Book of Kells本書的愛爾蘭

General Information 一般資料

The large Irish Illuminated Manuscript of the four Gospels known as the Book of Kells is one of the most famous of all medieval books.大型愛爾蘭發亮手稿的四個福音稱為添加頁面,酒店,是其中最有名的中世紀的書籍。 Now in the library of Trinity College, Dublin, it was probably begun by monks at the island monastery of Iona and completed at the Irish monastery of Kells sometime between the mid-8th and the early 9th century.現在,在圖書館的三一學院,都柏林,它可能是一開始僧人在島上的修道院iona並完成在愛爾蘭修道院的愛爾蘭之間的一段時間中的第8和早期九世紀。 The gospels are written on thick vellum and lavishly illuminated with the rich ornamentation characteristic of Celtic Art of this period.福音書是寫在厚厚的vellum和發亮的寬厚與豐富的紋飾特徵凱爾特藝術這一時期。 In addition to 31 full-page illustrations, fanciful figures and tightly interlaced bands, knots, and spirals of extraordinary intricacy and density occur throughout the book.除了31日以整版篇幅圖文並茂,幻想的數字,並嚴密交錯帶,節,風,有著非同尋常的複雜性和密度,發生在全國各地的書。

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Alton, EH, and Meyer, Peter, The Book of Kells, 3 vols.奧爾頓,嗯,和邁耶,彼得,這本書的愛爾蘭, 3卷。 (1950-51); Henry, Francoise, The Book of Kells (1974). ( 1950年至1951年) ;亨利,巴黎,這本書的愛爾蘭( 1974 ) 。

Book of Kells本書的愛爾蘭

Catholic Information 天主教資訊

An Irish manuscript containing the Four Gospels, a fragment of Hebrew names, and the Eusebian canons, known also as the "Book of Columba", probably because it was written in the monastery of Iona to honour the saint.一名愛爾蘭手稿,其中載有4個福音,一個片段的希伯來語名字,並eusebian大砲,也被稱為"書的哥倫布" ,這可能是因為這是寫在修道院的iona兌現聖。 It is likely that it is to this book that the entry in the "Annals of Ulster" under the year 1006 refers, recording that in that year the "Gospel of Columba" was stolen.因為這樣做可能是為了這本書說,在進入"史冊阿爾斯特: "根據今年的1006人是指,記錄,在這一年, "福音的哥倫布"被盜竊的案件。

According to tradition, the book is a relic from the time of Columba (d. 597) and even the work of his hands, but, on palæographic grounds and judging by the character of the ornamentation, this tradition cannot be sustained, and the date of the composition of the book can hardly be placed earlier than the end of the seventh or beginning of the eighth century.按照傳統,這本書是舍利子,從當時的哥倫布(四597 ) ,甚至工作,他的手,但對palæographic理由,並依性質的裝飾品,這個傳統不能持續下去,和日期的組成部分,這本書可以很容易放在早於去年底的第七或開始第八世紀。 This must be the book which the Welshman, Geraldus Cambrensis, saw at Kildare in the last quarter of the twelfth century and which he describes in glowing terms (Topogr. Hibern., II, xxxviii).這要作為這本書,其中威爾士人, geraldus cambrensis ,親眼看到Kildare的,在上個季度的12世紀和他的敘述中煥發出的條件( topogr. hibern 。第一,二,三十八) 。 We next hear of it at the cathedral of Kells (Irish Cenannus) in Meath, a foundation of Columba's, where it remained for a long time, or until the year 1541.我們接下來聽到的,它在大教堂的愛爾蘭(愛爾蘭cenannus )在米斯,基礎哥倫布的,在那裡停留了很長的時間,或直到今年第1541 。 In the seventeenth century Archbishop Ussher presented it to Trinity College, Dublin, where it is the most precious manuscript (AI 6) in the college library and by far the choicest relic of Irish art that has been preserved.在17世紀大主教厄舍爾提交給聖三一學院,都柏林,在那裡是最可寶貴的手稿(愛6 )在高校圖書館與迄今為止彩虹的遺跡愛爾蘭藝術已經保存。 In it is to be found every variety of design typical of Irish art at its best.在它被發現,每一個品種的設計典型的愛爾蘭藝術處於最佳狀態。

Some small portions at the beginning and end of the manuscript have been lost, but otherwise it is in a very good state of preservation.一些小部分,在開始和結束時的手稿已遺失,但在其他方面,它是在一個非常好的狀態,保存工作。 It was apparently left unfinished, since some of the ornaments remain only in outline.這顯然是未完成的,因為一些的首飾只停留在大綱。 It is written in part black, red, purple or yellow ink, and it has been thought that the hands of two scribes, neither of whom is known to us by name, are discernible in the writing and illumination of the manuscript.這是寫在部分黑色,紅色,紫色或黃色墨水,並已經以為手中的兩個文士,任何一人,是眾所周知的,以我們的名字,但都是可以辨別的,在書面和光照的手稿。 The most characteristic ornaments of the Book of Kells, as of other illuminated Irish manuscripts of the period, are the closely coiled spirals connected with each other by a number of curves and terminating in the so-called "trumpet pattern".最具特色的飾物添加頁面,酒店,為其他發亮的愛爾蘭手稿的時期,是緊緊纏繞螺旋與彼此之間還有一些曲線,並終止在所謂的"小號"模式。 Almost equally characteristic are the zoomorphic interlacements, coloured representations of fanciful beings, or of men, animals, birds, horses, dogs, and grotesque, gargoyle-like human figures, twisted and hooked together in intricate detail.幾乎同樣的特點是zoomorphic interlacements ,有色交涉的幻想的人,或者男人,動物,鳥類,馬,狗,怪誕, gargoyle樣的人物,歪曲與衷誠合作,在錯綜複雜的細節。 Other frequently occurring designs are a system of geometrical weaving of ribbons plaited and knotted together, and a simpler ornamentation by means of red dotted lines.其他常見的設計是一個系統的幾何編織的彩帶plaited和扭結在一起,一個比較簡單的裝飾手段紅色虛線表示。 The versatility and inventive genius of the illustrator surpasses all belief.功能性和創造性天才的插畫超越一切的信念。 Lines diverge and converge in endless succession, and the most intricate figures, in lavish abundance and with astounding variety of ornament, are combined and woven into one harmonious design.線發散和銜接,在無休止地繼承的,最複雜的數字,在奢華的豐度和驚人的各種飾品,連結在一起,編織成一個和諧的設計。 In spite of the extent of the work and its thousands of exquisite initials and terminals, there is not a single pattern or combination that can be said to be a copy of another.儘管程度的工作和數以千計的精美英文縮寫和終端,還沒有一個單一的模式或組合,可以說是一本。 The artist shows a wonderful technique in designing and combining various emblems, the cross, vine, dragon, fish, and serpent.藝術家表演精彩技術,在設計,結合各種徽章,在十字架上,畏縮不前,龍,魚,蛇。 The drawing is perfection itself.繪畫是完善自己。 It has been examined under a powerful magnifying glass for hours at a time and found to be, even in the most minute and complicated figures, without a single false or irregular line.它已被下了強大的放大鏡幾個小時的時間,並發現,即使是在最微小的和複雜的人物,沒有一個單一的虛假或不規則線。 Some of the most accomplished of modern draughtsmen have attempted to copy its elaborate designs, but, such is the delicacy of the execution, that they had to abandon the task as hopeless.部分的最有成就的現代草擬曾試圖複製其詳細的設計,但是,這種是美味的執行,他們不得不放棄工作,因為無望。 In a space of one inch square were counted no less than 158 interlacings of white ribbon with a black border on either side.在空間的一平方英寸計數不得少於158 interlacings的白絲帶與一個黑色邊界兩側。 On the other hand, the pictures of the personages delineated are feeble and primitive and show but a limited knowledge of the human figure and its relative proportions.另一方面,關於這些照片的人士圈定是軟弱和原始顯示而是有限知識的人的數字,以及其相對比例。

No words can describe the beauty and the extreme splendour of the richly coloured initial letters, which are more profuse in the "Book of Kells" than in any other manuscript.沒有任何語言可以形容美麗和極端色彩的豐富顏色的首字母,它們更豐富,在"添加頁面,酒店, "比在任何其他手稿。 The only thing to which they can be compared is a bed of many coloured crocuses and tulips or the very finest stained glass window, which they equal in beauty of colouring and rival in delicacy of ornament and drawing.唯一的事,讓他們可以比較的是一張床的許多有色crocuses和鬱金香還是非常優秀的彩色玻璃窗,他們都是平等的美填色和對手在精緻的飾品和借鑒。 The artist possessed a wonderful knowledge of the proportion of colour and the distribution of his material -- sienna, purple, lilac, red, pink, green, yellow, the colours most often used -- and he managed the shading and tinting of the letters with consummate taste and skill.藝術家擁有美好的知識含量比重的顏色和分配他的材料-西耶娜,紫,丁香,紅色,粉紅色,綠色,黃色,顏色最常用的-以及他的管理,遮蔭及調色的一封信與制約性味和技能。 It is remarkable that there is no trace of the use of silver or gold on the vellum.值得注意的是,這是沒有踪影,使用銀色或金就vellum 。 Sometimes the colours are laid on in thick layers to give the appearance of enamel, and are here and there as bright and soft and lustrous as when put on fresh more than twelve hundred years ago.有時候,顏色,就奠定了在厚層,讓外表釉,並在這裡和那裡,因為光明和柔軟光澤,因為當把新鮮超過一千二百年前。 Even the best photographic and colour reproductions give but a faint idea of the beauty of the original.即使是最好的攝影和彩色複製給而是一個微弱的構想美麗的原始文件。 Especially worthy of notice is the series of illuminated miniatures, including pictorial representations of the Evangelists and their symbols, the Blessed Virgin and the Divine Child, the temptation of Jesus, and Jesus seized by the Jews.尤其值得注意的是公告的一系列發亮的微縮模型,包括圖案交涉的福音和他們的符號,小聖和神的孩子,誘惑耶穌,耶穌和繳獲的猶太人。 These pictures reach their culminating point in what is, in some respects, the most marvellous example of workmanship that the world has ever produced, namely the full page monogram XPI which occurs in the text of the Gospel of St. Matthew.這些照片達到其最終點是什麼,在某些方面,最奇妙的例子的手藝,即世界都產生了,即整頁會標xpi發生在文本中的福音的聖馬太。 It is no wonder that it was for a long time believed that the "Book of Kells" could have been written only by angels.這也難怪,這是相當長的時間,相信"書中的愛爾蘭"已經可以書面只有天使。

Publication information Written by Joseph Dunn.出版信息寫的約瑟夫鄧恩。 Transcribed by Paul Knutsen.轉錄的,由保羅knutsen 。 The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VIII.天主教百科全書,音量八。 Published 1910. 1910年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特Appleton還公司。 Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1910. nihil obstat , 1910年10月1日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人頭馬lafort ,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur. imprimatur 。 +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰farley樞機主教,大主教紐約

Illuminated Manuscripts發亮的手稿

Catholic Information 天主教資訊

I. ORIGIN一,原產地

A large number of manuscripts are covered with painted ornaments which may be presented under several forms:大量的手稿,佈滿手繪首飾,可下幾種形式:

initials of chapters or paragraphs, ornamented sometimes very simply, sometimes on the other hand with a great profusion of interlacings, foliage, and flowers; these are developed along the whole length of the page and within are sometimes depicted persons or scenes from everyday life; paintings on the margin, in which some scene is carried over several pages; borders around the text (interlacing colonnades, etc.), the most remarkable example is that of the evangelistic canons of the Middle Ages; full-page paintings (or such as cover only a part of the page), but forming real pictures, similar to frescoes or easel pictures; these are chiefly found on very ancient or very recent manuscripts (fourteenth and fifteenth centuries);英文縮寫的篇章或段落,裝飾有時很簡單,有時在另一方面,與一個偉大profusion的interlacings ,賞葉,花;這些都是沿整個長度的一頁,並有時描繪的人或場景,從日常生活中;畫上緣,其中有些是現場進行了幾頁;邊界附近文(交錯colonnades等) ,最顯著的例子是,該福音門炮的中世紀;整版篇幅畫(或如封面只是一部分的頁面) ,但形成真正的圖片,類似的壁畫或畫架的照片,這是主要發現很古老或非常近的手稿(第十四和第十五世紀) ;

finally, there exist rolls of parchment wholly covered with paintings (Roll of Josue in the Vatican; Exultet Roll of S. Italy; see below).最後,存在著卷羊皮紙全覆蓋畫(輥josue在梵蒂岡; exultet輥脊髓肌肉萎縮意大利;見下文) 。

