General Information 一般資料

Friar (Latin frater,"brother") is a term applied to members of certain religious orders who practice the principles of monastic life and devote themselves to the service of humanity in the secular world. Originally, their regulations forbade the holding either of community or personal property, and the resulting dependence of friars on voluntary contributions in order to live caused them to be known as mendicant orders. The founders of the orders used the term friar to designate members; Saint Francis of Assisi called his followers Friars Minor, and Saint Dominic used the name Friars Preachers. The larger orders were given popular names, derived usually from the color or other distinguishing marks of their habits, such as Black Friars (Dominicans), Gray Friars (Franciscans), and White Friars (Carmelites). Friars differed from monks in that the monk was attached to a specific community within which he led a cloistered life, having no direct contact with the secular world.弗萊爾(拉丁語競走, "兄弟" )是一個詞,適用於會員和某些宗教命令的人的實踐的原則,修道生活,並投身於為人類服務的,在世俗的世界。 本來,他們的規例,禁止舉行任何一個社區或個人財產,以及由此而來的依賴方濟各會士對自願捐款,以居住,令他們被稱為乞討命令。開國元勳命令用了弗萊爾指定成員;聖方濟各的阿西西呼籲他的追隨者方濟各會士小,而且聖星用的名字方濟各會士傳教士。較大的訂單獲得流行的名字,源自通常從顏色或其他識別標誌的習慣,如黑方濟各會士(多米尼加) ,灰色方濟各會士(濟) ,白方濟各會士( carmelites ) , 方濟各會士有別於僧侶在這和尚是附加到特定社區內,他率領一個cloistered生活,因為他們沒有直接聯繫,與世俗世界。 The friar, on the other hand, belonged to no particular monastic house but to a general order, and worked as an individual in the secular world. Thus, friar and monk are not synonymous terms, even though in popular usage monk is often used as a generic term for all members of religious orders. 該弗萊爾,在另一方面,是屬於沒有特別的寺院的房子,但一般秩序,並擔任了個人在世俗世界,因此,弗萊爾和和尚是不是同義詞,即使在流行用法和尚是經常被用作一個通稱,為所有成員的宗教命令。

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General Information 一般資料

Mendicant Friars (Latin mendicare,"to beg") are members of religious orders in the Roman Catholic church, who take a vow of poverty by which they renounce all personal and communal property.乞討方濟各會士(拉丁語mendicare , "乞求" )的成員,宗教命令,在羅馬天主教會,以我壯志激情的貧困使他們放棄一切個人和公有財產。 They live chiefly by charity.他們主要生活由慈善機構。 After overcoming the initial opposition of the established clergy, the chief societies were authorized in the 13th century.在克服最初的反對既定的神職人員,行政社團受權於13世紀。 They include:這些措施包括:

A fifth order, the Servites, founded in 1233, was acknowledged as a mendicant order in 1424.第五一聲令下, servites ,成立於1233年,被認定為乞討,以便在1424年。

Listing of Men's Orders上市男人的訂單

General Information 一般資料

We have tried to include locations and affiliations.我們曾嘗試包括地點和背景。 We hope to some day add a sentence or two describing the specific focus of each Order.我們希望有一天,加上兩句話描述具體的焦點,每一個命令。 Assistance on all this is appreciated!援助對所有這一切,欣賞!

  • Other Orders (approximately alphabetically)其他命令(約字母)

    NOTE: We believe these above all to be Catholic.注:我們認為,上述這些都被天主教。 Please inform us of others which we have not yet included, or of any errors in the listings.請告知我們,其他人,其中,我們還沒有計算在內,或者任何錯誤,在上市。

    There are also non-Catholic Orders:也有一些非天主教的命令:


    Catholic Information 天主教資訊

    [From Lat. [從北緯 frater, through O. Fr.競走,通過澳神父。 fredre, frere, ME frere; It. fredre , frere ,我frere它。 frate (as prefix fra); Sp. frate (作為前綴FRA )的;藻 fraile (as prefix fray); Port. fraile (作為前綴被捲入旋渦) ;港口。 fret; unlike the other Romance languages French has but the one word frère for friar and brother].煩惱;不像其他愛情語言法語了,但一個字frère為弗萊爾和哥哥] 。

