Iconoclasm iconoclasm

General Information 一般資料

Iconoclasm (Greek eikon,"image"; klaein,"to break"), any movement against the religious use of images, especially the one that disturbed the Byzantine Empire in the 8th and 9th centuries. iconoclasm (希臘語eikon , "形象" ; klaein " ,突破" ) ,任何運動對宗教使用的圖像,尤其是一個不安拜占庭帝國在第8和第9個世紀。 In 726 and 730 Emperor Leo III, the Isaurian, promulgated a decree forbidding the veneration of images.在726和730皇帝利奧三世, isaurian ,頒布了一項法令,禁止敬仰的圖像。 This decision was condemned by the pope, but the iconoclastic doctrine was rigorously enforced at Constantinople (present-day Ýstanbul) by Leo and even more by his son and successor Constantine V, who had the worship of images condemned as idolatry at the church council held in the suburban palace of Hieria in 754.這項決定是譴責教宗,但iconoclastic學說是嚴格執行,在君士坦丁堡(即現在的天ýstanbul )利奧更由他的兒子和繼任者君士坦丁五人崇拜的圖像譴責,因為偶像崇拜,在教會舉行在郊區宮hieria在754 。 The accession of Empress Irene brought with it a change in policy, and the iconoclasts were condemned in turn at the second Council of Nicaea, in 787.加入皇后艾琳帶來了一個政策上的改變,以及iconoclasts被譴責,又在第二屆理事會的尼西亞,在787 。 A second period of iconoclasm was inaugurated under imperial auspices in the first half of the 9th century; it ended with the final condemnation of iconoclasm at the Council of Orthodoxy, held in 843 under the patronage of Empress Theodora II.第二期iconoclasm上台後,根據皇主持,在上半年的9世紀時,它結束了與最後的譴責iconoclasm在安理會的正統,在843的贊助下,慈禧theodora二。

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The most serious argument against iconoclasm formulated by the Syrian theologian and Father of the Church John of Damascus was that it denied one of the fundamental tenets of the Christian faith, the doctrine of the incarnation.最嚴重為理由而反對iconoclasm制定了由敘利亞和神學家的父親教會約翰大馬士革的是,它否認的基本原則之一的基督教信仰,教義的化身。 According to the defenders of images, Christ's human birth had made possible his representations, which in some sense shared in the divinity of their prototype.據該維護者的形象,基督的人的誕生才使他的陳述,而在一定意義上的共同在神自己的原型。 The rejection of these images, therefore, automatically carried a repudiation of their cause.拒絕這些圖像,因此,自動進行了否定他們的事業。

In addition to its theological aspects, the iconoclastic movement seriously affected Byzantine art.除了它的神學思想建設方面, iconoclastic運動,嚴重影響了拜占庭藝術。 Furthermore, the movement weakened the position of the empire by fomenting internal quarrels and splitting with the papacy, which began to abandon its Byzantine allegiance and seek alliance with the Franks.此外,運動減弱的立場與帝國所挑起內部的爭吵和分裂,與教宗,開始放棄自己的拜占庭效忠,並尋求同盟關係法蘭克斯。 Despite its victory in the theological sphere, the Eastern church was not successful in its challenge of imperial authority, even with John of Damascus's assertion that the emperor had no right to interfere in matters of faith.儘管它的勝利,在神學領域中,東部教會並不成功,在其挑戰的帝國權威,甚至與約翰大馬士革的論斷,即皇帝無權干涉事項的信仰。 Both the introduction of iconoclasm and its condemnation at the councils of 787 and 843 were ultimately the result of imperial rather than ecclesiastical decisions, because the councils met only on imperial orders.既引進iconoclasm和譴責,在議會的787和843人,最終的結果,帝國,而不是教會的決定,因為議會開會不僅對皇命令。 Consequently, the authority of the emperor in both the spiritual and the secular spheres, and his control of the church, emerged from the controversy perceptibly strengthened.因此,權威,皇帝在這兩個精神與世俗領域,由他控制的教會,湧現出爭議perceptibly加強。

Iconoclasm iconoclasm

Catholic Information 天主教資訊

Iconoclasm (Eikonoklasmos, "Image-breaking") is the name of the heresy that in the eighth and ninth centuries disturbed the peace of the Eastern Church, caused the last of the many breaches with Rome that prepared the way for the schism of Photius, and was echoed on a smaller scale in the Frankish kingdom in the West. iconoclasm ( eikonoklasmos , "形象違規" )的名字,這一異端,在第八和第九世紀以來困擾,和平的東區教堂,造成了最後的許多違反與羅馬準備,就是為分裂的photius ,並呼應對規模較小,在法蘭克王國在西部地區。 The story in the East is divided into two separate persecutions of the Catholics, at the end of each of which stands the figure of an image-worshipping Empress (Irene and Theodora).故事在東部分為兩個獨立的迫害天主教徒,在每年年底的主張的數字圖像崇拜慈禧(伊雷娜和theodora ) 。


The origin of the movement against the worship (for the use of this word see IMAGES, VENERATION OF) of images has been much discussed.起源運動反對崇拜(為使用這個字看圖像,敬仰的)的形象已被廣泛討論。 It has been represented as an effect of Moslem influence.它已經派了一個效果穆斯林的影響力。 To Moslems, any kind of picture, statue, or representation of the human form is an abominable idol.以伊斯蘭教,任何形式的圖片,雕像,或陳述人的形式,是一個令人憎惡的偶像。 It is true that, in a sense, the Khalifa at Damascus began the whole disturbance, and that the Iconoclast emperors were warmly applauded and encouraged in their campaign by their rivals at Damascus.這是事實,在某種意義上說,哈利法在大馬士革開始,整個騷亂,並表示,孤星叛逆者皇帝,全場響起熱烈的掌聲和鼓勵,在他們的競選,由他們的對手在大馬士革。 On the other hand it is not likely that the chief cause of the emperor's zeal against pictures was the example of his bitter enemy, the head of the rival religion.在另一方面,它的可能性不高,行政事業皇帝的熱情,對被拍照的例子,他的慘痛的敵人,因此頭部的對手宗教。 A more probable origin will be found in the opposition to pictures that had existed for some time among Christians.一個更可能的原產地會被發現,在反對派的照片已經存在一段時間,其中基督徒。 There seems to have been a dislike of holy pictures, a suspicion that their use was, or might become, idolatrous among certain Christians for many centuries before the Iconoclast persecution began.似乎已不喜歡神聖的照片,懷疑其使用,或者可能成為idolatrous某些基督徒許多世紀以前孤星叛逆者迫害開始了。 The Paulicians, as part of their heresy held that all matter (especially the human body) is bad, that all external religious forms, sacraments, rites, especially material pictures and relics, should be abolished.該paulicians ,作為其歪理邪說,認為所有的事(尤其是人體) ,是壞,所有對外的宗教形式,聖禮,禮儀,特別是材料的圖片和文物,應該予以取消。 To honour the Cross was especially reprehensible, since Christ had not really been crucified.尊敬的十字架特別是應受譴責的,因為基督並沒有真的被釘在十字架上。 Since the seventh century these heretics had been allowed to have occasional great influence at Constantinople intermittently with suffering very cruel persecution (see PAULICIANS).自公元7世紀,這些異端已獲准偶爾有很大的影響力,在君士坦丁堡間歇性與痛苦,非常殘酷迫害(見paulicians ) 。 But some Catholics, too shared their dislike of pictures and relics.但一些天主教徒,也分享了他們不喜歡的圖片和文物。 In the beginning of the eighth century several bishops, Constantine of Nacolia in Phrygia, Theodosius of Ephesus, Thomas of Claudiopolis, and others are mentioned as having these views.在一開始的八世紀的幾個主教,君士坦丁的nacolia在phrygia , theodosius的伸出手,托馬斯claudiopolis ,另一些則提到過這些意見。 A Nestorian bishop, Xenaeas of Hierapolis, was a conspicuous forerunner of the Iconoclasts (Hardouin IV, 306). 1景教主教, xenaeas的hierapolis ,是一個突出的先行者的iconoclasts ( hardouin四, 306 ) 。 It was when this party got the ear of the Emperor Leo III (the Isaurian, 716-41) that the persecution began.它的時候,這個政黨獲得的耳朵皇帝利奧三( isaurian , 716-41 )說,迫害開始了。