All these ornaments are called "eluminures", illuminations, or miniatures, a world used since the end of the sixteenth century.所有這些裝飾都是所謂的" eluminures " ,燈飾,或微縮的世界,一個用自去年底, 16世紀。 At first the "miniator" was charged with tracing in red minium the titles and initials.在第一次" miniator被指控"追查紅色最小的名稱及縮寫。 Despite its limitations, the art of illumination is one of the most charming ever invented; it exacts the same qualifications and produced almost as powerful effects as painting; it even calls for a delicacy of touch all its own.儘管有它的局限性,藝術照明是其中最迷人的發明的,而是要付出相同資格,並製作了幾乎同樣強大的影響,正如國畫,它甚至呼籲建立一個微妙的觸摸,包羅萬有。 And whereas most of the paintings of the Middle Ages have perished, these little works form an almost uninterrupted series which afford us a clear idea of the chief schools of painting of each epoch and each region.和而大部分的畫中世紀已經滅亡了,這些小工程,形成一個幾乎不間斷的系列產品,可讓我們有一個清晰的概念,行政學校的繪畫每個時代和每個區域。 Finally, in the history of art the rôle of illuminated manuscripts was considerable; by treating in their works scenes of sacred history the manuscript painters inspired other artists, painters, sculptors, goldsmiths, ivory workers, etc.; it is especially in miniature that the ebb and flow of artistic styles during the Middle Ages may be detected.最後,在藝術史的rôle照明手稿是相當大;對待,在他們的作品場面神聖的歷史手稿畫家的靈感其他藝術家,畫家,雕刻家,金匠,象牙工人等,它是特別的縮影,認為歷經跌宕起伏的藝術風格,在中世紀,可偵破。 In the Orient must be sought the origin of this art, as well as that of the manuscripts themselves.在世界的東方,必須尋求起源的這屆藝術,以及時表示,在該手稿本身。 The most ancient examples are found on Egyptian papyri, where in the midst of the texts, and not separated from it, portraits are painted, most frequently in profile, according to the Egyptian method.最古老的例子是發現於埃及papyri ,在複雜多變的文本,而不是脫離它,畫像,是畫,最經常出現在剖面上,根據埃及的方法。 After having drawn the outline in black in the artist filled in the drawing in colours.之後得出的綱要,在黑色中充滿藝術家在繪畫中的顏色。 The art seems to have been also cultivated by the Greek artists of Alexandria.藝術似乎已被中又形成了由希臘藝術家亞歷山大。 The papyrus containing the poems of Timotheus (fourth century BC) found at Abousir, has a long-legged bird in the body of the text as a mark of division.紙莎草紙載詩timotheus (第四世紀BC )的發現,在abousir ,有著悠久的腿鳥在正文中,作為標誌而劃分的。 A fragment of a romance on a papyrus (Paris, Bib. Nat., supp. Gr. 1294; first century AD) displays a text broken by groups of miniatures: men and women in bluish-gray or pink costumes stand out in relief from the background of the papyrus itself.片段愛情一紙莎草(巴黎,背帶褲。 NAT的, supp 。克1294年;公元一世紀)顯示一個文本打破團體的微縮模型:男性和女性在青灰色或粉紅色服裝的站出來,在從救濟背景紙莎草紙本身。 Latin writers show us that the miniature was introduced into Rome as early as the first century BC (Pliny, "Hist. Nat.", XXV, 8).拉美作家,讓我們看到了微型傳入羅馬早在公元前一世紀(普林尼, "歷史。 NAT的" ,二十五8 ) 。 Martial (XIV, 1865) mentions a portrait of Virgil painted on a parchment manuscript, and Varro collected seven hundred such portraits of illustrious men.武術( 14 , 1865 )中提到的肖像維爾吉爾手繪就羊皮紙手稿,並沃羅收集到700這樣的畫像顯赫的男性。 (The portraits of the Evangelists in medieval manuscripts result from this tradition.) None of these works remains and the only traces of the illuminations of antiquity are found in the following manuscripts of the fourth and fifth centuries: (畫像福音,在中世紀手稿的結果,從這一傳統。 ) ,但這些工程仍然存在的唯一痕跡的燈飾,仿古都體現在以下幾個手稿的第四和第五個百年:

the "Virgil" of the Vatican (Lat. 3225), written by a single hand, has fifty miniatures which appear to be the work of at least three different painters. "維爾吉爾"梵蒂岡( lat. 3225 ) ,以書面,由一個單一的手,有五十六微縮模型似乎可為的工作,至少有三個不同的畫家。 These are small pictures bordered by coloured bands (six of them fill a whole page); some of them, especially in the "Georgics", represent country landscapes the freshness of which is worthy of the text they illustrate.這些都是小照片邊緣有深色條帶(其中六人填補整頁) ,他們中的一些人,尤其是在" georgics " ,代表著國家的景觀新鮮,這是值得的文本,他們說明。 The background of buildings and temples recalls the paintings at Pompeii; the "Iliad" of Milan (similar technic);背景的建築物和廟宇回顧書畫廳龐培; "伊利亞特"的米蘭(類似的技術) ;

the Bible of Quedlinburg (Berlin), containing the most ancient Christian miniatures known;聖經中的奎德林堡(柏林) ,其中載有最古老的基督教微縮模型已知;

the "Calendar" of Philocalus, composed in 354, the original of which, acquired by Peiresc, has disappeared, but the copies at Brussels, Vienna and the Barberini Library evidence a work of a purity thoroughly antique; the most curious portion is an illustrated calendar in which each month is symbolized by a scene of country life; this is a species of illustration of ancient origin which recurs very frequently in the miniatures of the Middle Ages. "日曆"的philocalus組成,在354後,原有的,其中,收購佩雷斯克,已經消失了,但是副本是在布魯塞爾,維也納和barberini圖書館證據的工作,純度徹底古董;最好奇的部分,是一本圖文並茂日曆,其中每個每月象徵,由現場的鄉村生活,這是一個以種,插圖古代原產地復發,已非常頻密,在微縮模型的中世紀。



The tradition of miniatures on papyrus was preserved till the Christian era.傳統的微縮模型對紙莎草紙被保存下來,直到基督時代。 On a Berlin papyrus (Emperor Frederick Museum) we find a picture of Christ curing a demoniac.就柏林紙莎草(皇帝馮館) ,我們發現一個圖片基督治愈demoniac 。 In the Goleniscev collection there are sixteen leaves of a universal Coptic chronicle on papyrus, dated 392 and decorated with miniatures in a very barbarous style, intended as illustrations of the text.在goleniscev收集有16個葉片中的一個普遍科普特紀事對紙莎草,日期為392和裝飾微縮模型,在一個非常野蠻的作風,打算作為插圖的文本。 In the margin are seen successively the months (women crowned with flowers), the provinces of Asia (fortified gateways), the prophets, the kings of Rome, Lydia, Macedonia, Roman emperors, and perhaps the Patriarch Tehophilus presiding at the destruction of the Serapeum.在保證金被先後個月(女冠花) ,省亞洲(設防網關) ,先知,國王隊的羅馬,鄧蓮,馬其頓,羅馬帝王,也許牧tehophilus主持銷毀了serapeum 。 The author was a native monk and a complete stranger to Hellenic art.作者是一個本土和尚和一個完整的陌生希臘藝術。

Syria and Mesopotamia敘利亞與美索不達米亞

The existence of Persian manuscripts on parchment very rich in miniatures, is proved by allusions of St. Augustine (Adv. Faustum, XIII, 6, 18).存在波斯語的手稿就羊皮紙十分豐富,在微縮模型,證明了典故的聖奧古斯丁( adv. faustum ,十三,六, 18 ) 。 As early as the fifth century schools of miniaturists were formed in the Christian convents of Syria and Mesopotamia which drew some of their inspiration from Greek art (draped figures), but relied mainly on the ornamental traditions of the ancient Orient.早在公元5世紀學校的miniaturists形成於基督教修道院的敘利亞與美索不達米亞平原,引起了他們的一些靈感來自希臘藝術(披上數字) ,但主要是依賴於觀賞傳統的古老的東方。 The masterpiece of this school is the Syriac Evangeliary written in 586 at the Monastery of Zagba (Mesopotamia) by the monk Rabula (since the fifteenth century in the Laurentian Library, Florence).傑作的這所學校是敘利亞文evangeliary寫在586上的修道院zagba (美索不達米亞) ,由僧人rabula (自15世紀在項目Laurentian圖書館,佛羅倫斯) 。 The miniatures are real pictures with a decorative frame formed of zigzags, curves, rainbows, etc. The Gospel canons are set in arcades ornamented with flowers and birds.這個微縮模型都是真實的圖片,一個裝飾框架形成的曲折,曲線,彩虹等,福音門炮,是集商場,裝飾用鮮花和鳥類。 The scene of the Crucifixion is treated with an abundance of detail which is very rare at this period.現場的受難日,是治療了豐富的細節,這是非常罕見的,在這個時期。 The works of the Syro-Mesopotamian School seem to have missed the meaning of the Hellenic figures (figures in flowing draperies) of which they retained the tradition.該工程的syro -美索不達米亞的學校似乎已經錯過了的意思希臘數字(數字流布料) ,其中,他們保留了傳統。 On a Syriac evangeliary in the Borgian Museum (manuscripts Syr., 14, f, k.) men and animals are painted in unreal colours and are bordered with black lines which give to the illuminations the appearance of cloisonné enamels.關於敘利亞文evangeliary在borgian館(手稿syr , 14型, F大調) ,男人和動物畫在虛幻的色彩,並與相鄰的黑線,這給了燈飾的外觀景泰藍琺瑯。 The work, which is dated 1546, seems to have been inspired by an older model.工作,這是過時的1546 ,似乎已受到啟發,由一個舊型的。


The Armenian School of illuminating also belongs to Syria.亞美尼亞學校的啟發,也屬於敘利亞。 It is represented by the evangeliary of Etschmiadzin (tenth century), the miniatures of which are derived from a sixth-century model; the evangeliary of Queen Mlke (Venice, Monastery of the Mechitarists, dated 902), and the evangeliary of Tübingen, dated 1113.它的代表是evangeliary的etschmiadzin (十世紀) ,微縮模型,其中有來自於第六世紀的模式; evangeliary皇后mlke (威尼斯,寺廟的mechitarists日902 ) ,以及evangeliary的蒂賓根,過時1113 。 In all these works the richness of the framework and the hieratic character of the human face are noteworthy.在所有這些作品內容豐富的框架和hieratic性格的人臉值得注意。