    A friar is a member of one of the mendicant orders. 1弗萊爾將是成員之一,其中的乞討命令。

    USE OF THE WORD一詞的使用

    In the early Church it was usual for all Christians to address each other as fratres or brothers, all being children of the one Heavenly Father, through Christ.在早期教會,它是一切照舊,所有基督徒,以解決彼此為fratres或兄弟,都被孩子的一個天父,透過基督。 Later, with the rise and growth of the monastic orders, the appellation began gradually to have a more restricted meaning; for obviously the bonds of brotherhood were drawn more closely between those who lived under the rule and guidance of one spiritual father, their abbot.後來,隨著崛起和發展,該寺院的訂單,稱謂開始逐漸有較多限制的意義;顯然債券的兄弟情誼,得出更加緊密地與那些生活在法治和指導下的一種精神上的父親,他們的住持。 The word occurs at an early date in English literature with the signification of brother, and from the end of the thirteenth century it is in frequent use referring to the members of the mendicant orders, egc 1297, "frere prechors" (R. Glouc. 10105); c.這個詞出現在早日在英語文學與意義的弟弟,從去年底的13世紀,它是在頻繁使用指成員對乞討訂單,電子政府專員1297年, " frere prechors " (傳譯glouc 。 10105 ) ;長 1325, "freres of the Carme and of Saint Austin" (Pol. Songs, 331), c. 1325號決議, " freres的carme和聖奧斯汀" ( pol.歌曲, 331 ) ,長 1400, "frere meneours" (Maunder, xxxi, 139); c. 1400 , " frere meneours " ( maunder ,三十一,第139條) ;長 1400, "Sakked freres" (Rom. Rose). 1400 , " sakked freres " (羅馬書玫瑰) 。 Shakespeare speaks of the "Friars of orders gray" (Tam. Shr., iv, i, 148).莎士比亞談到"方濟各會士的訂單灰色的" ( tam.自發性高血壓大鼠,四,我, 148 ) 。 The word was also loosely applied to members of monastic and military orders, and at times to the convent of a particular order, and hence to the part of a town in which such a convent had been located.這個詞也適用於鬆散的成員寺院和軍事命令,並於次修道院一個特定的順序,從而影響了一部分的一個小鎮,在這樣一個修道院已設。

    The word friar is to be carefully distinguished in its application from the word monk.字弗萊爾是要認真區分在其應用從字僧人。 For the monk retirement and solitude are undisturbed by the public ministry, unless under exceptional circumstances.為僧退休和孤獨是安靜,由公共事務部,除非在特殊情況下。 His vow of poverty binds him strictly as an individual but in no way affects the right of tenure of his order.他發誓貧困具有約束力他嚴格作為一個個人,但決不會影響正確的任期內他的命令。 In the life of the friar, on the contrary, the exercise of the sacred ministry is an essential feature, for which the life of the cloister is considered as but an immediate preparation.在生命的弗萊爾,與此相反,行使神聖部有一個本質特徵,而這些生命的迴廊被視為但立即作好準備。 His vow of poverty, too, not only binds him as an individual to the exercise of that virtue, but, originally at least, precluded also the right of tenure in common with his brethren.他發誓貧窮的,也不僅具有約束力他作為一個個人來行使這一美德,但是,原本在最低限度,排除了,也有權在任期內共同與他的兄弟們。 Thus originally the various orders of friars could possess no fixed revenues and lived upon the voluntary offerings of the faithful.因此,原來的各種命令的方濟各會士,可以擁有無固定收入和生活後,志願服務的忠誠。 Hence their name of mendicants.因此,他們的名字乞丐。 This second feature, by which the friar's life differs so essentially from that of the monk, has become considerably modified since the Council of Trent.這第二個特點,其中弗萊爾的生活不同,所以,從本質上說的和尚,已成為相當改良自安理會的遄達。 In Session XXV, ch.在第二十五屆,你的。 iii, "De Regular.", all the mendicant orders -- the Friars Minor and Capuchins alone excepted -- were granted the liberty of corporate possession.三, "德經常" ,所有的乞討訂單-方濟各會士輕微和c apuchins單獨例外-被授予人身自由公司擁有。 The Discalced Carmelites and the Jesuits have availed themselves of this privilege with restrictions (cf. Wernz, Jus Decretal., III, pt. II, 262, note).該discalced carmelites和耶穌曾經利用這種特權與限制(參見wernz ,強制decretal ,三,鉑,第二262 ,注) 。 It may, however, be pertinently remarked here that the Jesuits, though mendicants in the strict sense of the word, as is evident from the very explicit declaration of St. Pius V (Const. "Cum indefessæ", 1571), are classed not as mendicants or friars, but as clerics regular, being founded with a view to devoting themselves, even more especially than the friars, to the exercise of the sacred ministry (Vermeersch, De Relig., I, xii, n. 8).然而,可能被切中要害地說過在這裡指出,耶穌會士,雖然乞丐在嚴格意義上的字,這一點從非常明確宣布聖比約五( const. "暨indefessæ " , 1571 ) ,被歸類不作為乞丐或方濟各會士,但作為神職人員經常化,正在創立,以期把自己的需要,更是超過了方濟各會士,以行使神聖部( vermeersch ,德relig 。來說,我十二, 12月31日8 ) 。

