品,是死? Was not Abraham our father justified by works, and by works faith was made perfect?"是不是亞伯拉罕父親有道理的工程,並經工程信仰作了完美的" ?

In the seventh chapter of the Epistle to the Hebrews, St. Paul enters into a long discussion concerning the eternal priesthood of Jesus Christ.在第七章的希伯來人書中說,聖保祿進入長時間的討論,關於永恆的司祭耶穌基督。 He recalls the words of the 109th psalm more than once, in which it is said: "Thou art a Driest for ever according to the order of Melchisedech."他回憶的話,第109屆詩篇一次以上,其中有人說: "你藝術有其乾燥的,為以往任何時候都按順序melchisedech " 。 He recalls the fact that Melchisedech is etymologically the king of justice and also king of peace; and moreover that he is not only king, but also priest of the Most High God.他回憶事實melchisedech是詞源國王的正義也是國王的和平與再者說,他不僅是國王,但也神父的最高級神。 Then, calling to mind that there is no account of his father, mother, or genealogy, nor any record of his heirs, he likens him to Christ king and priest; no Levite nor according to the order of Aaron, but a priest forever according to the order of Melchisedech.然後,通話記,有沒有考慮到他的父親,母親,或族譜,也沒有任何的紀錄,他的繼承人,他likens他基督國王和祭司;沒有levite也不按順序阿倫,但一名牧師永遠據該命令的melchisedech 。


One is inclined to ask, when considering the light which profane history may shed on the life of Abraham: Is not the life of the patriarch incredible?一個是傾向於要求,在考慮輕,其中褻瀆歷史,可以清楚地生活亞伯拉罕:是不是生活的牧難以置信? That question may be, and is, answered in different ways, according to the point of view of the questioner.這個問題可能是,並且是回答,以不同的方式,根據我的角度來看,發問。 Perhaps it will not be without interest to quote the answer of Professor Driver, an able and representative exponent of moderate critical views:也許它不會在沒有利息引用答案的教授,司機,可以和有代表性的指數溫和的批評意見:

Do the patriarchal narratives contain intrinsic historical improbabilities?這樣做的宗法敘述包含固有的歷史improbabilities ? Or, in other words, is there anything intrinsically improbable in the lives of the several patriarchs, and the vicissitudes through which they severally pass?或者,換句話說,有什麼本質上難以琢磨的,在生活中的幾位長者,和滄桑,透過它們分開通行證? In considering this question a distinction must be drawn between the different sources of which these narratives are composed.在考慮這個問題,必須區分不同來源的這些敘述組成。 Though particular details in them may be improbable, and though the representation may in parts be coloured by the religious and other associations of the age in which they were written, it cannot be said that the biographies of the first three patriarchs, as told in J and E, are, generally speaking, historically improbable; the movements and general lives of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob are, taken on the whole, credible (Genesis, p. xlvi).雖然細節,特別是在他們可能難以琢磨,雖然代表性,可在部分予以有色,由宗教團體和其他社團的年齡在他們寫的,但不能說是傳記的前三個長者,作為對在J與英,法,大體來說,從歷史上看不大可能;動向和一般生活的亞伯拉罕,以撒,雅各是,就整體而言,可信的(成因,第四十六) 。