The first act in the story is a similar persecution in the domain of the Khalifa at Damascus.第一行事故事是一個類似迫害中域的哈利法在大馬士革。 Yezid I (680-683) and his successors, especially Yezid II (720-24), thinking, like good Moslems, that all pictures are idols, tried to prevent their use among even their Christian subjects.耶西德我( 680-683 )和他的繼任者,尤其是耶西德二( 720-24 ) ,有思想,想好穆斯林,所有照片都是偶像,試圖阻止其使用當中,甚至他們的基督教科目。 But this Moslem persecution, in itself only one of many such intermittent annoyances to the Christians of Syria, is unimportant except as the forerunner of the troubles in the empire.但這個穆斯林迫害,本身只有一個許多這類間歇性煩惱,以基督徒的敘利亞,是不重要的,除了為先導的麻煩,在帝國。 Leo the Isaurian was a valiant soldier with an autocratic temper.利奧該isaurian是一個英勇的戰士與一個專制的脾氣。 Any movement that excited his sympathy was sure to be enforced sternly and cruelly.任何運動,激發他的同情,是肯定會被強迫嚴厲和殘酷地。 He had already cruelly persecuted the Jews and Paulicians.他已在殘酷地迫害猶太人和paulicians 。 He was also suspected of leanings towards Islam.他還涉嫌傾向對伊斯蘭教。 The Khalifa Omar II (717-20) tried to convert him, without success except as far as persuading him that pictures are idols.本哈利法奧馬爾二( 717-20 ) ,試圖使他,但沒有成功,除盡量說服他表示,照片是偶像。 The Christian enemies of images, notably Constantine of Nacolia, then easily gained his ear.基督教敵人的形象,尤其是君士坦丁的nacolia ,則很容易取得他的耳朵。 The emperor came to the conclusion that images were the chief hindrance to the conversion of Jews and Moslems, the cause of superstition, weakness, and division in his empire, and opposed to the First Commandment.皇帝得出的結論是,圖像行政障礙,以轉換猶太人和穆斯林,其原因迷信的弱點,並進行記名表決時,他的帝國,並反對向第一誡。 The campaign against images as part of a general reformation of the Church and State.運動圖像作為一個組成部分,一般的改造,教會和國家。 Leo III's idea was to purify the Church, centralize it as much as possible under the Patriarch of Constantinople, and thereby strengthen and centralize the State of the empire.利奧三的想法是,以淨化教堂,它集中盡可能多地根據元老的君士坦丁堡,從而加強和集權國家的帝國。 There was also a strong rationalistic tendency among there Iconoclast emperors, a reaction against the forms of Byzantine piety that became more pronounced each century.此外,還有一個強大的理性主義傾向,其中有孤星叛逆者皇帝,反應對形式的拜占庭式的虔誠變得更為突出,每個世紀。 This rationalism helps to explain their hatred of monks.這種理性主義有助於解釋他們的仇恨的僧侶。 Once persuaded, Leo began to enforce his idea ruthlessly.一旦說服了,利奧開始執行他的主張,決不手軟。 Constantine of Nacolia came to the capital in the early part of his reign; at the same time John of Synnada wrote to the patriarch Germanus I (715-30), warning him that Constantine had made a disturbance among the other bishops of the province by preaching against the use of holy pictures.君士坦丁的nacolia來到首都,在早期的一部分,他的統治;在同一時間,約翰的synnada寫信給牧germanus一( 715-30 ) ,並警告他說,君士坦丁作出了騷亂之中等主教的省鼓吹反對用神聖的照片。 Germanus, the first of the heroes of the image-worshippers (his letters in Hardouin, IV 239-62), then wrote a defence of the practice of the Church addressed to another Iconoclast, Thomas of Claudiopolis (lc 245-62). germanus ,首英雄的形象-善信(他的信,在hardouin ,四239-62 ) ,然後寫了辯護的做法,教會給另一個孤星叛逆者,托馬斯claudiopolis (立法會245-62 ) 。 But Constantine and Thomas had the emperor on their side.但君士坦丁和托馬斯曾皇帝站在他們的一方。 In 726 Leo III published an edict declaring images to be idols, forbidden by Exodus, xx, 4, 5, and commanding all such images in churches to be destroyed.在726利奧三公佈的一項法令,宣布畫面可偶像,禁止外流,第二十條,第4 ,第5和指揮全部此種圖像在教堂被摧毀。 At once the soldiers began to carry out his orders, whereby disturbances were provoked throughout the empire.在當士兵開始進行他的命令,讓動亂挑起了整個帝國。 There was a famous picture of Christ, called Christos antiphonetes, over the gate of the palace at Constantinople.有一個著名的圖片基督的,所謂克里斯托antiphonetes ,超過門的宮殿在君士坦丁堡。 The destruction of this picture provoked a serious riot among the people.銷毀這張照片挑起嚴重騷亂人民內部矛盾。 Germanus, the patriarch, protested against the edict and appealed to the pope (729). germanus ,牧,抗議這項法令,並呼籲教宗( 729 ) 。 But the emperor deposed him as a traitor (730) and had Anastasius (730-54), formerly syncellus of the patriarchal Court, and a willing instrument of the Government, appointed in his place.但皇帝被廢黜,他是一個漢奸( 730 ) ,並已anastasius ( 730-54 ) ,前身為syncellus的宗法法院,並願意文書的政府,任命了他的位置。 The most steadfast opponents of the Iconoclasts throughout this story were the monks.最堅定的反對者的iconoclasts整個故事都是和尚。 It is true that there were some who took the side of the emperor but as a body Eastern monasticism was steadfastly loyal to the old custom of the Church.這是事實,有部分人代為一方的皇帝,但作為一個機構,東方修道,是堅定不移地忠於舊習俗的教會。 Leo therefore joined with his Iconoclasm a fierce persecution of monasteries and eventually tried to suppress monasticism altogether.利奧,因此加入與他的iconoclasm激烈迫害的寺廟,並最終試圖壓制修道共有。

The pope at that time was Gregory II (713-31).教宗當時格雷戈里二( 713-31 ) 。 Even before he had received the appeal of Germanus a letter came from the emperor commanding him to accept the edict, destroy images at Rome, and summon a general council to forbid their use.甚至之前他曾接獲上訴的germanus一封信來自皇帝指揮他接受了這份公告,銷毀圖像在羅馬,並傳召一般會禁止其使用。 Gregory answered, in 727, by a long defence of the pictures.格雷戈里回答,在727時,由長期辯護的照片。 He explains the difference between them and idols, with some surprise that Leo does not already understand it.他解釋道之間的差別,和偶像,有些驚訝利奧並不早已明白。 He describes the lawful use of, and reverence paid to, pictures by Christians.他形容合法使用,並虔敬支付,圖片由基督徒。 He blames the emperor's interference in ecclesiastical matters and his persecution of image-worshippers.他指責皇帝的干涉教會事務和他的迫害的形象做禮拜。 A council is not wanted; all Leo has to do is to stop disturbing the peace of the Church.安理會是不想要了;所有利奧已經做的是停止擾亂治安的教會。 As for Leo's threat that he will come to Rome, break the statue of St. Peter (apparently the famous bronze statue in St. Peter's), and take the pope prisoner, Gregory answers it by pointing out that he can easily escape into the Campagna, and reminding the emperor how futile and now abhorrent to all Christians was Constans's persecution of Martin I. He also says that all people in the West detest the emperor's action and will never consent to destroy their images at his command (Greg. II, "Ep. I ad Leonem").至於利奧的威脅,他將前來羅馬,打破雕像聖彼得(顯然是著名的青銅塑像,在聖伯多祿) ,並採取教宗囚犯,格雷戈里答案,它指出,他可以輕易避過進入campagna ,並提醒皇帝如何徒勞的和可惡的,現在所有的基督徒是常數的迫害馬丁一,他也說,所有的人都在西方討厭這個皇帝的行動,絕不會同意銷毀其形象在他的指揮( greg.二號"的EP ,我的廣告leonem " ) 。 The emperor answered, continuing his argument by saying that no general council had yet said a word in favour of images that he himself is emperor and priest (basileus kai lereus) in one and therefore has the right to make decrees about such matters.皇帝回答,繼續他的論點,他說沒有總理事會還沒有說過一句話,贊成的影像,他自己是皇帝和牧師(新啟萊雷烏斯)在一,因此也有權提出法令等事宜。 Gregory writes back regretting that Leo does not yet see the error of his ways.格雷戈里寫回遺憾地表示利奧還沒有看到錯誤的,他的方法。 As for the former general Councils, they did not pretend to discuss every point of the faith; it was unnecessary in those days to defend what no one attacked.至於前省議會,但它們並沒有假裝討論的每一點與信仰,這是不必要的,在那些日子捍衛什麼,沒有人攻擊。 The title Emperor and Priest had been conceded as a compliment to some sovereigns because of their zeal in defending the very faith that Leo now attacked.標題天皇和牧師已作出讓步,作為補充,一些統治者,因為他們的熱情,在捍衛非常真誠利奧現在攻擊。 The pope declares himself determined to withstand the emperor's tyranny at any cost, though he has no defence but to pray that Christ will send a demon to torture the emperor's body that his soul be saved, according to 1 Corinthians 5:5.教宗宣布他決心要頂住皇帝的暴政,不惜任何代價,雖然他沒有辯護,但以祈求基督將派遣一個妖魔,以酷刑皇帝的遺體,他的靈魂得救,根據哥林多前書5:5 。

Meanwhile the persecution raged in the East.與此同時迫害肆虐於世界東方。 Monasteries were destroyed, monks put to death, tortured, or banished.寺廟被毀,和尚把死刑,酷刑,或被放逐。 The Iconoclasts began to apply their principle to relics also, to break open shrines and burn the bodies of saints buried in churches.該iconoclasts開始運用他們的原則,以文物,同時,為了打破開放神龕和焚燒屍體的聖人埋在教堂。 Some of them rejected all intercession of saints.他們中的一些人拒絕了所有干涉的聖人。 These and other points (destruction of relics and rejection of prayers to saints), though not necessarily involved in the original programme are from this time generally (not quite always) added to Iconoclasm.這些和其他各點(毀壞文物和拒絕祈禱聖人) ,雖然不一定是在原來的方案是從這個時候,一般(不太總是)加入iconoclasm 。 Meanwhile, St. John Damascene (d. 754).同時,聖約翰大馬士革(四754 ) 。 safe from the emperor's anger under the rule of the Khalifa was writing at the monastery of St Saba his famous apologies "against those who destroy the holy icons".保險櫃從皇帝的憤怒統治下的哈利法是寫在修道院的聖薩巴其著名的道歉" ,對付那些破壞聖地圖標" 。 In the West, at Rome, Ravenna, and Naples, the people rose against the emperor's law.在西方,在羅馬,拉文納,那不勒斯,人民奮起反對皇帝的法律。 This anti-imperial movement is one of the factors of the breach between Italy and the old empire, the independence of the papacy, and the beginning of the Papal States.這個反帝國主義運動,是其中一個因素的違約意大利與舊帝國,是獨立的教宗,並開始教皇國。 Gregory II already refused to send taxes to Constantinople and himself appointed the imperial dux in the Ducatos Romanus.格雷戈里二已經拒絕送稅項,以君士坦丁堡,並親自任命帝國dux在ducatos romanus 。 From this time the pope becomes practically sovereign of the Ducatus.從這個時候,教宗變得幾乎主權的ducatus 。 The emperor's anger against image-worshippers was strengthened by a revolt that broke out about this time in Hellas, ostensibly in favour of the icons.皇帝的憤怒,對圖像做禮拜是加強了一場左右發生在這個時候,在希臘,表面上贊成該圖標。 A certain Cosmas was set up as emperor by the rebels.某科斯馬斯成立了皇帝,由叛軍。 The insurrection was soon crushed (727), and Cosmas was beheaded.叛亂很快就被壓死( 727 ) ,並科斯馬斯被砍頭。 After this a new and severer edict against images was published (730), and the fury of the persecution was redoubled.之後,這是一個新的和更嚴厲的法令,對圖像出版( 730 ) ,和憤怒的迫害變本加厲。