    ORDERS OF FRIARS常規的方濟各會士

    The orders of friars are usually divided into two classes: the four great orders mentioned by the Second Council of Lyons (can. xxiii) and the lesser orders.該命令的方濟各會士,通常分為兩類: 4個大訂單提到了第二屆理事會萊昂斯( can.二十三)和較小的訂單。 The four great orders in their legal precedence are: (1) the Dominicans (St. Pius V, Const. "Divina", 1568); (2) the Franciscans; (3) the Carmelites, (4) the Augustinians.四個大訂單,在他們的法律先例是: ( 1 )多米尼加(聖比約五,常量" 。 divina " , 1568 ) ; ( 2 )濟( 3 ) carmelites , ( 4 )奧古斯丁會士。

    The Dominicans, or Friars Preachers, formerly known as the Black Friars, from the black cappa or mantle worn over their white habit, were founded by St. Dominic in 1215 and solemnly approved by Honorius III, in Dec., 1216.在多米尼加人,或方濟各會士傳教士,以前稱為黑方濟各會士,是從黑海cappa或地幔穿白色的習慣,其創始人聖星,在12時15分,並鄭重批准honorius三,在去年12月, 1216 。 They became a mendicant order in 1221.他們成了乞討,以便在1221年。

    The Franciscans, or Friars Minor (Grey Friars), were founded by St. Francis of Assisi, who is rightly regarded as the patriarch of the mendicant orders.方濟會,或方濟各會士未成年人(灰色方濟各會士) ,分別成立由聖方濟各的阿西西,誰是正確地被視為老人家的乞討命令。 His rule was orally approved by Innocent III in 1209 and solemnly confirmed by Honorius III in 1223 (Const. "Solet").他的統治進行了口頭批准,由無辜的第三第1209並鄭重證實honorius三,在1223 ( const. "舍萊特" ) 。 It is professed by the Friars Minor, the Conventuals, and the Capuchins.這是自稱由方濟各會士未成年人, conventuals和capuchins 。

    The Carmelites, or White Friars, from the white cloak which covers their brown habit, were founded as a purely contemplative order, but became mendicants in 1245.該carmelites ,或白方濟各會士,從白斗篷,其中包括他們的布朗習慣,分別成立純粹是一個contemplative秩序,而且成為乞丐,在1245名。 They received the approbation of Honorius III (Const. "Ut vivendi", 30 Jan., 1226) and later of Innocent IV (Const. "Quæ honorem", 1247).他們得到了認同honorius三( const. "當維芳迪" , 1226年1月30日)和後來的無辜四( const. " quæ名譽" , 1247,1410 ) 。 The order is divided into two sections, the Calced and Discalced Carmelites.該命令是分為兩個部分, calced和discalced carmelites 。

