General Information 一般信息

The Amish church, a branch of the Mennonites, is a Protestant religious group descended from the 16th-century Anabaptists.阿米甚教會,支部門諾派,是一個新教宗教團體的後代從16世紀Anabaptists 。 The Amish take their name from Jacob Ammann, a Swiss Mennonite bishop who in 1693 broke away from the main body of Mennonites, feeling that they had strayed from the strict austerity of their forebears. Ammann's followers began emigrating to Pennsylvania from Switzerland and Germany about 1710, and by 1787 had established 70 congregations there.阿米甚他們的名字從雅各阿曼,瑞士門主教誰在1693年脫離主體的門諾派,認為他們已經偏離了嚴格的緊縮他們的祖先。安曼的追隨者開始移居到美國賓夕法尼亞從瑞士和德國約1710 ,以及1787年成立了有70個教區。 The Amish later spread to Ohio, Indiana, and Ontario in Canada. Today they still exist in all these areas (and others), numbering about 40,000.阿米甚後來蔓延到俄亥俄,印第安納,並在加拿大安大略省。今天,他們仍然存在著在所有這些領域(和其他) ,為數約4.0萬。

The Old Order Amish, who form the majority, reject infant baptism, the swearing of oaths, and military service, and live apart from the rest of society in agricultural communities.舊秩序的阿米甚人,誰是多數,反對嬰兒洗禮,宣誓就職的監誓員,和軍事服務,生活以外的其餘社會在農業社區。 They worship in private houses, and each congregation is served by a bishop, two ministers, and a deacon (all male).他們崇拜的私人住宅,每一個教會是由主教,兩位部長和執事(男性) 。 Avoiding modern technology and worldly amusements, they practice simple farming and handicrafts--Amish quilts are notable examples of American Folk Art--and speak a German-English dialect (Pennsylvania Dutch).避免現代技術和世俗的娛樂,他們的做法簡單的農業和手工業-阿米甚棉被顯著的例子是美國民間藝術-和講德語的英語方言(賓夕法尼亞荷蘭語)。 The horse and buggy is their normal mode of transportation.馬和馬車是其正常的交通方式。 The Conservative Amish, a smaller sect, differ from the Old Order Amish mainly in their adoption of English and Sunday schools.保守黨阿米甚,小節,不同於舊秩序的阿米甚主要是在其通過的英語和週日學校。 The Amish are known for their practice of meidung (shunning of those who have violated church law) and for their use of hooks and eyes instead of buttons.阿米甚是眾所周知的實踐meidung (避開那些誰違反了教會法)和供其使用的魚鉤和眼睛而不是按鈕。 Recognizable by their sober yet picturesque appearance--the men with full beards and broad-brimmed hats, the women in bonnets and long skirts--the Amish occupy a distinctive place among traditional religious groups in the United States and Canada.辨認其尚未清醒風景如畫的外表-男人充分鬍鬚和寬邊帽,婦女在帽子和長期的裙子-阿米甚佔據一個獨特的地方傳統宗教間團體在美國和加拿大。

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General Information 一般信息

The Amish are a North American Protestant group of Mennonite origin. The Amish have maintained a distinctive and conservative agricultural way of life despite the influences of modern industrial society.阿米甚是北美新教組門出身。的阿米甚一直保持著獨特的和保守的農業生活方式的影響,儘管現代工業社會。

The name Amish is derived from Jakob Amman, a Swiss Mennonite bishop. He insisted that discipline within the church be maintained by excommunication.阿米甚人的名稱源自雅各布安曼,瑞士門主教。他堅持認為,紀律教堂內應保持的罰。 This entailed the avoidance, or shunning, by the faithful of those excommunicated.這就避免,或者迴避,由這些忠實逐出教會。 Conventional social relationships with the excommunicated, such as eating at the same table, buying and selling, and, in the case of a married person, marital relations, were forbidden.常規社會的關係,逐出教會,如吃在同一表中,購買和出售,並在的情況下,已婚人士,婚姻關係,被禁止。 The Amish, subject to persecution in Europe, migrated in the 18th century to Pennsylvania, where their descendants are called Pennsylvania Dutch (the German deutsch, "German," was misunderstood as "Dutch").阿米甚,受到迫害在歐洲,移民在18世紀到賓夕法尼亞州,在那裡他們的後代被稱為賓夕法尼亞荷蘭語(德國德意志, “德國” ,被誤解為“荷蘭” ) 。 They then spread into Ohio, other midwestern states, and Canada.然後蔓延到俄亥俄州,其他中西部各州和加拿大。 A rural people, their skill in farming is exemplary.一個農村人,他們的技能在農業堪稱楷模。

The most conservative are known as Old Order Amish. They dress in a severely plain style, using hooks and eyes instead of buttons to fasten their clothes.最保守的被稱為舊秩序阿米甚。他們的服裝,嚴重平原的風格,用魚鉤和眼睛而不是按鈕,以加快他們的衣服。 They ride in horse-drawn buggies instead of automobiles, and the adult males wear beards. Religious services are held in homes; foot washing is practiced in connection with the Communion service; discipline is enforced by shunning; and marriage with outsiders is condemned.他們乘坐馬車車不是汽車,以及成年男性穿的鬍鬚。宗教服務,被關押在家園;腳洗實行與交流服務;紀律是執行迴避;和婚姻是與外界的譴責。 Other Amish groups, such as the Conservative Mennonite Conference and the Beachy Amish Mennonite Churches, are milder in discipline and less set apart from the world.其他阿米甚群體,如保守黨門會議和比奇海阿米甚門基督教協進會,是溫和的紀律和規定少之外的世界。 All share the practice of believer's, or adult, baptism and often refuse to take part in civil affairs - to vote, serve in the military, and so forth.所有份額的做法,信徒的,或成人,洗禮,往往拒絕參加民事-投票,服兵役,等等。 The Old Order Amish numbered about 80,800 in the early 1990s; the Beachy Amish about 7000.舊秩序的阿米甚人數約8.080萬在90年代初的比奇海阿米甚約7000 。

The Amish have sometimes come into conflict with the larger society. In particular, they have resisted compulsory education requirements as a threat to their separate way of life.阿米甚有時會發生衝突的更大的社會。特別是,他們抵制義務教育的要求威脅到各自的生活方式。 In the case of Wisconsin v.在威斯康星州訴 Yoder (1972), the state sought to require the children of an Amish family to attend school until the age of 16.尤德( 1972年) ,國家尋求的兒童需要一個阿米甚家庭上學,直到16歲。 The parents were willing to allow them to attend through the eighth grade but argued that high school education would make them unfit to carry on the Amish tradition.家長願意讓他們通過參加八年級,但爭辯說,高中教育將使其不適宜執行的阿米甚人的傳統。 The Supreme Court of the United States agreed that their right to the free exercise of their religion is protected and that the state's concern for compulsory public education must yield to that consideration.最高法院美國一致認為,他們有權自由地行使自己的宗教是保護和國家的關心義務教育的公共教育必須讓位給審議。

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Mennonites 門諾派

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