Muslim Art穆斯林藝術

All the above characteristics carried to extremes are found in the Muslim schools of miniatures (Arabic, Turkish, and Persian manuscripts); the oldest date only from the thirteenth century.所有上述特性進行了極端的是,發現在穆斯林學校的微縮模型(阿拉伯語,土耳其語,波斯語手稿) ;歷史最悠久的迄今只有從十三世紀。 Together with copies of the Koran, admirably illuminated with purely geometrical figures radiating symmetrically around a central motif like the design of a carpet, there is found especially in Persia, a fruitful school of painters which did not fear to depict the human face.連同本可蘭經,令人欽佩發亮,純粹幾何數字輻射對稱地圍繞中央的Motif想設計一個地毯,有發現,尤其是在波斯的,富有成果的學校的畫家,沒有恐懼,以描寫人性的一面。 Nothing is more picturesque than the varied scenes intended to illustrate the books of chronicles, legends, etc. Besides fantastic scenes ("Apocalypse of Mohomet", Paris, Bib. Nat., supp. Turk., 190) are found contemporary reproductions of scenes from real life which take us into the streets of Bagdad in the thirteenth century or permit us to follow an army or a caravan on the march ("Maqâmât" of Hariri, Bib. Nat., Paris, supp. Arab., 1618).沒有比這更風景如畫比多樣的場景意想說明書籍的地方志,傳說等,除了神奇的場面(下稱"啟示mohomet " ,巴黎,背帶褲。 NAT的, supp 。特克, 190 )發現當代翻版場面從現實生活中,其中帶我們到街上的巴格達在13世紀或許可證,我們必須遵循的一個軍隊或車隊於3月( " maqâmât "裡,背帶褲。 NAT的,巴黎, supp 。阿拉伯, 1618年) 。 Eastern artists, whether Christian or Muslim, frequently portray their subjects on backgrounds of gold; in Persian manuscripts, however, are found attempts at landscape backgrounds, several of which betray a Chinese influence.東區的藝術家,無論是基督徒還是穆斯林,經常描繪自己的學科背景的黃金;波斯語的手稿,不過,被發現企圖景觀背景,其中有幾個出賣中國人的影響力。


The history of Byzantine miniatures is yet to be written; it is impossible at present to determine its origin or to study its development.歷史上的拜占庭微縮模型,尚未能寫,這是不可能的,目前,以確定其來源或研究其發展。 It seems more and more evident that Byzantine art, far from being an original creation, is no more than a prolonged survival of the Hellenic-oriental art of the fourth to the sixth centuries.看來,越來越多的,可見拜占庭藝術,遠不是一個獨創,是一個長期生存的希臘-東方藝術的第四至第六世紀。 The Greek monks charged with the illumination of manuscripts never ceased to copy models, following the fashion and the occupation of the time, these models sometimes varies; hence Byzantine art has undergone a development more apparent than real.希臘的僧侶被控照度的手稿從未停止複製模型,繼時裝和佔領的時間裡,這些模型有時不盡相同,因此,拜占庭藝術經歷了一個發展更加明顯,實際並非如此。 Under present conditions, without seeking to determine the schools, we must be content to indicate the principal groups of manuscripts.目前的情況下,沒有尋求確定學校,我們必須內容,以顯示主要群體的手稿。

Fifth and Sixth Centuries第五和第六個世紀

Several of the Biblical manuscripts in gold letters on purple parchment have been rightly compared with one another, viz.幾個聖經手稿黃金信件紫色羊皮紙已被正確地相比,又分別。 the Genesis of the Imperial Library of Vienna, the Evangeliarium of Rossano, and the fragment of the Gospel of St. Matthew discovered at Sinope (since 1900 in the Bib. Nat., Paris).成因帝國圖書館的維也納, evangeliarium的羅薩諾,和片段的福音的聖馬太發現sinope ( 1900年以來在背帶褲。 NAT的,巴黎) 。 In these three manuscripts the painting has an anecdotic character; it is intended to illustrate the text, and sometimes two periods of a scene are represented in a picture.在這三個手稿畫中有一個anecdotic性質,它是企圖說明文,有時兩個時期的一個鏡頭代表合影。 Both the evangelaries show a bearded face of Christ, majestic and severe, which already suggests the "Pantocrator" of church cupolas.無論evangelaries顯示,留著鬍鬚的臉基督的,雄偉壯觀的嚴重,其中已經表明, " pantocrator "教會cupolas 。 From the same period date two works which appear to be the transcription on parchment of an original on papyrus; one is the Roll of Josue in the Vatican Library, which displays a series of miniatures, eleven yards long, relating to the history of Josue; the other is the manuscript of the voyage of Cosmas Indicopleustes (Vatican), a monk of Sinai; in this, together with symbolic representations of various parts of the world, are many scenes and personages of the Bible, painted opposite the text, with the manuscript itself as background.從同期日期兩部作品似乎可轉錄羊皮紙上的一個原對紙莎草紙的,一個是軋輥的josue在梵蒂岡圖書館,它顯示了一系列的微縮模型, 11碼長,歷史有關的josue ;另一種是手稿的航程中的科斯馬斯indicopleustes (梵蒂岡) ,一名僧人的西奈半島,在這方面,再加上象徵性交涉的世界各地,許多場景和人物的聖經,描繪了對面的文本,同手稿本身作為背景。 Very different is the illustration of medical manuscripts such as the "Dioscorides" of Vienna, executed about the year 500, for Juliana, daughter of Placidia.非常不同的是,插圖醫療手稿,如" dioscorides "的維也納,處決了約500年,為juliana ,女兒placidia 。 Heron are found real pictures copied from ancient originals (portraits of physicians and of Juliana).蒼鷺發現真實的圖片拷貝從古代正本(肖像醫師和juliana ) 。

Eighth to Eleventh Century第八至第十一世紀

The Iconoclastic crisis was fatal to illumination and painted manuscripts were either mutilated or destroyed.該iconoclastic危機是致命的照明和手繪手稿被肢解或銷毀。 An attempt was made to substitute for religious representations a purely ornamental art.有人試圖以取代宗教交涉,一個純粹的裝飾藝術。 Probably to this school belongs an evangeliary of Paris (Bib. Nat., Gr. 63), in which the motifs of decoration are borrowed from flora and fauna.大概這所學校屬於一個evangeliary的巴黎( bib. NAT的,克63 ) ,在該圖案的裝飾都是借來的,由動植物。 The triumph of images in the eleventh century was also the triumph of religious miniature painting, which together with calligraphy underwent great development in the scriptorium of Studion.凱旋的形象,在11世紀的,也是勝利的縮影,宗教繪畫,連同書法經歷了很大的發展,在寫字間的studion 。 One of the books illustrated by preference by the monks was the Psalter, of which the paintings comprise two elements: the scenes of the history of David, and the symbolic allusions to the life of Christ contained in the Psalms.其中一本書說明偏好由僧人是psalter ,其中書畫包括兩方面:場景的歷史國寶,並象徵性典故,以生命的基督載詩篇。 There are to be distinguished (1) the aristocratic psalter, represented by the Psalter of Paris (Gr. 139); the miniatures extend over the whole page within a rich border, and appear to be the reproduction from an ancient original of the third-fourth century; some pictures, such as that of David tending his flocks, have a quite Pompeian freshness.有加以區別( 1 )貴族psalter ,由psalter的巴黎( gr. 139 ) ;微縮模型擴展到全頁內豐富的邊境,似乎是複製,從一個古老原始的第三四世紀時,一些照片,例如像大衛撫育他的禽群,有相當pompeian新鮮。 Antique influence makes itself felt by a large number of allegories personified and draped in Hellenic costumes; (2) the monastic and theological psalter in which the miniatures placed in the margin follow the text step by step.古董影響,使自己感受到了一大批寓言人格化,並披上在希臘服飾; ( 2 )修道和神學psalter其中微縮模型放置在保證金後續文本一步一步來。 The Chloudov Psalter of Moscow (ninth cent.), those of Vatopedi (tenth cent.), the Vatican (Barberini Library: dated 1059), etc. are the principal specimens of this class.該chloudov psalter的莫斯科(第九屆美分) ,這些vatopedi (十美分) ,梵( barberini圖書館:過時的1059名)等是主要的標本,這門課。 Some miniatures of the Chloudov Psalter represent episodes of the Iconoclastic conflict.有些微縮模型的chloudov psalter代表發作的iconoclastic衝突。 Another manuscript often illustrated at this period was the "Menologion", which contained sometimes besides the liturgical calendar, and abbreviation of the lives of the saints for each day.另一手稿往往體現在這個時代是" menologion " ,其中載有時除了禮儀日曆,並縮寫聖人們的生命中的每一天。 The most celebrated is that of the Vatican, decorated for Basil II (976-1025) by seven artists who left their names attached to each miniature.最有名的就是對中梵,裝飾,為羅勒二( 976-1025 ) ,由七個藝術家留下自己的名字附在每個縮影。 A great variety of colours relieved a rather extreme monotony of inspiration; everywhere are found the same architectural backgrounds, the same sufferings in the midst of the same landscapes.豐富,形式多樣的顏色寬慰一個相當極端單調的靈感;到處都有發現,同一建築的背景,同樣的痛苦,在一片相同的景觀。 The beautiful manuscript of the "Homilies" of Gregory of Nazienzus (Paris, Bib. Nat., Gr. 510: end of ninth century) was composed for Basil II; it is unfortunately damaged but it presents a remarkable series of the most varied pictures (portraits of St. Gregory of Nazienzus and of Basil I; sessions of Councils; Biblical scenes, etc.).美麗的手稿的"頌歌"的格雷戈里的nazienzus (巴黎,背帶褲。 NAT的,克510 :年底的第九世紀)組成,為羅勒第二,它是不幸的損壞,但它是一個了不起的一系列最多樣的照片(畫像聖格雷戈里的nazienzus和羅勒;屆議會;聖經中的場景,等等) 。 This period was decidedly the golden age of Byzantine illumination.這個時代是斷然的黃金時代,拜占庭的光照。 The manuscripts, even those which lack pictures, have at least ornamented initial letters, which in the earlier examples are very simple, but in course of time became surrounded with foliage, in the midst of which animals or small figures disported themselves.該手稿,甚至那些缺乏圖片,都至少有裝飾的首字母,而在較早的例子是很簡單,但在過程中的時間,成為四周,枝葉繁密,在複雜多變的哪一種動物或小的數字disported自己。 (These initials, however, never attained the same dimensions as in Western manuscripts.). (這些名字縮寫,但從來沒有達到相同尺寸作為西部手稿) 。

Twelfth Century 12世紀

The lofty traditions of Byzantine miniature painting were upheld until the fall of Constantinople in 1204.崇高傳統的拜占庭式微型畫人堅持到秋天,君士坦丁堡在1204年。 A group of the Octateuch (Smyrna, Athos, Vatican and Seraglio libraries) seems to have the same origin.一組的octateuch (皆阿托斯,梵蒂岡和seraglio圖書館) ,似乎已是一脈相承的。 The artists were chiefly concerned with illustrating the text, following it step by step; some of the scenes are spirited and picturesque, but the inspiration seems derived from ancient models (such as the Roll of Josue).藝術家的人,主要是擔心與說明文字,並按要求去做,一步一個腳印,有些場面是精神矍鑠如畫,但似乎靈感源自古代的模式(如軋輥的josue ) 。 The specimen at the Seraglio was composed for Prince Isaac, some of Alexius I Comnenus.該標本在seraglio組成,為王子艾薩克,一些alexius i康姆尼紐斯。 A manuscript whose picture exercised great influence on Byzantine art is that of the "Homilies on the Virgin", by James, a monk of Coxynobaphos (Vatical 1162; Paris, 1208).手稿的圖片行使巨大的影響,對拜占庭藝術,是強調"頌歌關於處女" ,由詹姆斯,一名僧人的coxynobaphos ( vatical 1162 ;巴黎, 1208 ) 。 The initials are remarkable for richness, and the paintings develop all the events of the life of the Blessed Virgin until the birth of Christ (cf. the mosaics in the narthex of the Kahrié-Djami at Constantinople).英文縮寫,是了不起的豐富性,以及油畫發揚一切事件的生命,小聖直到基督誕生(參看鑲嵌在narthex的kahrié - djami在君士坦丁堡) 。