    The Augustinians, or Hermits of St. Augustine (Austin Friars), trace their origin to the illustrious Bishop of Hippo.該奧古斯丁會士,或隱士的聖奧古斯丁(奧斯汀方濟各會士) ,追查其來源,以傑出的主教河馬。 The various branches which subsequently developed were united and constituted from various bodies of hermits a mendicant order by Alexander IV (Const. "Iis, quæ", 31 July, 1255, and Const. "Licet", 4 May, 1256).各分行後來發展比較團結構成了來自不同機構的隱士一乞討命令,亞歷山大四( const. "非法入境者, quæ " , 1255年7月31日,和常量" 。 licet " , 1256年5月4日) 。

    These four orders are called by canonists the quatuor ordines mendicantes de iure communi.這四項命令,是由所謂canonists該quatuor ordines mendicantes法律上通信。 The Fourth Lateran Council ("De relic. dom.", III, tit. xxxvi, c. ix) had forbidden in 1215 the foundation of any new religious orders.第四lateran局(下稱"德舍利子。 DOM的" ,三,山雀。三十六,長九)已禁止在1215年的基礎上的任何新的宗教命令。 In face of this prohibition a sufficient number of new congregations, especially of mendicants, had sprung up to attract the attention of the Second Council of Lyons.面對這一禁令足夠數量的新教友,尤其是乞丐,曾湧現出以吸引他們的注意力了第二屆理事會的里昂。 In canon xxiii, the council, while specially exempting the four mendicant orders above mentioned, condemns all other mendicant orders then existing to immediate or to gradual extinction.在佳能二十三,理事會,而特意豁免四個乞討命令上述,譴責所有其他乞討的訂單,然後以現有的即時或逐漸滅絕。 All orders established since the Council of Lateran, and not approved by the Holy See, were to be dissolved at once.所有訂單成立的,因為安理會的lateran ,並沒有批准,由羅馬教廷,被溶解於一旦。 Those since established with such approval were forbidden to receive new members.那些自成立這類批准被禁止接受新的成員。 The illustrious order of Service, founded in 1233 and approved by Alexander IV in 1256 (Const. "Deo grata"), happily survived this condemnation.傑出秩序的服務,創立於1233年,並批准了由Alexander四,在1256 ( const. "迪奧不受歡迎" ) ,快樂地存活,這種譴責。 Concerning the four greater orders, the council concludes: "Be it understood, however, that we do not conceive of the extension of this constitution to the Orders of Friars Preachers and of Friars Minor, whose evident service to the universal Church is sufficient approval. As for the Hermits of St. Augustine and the Order of Carmelites, whose foundation preceded the said Council (Fourth Lateran), we wish them to remain as solidly established as heretofore" (Lib. III, tit. xvii, c. un., in VI).關於4個大訂單,安理會最後說: "被它理解,但是,我們並沒有隱瞞的必要延長這一憲法,以命令的方濟各會士傳教士和方濟各會士輕微的,其顯而易見的服務,以普世教會是足夠的批准。對於隱士,聖奧古斯丁和秩序carmelites ,它的基礎之前說,安理會(第四lateran ) ,我們希望他們能夠繼續作為牢固確立為在此之前" ( lib.三,鐵第十七,丙聯合國,在六) 。 The importance of the orders thus singled out and exempted was afterwards still further emphasized by the insertion of this canon into the "Corpus Juri" in the "Liber Sixtus" of Boniface VIII.重要的是訂單,因此挑出來,並獲豁免於事後仍有進一步強調,由插入本佳能公司改裝成"胼juri " ,在" liber Sixtus的"的博尼法斯八。

    The so-styled lesser orders, of which the following are today the most flourishing, were founded and approved at various subsequent periods: the Minims (1474), the Third Order Regular of St. Francis (1521); the Capuchin -- as constituting a different branch of the Franciscan Order -- (1525); the Discalced Carmelites -- as constituting a distinct branch of the Carmelites -- (1568); the Discalced Trinitarians (1599); the Order of Penance, known in Italy as the Scalzetti (1781).所以,處處較輕的訂單,其中以下是今天最繁榮,締造和批准在隨後的各項時期: minims ( 1474 ) ,第三個命令定期的聖方濟各( 1521 ) ;嘉布遣-構成不同科濟秩序-( 1 525) ; d iscalcedc armelites-構成了一個獨特的分支的c a rmelites-(第1 5 6 8);d i s calcedtri nitarians(第1 5 9 9);秩序的懺悔,眾所周知,在意大利作為s ca lzetti ( 1781 ) 。