Such is the moderate view; the advanced attitude is somewhat different." The view taken by the patient reconstructive criticism of our day is that, not only religiously, but even, in a qualified sense, historically also, the narratives of Abraham have a claim on our attention" (Cheyne, Encyc. Bib., 26).就是這樣溫和的看法;先進的態度是有所不同"的看法,所採取的病人重建的批評,我們一天的是,不僅是宗教上的,但即使在一個合格的意義上說,在歷史上也是,敘述亞伯拉罕擁有債權就我們的注意" (進益, encyc 。背帶褲, 26 ) 。 Coming now to look at the light thrown by profane history upon the stories of Abraham's life as given in Genesis, we have, first of all, the narratives of ancient historians, as Nicholas of Damascus, Berosus, Hecateus, and the like.現在來看看在輕拋,由褻瀆歷史後,故事的亞伯拉罕的生活中給予的成因,我們有,首先,敘述古代歷史學家,作為尼古拉斯的大馬士革, berosus , hecateus等。 Nicholas of Damascus tells how Abraham, when he left Chaldea lived for some years in Damascus.尼古拉大馬士革告訴如何亞伯拉罕,當他離開chaldea住了一些年來,在大馬士革的。 In fact in Josephus he is said to have been the fourth king of that city.事實上,在約瑟夫說,他已經第四次國王城。 But then there is no practical doubt that this story is based on the words of Genesis 14:15, in which the town of Damascus is mentioned.但後來有沒有實際的懷疑,這個故事是基於字的成因14:15 ,在該城的大馬士革提及。 As to the great man whom Josephus mentions as spoken of by Berosus, there is nothing to show that that great man was Abraham.作為向偉大的人,約瑟夫提到,作為發言的,由berosus ,但並不表明這個偉大男子亞伯拉罕。 In the "Praeparatio Evang."在" praeparatio埃旺" 。 of Eusebius there are extracts recorded from numerous ancient writers, but no historical value can be attached to them.的尤西比烏斯有摘錄記錄,從眾多的古代作家,但沒有歷史價值,可以附加給他們。 In fact, as far as ancient historians are concerned, we may say that all we know about Abraham is contained in the book of Genesis.事實上,據古代史學家而言,我們可以說,我們知道亞伯拉罕是包含在這本書的成因。 A much more important and interesting question is the amount of value to be attached to the recent archaeological discoveries of Biblical and other explorers in the East.一個更為重要和有趣的問題是,數額價值應檢附最近的考古發現聖經和其他探險家在東部。 Archaeologists like Hommel, and more especially Sayce, are disposed to attach very great significance to them.考古學家想hommel ,更特別是,塞斯,處置,以十分重大的意義。 They say, in fact, that these discoveries throw a serious element of doubt over many of the conclusions of the higher critics.他們說,其實,上述這些發現,扔一個嚴重的元素有疑問的許多結論較高的批評意見。 On the other hand, critics, both advanced as Cheyne and moderate as Driver, do not hold the deductions drawn by these archaeologists from the evidence of the monuments in very high esteem, but regard them as exaggerations.在另一方面,批評者,無論是作為先進進益和溫和的,因為司機,不扣減得出這些考古學家從證據的古蹟非常崇高的敬意,但把它們當作言過其實的。 To put the matter more precisely, we quote the following from Professor Sayce, to enable the reader to see for himself what he thinks (Early Hist. of the Hebrews, 8):" Cuneiform tablets have been found relating to Chodorlahomor and the other kings of the East mentioned in the 14th chapter of Genesis, while in the Tel-el-Amarna correspondence the king of Jerusalem declares that he had been raised to the throne by the 'arm' of his God, and was therefore, like Melchisedech, a Driest-king. But Chodorlahomor and Melchisedech had long ago been banished to mythland and criticism could not admit that archaeological discovery had restored them to actual history. Writers, accordingly, in complacent ignorance of the cuneiform texts, told the Assyriologists that their translations and interpretations were alike erroneous."事情付諸表決,更確切地說,我們引用以下,由教授,塞斯,以使讀者能夠看到自己的是什麼,他認為(早期歷史的。