Thirteenth to Fifteenth Century第十三到第十五世紀

The studios of miniature paintings for a long time felt the effects of the catastrophe of 1204, and after the thirteenth century the monks ceased to illuminate luxuriously liturgical manuscripts.工作室的微型畫相當長的時間感受到了災難的影響的1204 ,並經過13世紀僧人不再照亮豪華禮儀手稿。 One of the manuscripts most characteristic of this period is that of the "Chronicle" of Skylitzes (Madrid, National Library, thirteenth century).其中的大部分手稿的特點,這一時期是對"紀事報"的skylitzes (馬德里,國家圖書館, 13世紀) 。 The colours are clear in tone and very fresh, but the artist having no ancient model before him and left to his own resources, has executed veritable bons-hommes, which nevertheless charm by the vivacity of their movements and their picturesque attitudes.色彩是明確的語氣和非常新鮮,但是藝術家沒有古老的模型前,他留下來,他自己的資源,已被處決名副其實bons -地球社,不過魅力由調皮的動作,和他們風景如畫的態度。 The imitation of antiquity however was not abandoned, as is shown by the portraits of Dosiades and of Theocritus (Cod. Paris, Gr. 28- 32) composed in the fourteenth century, but probably copied from Alexandrian originals of the third and fourth centuries.仿文物,但並沒有放棄,因為已經呈現出來,畫像dosiades和忒奧克里托斯( cod.巴黎,克28 -3 2)組成,在1 4世紀,但也可能是抄襲亞歷山大正本的第三和第四世紀。 lastly attention is called to certain fourteenth-century manuscripts of Western or even Italian inspiration (Cod. Paris, Gr. 135; dated 1362; on this manuscript, written by a scribe of John V Cantacuzenus, there is a Gothic monster, a knight with buckler ornamented with fleur-de-lis, etc.).最後注意的是,所謂的某些第十四世紀手稿的西部,甚至意大利的啟示( cod.巴黎,克135個;過時第1362 ;關於這個手稿,寫一個文士的約翰v cantacuzenus ,有一個哥特式的怪物,一個遊俠( Buckler裝飾fleur德-土地信息系統等) 。 In the Slavic countries, the illuminated manuscripts of the Bulgarian, Russian or Serbian monasteries belong to the Byzantine school, but have also been directly influenced by the Orient, especially by Syria.在斯拉夫國家中,發亮的手稿,保加利亞,俄羅斯或塞爾維亞寺廟屬於拜占庭學校,但也有直接影響的東方,尤其是敘利亞。 Some Russian manuscripts were illuminated in the sixteenth century (eg the Book of the Tsars, 1535-53).俄一些手稿發亮的,在16世紀(例如,這本書的沙皇, 1535年至1553年) 。 Scandinavian influences appear in Russian manuscripts (monsters and interlacings of initials); and one of the most remarkable monuments of Slavic miniature painting is the Servian Psalter of Munich, in which the paintings are executed by an impressionistic artist, who uses contrasting colours instead of pen designs.斯堪的納維亞的影響,出現在俄羅斯的手稿(怪獸和interlacings的英文縮寫) ;其中一個最顯著紀念碑的斯拉夫微型畫是servian psalter慕尼黑,在該畫的執行由一個印象派畫家,他們用對比的顏色不是鋼筆設計。


The evolution of miniature painting in the Occident was quite different; the imitation of ancient models was never as complete as in the Orient, and as in all other arts, the time came when the illuminator of manuscripts abandoned tradition and attempted to copy nature.演變的縮影,畫在歐美頗為不同;仿製的古代模式從來沒有完整地在世界的東方,如同在所有其他藝術,這個時間來到時,照明燈的手稿被遺棄的傳統,並試圖拷貝性質。 In the Occident even more than in the Orient, it is possible to follow a real development of illuminated books.在歐美,甚至多於在世界的東方,這是有可能走一條真正的發展發亮的書籍。

Sixth to Eighth Century第六至第八世紀

Until the Carolingian epoch the sole original school of illumination is to be sought in the Irish monasteries, or in those founded on the Continent by Irish monks.直到加洛林劃時代的唯一原校的照度是,要尋求在愛爾蘭寺廟,或在這些基礎上,大陸由愛爾蘭僧侶。 The works of the Irish school are characterized by wonderful decorative sense, far removed from naturalism.該工程的愛爾蘭學校的特點是美好的裝飾意義上的,遠離自然。 Nothing is more graceful than the large initials formed by ribbons ornamented with interlacings, in the midst of which are sometimes human heads or animals.沒有比這更優雅,比大型英文縮寫組成的彩帶裝飾interlacings ,在複雜多變的是,有時人類元首或動物。 Some borders decorated with spirals, rose-work, and interlacings recall, by their display of fancy, pages of the illuminated Korans.有些邊界的裝飾風,玫瑰工作,並interlacings記得,顯示出他們伴著頁的發亮的可蘭經。 Indeed there are in Irish art elements which are frankly Oriental, and the geometrical and symmetrical aspect of the human form in Irish manuscripts may be compared to what we find on certain Coptic monuments, buildings, or bas-reliefs.確實有在愛爾蘭的藝術元素,其中有坦白東方,以及幾何和對稱方面的人的形式在愛爾蘭手稿,可比起我們發現某些科普特古蹟,建築物,或下派米。 In Ireland as in the Orient, ancient ornamentation finds little place; foliage is entirely absent from this decoration, which consists almost exclusively of geometrical elements.在愛爾蘭,因為在世界的東方,古代紋飾認定小地方,賞葉,是完全沒有這個勳章,其中包括幾乎全部的幾何元素。 The kinship of these motifs with those found on the barbaric jewels or the stone sculptures of Ireland is evident.在親情的這些圖案與這些發現,在這個野蠻的珠寶或石頭雕刻的愛爾蘭是顯而易見的。 Among the most celebrated works of this school may be cited: the "Book of Kells" (Trinity College, Dublin), the transcription of which is ascribed to St. Columba, but which in reality belongs to the seventh century; the "Evangeliarum of Durham", belonging to the Diocese of Lindisfarne (British Museum, Cotton manuscripts, Nero D. IV), copied in honour of St. Cuthbert by Bishop Eadfrith (698-721), bound by Bishop Æthilwald, and ornamented with precious stones by the monk Billfrith, is also of great value.其中最有名的作品,這所學校可引: "本書的愛爾蘭" (都柏林三一學院) ,轉錄的,是得益於聖哥倫布,但在現實中屬於第七世紀"的evangeliarum達勒姆商學院" ,屬於教區林迪斯(大英博物館,棉花手稿, Nero的四四) ,複製的榮譽,止於聖主教eadfrith ( 698-721 ) ,受主教æthilwald ,裝飾與寶石所和尚billfrith ,也具有極大的價值。 Although copied in an English monastery it possesses all the characteristics of Irish art; large initials decorated with interlacings and without foliage, the predominance of simple colours (violet, green, yellow, red) absence of gold and silver, portraits of the evangelists similar to those on Byzantine manuscripts.雖然抄在英語寺,它擁有的所有特徵愛爾蘭藝術;大型縮寫裝飾interlacings及無枝葉繁密,佔主導地位的簡單的顏色(紫色,綠色,黃色,紅色) ,沒有黃金和白銀,畫像福音相似這些拜占廷手稿。 Beginning with the sixth century this art of illumination was brought by Irish monks, not only to England but also to the Continent, where the monasteries of Luxeuil, Würzburg, St. Gall, and Bobbio became centres of Irish art.從第六屆世紀的這屆藝術的光照所帶來的愛爾蘭僧侶,這不僅是為了英格蘭,而且也給大陸,而寺院的luxeuil ,維爾茨堡,聖蟲癭,並bobbio成為中心的愛爾蘭藝術。 As specimens of this expansion may be cited: the "Evangeliarium of St. Willibrord" (d. 730), Apostle of the Frisians (Cod. Paris, supp. Lat. 693), of which the initials resemble those of the manuscript of Durham; the "Evangeliarum of Maeseyck" (Belgium) eighth century; the manuscript of the Bible called Codex Bigotianus (Cod. Paris; Lat. 281 and 298), the work of the Abbey of Fécamp, eighth century; the so-called St. Cainim manuscript (now with the Franciscans of Dublin, but originating in Italy), in reality of the tenth and eleventh centuries.作為標本,這種擴張可引: " evangeliarium聖威利布羅德" (四730 ) ,使徒的frisians ( cod.巴黎, supp 。北緯693 ) ,其中英文縮寫相似的手稿達勒姆; " evangeliarum的maeseyck " (比利時)第八屆世紀手稿的聖經所謂法典bigotianus ( cod.巴黎;北緯281名和298名) ,這項工作的修道院fécamp ,第八世紀的那些所謂聖cainim手稿(現在同方濟各的都柏林,但原產於意大利) ,在現實中的第十和第十一世紀。 Several manuscripts of St. Gall contain miniatures of this school, but showing foreign influence.幾個手稿聖膽含有微縮模型的這所中學,但顯示外國的影響力。

In the rest of Europe, among the Visigoths, the Franks, and the Burgundians, there were schools of calligraphy similar to those of Ireland, with more marked traces of ancient art (absence of interlacings which were replaced by garlands, sturdy foliage, etc.).在其餘歐洲,其中visigoths ,弗蘭克斯和勃艮第人,有學校的書法類似,以愛爾蘭的,更加明顯的痕跡,古老的藝術(無interlacings被取代花環,堅固,枝葉繁密,等等。 ) 。 As an example may be mentioned the initial of the Burgundian papyri of Geneva, sixth century (Homilies of St. Avitus).作為一個例子,可提到最初的勃艮第papyri的日內瓦,六世紀(頌歌聖avitus ) 。 A celebrated Bible, the ornamentation of which remains a problem, must be considered apart.我國著名的聖經,裝飾品,其中仍然是一個問題,必須考慮除。 This is the famous manuscript of St. Gatien at Tours, stolen by Libri about 1846, and returned to the Paris Bibliothèque Nationale in 1888, after having figured in the Ashburnham collection.這就是著名的手稿聖gatien在旅遊,偷書約1846年後,返回巴黎國家圖書館於1888年,之後想通在ashburnham收藏。 This Pentateuch, written in seventh-century uncials, is adorned with large full-page miniatures framed in red bands and presenting a number of scenes arranged on different margins, but without symmetry.這pentateuch ,寫在第七世紀uncials ,是貼著大整版篇幅微縮誣陷紅色帶,並提出了一些場景安排在不同的利潤率,但沒有對稱性。 What is striking about the manuscript is its aim at picturesqueness and movement, and the wholly Oriental character of the design and especially of the costumes of the personages (the women wear the tall head-dress and veil of the bas- reliefs of Palmyra) and of the architectural backgrounds (bulbous cupolas alternating with pedimented buildings).什麼是引人注目的有關手稿,其目的在picturesqueness和行動的自由,以及全東方的特色設計,特別是服裝的人士(婦女戴的高大頭飾和面紗的震驚浮雕的巴爾米拉)該建築背景(球根cupolas交替與pedimented建築物) 。 The arrangement of the scenes recalls certain fourteenth-century Persian manuscripts.安排的場面回憶某些第十四世紀波斯手稿。 In this instance we have to do perhaps with the reproduction of a cycle of miniatures conceived in the East to illustrate the Vulgate of St. Jerome.在這一點上我們必須這樣做,或許與再生產的一個週期的微縮模型構思,在東方,以說明vulgate聖杰羅姆。