    Publication information Written by Gregory Cleary.出版信息寫格雷戈里Cleary先生。 Transcribed by Albert Judy, OP.轉錄由何俊仁朱迪,作品。 The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VI.天主教百科全書,第六卷。 Published 1909. 1909年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特Appleton還公司。 Nihil Obstat, September 1, 1909. nihil obstat , 1909年9月1日。 Remy Lafort, Censor.人頭馬lafort ,檢查員。 Imprimatur. imprimatur 。 +John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰米farley ,大主教紐約


    REIFENSTUEL, SCHMALZGRUEBER, and other writers on titles xxxi and xxxvi of Bk. reifenstuel , schmalzgrueber ,和其他作者對職稱第三十一條和第三十六BK的。 III of the Decretals of Gregory IX; FERRARIS, Bibliotheca: Relig.第三部分decretals的格雷戈里第九; Ferraris合作,書目: relig 。 Regulares (Rome, 1885-96), I, 24; SUAREZ, De Virtute et Statu Religionis (Mainz, 1604), pt. regulares (羅馬, 1885年至1896年) ,我, 24歲;蘇亞雷斯,德virtute等statu religionis (美因茨, 1604 ) ,鉑。 II tract.第二道。 ix; BARBOSA, Juri Eccl.第九;巴博薩, juri eccl 。 Universi (Lyons, 1699), I, c. universi (里昂, 1699年) ,我和長 xli, n.四十一, 12月31日 207; VERMEERSCH, De Relig. 207 ; vermeersch ,德relig 。 Inst.英斯特。 et Personis (2nd ed. Bruges, 1907), I, 38; WERNZ, Jus Decretal.等personis (第二版布魯日, 1907年) ,我, 38歲; wernz ,強制decretal 。 (Rome, 1908), III pt. (羅馬, 1908年) ,三,鉑。 II, 262; HEIMBUCHER, Die Orden und Kongregationen (2nd ed., Paderborn, 1907) 1, 39; alas popular works, with plates showing the different religious habits, such as MALLESON AND TUKER, Handbook to Christian and Ecclesiastical Rome, III (London, 1900); STEELE, Monasteries and Religious Houses in Great Britain and Ireland (London, 1903).二, 262 ; heimbucher ,模具勳章und kongregationen (第二版,帕德博恩, 1907年) 1 ,第39條;嗚呼受歡迎的作品,車牌顯示不同的宗教習慣,如malleson和tuker ,手冊,以基督信仰和教會羅馬,三(倫敦, 1900年) ;斯蒂爾說,寺院和宗教房子在大不列顛及愛爾蘭(倫敦, 1903年) 。 HÉLYOT, Hist. hélyot ,歷史。 des ordres religieux (Paris, 1714-19); republished by MIGNE as Dict.萬ordres religieux (巴黎, 1714年至1719年) ;再版,由米涅作為字典。 de ordres religieux (Paris, 1847-69).德ordres religieux (巴黎, 1847年至1869年) 。