希伯來人,八日)說: "楔形文字片被發現有涉及chodorlahomor和其他國王對東提到,在第14章的成因,而在電話-埃及阿瑪爾納書信國王在耶路撒冷宣布,他已提升至王位由'武裝'自己的主宰,因此,像melchisedech ,乾燥的國王,但chodorlahomor和melchisedech早就被放逐到mythland和批評,可以不承認,考古發現已恢復了他們的實際歷史作家,因此,在沾沾自喜的無知楔形文字文本,告訴assyriologists他們的翻譯和解釋被同樣的錯誤" 。 That passage will make it clear how much the critics and archaeologists are at variance.即通過將要說清楚有多少批評和考古學家是在差額。 But no one can deny that Assyriology has thrown some light on the stories of Abraham and the other patriarchs.但沒有人可以否認,亞述已拋出一些光照對故事的亞伯拉罕和其他patriarchs 。 Thus the name of Abraham was known in those ancient times; for amongst other Canaanitish or Amorite names found in deeds of sale of that period are those of Abi-ramu, or Abram, Jacob-el (Ya'qub-il), and Josephel (Yasub-il).因而稱之為亞伯拉罕被稱為在那些遠古時代,因為除了其他canaanitish或amorite名字發現的先進事蹟,出售該時段內這些錄像ramu ,或亞伯蘭,雅各布-下午( ya'qub金正日) ,並josephel ( yasub金正日) 。 So, too, of the fourteenth chapter of Genesis, which relates the war of Chodorlahomor and his allies in Palestine, it is not so long ago that the advanced critics relegated it to the region of fable, under the conviction that Babylonians and Elamites at that early date in Palestine and the surrounding country was a gross anachronism.因此,太,第十四章的成因,其中涉及戰爭的chodorlahomor和他的盟友在巴勒斯坦,也不是那麼早就表示,先進批評家降級,它對該地區的寓言,根據信念,即巴比倫人和elamites在那個早日在巴勒斯坦和周邊國家是一個總不合時宜的條文。 But now Professor Pinches has deciphered certain inscriptions relating to Babylonia in which the five kings, Amraphel King of Senaar, Arioch King of Pontus, Chodorlahomor King of the Elamites, and Thadal King of nations, are identified with Hammurabi King of Babylon, Eri-aku, Kudur-laghghamar, and Tuduchula, son of Gazza, and which tells of a campaign of these monarchs in Palestine.但現在教授pinches已破譯某些題字有關巴比倫王國,其中5個國王, amraphel國王senaar , arioch王橋, chodorlahomor國王的elamites , thadal國王的國家,都認同漢穆拉比巴比倫王,蓖麻- aku , kudur - laghghamar , tuduchula ,兒子gazza ,講述的一項運動,這些君主在巴勒斯坦。 So that no one can any longer assert that the war spoken of in Genesis, xiv, can only be a late reflection of the wars of Sennacherib and others in the times of the kings.所以任何人都無法再有任何斷言戰爭口語的成因,第十四條,而只能是一個已故的反映戰爭的sennacherib和其他人在的時候,國王隊。 From the Tel-el-Amarna tablets we know that Babylonian influence was predominant in Palestine in those days.從電話-埃及阿瑪爾納片,我們知道巴比倫的影響是佔主導的巴勒斯坦在那些日子。 Moreover, we have light thrown by the cuneiform inscriptions upon the incident of Melchisedech.此外,我們有輕拋,由楔形文字銘文後,事件的melchisedech 。 In Genesis, xiv, 18, it is said: "Melchisedech, the King of Salem, bringing forth bread and wine, for he was the priest of the Most High God, blessed him."在成因,十四,十八,人們說: " melchisedech ,國王的塞勒姆,帶來了麵包和酒,因為他是牧師的最高級神,祝福他" 。 Amongst the Tel-el-Amarna letters is one from Ebed-Tob, King of Jerusalem (the city is Ursalim, ie city of Salim, and it is spoken of as Salem).當中電話-埃及阿瑪爾納信是一名來自ebed -來的,國王的耶路撒冷(市,是ursalim ,即城市的薩利姆,是口語的,因為塞勒姆) 。 He is priest appointed by Salem, the god of Peace, and is hence both king and priest.他是神父所委任的塞勒姆,上帝的和平,因此,無論國王和牧師。 In the same manner Melchisedech is priest and king, and naturally comes to greet Abraham returning in peace; and hence, too, Abraham offers to him as to a priest a tithe of the spoils.在同一地melchisedech是牧師和國王的,當然來迎接亞伯拉罕回在和平,因此,過於亞伯拉罕提供給他以一名牧師一十分之一的戰利品。 On the other hand, it must be stated that Professor Driver will not admit Sayce's deductions from the inscriptions as to EbedTob, and will not recognize any analogy between Salem and the Most High God.在另一方面,必須指出,教授,司機也不會承認,塞斯的扣減額從碑文以ebedtob ,也不會承認任何比喻塞勒姆和最高級神。