Ninth and Tenth Centuries第九和第十世紀

The Carolingian period was as decisive for the illumination of manuscripts as for other arts.查里曼王朝時期被視為具有決定性照度的手稿,至於其他藝術。 Thanks to the initiative of Charlemagne and his chief assistants, Alcuin, Theodulfus, etc., schools of miniature painting were formed in the principal monasteries of the empire, and our libraries possess a large number of their works.多虧了主動的查理曼和他的首席助理,阿爾昆, theodulfus等,學校的縮影,畫中形成的主要寺廟的帝國,而我們的圖書館擁有大量的作品。 The elements which compose this art were most varied; the influence of Irish and Anglo-Saxon illuminations is unquestionable, and to it was due the partiality for large initials which until the fifteenth century were one of the favourite ornaments of Western manuscripts.要素是組成這屆藝術最多種多樣的影響,愛爾蘭與盎格魯-撒克遜燈飾是不可置疑的,它是由於該偏袒大型縮寫直到15世紀的一個熱門飾物西方手稿。 Carolingian art was not exclusively Irish, and in the manuscripts of this period are found traces of ancient art and Oriental influences (evangeliary canons, symbolical motifs such as the fountain of life, etc.).加洛林藝術不僅是愛爾蘭人,並在手稿此期間被發現的痕跡,古老的藝術與東方的影響( evangeliary大砲,象徵意義的圖案,如噴泉的生命,等等) 。 With the assistance of these manuscripts a whole iconographical cycle may be formed, encyclopedic in character, in which side by side with religious history occur figures from the profane sciences (liberal arts, calendars, zodiacs, virtues and vices, etc.).借助這些手稿整體影像週期可能形成後,百科全書性質,其中並排與宗教歷史人物出現,從褻瀆科學(文科,日曆, zodiacs ,美德和虎鉗等) 。 Ornamentation is more luxurious, the colours are more vigorous and decided in tone, silver and gold have not been spared and there is even a return to manuscripts in gold letters on a purple ground.紋飾是更豪華,顏色更有力的,並決定在語氣,白銀和黃金都不能倖免,因此即使回到手稿黃金信件紫色地面。 Many of these Bibles, Psalters, or Evangeliaries were composed for sovereigns, whose portraits were presented on the first page in all their royal apparel; they are often surrounded by allegorical figures borrowed from antiquity.許多這些聖經, psalters ,或evangeliaries組成為主權國,其肖像被介紹的第一頁,在其所有的皇家服飾,他們往往包圍寓言數字借來的,由文物。 Beside these full-page paintings we find above all in these manuscripts beautiful initials of extraordinary variety; Irish interlacings alone or combined with antique foliage, purely zoomorphic initials, etc. The principal manuscripts of this period are: the Evangeliary of Godescalc, made for Charlemagne, 781-83 (Paris), text in gold letters on purple ground with a decorative framework which is different on each page; Bibles of Theodulf, Bishop of Orléans (Paris and Le Puy); Evangeliary of Charlemagne (Vienna); Bibles of Alcuin (Zurich, Bamberg, Vallicella, Tours); Bibles of Charles the Bald (Paris); Sacramentary of Drogo (Paris); Sacramentary of Gellone (Paris), has initials uniquely formed with fishes or birds; Evangeliary of Lothaire (Paris); Bible of St. Martial of Limoges (Paris, tenth cent.); Evangeliary of Cividale (Friuli); Codex Egberti (Trier), presented to Egbert, Archbishop of Trier, by two monks of Reichenau in 980.除了這些以整版篇幅畫我們發現上述所有這些手稿美麗的英文縮寫有著非同尋常的品種;愛爾蘭interlacings單獨或合併古董,枝葉繁密,純粹zoomorphic縮寫等主要手稿這一時期是: evangeliary的godescalc ,為查理曼, 781-83 (巴黎) ,文本黃金信函,紫色與地面裝飾框架,它不同於上的每一頁;聖經,對theodulf主教,奧爾良(巴黎和Le puy ) ; evangeliary的查理曼(維也納) ;聖經,對阿爾昆(蘇黎世,班貝克vallicella ,旅遊等) ;聖經,查爾斯的禿頭(巴黎) ; sacramentary的德羅戈(巴黎) ; sacramentary的gellone (巴黎) ,有獨特的聲母形成與魚類或鳥類; evangeliary的lothaire (巴黎) ;聖經聖嚴利摩日(巴黎,第十屆美分) ; evangeliary的cividale (弗留利) ;法典egberti (特里爾) ,提交埃格伯,大主教特里爾,由兩名僧人的reichenau在980 。 To the same school belong the manuscripts composed in the German monasteries for the Ottos.以同校同屬於手稿組成,在德國的寺廟為ottos 。 Moreover, Irish or Anglo-Saxon art also produced remarkable monuments, among which may be mentioned the Psalter of Utrecht (tenth cent.), the Psalters of Winchester (British Museum), and the Benedictionaries of Jumièges (Rouen).此外,愛爾蘭或盎格魯-撒克遜人的藝術也產生了顯著的古蹟,其中可能提到psalter的烏得勒支(十美分) , psalters溫徹斯特(大英博物館) ,以及benedictionaries的jumièges (盧昂) 。

Tenth to Twelfth Century第十至第十二世紀

At the beginning of the eleventh century the fictitious unity in the artistic and intellectual sphere established by Charlemagne gave way to the diversity of the provincial schools, but if the boundaries of these schools may almost be traced when there is question of architecture, the task is more difficult in the study of miniatures; researches in this field have scarcely commenced.在一開始的11世紀虛構的統一,在藝術和思想領域建立的查理曼給予途徑的多樣性,省級學校,但如果分界這些學校幾乎可以追查的時候,有問題的架構,它的任務是更難以在研究中的微縮模型;研究,在這一領域已經幾乎沒有動工。 The illuminated manuscripts of this period were made in the monastic studios.該會發亮的手稿這期間發了言,在寺院的工作室。 As a general thing the writers were at once painters and calligraphers, such as Guillaume de St. Evroult, "Scriptor et librorum illuminator" (Ord. Vital., III, 7).作為一個普通的事,作者都是在一次畫家和書法家,如紀堯姆德聖evroult " ,作者等librorum照明燈" (號條例至關重要的,第三,第七) 。 Sometimes however the two professions were distinct; the manuscript of Peter Lombard (Valenciennes, 178) bears the inscription "Segharus me scripsit" and on the frontispiece "Sawalo me fecit".但有時兩個行業截然不同;手稿彼得倫巴第(瓦朗西, 178 )刻有碑文" segharus我scripsit " ,並於切面" sawalo我fecit " 。 Sawalo, a monk of St. Amand, is the illuminator and his name is found elsewhere. sawalo ,一名僧人聖amand ,是照明燈和他的名字的地方發現。 This period is marked by the extraordinary development of large initials while the full-page miniatures disappeared.這一時期是明顯的,由超常規發展的大型英文縮寫,而以整版篇幅微縮模型消失了。 Illustrations on several scales are still found in the margin.插圖幾個規模,仍發現在保證金。

These initials of the Romantic period follow the traditions of Carolingian illumination, but they are even more complex and the human figure assumes an increasingly important place.這些縮寫的浪漫時期,按照傳統的加洛林照明,但他們甚至變得更加複雜和人類的數字是假設一個日益重要的地位。 Some of them are full-length portraits of prophets or apostles; in others complete scenes (battles, besieged cities, etc.) are developed in the midst of pillars.他們中的一些人是完整長度的畫像先知或傳道者,在另一些完整的場面(戰役,給被圍困的城市,等等)是發達國家在複雜多變的支柱。 The great difference between this and the Carolingian period lies in the appearance of naturalism and of anachronism (prophets with pointed shoes, etc.).有很大的差別,這與加洛林時期,關鍵在外觀自然主義和不合時代(先知同指出,鞋等) 。 Lastly there are many points of resemblance between the development of miniature painting and that of other arts of design.最後,有許多共同點,相似兩者的發展縮影,繪畫和其他藝術的設計。 The short and badly drawn figures were succeeded, at the end of the twelfth century, by more slender portraits which resemble the elongated statues of Chartres.短期和極得出的數字分別成功了,在去年底的12世紀中,更苗條的畫像,這類似於細長的塑像chartres 。 Such is the character of the ornamental school which produced innumerable works in France, Germany, Northern Italy, Spain, and the Two Sicilies.這種性格的裝飾性學校產生了無數的作品在法國,德國,意大利北部,西班牙,和兩個西西里王國。 (Here it is difficult to trace the boundary between Western miniature painting and the Byzantine which made its influence felt in the workrooms of Monte Cassino and especially in the beautiful paintings of the rolls containing the text of the "Exultet" of Holy Saturday.) Also worthy of mention is an attempt of the Cistercians to infuse more simplicity into illuminating. (在這裡,這是難以追查之間的邊界西部的縮影,繪畫和拜占庭這使得它的影響力在工作室的Monte cassino ,尤其是在美麗的畫本卷載文" exultet "聖週六) ,也值得一提的是一個嘗試的cistercians企業注入更簡單到啟發性。 A model manuscript had been composed at Cîteaux, in which gold and painting were replaced by a calligraphic decoration in perfect taste.示範手稿已經組成,在cîteaux ,其中黃金和繪畫被取而代之的是一個書法裝飾完美的口味。 There is an intimate relation between this severe elegance and Cistercian architecture.有一個親密的關係,這嚴峻的優雅和修道院建築。

Thirteenth Century 13世紀

In the thirteenth century illumination, like calligraphy, ceased to be the specialty of the monasteries.在13世紀的照明,如書法,不再是專業的寺院。 In France and about the University of Paris appeared the lay illuminators.在法國及約巴黎大學出現奠定illuminators 。 The taste for illuminated manuscripts spread more and more, and important studios of illuminators arose, the heads of which often furnished sketches of miniatures to be executed.俱全發亮手稿蔓延,越來越多的,以及重要的工作室的illuminators出現時,該負責人,其中往往家具寫生的微縮模型,以被處決。 On the other hand the illuminations took a more and more important place at the expense of the text.在另一方面,該燈飾了更多和更重要的地位,而不惜犧牲的案文。 The artists were no longer satisfied with ornamented initials, but in a series of medallions arranged like those decorating the stained glass windows they developed whole cycles of sacred or profane history.藝術家們不再滿足於裝飾縮寫,但在一系列的徽章安排喜歡那些裝飾彩繪玻璃,他們開發的整個週期的神聖或褻瀆歷史。 There were then composed "Picture Bibles" made up of a continuous series of miniatures (Bible of Sir Thomas Philipps), or "Sermon Bibles", veritable illustrated theological summaries, giving for each verse of Scripture the literal, symbolical, and moral interpretations.有那麼組成的"圖畫聖經, "彌補了一條連綿不斷的一系列的微縮模型(聖經爵士托馬斯philipps ) ,或"說教本聖經" ,說明了名副其實的神學概要說明,讓每首詩的經文字面,具有象徵意義,和道德的表述。 This immense work, which must have contained 5000 figures, has not reached us complete.這一巨大的工作,它必須載有5000個數字,還沒有達到我們完成。 A manuscript in 3 vols.手稿在3卷。 of a Sermon Bible is divided between the Bodleian Library, the Bibliothèque Nationale of Paris, and the British Museum.一個講道聖經分之間的國立圖書館,國家圖書館的巴黎,和大英博物館。 The Psalter of Ingeburg (Musée Condé at Chantilly) and that of Sts.該psalter的ingeburg (博物館condé在尚蒂伊) ,並開展STS 。 Louis and Blanche of Castile (Arsenal Library) belong by their ornamentation to the monastic art of the twelfth century.路易和處理權的卡斯蒂利亞(阿森納圖書館)屬於其紋飾,以修道藝術的12世紀。 On the other hand new tendencies appear in the works of the second half of the thirteenth century, eg the Evangeliarium of the Sainte-Chapelle (Bib. Nat.), the two Psalters of St. Louis (Paris, Bib. Nat., and collection of HY Thompson), the works of profane literature (chansons de geste, etc.).在另一方面,傾向性的新東西出現在作品下半年的13世紀,例如evangeliarium的聖Chapelle的( bib.的NAT ) ,這兩個psalters的聖路易斯(巴黎,背帶褲。 NAT的,並收集路政署署長湯普森) ,作品的褻瀆文學( chansons德geste等) 。 Gothic ornamentation with its wealth of rose and quatrefoil decoration, gables, pinnacles, and foliage often forms the framework for these vignettes.哥特式裝飾以其豐富的玫瑰和quatrefoil裝修, Gables的pinnacles ,葉面往往形式的框架內為這些護身符。 The gold backgrounds are almost always covered with designs, sometimes in relief.黃金背景幾乎總是佈滿設計,有時在救濟。 Instead of foliage and fantastic animals the human figure holds the predominant place.反之葉面神奇的動物,人類的數字,掌握著主導位置。 In miniature painting as in the sculpture of the thirteenth century may be observed the progress of realism and the exact observation of the living model.在微型畫象雕塑的13世紀,可觀察到的進展,現實性和準確的觀察生活模式。 These beautiful miniatures of the Books of Hours revive for us with their still admirable colours the costumes of the contemporaries of St. Louis and Philip the Fair.這些美麗的微縮模型的帳簿時,為振興我們與他們還是令人欽佩的顏色服裝的同時代的聖路易斯和菲利普這次洽談會。 Such is the style which henceforth dominates French miniature painting and which speedily spread throughout Europe, especially England.這就是風格,從此主宰法語微型國畫,並迅速傳遍整個歐洲,特別是英國。