Pope Gregory II died in 731.羅馬教皇格雷戈里二,死亡731 。 He was succeeded at once by Gregory III, who carried on the defence of holy images in exactly the spirit of his predecessor.他的成功,在一次由格雷戈里第三,他們進行辯護的神聖形象到底的精神,他的前任。 The new pope sent a priest, George, with letters against Iconoclasm to Constantinople.新教宗發出了一個牧師,喬治,與信iconoclasm以君士坦丁堡。 But George when he arrived, was afraid to present them, and came back without having accomplished his mission.但喬治當他到達時,也很害怕,以目前他們,回來後不需完成他的使命。 He was sent a second time on the same errand, but was arrested and imprisoned in Sicily by the imperial governor.他隨即被送往第二次就同一差事,但被警方拘捕,並囚禁在西西里島,由帝國總督。 The emperor now proceeded with his policy of enlarging and strengthening his own patriarchate at Constantinople.皇帝,現在又進行了他的政策,擴大和加強自己的東正教會在君士坦丁堡。 He conceived the idea of making it as great as all the empire over which he still actually ruled.他所構思的想法,使之大,因為所有的酬勞,他實際上仍然統治。 Isauria, Leo's birthplace, was taken from Antioch by an imperial edict and added to the Byzantine patriarchate, increasing it by the Metropolis, Seleucia, and about twenty other sees. isauria ,古巨基的發祥地,是採取由Antioch由一個帝國法令,並添加到拜占庭牧,增加它的大都市,塞琉西亞,約二十個其他地區看到。 Leo further pretended to withdraw Illyricum from the Roman patriarchate and to add it to that of Constantinople, and confiscated all the property of the Roman See on which he could lay his hands, in Sicily and Southern Italy.利奧進一步假裝撤回伊利裡庫姆從羅馬牧首,並以將它添加到即君士坦丁堡,並沒收全部財產的羅馬看到,他可以奠定他的手中,在西西里島和意大利南部。 This naturally increased the enmity between Eastern and Western Christendom.這自然增加了敵意,東部和西部基督教。 In 731 Gregory III held a synod of ninety-three bishops at St. Peter's in which all persons who broke, defiled, or took images of Christ, of His Mother, the Apostles or other saints were declared excommunicate.在731格雷戈里三召開主教會議的93主教們在聖彼得大教堂的,其中所有的人打破了,玷污,或上台圖像基督的,他的母親,使徒或其他聖人被宣告excommunicate 。 Another legate, Constantine, was sent with a copy of the decree and of its application to the emperor, but was again arrested and imprisoned in Sicily.另一legate ,君士坦丁,被送到同一份拷貝的法令和它的應用,以皇帝,但被再次被捕,並被監禁在西西里島。 Leo then sent a fleet to Italy to punish the pope; but it was wrecked and dispersed by a storm.利奧然後派出一個船隊前往意大利懲治教宗,但它是破壞和分散的風波。 Meanwhile every kind of calamity afflicted the empire; earthquakes, pestilence, and famine devastated the provinces while the Moslems continued their victorious career and conquered further territory.同時每一種災難折磨帝國;地震,瘟疫和飢荒蹂躪的省份,而穆斯林繼續他們的事業取得勝利,並征服了進一步的領土。

Leo III died in June, 741, in the midst of these troubles, without having changed policy.利奧三死在6月, 741人,在複雜多變的這些麻煩,而無需改變政策。 His work was carried on by his son Constantine V (Copronymus, 741-775), who became an even greater persecutor of image-worshippers than had been his father.他的工作是進行了對他的兒子君士坦丁五( copronymus , 741-775 ) ,他成為一個更大的persecutor的圖像比善信已被他的父親。 As soon as Leo III was dead, Artabasdus (who had married Leo's daughter) seized the opportunity and took advantage of the unpopularity of the Iconoclast Government to raise a rebellion.盡快利奧三世死了, artabasdus (曾結婚利奧的女兒) ,抓住機遇,利用其不受歡迎的孤星叛逆者政府提出一個叛亂。 Declaring himself the protector of the holy icons he took possession of the capital, had himself crowned emperor by the pliant patriarch Anastasius and immediately restored the images.宣布自己的保衛神聖的圖標,他佔有了這些資本,有自己加冕皇帝所pliant牧anastasius ,並立即恢復圖像。 Anastasius, who had been intruded in the place of Germanus as the Iconoclast candidate, now veered round in the usual Byzantine way, helped the restoration of the images and excommunicated Constantine V as a heretic and denier of Christ. anastasius ,已侵入我在犯罪地點germanus作為孤星叛逆者候選人,現在轉向輪在正常拜占庭的方式,幫助恢復國家的形象和驅逐君士坦丁五,邪教組織和丹尼的喊聲。 But Constantine marched on the city, took it, blinded Artabasdus and began a furious revenge on all rebels and image-worshippers (743).但君士坦丁遊行,對城市,又把它,利欲熏心artabasdus ,並開始了瘋狂報復,對所有叛軍和圖像善信( 743 ) 。 His treatment of Anastasius is a typical example of the way these later emperors behaved towards the patriarchs through whom they tried to govern the Church.他的治療anastasius ,是一種典型的方式,這後來皇帝不乖對patriarchs通過他們,他們試圖統治教會。 Anastasius was flogged in public, blinded, driven shamefully through the streets, made to return to his Iconoclasm and finally reinstated as patriarch. anastasius被鞭打在公共,利欲熏心,驅使可恥通過街道,取得有權返回他的iconoclasm並最終恢復了,因為老人家。 The wretched man lived on till 754.這個可憐的人住到754 。 The pictures restored by Artabasdus were again removed.照片恢復artabasdus再次拆除。 In 754 Constantine, taking up his father's original idea summoned a great synod at Constantinople that was to count as the Seventh General Council.在754君士坦丁,侵占了他的父親原來的想法召見了一個偉大主教在君士坦丁堡,那就是讓算作第七次總理事會。 About 340 bishops attended; as the See of Constantinople was vacant by the death of Anastasius, Theodosius of Ephesus and Pastilias of Perge presided.約340主教出席;正如看到的君士坦丁堡出缺,由死亡anastasius , theodosius的伸出手和pastilias的佩爾蓋主持了會議。 Rome, Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem refused to send legates, since it was clear that the bishops were summoned merely to carry out the emperor's commands.羅馬,亞歷山大,安提和耶路撒冷拒絕送legates ,因為它清楚地表明主教被傳喚只是進行了皇帝的命令。 The event showed that the patriarchs had judged rightly.一旦發現該patriarchs曾判斷是正確的。 The bishops at the synod servilely agreed to all Constantine's demands.主教們在主教servilely同意所有君士坦丁的需求。 They decreed that images of Christ are either Monophysite or Nestorian, for -- since it is impossible to represent His Divinity -- they either confound or divorce His two natures.他們命令圖像基督要么monophysite或景教, -因為這是不可能的,以代表他的神性-要么是混淆或離婚,他的兩個性質。 The only lawful representation of Christ is the Holy Eucharist.唯一合法的代表,是基督聖體聖事。 Images of saints are equally to be abhorred; it is blasphemous to represent by dead wood or stone those who live with God.圖像的聖人,同樣要引起一片嘩然,這是褻瀆神明,以代表由枯木或石材那些生活與上帝。 All images are an invention of the pagans -- are in fact idols, as shown by Ex xx, 4, 5; Deut.所有圖片都是一個發明的異教徒-其實都是偶像,如圖所示,由前某, 4日, 5日; d eut。 v, 8; John iv, 24; Rom.五, 8 ;約翰四, 24歲;光碟。 i, 23-25.一, 23-25 。 Certain texts of the Fathers are also quoted in support of Iconoclasm.某些文本的父親也引述支持iconoclasm 。 Image-worshippers are idolaters, adorers of wood and stone; the Emperors Leo and Constantine are lights of the Orthodox faith, our saviours from idolatry.形象信徒盲目崇拜者, adorers的木器和石器;皇帝利奧和君士坦丁是燈的正教信仰,我們的救星,從偶像崇拜。 A special curse is pronounced against three chief defenders of images -- Germanus, the former Patriarch of Constantinople, John Damascene, and a monk, George of Cyprus.一個特殊的詛咒,是針對突出三個行政維護者的形象-g ermanus,前元老的君士坦丁堡,約翰大馬士革,一名僧人,喬治的塞浦路斯。 The synod declares that "the Trinity has destroyed these three" ("Acts of the Iconoclast Synod of 754" in Mansi XIII, 205 sq.).主教宣稱"三位一體摧毀了這三大" (下稱"行為孤星叛逆者主教會議的754個"曼西十三, 205平方) 。