    Catholic Information 天主教資訊

    A monk may be conveniently defined as a member of a community of men, leading a more or less contemplative life apart from the world, under the vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience, according to a rule characteristic of the particular order to which he belongs.一名僧人,可方便地界定為一個成員國的一個社區的男子,率領一個較多或較少contemplative生活中,除了來自世界下誓言貧窮,貞潔,順從,根據一項規則特點的,尤其是為了他屬於。 The word monk is not itself a term commonly used in the official language of the Church.字,和尚是不是本身就是一個任期內普遍使用的官方語言教會。 It is a popular rather than a scientific designation, but is at the same time very ancient, so much so that its origin cannot be precisely determined.這是一個受歡迎的,而不是一個科學的稱號,而且是在同一時間,很古老,以致於它的起源,不能準確地確定。 So far as regards the English form of the word, that undoubtedly comes from the Angle-Saxon munuc, which has in turn arisen from the Latin monachus, a mere transliteration of the Greek monachos.到目前為止,至於英語形式的字,那無疑是來自角-撒克遜munuc ,這又源自拉丁語修士,僅僅音譯希臘monachos 。 This Greek form is commonly believed to be connected with monos, lonely or single, and is suggestive of a life of solitude; but we cannot lose sight of the fact that the word mone, from a different root, seems to have been freely used, eg by Palladius, as well as monasterion, in the sense of a religious house (see Butler, "Palladius's Lausiac History" passim).這希臘語形式,是常見的,相信與monos ,孤獨還是單身,並暗示一個生命的孤獨,但我們不能忽視這樣一個事實,這個詞mone ,從一個不同的根,似乎已被自由使用,例如,通過palladius ,以及monasterion ,在某種意義上是一個宗教之家(見管家" , palladius的lausiac史"的各處) 。 Be this as it may, the Fathers of the fourth century are by no means agreed as to the etymological significance of monachus.話雖如此,這也許,父親的第四個世紀,是絕不同意以詞源意義的修士。 St Jerome writes to Heliodorus (PL, XXII, 350), "Interpret the name monk, it is thine own; what business hast thou in a crowd, thou who art solitary?"聖杰羅姆寫信給heliodorus (特等, 22 , 350 ) , "解釋名字僧人,它是你自己有什麼商業祢在人群中引爆炸彈,你是誰的藝術孤立" ? St. Augustine on the other hand fastens on the idea of unity (monas) and in his exposition of Ps.聖奧古斯丁在另一方面fastens對理念的統一組織( ( Monas ) ,並在他的世界博覽會的PS 。 cxxxii, extols the appropriateness of the words "Ecce quam bonum et quam jucundum habitare fratres in unum" when chanted in a monastery, because those who are monks should have but one heart and one soul (PL, XXXVII, 1733). cxxxii ,頌揚恰當的話"幼兒保育怎麼bonum等怎麼jucundum habitare fratres在教科文組織貨幣單位"時,高喊著在一個修道院,因為那些是僧人應該有,但其中一個心臟和一個靈魂(特等,第三十七卷, 1733年) 。 Cassian (PL, XLIX, 1097) and Pseudo-Dionysius (De Eccl. Hier., vi) seem to have thought monks were so called because they were celibate. cassian (特等, xlix , 1097 )和偽狄奧尼修斯(德eccl 。海爾,六)似乎都以為僧人如此命名是因為他們celibate 。

    In any case the fact remains that the word monachus in the fourth century was freely used of those consecrated to God, whether they lived as hermits or in communities.在任何情況下,事實仍然是兩個字-修士在第四世紀是自由使用這些c onsecrated上帝,無論他們生活作為隱士,或在社區。 So again St. Benedict a little later (c. 535) states at the beginning of his rule that there are four kinds of monks (monachi):所以再一次的聖本篤小後(長535 )各國在開始他的統治有四種和尚( monachi ) :

    cenobites who live together under a rule or an abbot, cenobites共同生活規則下或住持,

    anchorites or hermits, who after long training in the discipline of a community, go forth to lead a life of solitude (and of both of these classed he approves; but also anchorites或隱士,他們經過長期訓練,在紀律的一個社區,去了,領導一個生活中的孤獨(這兩項屬於他的批准,但還

    "sarabites" and " sarabites "

    "girovagi" (wandering monks), whom he strongly condemns as men whose religious life is but a pretence, and who do their own without the restraint of obedience. " girovagi " (流浪僧人) ,其中他強烈譴責男人的宗教生活不過是矯飾,是誰在做他們自己,沒有節制的服從。