Early Fourteenth Century早在14世紀

This period is represented chiefly by the Parisian illuminator Jean Pucelle, whose name has been discovered on several manuscripts.) One of the most beautiful of his works is the Breviary of Belleville (Bib. Nat., Lat. 10483-84), executed in collaboration with Mahiet Ancelet and J. Chevrier.這一時期的代表主要由巴黎的照明燈讓pucelle ,他的名字已被發現的幾個手稿)的一個最美麗的他的作品是breviary的belleville ( bib.的NAT ,北緯10483-84 ) ,在被處決協作與mahiet安瑟萊及J chevrier 。 The new school was remarkable for its borders, formed of wonderful garlands of interlaced foliage and flowers, no longer conventional as formerly, but copied from nature.新學年開始,是了不起的,其邊界,形成了奇妙的花環的交錯和觀葉花卉,不再是傳統的,因為以前的,但抄襲性質。 Between the border and the text were represented scenes of everyday life, sometimes of a humorous character, for example a piper playing for dancing peasants, or animals, birds, monkeys, butterflies, dragonflies intermingled, with the foliage, as on the sculptured panels of the cathedrals of the same period.兩國邊防和文本派的場面日常生活中,有時一個幽默的性格,例如伯爾玩跳舞農民,或動物,鳥,猴子,蝴蝶,蜻蜓交織,同賞葉,由於對雕塑的面板大教堂的同一時期。 Traces of Italian inspiration appear in the architecture, which is of a mixed Gothic character.痕跡意大利語靈感出現在體系結構,它是一個混合哥特性格。 Among the works of this school the "Book of the Miracles of Our Lady" (Seminary of Soissons) is one of the most exquisite.其中工程,因此這個學校的"易經神蹟的聖母" (神的soissons )是其中最精美的。 During the same period the English miniaturists produced remarkable works such as "Queen Mary's Psalter" (Brit. Mus.), which belonged to Mary Tudor but which dates from the beginning of the fourteenth century.在同一時期,英語miniaturists產生了顯著的工程,例如: "瑪麗的psalter " ( brit.毛里求斯) ,其中屬於瑪麗都鐸式,但日期從一開始的14世紀。 It contains first more than two hundred scenes from the Old Testament bordered with a simple framework of foliage.它包含首次超過200場面,從舊約邊一個簡單的框架葉面。 The figures are graceful and elegant.這個數字是婉約優雅。 Then come scenes from the life of Christ executed on gold backgrounds with much greater richness in the midst of innumerable scenes of the chase, tourneys, games, grotesque subjects.當時的場面來,從生活中的基督處決黃金背景與更豐富我們在複雜多變的無數場景追捕, tourneys ,遊戲,怪誕科目。 The East Anglian abbeys (Norfolk, Suffolk) produced magnificent psalters during the same period (Psalter of Peterborough at Brussels; Psalter of Robert of Ormesby at Oxford) which belong to the same school.東盎格魯修道院(諾福克,薩福克)製作的宏偉psalters在同一時期( psalter的彼得伯勒在布魯塞爾; psalter羅伯特的奧姆斯比在牛津) ,其中屬於同一所學校。 In Germany the miniaturists had long been imitating Byzantine art; beginning with the fourteenth century they also imitate French models.在德國, miniaturists長期以來一直模仿拜占庭藝術;開始, 14世紀,他們也模仿法國模式。 In Austria at the monastery of St. Florian is found the most ancient example of the Biblia Pauperum, executed about 1300 according to the same method as the Sermon Bibles.在奧地利,在修道院的聖弗洛裡發現的最古老的例子之一快報pauperum ,簽約1300按同樣的方法為講道聖經。 The taste for miniatures was so keen at this period that they even went so far as to illuminate some important characters.俱全微縮模型是如此激烈,在這一時期,他們甚至竟然以照亮了一些重要人物。 A copy of the house rules of the kings of Majorca shows each of the officials in the exercise of his functions (reproduced in "Acta SS. Bolland.", June, I; cf. list given by Delaborde in "Centenaire de la Société des Antiquaires de France", 93).一份眾議院規則國王的majorca顯示每個官員在行使其職能(轉載於"學報的SS 。 bolland " ,今年6月,我;比照名單給予德拉博爾德在" centenaire德協會香格里拉萬antiquaires的法國" , 93 ) 。

Late Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Century晚第十四,十五世紀

It was in the second half of the fifteenth century that the art of miniature painting was most profoundly changed.它是在下半年第十五世紀的藝術縮影,畫中,最深刻地改變了。 It may even be said that the illuminators of this period were to a certain extent the precursors of modern painting.它甚至可以說是illuminators這一時期得到了一定程度的前驅的現代繪畫。 This new transformation seems to have been largely the work of the powerful "Ghildes" of the Flemish masters, versatile artists, many of them skilled like André Beauneveu in painting, sculpture and architecture, and obliged by stress of competition to leave their own country in order to offer their services to the lovers of beautiful manuscripts.這種新的轉變,似乎已在很大程度上工作的強大" , ghildes "的弗拉芒語區的主人,多才多藝的藝術家,他們中的許多人一樣,熟練安德烈博納弗在繪畫,雕塑,建築和義務應力競爭離開自己的國家,在為了提供自己的服務,以情人的美麗手稿。 They are found scattered throughout Europe, and some went even to Italy.他們發現,遍布歐洲,有的甚至欲到意大利。 André Beauneveu became (1393-1397) the chief of the artists in the employ of Jean Duke of Berry.安德烈博納弗成了( 1393至1397年)行政的藝術家們在聘請讓公爵漿果。 He made a Psalter (Bib. Nat., Paris) in which figures of prophets, and Apostles alternated in quiet tones.他作了一個psalter ( bib. NAT的,巴黎) ,其中數字的先知,在上帝和輪崗,在安靜的聲調。 It was at this time that manuscripts began to be painted in grisaille.正是在這時候,手稿開始被畫在grisaille 。 The gold backgrounds were replaced by designs in colours, then by real landscapes.黃金背景的人所取代,在設計,顏色,然後由真正的景觀。 In this respect the "Très Riches Heures" of the Duke of Berry (Chantilly, Musée Condé), which have been attributed to Pol de Limbourg, mark a veritable revolution (beginning of the fifteenth century).在這方面, " tr鑣富貴heures "公爵漿果(尚蒂伊,博物館condé ) ,其中已歸入油料德limbourg ,標誌著一個真正的革命(一開始的15世紀) 。 In the pictures of the different months are represented all the châteaux of the prince in the midst of surprisingly true landscapes.在照片中的不同月份都有代表所有的農田,王子在一片令人驚訝的真實景觀。 Long before the Van Eycks, Pol de Limbourg was acquainted with aerial perspective.前不久麵包車eycks ,波蘭德limbourg是結識了空中視角。 In his works are found the effects of snow, of starry nights, of dazzling summer lights, the grey tones of autumn, all of which were new in art.在他的作品中發現的影響,雪,星空之夜,令人眼花繚亂的夏季燈光,灰色色調的秋季,所有這些都是新的藝術。 Persons were treated with the same love of truth.人的待遇與上年熱愛真理。 Physiognomies copied from nature without disguise of any defect, intensity of look (never was religious sentiment expressed with such power), minute truthfulness as to costumes and details of furnishing, such were the characteristics of this art. physiognomies抄襲性質,沒有掩飾任何缺陷,強度看(永遠是宗教情感表示了這種權力) ,一分鐘真,以服飾和細節,家具,這種人的特點,這屆藝術。 Having arrived at this perfection miniature painting ceased to be a merely decorative art and was confounded with painting on a large scale.抵達後,在這個完美的縮影,繪畫不再是一個僅僅是裝飾藝術與被混淆與繪畫上,規模大。 The anachronism of costumes belonging to the fifteenth century, whether they have to do with characters from Terence or scenes from the Gospels, is not one of the least charms of these beautiful works.錯誤的服裝屬於15世紀,無論他們有什麼關係,從漢字樂庭或場景從福音,是不是一個最小的魅力這些美麗的作品。 Similar are the other manuscripts of Jean de Berry, the "Grandes Heures", ascribed to Jacquemart de Hesdin, the "Très Belles Heures" (Brussels) by the same artist, the "Dukes' Terence" (Paris), which first belonged to the Duke Guyenne.類似的,還有沒有其他的手稿讓德漿果, " grandes heures " ,歸因於jacquemart德hesdin , " tr鑣belles heures " (布魯塞爾)由同一個藝術家, "的Dukes '樂庭" (巴黎) ,其中第一次是屬於杜克吉耶訥。 The "Heures de Turin" (destroyed by the fire of 1904), made for William IV, Count of Holland, belong to the same school. " heures德都靈" (摧毀火1904 ) ,為威廉四,指望荷蘭,屬於同一所學校。 About 1450 we can distinguish the Flemish-Burgundian school (works executed for the Dukes of Burgundy) from the French school, whose chief representative is Jean Fouquet of Tours (1415-80).大約1450年,我們可以分辨出弗拉芒語區-勃艮第的學校(工程槍決腫瘤Dukes的勃艮)從法國學校,其主要代表的是讓Fouquet聯絡旅行團( 1415至1480年) 。 Flemish and Italian influences are confused in his works: "Jewish Antiquities" (Paris); "Books of Hours" of Etienne Chevalier (Chantilly); "Grands Chroniques de France" (Paris), etc. After him Jean Bourdichon, who about 1508 decorated the "Hours" of Anne of Brittany (Paris), may be considered the last representative of the great school of miniature painting.弗拉芒語和意大利語的影響感到迷茫,在他的作品中說: "猶太古物" (巴黎) ; "書籍的時間"的艾蒂安士(尚蒂伊) ; "出chroniques的法國" (巴黎)等後,他讓布爾迪雄,誰約1508裝飾的"時間"的安妮布列塔尼(巴黎) ,可被視為上次代表偉大學校的微型國畫。 The progress of wood-engraving was as fatal to it, as was that of printing to calligraphy.進度木雕刻是由於致命的,因為是印刷,以書法。 Until modern times Books of Hours, works of heraldry, etc. have continued to be illuminated, but these miniatures do not possess a single personal quality.直到近代的書籍時,工程的跳轉等,都繼續受到發亮的,但這些微縮模型並不具備一個單一的個人素質。

Publication information Written by Louis Bréhier.出版信息寫路易bréhier 。 Transcribed by Bryan R. Johnson.轉錄由布萊恩傳譯約翰遜。 The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume IX.天主教百科全書,體積九。 Published 1910. 1910年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特Appleton還公司。 Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1910. nihil obstat , 1910年10月1日。 Remy Lafort, Censor.人頭馬lafort ,檢查員。 Imprimatur. imprimatur 。 +John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰米farley ,大主教紐約