The bishops finally elected a successor to the vacant see of Constantinople, Constantine, bishop of Sylaeum (Constantine II, 754-66), who was of course a creature of the Government, prepared to carry on its campaign.主教們最後選了一位繼任者,以空置見的君士坦丁堡,君士坦丁主教sylaeum (君士坦丁二, 754-66 ) ,他是當然是一個造物的政府,準備履行其競選。 The decrees were published in the Forum on 27 August, 754.該法令被公佈在論壇上8月27日, 754 。 After this the destruction of pictures went on with renewed zeal.經過這次銷毀的照片,又重新狂熱。 All the bishops of the empire were required to sign the Acts of the synod and to swear to do away with icons in their dioceses.所有的主教們帝國的人必須簽署該行為的主教,並發誓要取消圖標,在其教區。 The Paulicians were now treated well, while image-worshippers and monks were fiercely persecuted.該paulicians現在良好的待遇,而圖像善信和僧侶被猛烈的迫害。 Instead of paintings of saints the churches were decorated with pictures of flowers, fruit, and birds, so that the people said that they looked like grocery stores and bird shops.不是畫的聖徒教堂裝飾的照片,鮮花,水果,鳥類,讓人民群眾說,他們看上去像雜貨店和鳥店。 A monk Peter was scourged to death on 7 June, 761; the Abbot of Monagria, John, who refused to trample on an icon, was tied up in a sack and thrown into the sea on 7 June, 761; in 767 Andrew, a Cretan monk, was flogged and lacerated till he died (see the Acta SS., 8 Oct.; Roman Martyrology for 17 Oct.); in November of the same year a great number of monks were tortured to death in various ways (Martyrology, 28 Nov.).一名僧人彼得scourged死刑,於6月7日, 761 ;住持monagria ,約翰,他們拒絕踐踏一個圖標,被捆綁在一個布包,並扔進大海於6月7日, 761 ,在767鄭家富, cretan和尚,被鞭打和撕脫,直至他去世(見學報五, 10月8日;羅馬martyrology為10月17日) ,在同年11月的大量僧侶被折磨致死,在以各種方式( martyrology , 11月28日) 。 The emperor tried to abolish monasticism (as the centre of the defence of images); monasteries were turned into barracks; the monastic habit was forbidden; the patriarch Constantine II was made to swear in the ambo of his church that although formerly a monk, he had now joined the secular clergy.皇帝企圖廢除修道(為中心的辯護圖像) ;寺廟變成軍營;修道習慣被禁止;牧君士坦丁二是宣誓在ambo他的教會,雖然以前是和尚,他現在已加入了世俗教士。 Relics were dug up and thrown into the sea, the invocation of saints forbidden.遺跡已被挖起來,扔進海中,援引聖人禁止的。 In 766 the emperor fell foul of his patriarch, had him scourged and beheaded and replaced by Nicetas I (766-80), who was, naturally also an obedient servant of the Iconoclast Government.在766皇帝下跌臭他的元老,對他進行scourged斬首,而代之以尼亞得斯( 766-80 ) ,他是的,當然也是一個聽話的僕人孤星叛逆者政府。 Meanwhile the countries which the emperors power did not reach kept the old custom and broke communion with the Iconoclast Patriarch of Constantinople and his bishops.與此同時,國家君王的權力並沒有達成保存舊習俗打破共融與孤星叛逆者元老的君士坦丁堡和他的主教。 Cosmas of Alexandria, Theodore of Antioch, and Theodore of Jerusalem were all defenders of the holy icons in communion with Rome.科斯馬斯的亞歷山德里亞,西奧多安提和西奧多耶路撒冷的人都捍衛神聖的圖標,在與羅馬的共融。 The Emperor Constantine V died in 775.皇帝君士坦丁v死亡775 。 His son Leo IV (775-80), although he did not repeal the Iconoclast law was much milder in enforcing them.他的兒子利奧四( 775-80 ) ,雖然他沒有廢除孤星叛逆者法是比較溫和的執行。 He allowed the exiled monks to come back, tolerated at least the intercession of saints and tried to reconcile all parties.他允許流亡僧侶回來時,不能容忍的,至少干涉的聖徒,並試圖調和各方。 When the patriarch Nicetas I died in 780 he was succeeded by Paul IV (780-84), a Cypriote monk who carried on a half-hearted Iconoclast policy only through fear of the Government.當元老尼亞得斯i死亡, 780他是接替保羅四( 780-84 ) ,塞浦路斯僧侶進行了一個半心半意孤星叛逆者的政策,只有通過恐懼的政府。 But Leo IV's wife Irene was a steadfast image-worshipper.但利奧四的妻子艾琳是一個堅定的形象媚。 Even during her husband's life she concealed ho}y icons in her rooms.即使是在她丈夫的生命,她隱瞞了何) y圖標,在她的房間。 At the end of his reign Leo had a burst of fiercer Iconoclasm.在結束他的統治利奧了一陣更加激烈iconoclasm 。 He punished the courtiers who had replaced images in their apartments and was about to banish the empress when he died 8 September, 780.他懲處] Courtiers人已更換圖像在他們的公寓和即將被放逐慈禧逝世時,他的9月8日, 780 。 At once a complete reaction set in.在一次完整的反應小巫見大巫。

II.二。 THE SECOND GENERAL COUNCIL (NICEA II, 787)第二次總理事會( nicea二, 787 )

The Empress Irene was regent for her son Constantine VI (780-97), who was nine years old when his father died.慈禧伊雷娜是攝政王,為她的兒子君士坦丁六( 780-97 ) ,他是在9歲時,他的父親去世。 She immediately set about undoing the work of the Iconoclast emperors.她立即著手打倒的工作孤星叛逆者皇帝。 Pictures and relics were restored to the churches; monasteries were reopened.圖片和文物是恢復到了教堂;寺院重新開放。 Fear of the army, now fanatically Iconoclast, kept her for a time from repealing the laws; but she only waited for an opportunity to do so and to restore the broken communion with Rome and the other patriarchates.恐懼的軍隊,現在狂熱地孤星叛逆者,她的,一時間,從廢法,但她只是在等待一個機會,這樣做,並恢復破碎與羅馬的共融和其他patriarchates 。 The Patriarch of Constantinople, Paul IV, resigned and retired to a monastery, giving openly as his reason repentance for his former concessions to the Iconoclast Government.老人家的君士坦丁堡,保四,辭職,退休的一個修道院,使公開,因為他的原因,懺悔他的前優惠孤星叛逆者政府。 He was succeeded by a pronounced image-worshipper, Tarasius.他的繼任者一個明確的形象媚, tarasius 。 Tarasius and the empress now opened negotiations with Rome. tarasius和慈禧現已開放的談判與羅馬。 They sent an embassy to Pope Adrian I (772-95) acknowledging the primacy and begging him to come himself, or at least to send legates to a council that should undo the work of the Iconoclast synod of 754.他們派出一名使館教皇阿德里安一( 772-95 )承認的首要地位,並乞求他來自己的,或至少派遣legates向安理會應撤消工作孤星叛逆者主教會議的754 。 The pope answered by two letters, one for the empress and one for the patriarch.教皇回答了兩封信,一本是關於慈禧一牧。 In these he repeats the arguments for the worship of images agrees to the proposed council, insists on the authority of the Holy See, and demands the restitution of the property confiscated by Leo III.在這些重複他的論點,為崇拜的圖像,同意將建議安理會同意,堅持權威,教廷,並要求歸還的財產被沒收,由利奧三。 He blames the sudden elevation of Tarasius (who from being a layman had suddenly become patriarch), and rejects his title of Ecumenical Patriarch, but he praises his orthodoxy and zeal for the holy images.他指責突然升高tarasius (衛生組織從一個門外漢突然間成為元老) ,並拒絕了他的標題普世牧首,但他稱讚他的正統和熱情,為神聖的形象。 Finally, he commits all these matters to the judgment of his legates.最後,他要求所有這些事情的判斷,他的legates 。 These legates were an archpriest Peter and the abbot Peter of St. Saba near Rome.這些legates一個archpriest彼得與住持彼得聖薩巴羅馬附近。 The other three patriarchs were unable to answer, they did not even receive Tarasius's letters, because of the disturbance at that time in the Moslem state.其他三個patriarchs無法作答時,他們甚至沒有得到tarasius的信件,由於擾動在那個時候,在穆斯林國家。 But two monks, Thomas, abbot of an Egyptian monastery and John Syncellus of Antioch, appeared with letters from their communities explaining the state of things and showing that the patriarchs had always remained faithful to the images.但兩名僧人,托馬斯,住持的一名埃及修道院和約翰syncellus安提,似乎與信從自己的社區,解釋國家的東西,並顯示該patriarchs一直保持忠實於影像。 These two seem to have acted in some sort as legates for Alexandria, Antioch and Jerusalem.這兩個似乎都充當某種作為legates為亞歷山德里亞,安提和耶路撒冷。

Tarasius opened the synod in the church of the Apostles at Constantinople. tarasius打開了主教在教會中的使徒於君士坦丁堡。 in August, 786; but it was at once dispersed by the Iconoclast soldiers.今年8月, 786 ,但它是在一旦分散,由孤星叛逆者士兵。 The empress disbanded those troops and replaced them by others; it was arranged that the synod should meet at Nicaea in Bithynia, the place of the first general council.慈禧解散這些部隊取而代之別人,而是安排主教會面的尼西亞在bithynia ,取代了第一總理事會。 The bishops met here in the summer of 787, about 300 in number.主教們在這裡會見了在今年夏天的787 ,大約300多。 The council lasted from 24 September to 23 October.安理會已於9月24日至10月23日。 The Roman legates were present; they signed the Acts first and always had the first place in the list of members, but Tarasius conducted the proceeding, apparently because the legates could not speak Greek.羅馬legates人出席,他們簽訂了第一個行為,並一直擺在首位成員名單,但tarasius進行訴訟,這顯然是因為該legates不能講希臘語。 In the first three sessions Tarasius gave an account of the events that had led up to the Council, the papal and other letters were read out, and many repentant Iconoclast bishops were reconciled.在首三節tarasius了一個帳戶的事件,這已經導致了向安理會提出,教皇和其他信件被讀出,許多人表示懺悔孤星叛逆者主教被調和。 The fathers accepted the pope's letters as true formulas of the Catholic Faith.父親接受教宗的信函作為真正的公式天主教信仰。 Tarasius, when he read the letters, left out the passages about the restitution of the confiscated papal properties, the reproaches against his own sudden elevation and use of the title Ecumenical Patriarch, and modified (but not essentially) the assertions of the primacy. tarasius ,當他讀信,離開了通道,約歸還被沒收的教皇財產,但責備了對自己的突然升高和使用的標題普世牧首,改良(而不是實質上)斷言的首要地位。 The fourth session established the reasons for which the use of holy images is lawful, quoting from the Old Testament passages about images in the temple (Exodus 25:18-22; Numbers 7:89; Ezekiel 41:18-19; Hebrews 9:5), and also citing a great number of the Fathers.第四次會議上確立的原因,而使用的神聖形象,是合法的,引用舊約旅費約圖像在寺廟中(出埃及記25:18-22 ;號碼7:89 ;以西結書41:18-19 ;希伯來9 : 5 ) ,並列舉了大量的父親。 Euthymius of Sardes at the end of the session read a profession of faith in this sense. euthymius的撒得斯在會議結束時宣讀了一份專業的信心,從這個意義上的。 In the fifth session Tarasius explained that Iconoclasm came from Jews, Saracens, and heretics; some Iconoclast misquotations were exposed, their books burnt, and an icon set up in the hall in the midst of the fathers.在第五次會議tarasius解釋說, iconoclasm來自猶太人,在這部電影,和異教徒;一些孤星叛逆者misquotations被曝光,他們的書籍燒毀,一個圖標設在大廳中的父親。 The sixth session was occupied with the Iconoclast synod of 754; its claim to be a general council was denied, because neither the pope nor the three other patriarchs had a share in it.第六屆會議於被佔領與孤星叛逆者主教會議的754個,其自稱為一般會被拒絕,因為無論是教宗,也沒有其他三個patriarchs了份額。 The decree of that synod (see above) was refuted clause by clause.該法令說,主教會議(見上文)被駁斥的條文。 The seventh session drew up the symbol (horos) of the council, in which, after repeating the Nicene Creed and renewing the condemnation of all manner of former heretics, from Arians to Monothelites, the fathers make their definition.第七屆會議,制定了符號( horos )理事會,其中,經過反复尼西亞和革新譴責一切形式的前異端,從arians以monothelites ,父親做出自己的定義。 Images are to receive veneration (proskynesis), not adoration (latreia); the honour paid to them is only relative (schetike), for the sake of their prototype.圖像接收敬仰( proskynesis ) ,而不是崇拜( latreia ) ;榮幸地向他們支付,只有相對的( schetike ) ,為求其原型。 Anathemas are pronounced against the Iconoclast leaders; Germanus, John Damascene, and George of Cyprus are praised. anathemas是突出對孤星叛逆者領導人; germanus ,約翰大馬士革,和喬治的塞浦路斯是稱讚。 In opposition to the formula of the Iconoclast synod the fathers declare: "The Trinity has made these three glorious" (he Trias tous treis edoxasen).在反對以公式孤星叛逆者主教的父親宣布: "三位一體取得了這三個光榮" (他三疊系Tous的特賴斯edoxasen ) 。 A deputation was sent to the empress with the Acts of the synod; a letter the clergy of Constantinople acquainted them with its decision.團體被送往皇后與行為的主教;一封信神職人員的君士坦丁堡熟識,他們的決定。 Twenty-two canons were drawn up, of which these are the chief: 22門炮分別制定出台,其中,這些都是行政:

canons 1 and 2 confirm the canons of all former general councils;大砲一日及二日證實,該炮的所有前任總理事會;

canon 3 forbids the appointment of ecclesiastical persons by the State; only bishops may elect other bishops;佳能三戒任命主教的人,由國家,只有主教們可以選擇其他的主教;

canons 4 and 5 are against simony;門炮,第4和第5對simony ;

canon 6 insists on yearly provincial synods;佳能六日堅持每年省主教會議;

canon 7 forbids bishops, under penalty of deposition, to consecrate churches without relics;佳能七日禁止主教,根據刑罰的沉積,以consecrate教會未經文物;

canon 10 forbids priests to change their parishes without their bishops consent;佳能十禁止神職人員,以改變他們的教區,沒有他們的主教的同意;

canon 13 commands all desecrated monasteries to be restored;佳能13 Commands所有褻瀆寺院得到恢復;

canons 18-20 regulate abuses in monasteries.大砲18-20規範行為在寺院中。

An eighth and last session was held on 23 October at Constantinople in the presence of Irene and her son.第八名的最後一次會議是10月23日舉行,在君士坦丁堡在存在艾琳和她的兒子。 After a discourse by Tarasius the Acts were read out and signed by all, including the empress and the emperor.後一種話語所tarasius行為被讀出,並簽署了所有的人,包括皇后和皇帝。 The synod was closed with the usual Polychronia or formal acclamation, and Epiphanius, a deacon of Catania in Sicily, preached a sermon to the assembled fathers.主教被關閉與慣常polychronia或正式鼓掌,並epiphanius ,執事的卡塔尼亞在西西里,宣揚說教,以組裝好的父親。 Tarasius sent to Pope Adrian an account of all that had happened, and Adrian approved the Acts (letter to Charles the Great) and had them translated into Latin. tarasius送往教皇阿德里安交代所有已經發生和Adrian批准行為(寫信給查爾斯偉大) ,並已翻譯成拉丁文。 But the question of the property of the Holy See in Southern Italy and the friendship of the pope towards the Franks still caused had feeling between East and West; moreover an Iconoclast party still existed at Constantinople, especially in the army.但問題在於該物業的羅馬教廷在意大利南部和友誼作出了教宗對弗蘭克斯,還是引起了感覺,東方與西方之間,而且是一個孤星叛逆者黨仍然存在於君士坦丁堡,特別是在軍隊。


Twenty-seven years after the Synod of Nicaea, Iconoclasm broke out again.二十七年後,主教的尼西亞, iconoclasm再次爆發。 Again the holy pictures were destroyed, and their defenders fiercely persecuted.再次聖地照片被摧毀,他們的維護者猛烈迫害。 For twenty-eight years the former story was repeated with wonderful exactness.為28年前的故事被反复與奇妙的正確性。 The places of Leo III, Constantine V, and Leo IV are taken by a new line of Iconoclast emperors -- Leo V, Michael II, Theophilus.地方的利奧三世君士坦丁V和利奧四是採取了全新的孤星叛逆者皇帝-利奧五,邁克爾二,西奧菲勒斯。 Pope Paschal I acts just as did Gregory II, the faithful Patriarch Nicephorus stands for Germanus I, St. John Damascene lives again in St. Theodore the Studite.教宗逾越i行為只是像格雷戈里二,信徒牧nicephorus主張germanus我,聖約翰大馬士革的生命再一次在聖西奧多該studite 。 Again one synod rejects icons, and another, following it, defends them.再一個主教拒絕圖標,另外,隨著資訊科技,保衛他們。 Again an empress, regent for her young son, puts an end to the storm and restores the old custom -- this time finally.又是一個皇后,攝政王為她年幼的兒子,把結束這場風波,恢復舊風俗-這一次終於。

The origin of this second outbreak is not far to seek.起源,這第二次爆發,是不遠處尋找。 There had remained, especially in the army, a considerable Iconoclast party.有依然存在,特別是在軍隊,有相當孤星叛逆者黨。 Constantine V, their hero had been a valiant and successful general against the Moslems, Michael I (811-13), who kept the Faith of the Second Council of Nicaea, was singularly unfortunate in his attempt to defend the empire.君士坦丁五,他們的英雄一直是英勇和成功的普遍反對穆斯林,邁克爾( 811-13 ) ,守信的信念,第二屆理事會的尼西亞,不幸在他試圖保衛帝國。 The Iconoclasts looked back regretfully to the glorious campaigns of his predecessor, they evolved the amazing conception of Constantine as a saint, they went in pilgrimage to his grave and cried out to him: "Arise come back and save the perishing empire".該iconoclasts回顧了無遺憾的向光輝的運動,他的前任,他們形成了驚人的構想君士坦丁作為一個聖人,他們在前往朝聖,以他的墳墓,並高喊對他說: "出現回來救亡帝國" 。 When Michael I, in June, 813, was utterly defeated by the Bulgars and fled to his capital, the soldiers forced him to resign his crown and set up one of the generals Leo the Armenian (Leo V, 813-20) in his place.邁克爾的時候,我在6月, 813 ,完全是敗在了保加利亞人,逃往他的資本中,士兵們強迫他辭職,他的冠,並成立一個將軍利奧亞美尼亞(利奧五, 813-20 ) ,在自己的位置。 An officer (Theodotus Cassiteras) and a monk (the Abbot John Grammaticus) persuaded the new emperor that all the misfortunes of the empire were a judgment of God on the idolatry of image-worship.一名幹事(西奧多托斯cassiteras )和一個和尚(住持約翰格拉默提克斯)說服了新的皇帝,這一切不幸的帝國是一個神的審判對偶像崇拜的形象崇拜。 Leo, once persuaded, used all his power to put down the icons, and so all the trouble began again.利奧,一旦說服了,用他的所有權力放下圖標,使所有的麻煩就開始了。