    It is probably due to the fact that the Rule of St. Benedict so constantly describes the brethren as monachi and their residence as monaslerium, that a tradition has arisen according to which these terms in Latin and English (though not so uniformly in the case of the corresponding German and French works) are commonly applied only to those religious bodies which in some measure reproduce the conditions of life contemplated in the old Benedictine Rule.這可能是由於這一事實,即法治的聖本篤,所以不斷描述兄弟作為monachi和他們的居住地作為monaslerium ,即一個傳統,出現了,根據這些條款,在拉丁語和英語(儘管不那麼均勻,在案件相應的德語和法語工程)是常見的,只適用於那些宗教團體這在一定程度上再現生活條件的合同在舊隱修院統治。 The mendicant friars, eg the Dominicans, Franciscans, Carmelites, etc., though they live in community and chant the Divine Office in choir, are not correctly described as monks.該乞討方濟各會士,如多米尼加人,方濟, carmelites等,雖然他們生活在社區,並高唱神聖辦事處合唱團,是不正確形容為和尚。 Their work of preaching, mixing with their fellow men in the world, soliciting alms, and moving from place to place, is inconsistent with the monastic ideal.他們的工作的說教,混以他們的男同胞,在世界上,揀施捨,並從地方,是不符合修道理想。 The same is to be said of the "clerks regular", like the Jesuits, in whose rule the work of the apostolate is regarded as so important that it is considered incompatible with the obligation of singing office in choir.同樣是不得不說的"辦事員經常性的" ,像耶穌會士,在其統治的工作,該使徒被視為是重要,因此它被認為是不相符的義務,歌唱辦事處合唱團。 Again members of the religious congregations of men, which take simple but not solemn vows, are not usually designated as monks.再次成員對宗教團體的男人,而採取一些簡單的,而不是莊嚴的誓言,通常不被指定為僧侶。 On the other hand it should be noted that in former days a monk, even though he sang office in choir, was not necessarily a priest, the custom in this respect having changed a good deal since medieval times.在另一方面,應該指出的是,前幾天一名僧人,即使他唱道辦事處合唱團,不一定是一名牧師,風俗,在這方面有改變,是一個很好的協議,自中世紀時代。 Besides the Benedictines with their various modifications and offshoots, ie the Cluniacs, Cistercians, Trappists etc., the best known orders of monks are the Carthusians, the Premonstratensians, and the Camaldolese.除了benedictines及其各種改裝,並想出名,即cluniacs , cistercians , trappists等,最出名的命令僧侶是carthusians , premonstratensians和camaldolese 。 The honorary prefix Dom, and abbreviation of Dominus is given to Benedictines and Carthusians.榮譽前綴的DOM和縮寫,是上主給benedictines和carthusians 。

    Publication information Written by Herbert Thurston.出版信息寫赫伯特瑟斯頓。 Transcribed by Barbara Jane Barrett.轉錄由芭芭拉簡巴雷特。 The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume X. Published 1911.天主教百科全書,體積十, 1911年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特Appleton還公司。 Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1911. nihil obstat , 1911年10月1日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人頭馬lafort ,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur. imprimatur 。 +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰farley樞機主教,大主教紐約


    HEIMBUCHER, Die Orden und Kongregationen (Paderborn, 1907 sqq.); HELYOT, Histoire des Ordres Religieux (Paris, 1743); SCHIEIETZ, Vorgesch. heimbucher ,模具勳章und kongregationen (帕德博恩, 1907 sqq ) ; helyot ,歷史萬ordres religieux (巴黎, 1743年) ; schieietz , vorgesch 。 des Monchthums in the Archiv f.萬monchthums在archiv樓 kath. kath 。 Kirchenrecht (Mainz, 1898), 3 sqq. kirchenrecht (美因茨, 1898年) , 3 sqq 。 and 305 sqq. 305 sqq 。

    Also, see:此外,見:
    Religious Orders 宗教命令
    Jesuits 耶穌會士
    Benedictines benedictines
    Trappists trappists
    Cistercians cistercians
    Christian Brothers 基督教兄弟
    Carmelites carmelites
    Discalced Carmelites discalced carmelites
    Augustinians 奧古斯丁會士
    Dominicans 多米尼加
    Marist Brothers 聖母兄弟

    Monasticism 修道
    Nuns 修女
    Convent 修道院
    Ministry 財政部
    Major Orders 大訂單
    Holy Orders 神聖的訂單

    This subject presentation in the original English language本主題介紹在原來的英文

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