Taking archaeology as a whole, it cannot be doubted that no definite results have been attained as to Abraham.以考古作為一個整體,它不能被懷疑沒有確切的結果,已達到以亞伯拉罕。 What has come to light is susceptible of different interpretations.什麼來輕是易感的不同詮釋。 But there is no doubt that archaeology is putting an end to the idea that the patriarchal legends are mere myth.但毫無疑問,考古學是結束的設想,即父權神話僅僅是神話。 They are shown to be more than that.他們都顯示出是不止於此。 A state of things is being disclosed in patriarchal times quite consistent with much that is related in Genesis, and at times even apparently confirming the facts of the Bible.一個國家的事情,現正透露,在父權時代相當符合,許多應該在相關的成因,有時甚至似乎證實了事實的聖經。


We come now to the question: how far legend plays a part in the life of Abraham as recorded in Genesis.我們現在的問題是:如何扮演傳奇的一部份,在生活中的亞伯拉罕的,作為記錄的成因。 It is a practical and important question, because it is so much discussed by modern critics and they all believe in it.它是一個現實和重要的問題,因為這是這麼多討論現代批評家,他們都相信這一點。 In setting forth the critical view on the subject, I must not be taken as giving my own views also.在訂定提出批評的看法就此事,我不能走,為讓自己的想法也。

Hermann Gunkel, in the Introduction to his Commentary on Genesis (3) writes: "There is no denying that there are legends in the Old Testament, consider for instance the stories of Samson and Jonah. Accordingly it is not a matter of belief or scepticism, but merely a matter of obtaining better knowledge, to examine whether the narratives of Genesis are history or legend."赫爾曼gunkel ,在介紹其評成因( 3 )中寫道: "我們不否認有傳說在舊約,考慮舉例來說故事的黃山和約拿,因此這不是一個信仰或懷疑論,但只是一個獲得更好的知識,以研究是否敘述的成因是歷史或傳說" 。 And again: "In a people with such a highly developed poetical faculty as Israel there must have been a place for saga too. The senseless confusion of ' legend ' with ' Iying ' has caused good people to hesitate to concede that there are legends in the Old Testament. But legends are not lies; on the contrary, they are a particular form of poetry."並重申: "在一個人,這樣一個高度發達的詩意系以色列一定有一處地方供佐賀太大。無謂的混亂, '傳奇'與' iying '已導致良好的人毫不猶豫地承認,有傳奇舊約,但傳說是不是謊言,與此相反,他們是一個特殊形式的詩" 。 These passages give a very good idea of the present position of the Higher Criticism relative to the legends of Genesis, and of Abraham in particular.這些通道給予一個很好的想法,但根據目前的位置越高,相對的批評,向傳說中的成因,並亞伯拉罕的特別。

The first principle enunciated by the critics is that the accounts of the primitive ages and of the patriarchal times originated amongst people who did not practise the art of writing.第一合理原則,批評者認為,帳目的原始年齡和父權時代的起源,其中的人,沒有從事藝術的寫作。 Amongst all peoples, they say, poetry and saga were the first beginning of history; so it was in Greece and Rome, so it was in Israel.各民族,他們會說,詩歌和故事的人是首先開始的歷史,所以說這是在希臘和羅馬的,所以說這是在以色列。 These legends were circulated, and handed down by oral tradition, and contained, no doubt, a kernel of truth.這些傳說被傳閱,並下達口頭傳統,並載,毫無疑問,一個核心的真理。 Very often, where individual names are used these names in reality refer not to individuals but to tribes, as in Genesis 10, and the names of the twelve Patriarchs, whose migrations are those of the tribes they represent.很多時候,當個人的名字都用這些名字在現實中提到的不是個人,而是部落,在成因十日,並將地名的十二個長者,其遷徙的那些部落,他們所代表的。 It is not of course to be supposed that these legends are no older than the collections J, E, and P, in which they occur.這當然不是要假定這些傳說都沒有年紀比藏品J以來, E及磷,他們在其中發生。 They were in circulation ages before, and for long periods of time, those of earlier origin being shorter, those of later origin longer, often rather romances than legends, as that of Joseph.他們在流通年齡之前,相當長的時間,那些較早原產較短,這些後來的起源更長的時間,往往是相當傳奇,比傳說中,因為這樣的約瑟夫。 Nor were they all of Israelitish origin; some were Babylonian, some Egyptian.也不是他們所有的israelitish原產地,有的被巴比倫,一些埃及人。 As to how the legends arose, this came about, they say, in many ways.至於如何產生的傳說,這是對他們說,在很多方面。 At times the cause was etymological, to explain the meaning of a name, as when it is said that Isaac received his name because his mother laughed (cahaq); sometimes they were ethnological, to explain the geographical position, the adversity, or prosperity, of a certain tribe; sometimes historical, sometimes ceremonial, as the account explaining the covenant of circumcision; sometimes geological, as the explanation of the appearance of the Dead Sea and its surroundings.有的時候,原因是詞源,解釋何謂一個名字,因為當有人說,艾薩克收到他的名字,因為他的母親笑了( cahaq ) ;有時候,他們的民族,解釋地所處的地理位置,在逆境中,還是繁榮,某一個部落,有時候歷史的,有時典禮,作為帳戶解釋盟約的包皮環切術,有時地質,作為解釋的外觀死海及其周邊地區。 Ætiological legends of this kind form one class of those to be found in the lives of the patriarchs and elsewhere in Genesis. ætiological傳說中的這種形式,一類那些被發現在人類生活中的patriarchs及其他地方的成因。 But there are others besides which do not concern us here.但也有其他人,除了不關心我們在這裡。