In 814 the Iconoclasts assembled at the palace and prepared an elaborate attack against images, repeating almost exactly the arguments of the synod of 754.在814本iconoclasts聚集在王宮,並準備了一份詳細闡述打擊圖像,重複幾乎一模一樣的論點主教會議的754 。 The Patriarch of Constantinople was Nicephorus I (806-15), who became one of the chief defenders of images in this second persecution.老人家的君士坦丁堡被nicephorus一( 806-15 ) ,他成為其中的行政維護者的形象,在這第二次迫害。 The emperor invited him to a discussion of the question with the Iconoclasts; he refused since it had been already settled by the Seventh General Council.皇帝邀請他的問題進行過討論與iconoclasts ;他拒絕了,因為它已經解決了第七次總理事會。 The work of demolishing images began again.工作拆毀圖像開始。 The picture of Christ restored by Irene over the iron door of the palace, was again removed.該圖片的基督恢復伊雷娜超過鐵門的殿堂,又是拆除。 In 815 the patriarch was summoned to the emperor's presence.在815宗主教被傳喚到皇帝的存在。 He came surrounded by bishops, abbots, and monks, and held a long discussion with Leo and his Iconoclast followers.他來到四周主教,方丈都很和僧侶,並進行了長時間的討論與利奧和他的追隨者孤星叛逆者。 Inn he same year the emperor summoned a synod of bishops, who, obeying his orders, deposed the patriarch and elected Theodotus Cassiteras (Theodotus I, 815-21) to succeed him.客棧他同一年,皇帝召集主教會議,世衛組織,服從他的命令,廢黜主教,並選出西奧多托斯cassiteras (西奧多托斯,我815-21 ) ,以接替他。 Nicephorus was banished across the Bosporus. nicephorus被放逐全國博斯普魯斯海峽。 Till his death in 829, he defended the cause of the images by controversial writings (the "Lesser Apology", "Antirrhetikoi", "Greater Apology", etc. in PG, C, 201-850; Pitra, "Spicileg. Solesm.", I, 302-503; IV, 233, 380), wrote a history of his own time (Historia syntomos, PG, C, 876-994) and a general chronography from Adam (chronographikon syntomon, in PG, C, 995-1060).直到他去世,在829 ,他捍衛了事業的企業形象有爭議的著作( "較輕的道歉" , " antirrhetikoi " , "更大的道歉"等等,在編號,丙, 201-850 ; pitra , " spicileg 。 solesm 。 " ,我想, 302-503 ;四, 233 , 380頁) ,寫了歷史,他自己的時間(歷史syntomos ,編號,丙, 876-994 ) ,並概括地chronography從亞當( chronographikon syntomon ,編號,丙, 995 -1060 ) 。 Among the monks who accompanied Nicephorus to the emperor's presence in 815 was Theodore, Abbot of the Studium monastery at Constantinople (d. 826).其中和尚陪同nicephorus以皇帝的存在,在815是西奧多,住持的studium寺君士坦丁堡(四826 ) 。 Throughout this second Iconoclast persecution St. Theodore (Theodorus Studita) was the leader of the faithful monks, the chief defender of the icons.在整個第二孤星叛逆者迫害聖西奧多( theodorus studita )是領先的忠實和尚,行政辯護人的圖標。 He comforted and encouraged Nicephorus in his resistance to the emperor, was three times banished by the Government, wrote a great number of treatises controversial letters, and apologies in various forms for the images.他安慰和鼓勵nicephorus在他的抵抗,以天皇為3倍放逐,由政府,寫了大量的論文有爭議的信件,和道歉以各種形式,為圖像。 His chief point is that Iconoclasts are Christological heretics, since they deny an essential element of Christ's human nature, namely, that it can be represented graphically.他的主要的一點是iconoclasts是基督論異端,因為他們否認的一個基本要素基督的人的本質,即它可以用圖表。 This amounts to a denial of its reality and material quality, whereby Iconoclasts revive the old Monophysite heresy.這等於否定了它的現實和物質的質量,讓iconoclasts振興老monophysite異端。 Ehrhard judges St. Theodore to be "perhaps the most ingenious [der scharfsinnigste] of the defenders of the cult of images" (in Krumbacher's "Byz. Litt.", p. 150). ehrhard法官聖西奧多被"或許是最巧妙[明鏡scharfsinnigste ]捍衛邪教的圖片" (在克倫巴赫爾的" byz 。利特" ,第150頁) 。 In any case his position can be rivalled only by that of St. John Damascene.在任何情況下他的位置,可以互相鬥,只有這聖約翰大馬士革。 (See his work in PG, XCIX; for an account of them see Krumbacher, op. cit., 147-151, 712-715; his life by a contemporary monk, PG, XCIX, 9 sq.) His feast is on 11 Nov. in the Byzantine Rite, 12 Nov. in the Roman Martyrology. (見他的作品在編號, xcix ;交代,他們看到克倫巴赫爾,前引書, 147-151 , 712-715 ,他的生活中,由當代高僧,編號, xcix , 9平方)表示,他的盛宴,是11 11月,在拜占庭儀式, 11月12日在羅馬martyrology 。

The first thing the new patriarch Theodotus did was to hold a synod which condemned the council of 787 (the Second Nicene) and declared its adherence to that of 754.第一件事,新牧西奧多托斯做的就是舉行主教譴責安理會的787 (第二nicene ) ,並聲稱其堅持,即754 。 Bishops, abbots, clergy, and even officers of the Government who would not accept its decree were deposed, banished, tortured.主教,方丈都很,神職人員,甚至人員的,政府是不會接受它的法令被廢黜,流放,酷刑。 Theodore of Studium refused communion with the Iconoclast patriarch, and went into exile.西奧多的studium拒絕共融與孤星叛逆者牧首,並進入放逐。 A number of persons of all ranks were put to death at this time, and his references; pictures of all kinds were destroyed everywhere.一些人的隊伍被置於死亡的是在這個時候,和他的參照系的照片各種被摧毀,無處不在。 Theodore appealed to the pope (Paschal I, 817-824) in the name of the persecuted Eastern image-worshippers.西奧多呼籲教宗(逾越節, 817-824 ) ,在名稱的迫害東部圖像做禮拜。 At the same time Theodotus the Iconoclast patriarch, sent legates to Rome, who were, however not admitted by the pope, since Theodotus was a schismatical intruder in the see of which Nicephorus was still lawful bishop.在同一時間,奧多托斯孤星叛逆者牧,發送legates羅馬人,但不承認教宗的,因為奧多托斯是一個schismatical入侵者在看到其中nicephorus仍是合法的主教。 But Paschal received the monks sent by Theodoret and gave up the monastery of St. Praxedes to them and others who had fled from the persecution in the East.逾越節,但收到了和尚派來theodoret放棄了修道院的聖普拉謝德斯向他們和其他人逃離迫害,在東部地區。 In 818 the pope sent legates to the emperor with a letter defending the icons and once more refuting the Iconoclast accusation of idolatry.在818教宗發出legates向皇帝一信捍衛圖標,並再次批駁孤星叛逆者指控的偶像崇拜。 In this letter he insists chiefly on our need of exterior signs for invisible things: sacraments, words, the sign of the Cross.在這封信裡,他堅持,主要是對我們需要的外部標誌,無形的東西:聖禮,換句話說,標誌在十字架上。 and all tangible signs of this kind; how, then, can people who a admit these reject images?和所有有形的跡象,這種;那麼,如何才能的人誰承認這些拒絕影像? (The fragment of this letter that has been preserved is published in Pitra, "Spicileg. Solesm.". II, p. xi sq.). (片段,此信已被保存下來,是發表在pitra , " spicileg 。 solesm " ,第二頁第十一平方米) 。 The letter did not have any effect on the emperor; but it is from this time especially that the Catholics in the East turn with more loyalty than ever to Rome as their leader, their last refuge in the persecution.信中並沒有任何作用,對皇帝,但就是從這個時候尤其是天主教徒,在東部地區,從而有更多的忠誠度比以往任何時候都以羅馬為他們的領袖,他們最後的避難所,在這場迫害。 The well-known texts of St. Theodore in which he defends the primacy in the strongest possible language -- eg, "Whatever novelty is brought into the Church by those who wander from the truth must certainly be referred to Peter or to his successor . . . . Save us, chief pastor of the Church under heaven" (Ep. i, 33, PG., XCIX, 1018); "Arrange that a decision be received from old Rome as the custom has been handed down from the beginning by the tradition of our fathers" (Ep. ii, 36; ibid., 1331 --were written during this persecution).著名的文本聖西奧多其中他辯護的首要地位,在最強烈的語言-例如, "什麼新奇的是帶進教會那些徘徊遠離真理,就一定要被轉介至彼得還是他的繼任者。 … … 。救我們,首席牧師的教會下的天堂" ( ep.我, 33歲, 415-359-2454 , xcix , 1018年) ; " ,安排一項決定,並將收到的舊羅馬作為習俗一直流傳下來,從一開始就傳統,我們的父親" ( ep.二, 36 ,同上,第1331 -寫在此迫害) 。

The protestations of loyalty to old Rome made by the Orthodox and Catholic Christians of the Byzantine Church at the time are her last witness immediately before the Great Schism.抗議忠於舊羅馬由東正教和天主教教徒的拜占庭教堂的時候,是她最後的證人之前立即偉大裂。 There were then two separate parties in the East having no communion with each other: the Iconoclast persecutors under the emperor with their anti-patriarch Theodotus, and the Catholics led by Theodore the Studite acknowledging the lawful patriarch Nicephorus and above him the distant Latin bishop who was to them the "chief pastor of the Church under heaven".有那麼兩個不同的政黨在東部地區沒有共融與對方:孤星叛逆者迫害者,根據皇帝與他們的反華牧西奧多托斯和天主教徒為首西奧多該studite承認合法元老nicephorus以上,他對遙遠的拉丁美洲主教的人是他們以"行政牧師的教會下的天堂" 。 On Christmas Day, 820, Leo V ended his tyrannical reign by being murdered in a palace revolution that set up one of his generals, Michael II (the Stammerer, 820-29) as emperor.聖誕節當日, 820 ,利奧v結束了他的獨裁統治被謀殺在宮廷革命,成立了他的一名將軍,邁克爾二( stammerer , 820-29 )即皇帝位。 Michael was also an Iconoclast and continued his predecessors policy, though at first he was anxious not to persecute but to conciliate every one.邁克爾也是一個孤星叛逆者,並繼續他的前任的政策,雖然起初他並不想迫害,但調解的每一位。 But he changed nothing of the Iconoclast law and when Theodotus the anti-patriarch died (821) he refused to restore Nicephorus and set up another usurper, Antony, formerly Bishop of Sylaeum (Antony I, 321-32).但他沒有改變的孤星叛逆者法時,奧多托斯反元老死亡( 821 ) ,他拒絕恢復nicephorus並成立另一篡權,阿松,原主教sylaeum (阿松,我321-32 ) 。 In 822 a certain general of Slav race, Thomas, set up a dangerous revolution with the help of the Arabs.在822某一般的斯拉夫種族,托馬斯,成立了一個危險的革命與幫助的阿拉伯人。 It does not seem that this revolution had anything to do with the question of images.它似乎並不認為這場革命都沒有問題的圖像。 Thomas represented rather the party of the murdered emperor, Leo V. But after it was put down, in 824, Michael became much more severe towards the image-worshippers.托馬斯代表,而不是黨的謀殺皇帝利奧訴,但經過它放下,在824人,邁克爾成了更為嚴峻,對圖像做禮拜。 A great number of monks fled to the West, and Michael wrote a famous letter full of bitter accusations of their idolatry to his rival Louis the Pious (814-20) to persuade him to hand over these exiles to Byzantine justice (in Manse, XIV, 417-22).大量的僧人逃到了西方國家,邁克爾寫了著名的信中充滿了痛苦的指控,他們的偶像崇拜,以他的競選對手路易斯的虔誠( 814-20 ) ,以說服他交出這些流亡者拜占庭正義( manse ,第十四條, 417-22 ) 。 Other Catholics who had not escaped were imprisoned and tortured, among whom were Methodius of Syracuse and Euthymius, Metropolitan of Sardes.其他天主教徒,他們沒有逃脫被囚禁和折磨,其中有methodius錫拉丘茲和euthymius ,大都市的撒得斯。 The deaths of St. Theodore the Studite (11 Nov., 826) and of the lawful patriarch Nicephorus (2 June, 828) were a great loss to the orthodox at this time.死亡聖西奧多該studite ( 11月11日, 826 )和合法元老nicephorus ( 6月2日, 828 )是一個很大的損失東正教在這個時候。 Michael's son and successor, Theophilus, (829-42), continued the persecution still more fiercely.邁克爾的兒子和繼任者,西奧菲勒斯, ( 829-42 ) ,繼續迫害更加激烈地進行著。 A monk, Lazarus, was scourged till he nearly died; another monk, Methodius, was shut up in prison with common ruffians for seven years; Michael, Syncellus of Jerusalem, and Joseph, a famous writer of hymns, were tortured.一名僧人,拉撒路,是scourged直到他幾乎死亡;另一個和尚, methodius ,被關在獄中,有著共同的歹徒為七年;邁克爾, syncellus的耶路撒冷,以及約瑟夫,一位著名作家的聖歌,被折磨。 The two brothers Theophanes and Theodore were scourged with 200 strokes and branded in the face with hot irons as idolaters (Martyrol. Rom., 27 December).兩兄弟theophanes和西奧多被scourged 200招化和品牌化,在面對灼熱的鐵桿,因為盲目崇拜者( martyrol.光碟, 12月27日) 。 By this time all images had been removed from the churches and public places, the prisons were filled with their defenders, the faithful Catholics were reduced to a sect hiding about the empire, and a crowd of exiles in the West.這個時候,所有的圖片已被拆掉,從教堂和公共場所,監獄中都站滿了他們的捍衛者,忠實的天主教徒被調低至節藏匿約帝國,和一群流亡西方。 But the emperor's wife Theodora and her mother Theoctista were faithful to the Second Nicene Synod and waited for better times.但皇帝的妻子theodora和她的母親theoctista被忠於第二nicene主教,等待更好的時候。