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Celtique (1870); The Lindisfarne and Rushworth Gospels (SURTEES SOCIETY 48, 1865); DE BASTARD, Peintures et ornaments des manuscrits (Paris, 1868, incomplete); LEITSCHUH, Gesch. russe德君士坦丁堡,第十二章( 1907年) ; strzygowski ,模具miniaturen萬serbischen psalters (維也納, 1906年) ;吉爾伯特,我方similies國家手稿愛爾蘭(倫敦, 1874年至1884年) ;韋斯特伍德,我方明喻的微縮模型和飾物盎格魯-撒克遜和愛爾蘭手稿(倫敦, 1868年) ; unger ,香格里拉的縮影irandaise在牧師celtique ( 1870年) ;林迪斯和rushworth福音( surtees社會48 , 1865 ) ;德私生子, peintures等飾物萬manuscrits (巴黎, 1868年,不完整) ; leitschuh , gesch 。 der Karolingischen Malerei (Berlin, 1894); MENZEL, Die Trierer Ada-Handschrift (Leipzig, 1889); DE BASTARD, Peintures de la Bible de Charles le Chauve (Paris, 1883); BRÉHIER, La Bible historiée de Clermont in Etudes archéol.明鏡karolingischen malerei (柏林, 1894年) ;米澤勒,模具trierer阿達- handschrift (萊比錫, 1889年) ;德私生子, peintures德香格里拉聖經德查爾斯樂肖夫(巴黎, 1883年) ; bréhier ,香格里拉聖經historiée德克萊蒙在練習曲archéol 。 (Clermont, 1910); VITZTHUM, Die Pariser Miniaturmalerei (Leipzig, 1907); DELISLE, Fac-similes de livres copiés et enluminés pour le roi Charles V (Paris, 1903); DE LASTEYRIE, Les miniatures d'André Beauneveu et de Jacquemart de Hesdin in Monuments pict., III; DURRIEU, Heures de Turin (Paris, 1902); Les Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry (Paris, 1904); REINACH, Miniatures des Grandes Chroniques de Philippe le Bon in Monuments pict., XI; DE LABORDE, Les Manuscrits =85 peinture de la Cité de Dieu (Paris, 1910); OMONT, Reproduction réduite des manuscrits et miniatures de la Bibliothèque Nationale (Paris, sd), contains Psalter of St. Louis, Book of Hours of Anne of Brittany, Grande Chroniques de France of Jean Fouquet, etc. (克萊蒙, 1910 ) ; vitzthum ,模具pariser miniaturmalerei (萊比錫, 1907年) ;迪萊爾,我方喻德livres copiés等enluminés致ROI的查爾斯五世(巴黎, 1903年) ;德拉斯泰裡,就業輔導組微縮模型-安德烈博納弗等德j acquemart德hesdin在紀念碑的圖片,三;杜列烏, heures德都靈(巴黎, 1902年) ;本港就業輔導組Tr鑣富貴heures杜德德漿果(巴黎, 1904年) ;雷納克,微縮萬grandes chroniques菲利普德樂祝你在紀念碑的圖片。奚;德拉博德,就業輔導組manuscrits = 85 peinture德城德Part - Dieu (巴黎, 1910年) ; omont ,複製r閐uite萬manuscrits等微縮德香格里拉國家圖書館(巴黎,職務) ,載有psalter的聖路易斯,帳簿小時的安妮布列塔尼,大chroniques德,法,讓Fouquet聯絡等。

Picture Bibles圖片本聖經

Catholic Information 天主教資訊

In the Middle Ages the Church made use of pictures as a means of instruction, to supplement the knowledge acquired by reading or oral teaching.在中世紀教堂用圖片作為一種手段,教學語言,以補充學到的知識通過閱讀或口語教學。 For books only existed in manuscript form and, being costly, were beyond the means of most people.書籍只存在於手稿形式,並正在昂貴,超出了,就是大多數人的。 Besides, had it been possible for the multitude to come into the possession of books, they could not have read them, since in those rude times, education was the privilege of few.此外,如果有可能,為眾多來進入藏書籍,他們可沒有看過他們,因為在那些粗魯的時代,教育是特權的寥寥可數。 In fact, hardly anyone could read, outside the ranks of the clergy and the monks.事實上,幾乎沒有人能夠看到,外面的行列教士和僧侶。 So frescoes of scenes from the Old and New Testaments, stained-glass windows, an the like were set up in the churches, because, as the Synod of Arras (1025) said, "The illiterate contemplated in the lineaments of painting what they, having never learnt to read, could not discern in writing".所以壁畫的場景,從舊約及新約,彩色玻璃窗,一個類被設在教堂,因為,正如主教的阿拉斯( 1025 )說: "不識字的爭議中的輪廓畫的是什麼,他們從未據悉,閱讀,不能看出,在寫作" 。 Especially did the Church make use of pictures to spread abroad a knowledge of the events recorded in the Bible and of the mutual connection between the leading facts of the Old and New Testaments, whether as type and antitype, or as prophecy and fulfillment.尤其是當時教會利用圖片,以傳播國內外知識的事件記錄在聖經和相互之間的聯繫,導致事實的舊約及新約,無論是作為類型和antitype ,或作為預言和圓滿。 For this purpose the picture Bibles of the Middle Ages were copied and put in circulation.為此,將對圖片本聖經的中世紀被抄,並把流通。 The most important of the picture Bibles of the Middle Ages which have survived is that variously styled the "Bible Moralisée", the "Bible Historiée", the "Bible Allégorisée" and sometimes "Emblémes Bibliques".其中最重要的圖畫本聖經的中世紀,其中倖存的是各種風格的"聖經moralisée " , "聖經historiée " , "聖經allégorisée " ,時而" emblémes bibliques " 。 It is a work of the thirteenth century, and from the copies that still survive there is no doubt that it existed in at least two editions, like to one another in the choice and order of the Biblical texts used, but differing in the allegorical and moral deductions drawn from these passages.這是一個工作的13世紀,從複製品仍然生存,這是毫無疑問的,它存在於至少兩個版本一樣,對另外一個人在選擇和秩序的聖經文本使用的,但不同在寓言和道德扣除額從這些通道。 The few remarks to be made here about the "Bible Moralisée" will be made in connection with copies of the first and second redactions which have come down to us.了幾句話,將在這裡所作的關於"聖經moralisée會"方面作出的副本,第一次和第二次節錄其中已回落到我們。

The copy of the first edition, to which reference has been made, is one of the most sumptuous illustrated manuscripts, preserved to us from the Middle Ages.該作品的複製品首版,其中提到了一些進展,是一個最豪華的說明手稿,保存著我們從中世紀。 Unfortunately, it no longer exists in the form of a single volume, nor is it kept in one place.不幸的是,它不再存在,其形式為單卷的,也不是保存在一個地方。 It has been split up into three separate parts kept in three distinct libraries.它已分裂成三個不同部分存放在三個不同的圖書館。 The first part, consisting of 224 leaves, is in the Bodleian Library at Oxford.第一部分,其中的224葉片,是在國立圖書館在牛津。 The second part of 222 leaves is in the National Library in Paris; and the third part, made up of 178 leaves, is kept in the library of the British Museum.第二部分的222葉片,是在國家圖書館,在巴黎和第三部分,彌補了178樹葉,存放在圖書館,大英博物館。 Six leaves of the third part are missing, so that it ought to contain 184 leaves. 6個葉片的第三部分是下落不明,因此,它應該包含184個葉片。 When complete and bound together, therefore, the whole volume consisted of 630 leaves, written and illustrated on one side only.當完整地聯繫在一起,因此,整個體積組成630樹葉,筆試和說明就只有一邊。 This Bible, as indeed all the picture Bibles of the Middle Ages, did not contain the full text of the Bible.本聖經,而事實上所有的圖片全部聖經的中世紀,不包含全文聖經。 Short passages only were cited, and these not so as to give any continuous sense or line of thought.簡短段落,只被引用,而這些並不讓任何連續常識或思路。 But the object of the writer seems to have been chiefly to make the texts cited the basis of moral and allegorical teaching, in the manner so common in those days.但反對的,作者似乎已被首領,使文本引用的基礎上的道德和寓言教學,在該地如此普遍,在那些日子。 In the Psalter he was content with copying out the first verse of each psalm; whilst when dealing with the Gospels he did not quote from each evangelist separately, but made use of a kind of confused diatessaron of all four combined.在psalter ,他的內容與複製出第一首詩的每一個詩篇;雖然在處理與福音,他並沒有引述來自各傳道者分開,但利用了一種混淆diatessaron所有四個結合。 An attempt was made to establish a connection between the events recorded in the Old Testament and those recorded in the New, even when there does not seem to be any very obvious connection between them.有人試圖建立一種關係,事件記錄在舊約和那些記錄在新的,即使有,似乎並沒有什麼很明顯的聯繫關係。 Thus the sleep of Adam, recorded in the beginning of Genesis, is said to prefigure the death of Christ; and Abraham sending his servant with rich presents to seek a wife for his son is a type of the Eternal Father giving the Gospels to the Apostles to prepare the union of His Son with the Church.因此,睡眠的亞當,記錄在一開始的成因,據說預示著死亡的基督;亞伯拉罕派遣他的僕人,具備豐富的禮物,以尋求一個妻子為他的兒子的是一種永恆的父親給福音到使徒準備聯盟的,他的兒子與教會。

The entire work contains about 5,000 illustrations.整個工作中含有約5000個,插圖等。 The pictures are arranged in two parallel columns on each page, each column having four medallions with pictures.這些照片都被排列在兩個平行的欄目上的每一頁,每一列有四個徽章與圖片。 Parallel to the pictures and alternating with them are two other narrower columns, with four legends each, one legend to each picture; the legends consisting alternatively of Biblical texts and moral or allegorical applications; whilst the pictures represent the subjects of the Biblical texts or of the applications of them.平行的照片和交替與他們其他兩個窄欄目,還有4人的傳說,每一個傳說,以每張照片;傳說交替構成的聖經文本和道德或寓言申請;雖然這些照片代表著學科的聖經文本或申請的。 In the manuscript copy of the "Bible Moralisée", now under consideration, the illustrations are executed with the greatest skill.在手稿本"聖經moralisée " ,現在正在審議的,插圖是從上到下以最大的技巧。 The painting is said to be one of the best specimens of thirteenth-century work and the manuscript was in all probability prepared for someone in the highest rank of life.這幅畫據說是一個最好的標本第十三世紀的工作和手稿是在所有的概率準備有人在最高級別的生活方式。 A specimen of the second edition of the "Bible Moralisée" is to be found in the National Library in Paris (manuscript Français No. 167).一個標本第二版的"聖經moralisée " ,目的就是要找到在國家圖書館在巴黎(法國手稿第167號) 。 Whilst it is identical with the copy which has just been examined in the selection and order of the Biblical passages, it differs from it in the greater simplicity and brevity of the moral and allegorical teaching based on them.雖然這是完全相同的副本,它剛剛被審查,在遴選和秩序的聖經段落,它不同於它在更加簡單和簡潔的道義和寓言教學的基礎上。 Another important Bible, intended to instruct by means of pictures, was that which has been called the "Bible Historiée toute figurée".另一項重要的聖經,打算指示通過圖片,是那種被稱為"聖經historiée裝有figurée " 。 It was a work of the end of the thirteenth or the beginning of the fourteenth century.這是一個工作,去年底第十三開頭或14世紀。 In general outline and plan it resembles the class of Bible which has gone before, but it differs from it in the selection of Bible passages and in the allegorical explanations derived from them.在一般綱要和計劃,它類似於類聖經出了,但它不同於它在選擇聖經段落,並在寓言的解釋來源於其本身。 Coming to the life of Our Lord, the author of the "Bible Historiée toute figurée" dispensed with a written text altogether, and contented himself with writing over the pictures depicting scenes of Our Saviour's life, a brief explanatory legend.來的生命,我們的主,作者的"聖經historiée裝有figurée "配發了一份書面文本加起來,和滿足自己的寫作比圖片描繪的場面,我們的救主的生命,一個簡短的解釋性傳說。 Many specimens of this Bible have come down to us, but we select part of one preserved in the National Library in Paris (manuscript Français No. 9561) for a brief description.許多標本本聖經已回落到我們,但我們選擇的部分之一,保存在國家圖書館在巴黎(法國稿號9561 )一簡要說明。 In this manuscript 129 pages are taken up with the Old Testament.在這個手稿129頁是採取了與舊約。 Of these the earlier ones are divided horizontally in the centre, and it is the upper part of the page that contains the picture illustrative of some Old Testament event.這些較早的是條塊分割,在該中心,它與上游的一部分,該網頁載有圖片說明一些舊約事件。 The lower part represents a corresponding scene from the New Testament.較低部分,代表了相應的現場,由新約聖經。 further on in the volume, three pictures appear in the upper part of the page, and three below.關於進一步在數量,拍攝的照片出現在上層部分的網頁,並請三名下文。 Seventy-six pages at the end of the volume are devoted to depicting the lives of Jesus Christ and the Blessed Virgin. 76頁在去年底量都致力於描繪生活的耶穌基督和小聖。