When we try to discover the age of the formation of the patriarchal legends, we are confronted with a question of great complexity.當我們試圖發現的時代形成的宗法傳說中,我們面臨的問題非常複雜。 For it is not merely a matter of the formation of the simple legends separately, but also of the amalgamation of these into more complex legends.因為它不單單是一個事形成一個簡單的傳說分開,而且也將這些更複雜的傳說。 Criticism teaches us that that period would have ended about the year 1200 BC Then would have followed the period of remodeling the legends, so that by 900 BC they would have assumed substantially the form they now have.批評教導我們說,這期間將有大約截至今年公元前1200個,然後將已跟隨期重塑傳說,以便最遲在公元前900 ,他們都會以為大幅度的形式,他們現在。 After that date, whilst the legends kept in substance to the form they had received, they were modified in many ways so as to bring them into conformity with the moral standard of the day, still not so completely that the older and less conventional ideas of a more primitive age did not from time to time show through them.在該日期之後,雖然傳說中保存在實質內容,以形式,他們已收到,他們進行了修改,在許多方面等,以使它們符合道德標準的一天,仍然沒有徹底老,少常規思路一個更原始的年齡並不不時顯露出來。 At this time, too, many collections of the ancient legends appear to have been made, much in the same way as St. Luke tells us in the beginning of his Gospel that many had written accounts of Our Saviour's life on their own authority.在這個時候,也有很多收藏的古代傳說中,似乎都已經完成了很多在以同樣的方式作為聖路加告訴我們,在一開始他的福音,許多曾寫信賬戶的,我們救主的生活對他們自己的權威。

Amongst other collections were those of J in the South and E in the North.其他的收藏者,律政司在南方和電子商務在北方。 Whilst others perished these two survived, and were supplemented towards the end of the captivity by the collection of P, which originated amidst priestly surroundings and was written from the ceremonial standpoint.而其他滅亡這兩個存活,並輔以在接近年底的圈養所收集的磷,這源於中司鐸和周圍寫有從禮儀的立場。 Those that hold these views maintain that it is the fusion of these three collections of legends which has led to confusion in some incidents in the life of Abraham as for instance in the case of Sarai in Egypt, where her age seems inconsistent with her adventure with the Pharao.那些持有這些觀點認為,它是融合這三個館藏的傳說已導致混亂,有些事情在學校的生活亞伯拉罕的,作為舉例來說,在案件: Sarai在埃及,她的年齡似乎不符合她的冒險該pharao 。 Hermann Gunkel writes (148): "It is not strange that the chronology of P displays everywhere the most absurd oddities when injected into the old legends, as a result, Sarah is still at sixty-five a beautiful woman whom the Egyptians seek to capture, and Ishmael is carried on his mother's shoulders after he is a youth of sixteen."赫爾曼gunkel寫道: ( 148 )說: "這是不奇怪的是,年譜的P顯示器到處最荒謬奇特的時候,注入到老的傳說,因此,莎拉仍然是一個65一個美麗的女子,其中埃及人尋求把握和伊斯梅爾是進行了對他母親的肩膀後,他是一個青年的16名" 。

The collection of P was intended to take the place of the old combined collection of J and E. But the old narrative had a firm hold of the popular imagination and heart.收集的P用意,以取代舊的收集相結合的J ,體育,但舊的敘事有一個堅定的持有一項十分受歡迎的想像力和心髒病。 And so the more recent collection was combined with the other two, being used as the groundwork of the whole, especially in chronology.等,較近期的收集相結合,與其他兩位,被用來作為地基的整體,特別是在年表。 It is that combined narrative which we now possess.它是敘事相結合,我們現在具備什麼條件。