Those times came as soon as Theophilus died (20 January, 842).那個時候來到盡快西奧菲勒斯死亡( 1月20日, 842 ) 。 He left a son, three years old, Michael III (the Drunkard, who lived to cause the Great Schism of Photius, 842-67), and the regent was Michael's mother, Theodora.他留下一個兒子, 3歲了,邁克爾三(大醉俠,生活造成了很大的裂的photius , 842-67 ) ,以及晶華邁克爾的母親, theodora 。 Like Irene at the end of the first persecution, Theodora at once began to change the situation.像艾琳在去年底的第一次迫害, theodora立刻開始改變這一局面。 She opened the prisons, let out the confessors who were shut up for defending images, and recalled the exiles.輕輕打開監獄,讓出confessors人都關起來,為捍衛影像,並回顧了流亡者。 For a time she hesitated to revoke the Iconoclast laws but soon she made up her mind and everything was brought back to the conditions of the Second Council of Nicea.今後一個時期,她毫不猶豫地撤銷孤星叛逆者法律,但不久她提出了她的主意,一切都被帶返條件的第二屆理事會nicea 。 The patriarch John VII (832-42), who had succeeded Antony I, was given his choice between restoring the images and retiring.牧首約翰七( 832-42 ) ,他們已成功地炮製的,我是考慮到他的選擇之間恢復圖像和退休。 He preferred to retire.他寧願退休。 and his place was taken by Methodius, the monk who had already suffered years of imprisonment for the cause of the icons (Methodius I, 842-46).和他的位置是由methodius ,僧人,他們已經受到多年的監禁事業的圖標( methodius我, 842-46 ) 。 In the same year (842) a synod at Constantinople approved of John VII's deposition, renewed the decree of the Second Council of Nicaea and excommunicated Iconoclasts.在同一年( 842 )主教在君士坦丁堡批准的約翰七世的沉積,延長法令的第二屆理事會的尼西亞和驅逐iconoclasts 。 This is the last act in the story of this heresy.這是最後一次行動中的故事,這個邪。 On the first Sunday of Lent (19 February, 842) the icons were brought back to the churches in solemn procession.關於第一個週日封齋期( 2月19日, 842 )的圖標被帶返教會,在莊嚴的遊行。 That day (the first Sunday of Lent) was made into a perpetual memory of the triumph of orthodoxy at the end of the long Iconoclast persecution.這一天(第一次週日封齋)是一個永恆的記憶勝利正統於去年底從長遠孤星叛逆者迫害。 It is the "Feast of Orthodoxy" of the Byzantine Church still kept very solemnly by both Uniats and Orthodox.明明是"盛宴的正統"的拜占庭教堂仍保存十分隆重,由雙方uniats和東正教。 Twenty years later the Great Schism began. 20年後的大分裂開始的。 So large has this, the last of the old heresies, loomed in the eyes of Eastern Christians that the Byzantine Church looks upon it as a kind of type of heresy in general the Feast of Orthodoxy, founded to commemorate the defeat of Iconoclasm has become a feast of the triumph of the Church over all heresies.這麼大了,過去的老邪說,在面臨眼中的東方基督徒拜占庭教堂視它為一種類型的邪說,在一般的節日正統的創立是為了紀念打敗iconoclasm已成為盛宴的勝利,教會所有的異端邪說。 It is in this sense that it is now kept.正是在這個意義上說,現在是兌現的。 The great Synodikon read out on that day anathematizes all heretics (in Russia rebels and nihilists also) among whom the Iconoclasts appear only as one fraction of a large and varied class.偉大synodikon讀出這一天anathematizes所有異教徒(在俄國叛軍和nihilists也) ,其中iconoclasts只出現一小部分有一個較大的和不同的階層。 After the restoration of the icons in 842, there still remained an Iconoclast party in the East, but it never again got the ear of an emperor, and so gradually dwindled and eventually died out.修復後的圖標842 ,仍有一個孤星叛逆者黨在東部地區,但它永遠不會再得到耳朵的是一個皇帝,所以逐漸減弱並最終消失。

IV.四。 ICONOCLASM IN THE WEST iconoclasm在西方

There was an echo of these troubles in the Frankish kingdom, chiefly through misunderstanding of the meaning of Greek expressions used by the Second Council of Nicaea.有一種呼應的這些麻煩,在法蘭克王國,主要是通過誤解的意思希臘語用語,由第二屆理事會的尼西亞。 As early as 767 Constantine V had tried to secure the sympathy of the Frankish bishops for his campaign against images this time without success.早在767君士坦丁第五試圖爭取同情的法蘭克主教為他的競選對圖像這一次沒有成功。 A synod at Gentilly sent a declaration to Pope Paul I (757-67) which quite satisfied him.一主教在此地發出一項聲明,教宗保祿二世( 757-67 ) ,其中相當滿意他。 The trouble began when Adrian I (772-95) sent a very imperfect translation of the Acts of the Second Council of Nicaea to Charles the Great (Charlemagne, 768-8l4).麻煩還是來了,當阿德里安一( 772-95 )發出了一個非常完美的翻譯行為的第二屆理事會的尼西亞查爾斯偉大(查理曼, 768 - 8l4 ) 。 The errors of this Latin version are obvious from the quotations made from it by the Frankish bishops.錯誤的,這拉丁語版本是顯而易見的,由作出報價,從它由法蘭克主教。 For instance in the third session of the council Constantine, Bishop of Constantia, in Cyprus had said: "I receive the holy and venerable images; and I give worship which is according to real adoration [kata latreian] only to the consubstantial and life-giving Trinity" (Mansi, XII, 1148).例如在第三次會議上,安理會君士坦丁主教constantia ,在塞浦路斯曾表示: "我接受了神聖和古老的圖像,以及我崇拜這是根據真實崇拜[字latreian ]只向consubstantial和終身給予三位一體" (曼西,第十二章, 1148 ) 。 This phrase had been translated: "I receive the holy and venerable images with the adoration which I give to the consubstantial and life-giving Trinity" ("Libri Carolini", III, 17, PL XCVIII, 1148).這句話已被翻譯說: "我接受了神聖和古老的圖像與崇拜,我給了consubstantial並賦予生命的三位一體" (下稱"本書卡羅利尼" ,第三章, 17條,特等xcviii , 1148 ) 。 There were other reasons why these Frankish bishops objected to the decrees of the council.還有其他原因,這些法蘭克主教反對這項法令的認識。 Their people had only just been converted from idolatry, and so they were suspicious of anything that might seem like a return to it.他們的人,才得以轉化,從偶像崇拜,因此他們被懷疑任何可能看起來像一個返回。 Germans knew nothing of Byzantine elaborate forms of respect; prostrations, kisses, incense and such signs that Greeks used constantly towards their emperors, even towards the emperor's statues, and therefore applied naturally to holy pictures, seemed to these Franks servile, degrading, even idolatrous.德國人毫不知情的拜占庭闡述形式的尊重; prostrations ,親吻,香,這種跡象表明,希臘人用不斷地對他們的皇帝,甚至對皇帝的雕像,因此,適用於自然,進入神聖的照片,似乎這些弗蘭克斯奴性,有辱人格,甚至idolatrous 。 The Franks say the word proskynesis (which meant worship only in the sense of reverence and veneration) translated adoratio and understood it as meaning the homage due only to God.該法蘭克斯說,這個詞proskynesis (這意味著崇拜不僅在意義上的崇敬和敬仰的)翻譯adoratio和理解它的含義參拜因為只有上帝。 Lastly, there was their indignation against the political conduct of the Empress Irene, the state of friction that led to the coronation of Charlemagne at Rome and the establishment of a rival empire.最後,有自己的憤慨,對政治行為的慈禧伊雷,國家的摩擦,導致加冕的查理曼在羅馬,並建立一個對手帝國。 Suspicion of everything done by the Greeks, dislike of all their customs, led to the rejection of the council did not mean that the Frankish bishops and Charlemagne sided with the Iconoclasts.懷疑一切,所做的希臘人,不喜歡的一切,他們的習俗和導致拒絕安理會並不意味著該法蘭克主教和查理曼片面與iconoclasts 。 If they refused to accept the Nicene Council they equally rejected the Iconoclast synod of 754.如果他們拒絕接受nicene會,他們同樣拒絕孤星叛逆者主教會議的754 。 They had holy images and kept them: but they thought that the Fathers of Nicaea had gone too far, had encouraged what would be real idolatry.他們神聖的形象和保持他們問:但是他們認為,父親的尼西亞已經走得太遠,鼓勵了什麼是真正的偶像崇拜。

