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The word is from the Latin nihil, "nothing," and expresses the position of those who hold that some, if not all, human souls will cease to exist after death.這個詞是來自拉丁美洲nihil , “沒有” ,並表示這些位置誰認為,一些人來說,如果不是全部的話,人類靈魂將不復存在後死亡。 As observed by Warfield, this point of view may take three main forms: (1) that all human beings inevitably cease to exist altogether at death (materialist) ; (2) that, while human beings are naturally mortal, God imparts to the redeemed the gift of immorality and allows the rest of humanity to sink into nothingness (conditional immortality) ; (3) that man, being created immortal, fulfills his destiny in salvation, while the reprobates fall into nonexistence either through a direct act of God or through the corrosive effect of evil (annihilationism proper) .正如沃菲爾德,這一觀點可能採取三種主要形式: ( 1 )所有的人不可避免地不復存在全部死亡(唯物論) ; ( 2 ) ,而人類是自然死,上帝imparts的贖回禮品的不道德行為,並允許其他人類陷入虛無(有條件永生) ; ( 3 )男子,正在建立的不朽,履行自己的命運中解救,而reprobates落入不存在任何通過直接天災或通過腐蝕作用的邪惡( annihilationism適當) 。

The distinction between conditionalism and annihilationism, as indicated above, is frequently not observed, and these two terms are commonly used as practical synonyms.之間的區別conditionalism和annihilationism ,如上所述,往往是沒有看到,這兩個方面都是很常用的實際同義詞。 A fourth form of advocacy of the ultimate extinction of evil is the view that God will finally redeem all rational beings (universalism) .第四種形式的宣傳,最終滅絕的邪惡是認為上帝最終將所有合理的贖回人(普遍性) 。 Over against all the above positions, historic orthodoxy has always maintained both that human souls will eternally endure and that their destiny is irrevocably sealed at death.在對所有上述立場,歷史的正統始終都認為人的靈魂將永遠忍受,他們的命運是不可改變的密封死亡。

The question whether or not man is naturally immortal pertains to the subject of immortality.這個問題無論男子自然是不朽的涉及到的主題永生。 The present article will be limited to stating and appraising briefly the main evidence advanced in support of the cessation of the wicked.本文將僅限於說明和評價簡短的主要證據,以支持先進的停止邪惡的。

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God alone, it is urged, has immortality (1 Tim. 6:16; 1:17).只有上帝,這是敦促,已不死( 1蒂姆。 6點16分; 1點17 ) 。 This argument, if it proves anything, proves too much.這種論點,如果它證明什麼,證明太多。 In fact, God who alone has immortality in himself may and does communicate it to some of his creatures.事實上,上帝誰就有永生在本人可能並傳達給他的一些動物。

Immortality, it is urged, is represented as a special gift connected with redemption in Jesus Christ (Rom. 2:7; 1 Cor. 15:53 - 54; 2 Tim. 1:10).永生,這是要求,是代表作為特別的禮物與贖回在耶穌基督(羅馬書二點07分, 1肺心病。 15:53 -5 42蒂姆。 1 :10) 。 The same may be said of life, or eternal life (John 10:28; Rom. 6:22 - 23; Gal. 6:8; etc.).同樣可以說的生活,或永恆的生命(約10:28 ;光盤。 6時22分-2 3;半乳糖。六點0 8;等) 。 It is freely granted that in all such passages life and immortality are represented as the privileged possession of the redeemed, but it is claimed that in these connections these terms do not represent merely continued existence, but rather connote existence in joyful fulfillment of man's high destiny in true fellowship with God (John 17:3).這是自由想當然地認為在所有這些通道的生命和永生的代表的特權佔有的贖回,但它聲稱,在這些連接這些條款並不代表只是繼續存在,而是意味著在歡樂的存在實現人的高命運真正的金與上帝(約翰17:3 ) 。