Publication information Written by JA Howlett.出版信息書面司法機構政務長howlett 。 Transcribed by Tomas Hancil.轉錄由Tomas漢奇爾。 The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume I. Published 1907.天主教百科全書第一卷出版, 1907年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特Appleton還公司。 Nihil Obstat, March 1, 1907. nihil obstat , 1907年3月1日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人頭馬lafort ,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur. imprimatur 。 +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰farley樞機主教,大主教紐約

If you are studying the Christian/Jewish importance of Abraham, also, see:如果你是學習基督教/猶太人的重要性,石禮謙,也見:
God 上帝
Ishmael 伊斯梅爾
Bible 聖經

If you are studying the Islamic importance of Abraham, also, see:如果你是學習伊斯蘭的重要性,石禮謙,也見:
Islam, Muhammad 伊斯蘭教,穆罕默德
Koran, Qur'an 可蘭經,可蘭經
Pillars of Faith 支柱的信仰
Abraham 亞伯拉罕
Testament of Abraham 全書亞伯拉罕
Allah 安拉
Hadiths hadiths
Revelation - Hadiths from Book 1 of al-Bukhari 啟示-h adiths從第一冊的基地布哈里
Belief - Hadiths from Book 2 of al-Bukhari 信仰-h adiths從第二冊的基地布哈里
Knowledge - Hadiths from Book 3 of al-Bukhari 知識-h adiths從第三冊的基地布哈里
Times of the Prayers - Hadiths from Book 10 of al-Bukhari 時代的祈禱-h adiths從書展1 0個基地布哈里
Shortening the Prayers (At-Taqseer) - Hadiths from Book 20 of al-Bukhari 縮短祈禱(在taqseer ) -h adiths從書展2 0鋁布哈里
Pilgrimmage (Hajj) - Hadiths from Book 26 of al-Bukhari 朝聖(朝覲) -h adiths從書展2 6鋁布哈里
Fighting for the Cause of Allah (Jihad) - Hadiths of Book 52 of al-Bukhari 爭取事業的阿拉(傑哈德) -h adiths圖書5 2鋁布哈里
ONENESS, UNIQUENESS OF ALLAH (TAWHEED) - Hadiths of Book 93 of al-Bukhari 同一性,獨特的阿拉tawheed ) -h adiths圖書9 3鋁布哈里
Hanafiyyah School Theology (Sunni) hanafiyyah學校神學(遜尼派)
Malikiyyah School Theology (Sunni) malikiyyah學校神學(遜尼派)
Shafi'iyyah School Theology (Sunni) shafi'iyyah學校神學(遜尼派)
Hanbaliyyah School Theology (Sunni) hanbaliyyah學校神學(遜尼派)
Maturidiyyah Theology (Sunni) maturidiyyah神學(遜尼派)
Ash'ariyyah Theology (Sunni) ash'ariyyah神學(遜尼派)
Mutazilah Theology mutazilah神學
Ja'fari Theology (Shia) ja'fari神學(什葉派)
Nusayriyyah Theology (Shia) nusayriyyah神學(什葉派)
Zaydiyyah Theology (Shia) zaydiyyah神學(什葉派)
Kharijiyyah kharijiyyah
Imams (Shia) 伊瑪目(什葉派)
Druze 德魯茲
Qarmatiyyah (Shia) qarmatiyyah (什葉派)
Ahmadiyyah ahmadiyyah
Ishmael, Ismail 伊斯梅爾,司馬義。
Early Islamic History Outline 早在伊斯蘭歷史綱要
Hegira hegira
Averroes averroes
Avicenna 阿維森納
Machpela machpela
Kaaba, Black Stone 天房,黑石頭
Ramadan 齋月
Sunnites, Sunni 遜尼派,遜尼派
Shiites, Shia 什葉派,什葉派
Mecca 麥加
Medina 麥迪
Sahih, al-Bukhari sahih ,鋁-布哈里
Sufism 蘇非派
Wahhabism 瓦哈比主義
Abu Bakr 阿布巴克爾
Abbasids abbasids
Ayyubids ayyubids
Umayyads 倭馬亞王朝
Fatima 法蒂瑪
Fatimids (Shia) 法蒂瑪王朝(什葉派)
Ismailis (Shia) 伊斯瑪儀教派(什葉派)
Mamelukes mamelukes
Saladin 薩拉丁
Seljuks seljuks
Aisha 的Aisha
Ali 阿里
Lilith lilith
Islamic Calendar 伊斯蘭日曆
Interactive Muslim Calendar 互動穆斯林日曆

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