The answer to the decrees of the second Council of Nicaea sent in this faulty translation by Adrian I was a refutation in eighty-five chapters brought to the pope in 790 by a Frankish abbot, Angilbert.答案法令第二屆理事會的尼西亞派在這個錯誤的翻譯,由阿德里安我是一個駁在85章,提請教宗在790個由法蘭克住持,安吉爾貝。 This refutation, later expanded and fortified with quotations from the fathers and other arguments became the famous "Libri Carolini" or "Capitulare de Imaginibus" in which Charlemagne is represented as declaring his convictions (first published at Paris by Jean du Tillet, Bishop of St-Brieux, 1549, in PL XCVIII, 990-1248).此一駁,後來又擴展和強化與報價從父親和其他的論點,成為著名的"書卡羅利尼"或" capitulare德imaginibus "中,查理曼是派宣布他的信念(首次出版於巴黎由Jean杜tillet ,主教聖- brieux , 1549年,在特等xcviii , 990-1248 ) 。 The authenticity of this work, some time disputed, is now established.真偽這項工作,一些有爭議的時候,現在成立。 In it the bishops reject the synods both of 787 and of 754.在它的主教們拒絕主教會議的兩個787和754 。 They admit that pictures of saints should be kept as ornaments in churches and as well as relics and the saints themselves should receive a certain proper veneration (opportuna veneratio); but they declare that God only can receive adoration (meaning adoratio, proskynesis); pictures are in themselves indifferent, have no necessary connexion with the Faith, are in any case inferior to relics, the Cross, and the Bible.他們承認,拍照的聖人應保持作為飾物,在教堂和以及文物和聖人自己應該得到某種適當的敬仰( opportuna veneratio ) ,但他們宣布,神是唯一可以接受朝拜(指adoratio , proskynesis ) ;圖片人本身無所謂,沒有必要就此與信仰,是在任何情況下,以劣勢的文物,在十字架上,與聖經。 The pope, in 794, answered these eighty-five chapters by a long exposition and defence of the cult of images (Hadriani ep. ad Carol. Reg." PL, XCVIII, 1247-92), in which he mentions, among other points, that twelve Frankish bishops were present at, and had agreed to, the Roman synod of 731. Before the letter arrived the Frankish bishop; held the synod of Frankfort (794) in the presence of two papal legates, Theophylactus and Stephen, who do not seem to have done anything to clear up the misunderstanding. This Synod formally condemns the Second Council of Nicea, showing, at the same time, that it altogether misunderstands the decision of Nicaea. The essence of the decree at Frankfort is its second canon: "A question has been brought forward concerning the next synod of the Greeks which they held at Constantinople [the Franks do not even know where the synod they condemn was held] in connexion with the adoration of images, in which synod it was written that those who do not give service and adoration to pictures of saints just as much as to the Divine Trinity are to be anathematized.教宗,在794名代表回答說,這些85章,由一個長期的論述和辯護的邪教的圖像( hadriani的EP 。專案卡羅爾條例"的特等, xcviii , 1247年至1292年) ,他在其中提到,在其他各點,即12個法蘭克主教團負責人出席,並已同意,羅馬主教的731之前,信抵達法蘭克主教,並多次召開主教會議的法蘭克福( 794 ) ,在存在兩個教皇legates , theophylactus和Stephen ,誰做似乎沒有做過任何澄清誤會,這主教正式譴責了第二屆理事會nicea ,顯示,在同一時間內,它完全誤解,決定了尼西亞。精髓法令在法蘭克福,是其第二佳能: "的問題,已提出了關於下次會議上的希臘人,他們舉行君士坦丁堡[弗蘭克斯甚至不知道那裡主教譴責,他們舉行了]在Connexion公司與崇拜的形象,在這種會議上,它寫那些誰不給服務和朝拜的照片聖人一樣,以神聖的三一,以anathematized 。 But our most holy Fathers whose names are above, refusing this adoration and serve despise and condemn that synod." Charlemagne sent these Acts to Rome and demanded the condemnation of Irene and Constantine VI. The pope of course refused to do so, and matters remained for a time as they were, the second Council of Nicaea being rejected in the Frankish Kingdom.但是,我們最聖潔的父親名字以上,拒不執行此朝拜,並鄙視和譴責這種主教"查理曼發出的這些行為,以羅馬,並要求譴責伊雷娜和君士坦丁六,教宗當然拒絕這樣做,事情依然今後一個時期,因為他們,第二屆理事會的尼西亞被拒絕在法蘭克王國。

During the second iconoclastic persecution, in 824, the Emperor Michael II wrote to Louis the Pious the letter which, besides demanding that the Byzantine monks who had escaped to the West should be handed over to him, entered into the whole question of image-worship at length and contained vehement accusations against its defenders.在第二iconoclastic迫害,在824人,皇帝邁克爾第二寫信給路易了虔誠的信中,他們除了要求拜占庭僧侶逃往西方應當移交給他,進入了整個形象的問題-崇拜在長度,並載有強烈指責其捍衛者。 Part of the letter is quoted in Leclercq-Hefele, "Histoire des conciles", III, 1, p.部份的信是引述勒克萊爾-黑弗勒, "史萬conciles " ,三, 1頁 612. 612 。 Louis begged the pope (Eugene II, 824-27) to receive a document to be drawn up by the Frankish bishops in which texts of the Fathers bearing on the subject should be collected.路易乞求教皇(尤金二, 824-27 )接收文件需制定了由法蘭克主教,其中文本的父親軸承應就這個課題收集。 Eugene agreed, and the bishops met in 825 at Paris.尤金同意,並主教會面,在825人在巴黎。 This meeting followed the example of the Synod of Frankfort exactly.本次會議效法主教的法蘭克福到底。 The bishops try to propose a middle way, but decidedly lean toward the Iconoclasts.主教們試圖提出一個中間道路,但斷然傾斜iconoclasts 。 They produce some texts against these, many more against image-worship.他們產生一些文本到這些因素,還有更多對形象崇拜。 Pictures may be tolerated only as mere ornaments.照片可能是不能容忍的,只有僅僅作為飾物。 Adrian I is blamed for his assent to Nicaea II.阿德里安i是責備他贊同給了尼西亞二。 Two bishops, Jeremias of Sens and Jonas of Orléns, are sent to Rome with this document; they are especially warned to treat the pope with every possible reverence and humility, and to efface any passages that might offend him.兩位主教, jeremias的靈敏度和若的orléns ,全都送交給羅馬與本文件;它們特別警告對待教皇與一切可能的敬畏和謙卑,並抹除任何段落可能冒犯他。 Louis, also, wrote to the pope, protesting that he only proposed to help him with some useful quotations in his discussions with the Byzantine Court; that he had no idea of dictating to the Holy See (Hefele, 1. c.).路易,還寫信給教宗,抗議說,他只是建議,以幫助他一些有用的報價單,在他與拜占庭法庭說,他不知道發號施令,羅馬教廷(黑弗勒, 1 。丙) 。 Nothing is known of Eugene's answer or of the further developments of this incident.什麼是已知的尤金的答案或者有關這方面的進一步發展。 The correspondence about images continued for some time between the Holy See and the Frankish Church; gradually the decrees of the second Council of Nicaea were accepted throughout the Western Empire.函授約圖像續一段時間,與羅馬教廷和法蘭克教會;逐漸法令第二屆理事會的尼西亞被接受,在整個西方帝國。 Pope John VIII (872-82) sent a better translation of the Acts of the council which helped very much to remove misunderstanding.教宗若望八( 872-82 )發出了一個更好的翻譯行為安理會幫助很大,以消除誤解。

There are a few more isolated cases of Iconoclasm in the West.有少數地方更加孤立案件iconoclasm在西部地區。 Claudius, Bishop of Turin (d. 840), in 824 destroyed all pictures and crosses in his diocese forbade pilgrimages, recourse to intercession of saints, veneration of relics, even lighted candles, except for practical purposes.克勞狄斯,主教都靈(四840 ) ,在824銷毀了所有的照片和十字架,在他的教區禁止朝聖人,訴諸干涉的聖人,敬仰的文物,甚至被點燃的蠟燭,除了實際用途。 Many bishops of the empire and a Frankish abbot, Theodomir, wrote against him (PL CV); he was condemned by a local synod.很多主教的帝國和法蘭克住持, theodomir寫道,對他(特等簡歷) ,他被譴責的,由當地主教。 Agobard of Lyons at the same time thought that no external signs of reverence should be paid to images; but he had few followers.艾戈巴德的里昂在同一時間,認為任何外部跡象崇敬要注重形象,但他很少有追隨者。 Walafrid Strabo ("De. eccles. rerum exordiis et incrementis" in PL, CXIV, 916-66) and Hincmar of Reims ("Opusc. c. Hincmarum Lauden.", xx, in PL CXXVI) defended the Catholic practice and contributed to put an end to the exceptional principles of Frankish bishops. walafrid斯特拉博( "時點。埃克勒斯( Eccles 。 rerum exordiis等incrementis "特等, cxiv , 916-66 )和安克馬爾的蘭斯( " opusc 。丙hincmarum lauden " ,第二十條,在特等cxxvi )捍衛天主教的實踐與貢獻杜絕例外原則的法蘭克主教。 But as late as the eleventh century Bishop Jocelin of Bordeaux still had Iconoclast ideas for which he was severely reprimanded by Pope Alexander II.但遲至11世紀的主教jocelin波爾多仍孤星叛逆者的想法,為此他受到了嚴重申斥,由教皇亞歷山大二世。

Publication information Written by Adrian Fortescue.出版信息寫的阿德里安Fortescue的。 Transcribed by Michael C. Tinkler.轉錄由Michael長tinkler 。 The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VII.天主教百科全書,體積七。 Published 1910. 1910年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特Appleton還公司。 Nihil Obstat, June 1, 1910. nihil obstat , 1910年6月1日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人頭馬lafort ,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur. imprimatur 。 +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰farley樞機主教,大主教紐約

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