It must not be supposed that these were the only Bibles of this class that existed in the Middle Ages.絕不能以為這些人的唯一聖經,這個階級存在於中世紀。 On the contrary, from the great number of copies that have survived to our own day we may guess how wide their circulation must have been.與此相反,從大量拷貝下來,以我們自己的一天,我們可能會猜測,如何廣泛流通,必須是被。 We have a manuscript existing in the British Museum (addit. 1577) entitled "Figures de la Bible" consisting of pictures illustrating events in the Bible with short descriptive text.我們有一個現有的手稿在大英博物館( addit. 1577 )的題為"數字德香格里拉聖經" ,其中包括照片,說明事件的聖經短的描述性文字。 this is of the end of the thirteenth, or the beginning of the fourteenth, century.這是該結束的第十三次,或一開始的第十四,世紀。 Of the same date is the "Historia Bibliæ metrice" which is preserved in the same library and, as the name implies, has a metrical text.對同一日期,是"歷史bibliæ metrice " ,這是保存在同一個圖書館和,顧名思義,有格律文本。 But we have specimens of manuscript illustrated Bibles of earlier date.但我們有標本的手稿說明本聖經的願望早日變成現實。 Such is the Bible preserved in the library of St. Paul's, outside the walls of Rome; that of the Amiens Library (manuscript 108), and that of the Royal Library of The Hague (manuscript 69).這就是聖經保存在圖書館,聖保羅的,城牆外的羅馬表示,在該亞眠圖書館(手稿108 ) ,及整個皇家圖書館的海牙(手稿69 ) 。 So numerous are the surviving relics of such Bibles, back even so far as the eleventh and twelfth centuries, that it may be safely said that the Church made a systematic effort to teach the Scriptures in those days by means of illustrated Bibles.如此之多,是尚存的遺跡,如聖經,回到即便如此,據第十一屆和第十二屆百年來,它可以安全地說,教會作出了系統的努力,教導聖經,在那些日子的方式說明了聖經。


The Bibles that have come under notice so far illustrate the entire Scriptures.聖經說,有根據公告,至目前為止,說明整個經文。 But what was done for the Bible in full was also done for its various parts.但是,是什麼做的聖經,在充分也做了,為它的各個部件。 Numerous beautifully illustrated psalters have come down to us, some of them going as far back as the ninth century, as, for instance, the Psalter of the University of Utrecht.許多精美的說明psalters有所下調,對我們來說,他們中的一些人去,因為早在9世紀,作為,例如, psalter的烏得勒支大學。 One thing that comes out clearly from a study of the contents and character of these psalters is that a very large proportion of them were executed by artists working in England.一件事出來顯然,從研究的內容和性質,這些psalters ,是一個非常大的比例,這些人被處決,由藝術家們在英格蘭。 So, too, the book of Job and the Apocalypse were copied separately and adorned with numerous illustrations.因此,過分,這本書的工作,及啟示照搬分開,並貼著許多插圖。 But, as we should have expected, the Gospels were a specially favourite field for the medieval artists who devoted their time to picture-painting.但是,我們應該有預期,福音是一個特別喜歡的領域,為中世紀的藝術家,他們把時間用於圖片-畫。


A class of illustrated Bibles to which no allusion has been made, but which had a wide circulation especially in the fifteenth century was the "Biblia Pauperum".一類說明了聖經,其中並沒有提到已經取得的,但其中有一個廣泛流通,特別是在15世紀初期的"快報pauperum " 。 As it name indicates, it was especially intended for the poor and ignorant, and some say that it was used for purposes of preaching by the mendicant orders.因為它的名字所示,它是特別為窮人和無知的,有些人說這是用來為目的的說教所乞討的訂單。 It existed at first in manuscript (indeed a manuscript copy is still in existence in the library of the British Museum); but at a very early period it was reproduced by xylography, then coming into use in Europe.它存在於第一個在手稿(的確是一個手稿副本仍然存在,在圖書館的大英博物館) ,但在非常早的時期,它被複製xylography ,那麼,在未來運用到歐洲。 As a consequence the "Biblia Pauperum" was published and sold at a much cheaper rate than the older manuscript picture Bibles.作為一個後果是"快報pauperum "一書出版發行和出售便宜得多的比率,較舊手稿圖片聖經。 The general characteristics of this Bible are the same as those of the earlier picture Bibles.總的特點就是本聖經都是一樣的,因為那些較早圖片聖經。 The pictures are generally placed only on one side of the page, and are framed in a kind of triptych of architectural design.這些照片通常只對一方的網頁,並正在制定中的一種三部曲的建築設計。 In the centre is a scene from the New Testament, and on either side of it typical events from the Old Testament.在該中心是一個由現場的新約聖經,對任何一方的,它的典型事件,從舊約。 Above and below the central picture are busts of four noted prophets or other famous characters of the Old Testament.以上及以下的中央,照片上打掉四個指出先知或其他著名人物的舊約。 In the corners of the picture are the legends.在彎道中的圖片是傳說。 The number of these pictures in the "Biblia Pauperum" was usually from forty to fifty.有多少這些照片在"快報pauperum主義" ,通常由40至50 。

Picture Bibles of the Middle Ages did not exhaust the resources of Christians in illustration of the Bible.圖片本聖經的中世紀沒有排氣資源基督徒的插圖本聖經。 Since the fifteenth century a host of artistic geniuses have contributed to make the events of Scripture live in colour before our eyes.自15世紀一系列的藝術天才貢獻,使事件的經文住在膚色在我們眼前。 Most noted amongst them were Michelangelo and Raphael; the former chiefly famous for his Pietà and the frescoes in the Sistine Chapel; the latter for seven cartoons illustrating events in the New Testament.最指出,在他們之間被米開朗基羅和拉斐爾;前者主要是有名的,他pietà和壁畫,在西斯廷教堂;後者為七個漫畫事件說明,在新約聖經。 Perhaps no sacred picture has been so often copied as "The Last Supper" of Leonardo da Vinci painted in the refectory of the Dominican convent in Milan.也許沒有任何神聖的圖片已如此,往往抄襲"最後的晚餐"達芬奇畫在refectory的多米尼加修道院,在米蘭。 Well known, too, are Fra Bartolomeo's "Presentation in the Temple" in Vienna, and Rubens's numerous Bible pictures, to be found in the Louvre, Brussels, Vienna, Munich, and London, but chiefly at Antwerp, where are his "Descent from the Cross", "Crucifixion", and "Adoration of the Magi", the most famous of his works.眾所周知的,也有法國bartolomeo的"的演講中廟" ,在維也納,與魯本斯的眾多的聖經圖片,可以發現在盧浮宮,布魯塞爾,維也納,慕尼黑,倫敦,但主要在安特衛普,在那裡他的"血統十字架" , "十字架上" , "朝拜賢士" ,其中最有名的作品。 These are but a few out of a number of illustrious names too numerous to mention here and including Botticelli, Carrucci, Holman, Hunt, Leighton, Murillo, Veronese, Tintoretto, and Watts.這些只不過是少數幾個出了一些顯赫的名字,罄竹難書此一提,並包括波提切利,卡魯奇,霍爾曼,狩獵,禮頓,略,維羅納,丁托列托( Tintoretto ,瓦。

To study the works of the great Bible-illustrators is not so difficult as might be supposed.研究工程的偉大聖經-插畫家,是不那麼容易,因為可能被假定。 For of late years a great number of collections of Bible prints have been made, some containing engravings of the most famous paintings.為晚來的大量藏品的聖經版畫都已經完成了一些含有鐫刻的最著名的畫作。 In the first half of the last century Julius Schnorr collected together 180 designs called his "Bible Pictures, or Scripture History"; and another series of 240 pictures was published in 1860 by george Wigand; whilst later in the century appeared Dalziel's "Bible Gallery".在上半年,上個世紀戲劇的Schnorr一併領取180外觀設計所謂他的"聖經圖畫,經文中的歷史" ,以及另一系列的240照片被刊登在1860年由喬治wigand ;雖然後來在世紀出現dalziel的"聖經長廊" 。 Hodder and Stoughton have published excellent volumes reproducing some of the pictures of the greatest masters. hodder和stoughton已出版優秀卷複製的一些照片的最大的主人。 Such are "The Old Testament in Art" (2 parts); "The Gospels in Art", "The Apostles in Art", and "Bethlehem to Olivet", this latter being made up of modern pictures.這些都是"舊約中的藝術" ( 2部分) , "四福音,在藝術" , "使徒們在藝術" ,以及"伯利恆,以科特" ,這是後者彌補了現代照片。 The Society for the Promotion of Christian Knowledge has not been behindhand, but has issued amongst other publications a volume on "Art Pictures from the Old Testament" with ninety illustrations, and another on the Gospels with 350 illustrations from the works of the great masters of the fourteenth, fifteenth, and sixteenth centuries.該協會為促進基督教知識並未落後,但已發出除其他出版物總量上的"藝術照片,從舊約聖經" ,與90插圖,以及另一份關於福音與350插圖,從工程的偉大的主人第十四,第十五,十六世紀。

Publication information Written by JA Howlett.出版信息書面司法機構政務長howlett 。 Transcribed by Bryan R. Johnson.轉錄由布萊恩傳譯約翰遜。 The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume II.天主教百科全書,第二卷。 Published 1907. 1907年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特Appleton還公司。 Nihil Obstat, 1907. nihil obstat , 1907 。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人頭馬lafort ,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur. imprimatur 。 +John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰米farley ,大主教紐約


HORNE, Introduction to the Holy Scriptures (London, 1822), II, 3d ed.; HUMPHREY, History of the Art of Printing (London, 1868); LEVESQUE in VIG., Dict.霍恩,介紹聖經(倫敦, 1822年) ,二,三維版;漢弗萊,歷史,以最先進的印刷(倫敦, 1868年) ; levesque在vig ,字典。 de la Bible (Paris, 1894), sv Bible en image; DELISLE, Hist.德香格里拉聖經(巴黎, 1894 ) , sv聖經恩形象;迪萊爾,歷史。 littéraire de la France (Paris, 1893), XXXI, 213-285; BERJEAU, Biblia Pauperum, reproduced in facsimile from one of the copies in the British Museum, with an historical and bibliographical introduction (London, 1859). littéraire德香格里拉法國(巴黎, 1893年) ,三十一, 213-285 ; berjeau ,快報pauperum ,轉載傳真機從一個複製品在大英博物館,具有歷史和書目介紹(倫敦, 1859年) 。

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