Cessation of existence, it is urged, is implied in various scriptural terms applied to the destiny of the wicked, such as death (Rom. 6:23; James 5:20; Rev. 20:14; etc.), destruction (Matt. 7:13; 10:28; 1 Thess. 1:9, etc.), perishing (John 3:16, etc.).停止存在,它是敦促,是隱含在各種聖經條款同樣適用於命運的惡毒的,如死亡(羅馬書6點23 ;詹姆斯5時20 ;牧師20:14 ;等) ,破壞(馬特。 7時13分; 10:28 ; 1洛尼基。 1點09等等) ,消失(約3時16分,等等) 。 But these expressions do not so much imply annihilation as complete deprivation of some element essential to normal existence.但是,這些表現並不意味著這麼多完全毀滅剝奪某種基本正常的存在。 Physical death does not mean that body or soul vanishes, but rather that an abnormal separation takes place which severs their natural relationship until God's appointed time.體育死亡並不意味著身體或靈魂消失,而是不正常的離職發生的服務器其自然的關係,直到上帝的任命時間。

Spiritual death, or the "second death" (Rev. 20:14; 21:8), does not mean that the soul or personality lapses into nonbeing, but rather that it is ultimately and finally deprived of that presence of God and fellowship with him which is the chief end of man and the essential condition of worthwhile existence.精神死亡,或“第二次死亡” (啟示錄20:14 ; 21點08分) ,並不意味著靈魂或人格到nonbeing失誤,而是最終並最終被剝奪了這種存在的上帝和金同這是他的首席結束男子和必要條件有價值的存在。 To be bereft of it is to perish, to be reduced to utter insignificance, to sink into abysmal futility.要失去了它要亡,將減少到完全的渺小,陷入非常糟糕徒勞。 An automobile is said to be wrecked, ruined, destroyed, not only when its constituent parts have been melted or scattered away, but also when they have been so damaged and distorted that the car has become completely unserviceable.汽車據說是破壞,破壞,摧毀,不僅在其組成部分已經融化或分散逃跑,但他們也一直這樣損壞和扭曲,賽車已經成為完全無用的。

It is inconsistent with God's love, it is urged, to allow any of his creatures to endure forever in torment.這是不符合上帝的愛,這是呼籲,讓他的任何動物要忍受折磨永遠。 Furthermore, the continuance of evil would spell some area of permanent defeat for the divine sovereignty, a dark corner marring perpetually the glory of his universe.此外,繼續將邪惡的拼寫一些地區的永久失敗的神聖主權,陰暗的角落marring永遠的光榮,他的宇宙。

These considerations are not without weight, and a complete answer may not be possible in the present state of our knowledge.這些因素都沒有重量,以及一個完整的答案可能無法在目前的狀況我們的知識。 They are not adjudged by traditional orthodoxy as sufficient to overthrow the substantial weight of scriptural evidence to the effect that the wicked will be consigned to endless conscious sorrow.他們不是判定由傳統的正統足以推翻大量重量聖經的證據,其大意是邪惡的將是無休止的委託自覺悲痛。 This is apparent from the expressions "fire unquenchable" (Isa. 66:24; Matt. 3:12; Luke 3:17), or "that never shall be quenched" (Mark 9:43, 45), the worm that "dieth not" (Isa. 66:24; Mark 9:44, 46, 48), "the wrath of God abideth on him" (John 3:36), as well as from the use of "everlasting" or "forever," applying to chains, contempt, destruction, fire or burning, punishment, torment (Isa. 33:14; Jer. 17:4; Dan. 12:2; Matt. 18:8; 25:41, 46; 2 Thess. 1:9; Jude 6 - 7; Rev. 14:11; 19:3; 20:10).這是明顯的表現形式“火災難以抑制” (以賽亞書66:24 ;馬特。 3時12 ;路加3時17分) ,或“從來沒有應淬火” (馬克9時43分, 45歲) ,該蠕蟲說, “不死的“ (以賽亞書66:24 ;馬克9時44分, 46歲, 48歲) , ”觸怒上帝abideth他“ (約翰3點36分) ,以及使用”永恆“或”永遠“適用於鏈條,蔑視,破壞,火災或燃燒,懲罰,折磨(以賽亞書33:14 ;哲。十七時04分;丹。 12:2 ;馬特。 18點08 ; 25:41 , 46 ;第2洛尼基。 1時09分;裘德6 -7 ;牧師1 4:11; 1 9時0 3; 2 0:10) 。

It is worthy of note that, in the biblical record, those who spoke most about future punishment in its irrevocable finality are Jesus and the apostle John, the very ones who also represented most glowingly the supreme glory of God's love and the unshakable certainty of his ultimate triumph.值得注意的是,在聖經的記錄,這些以最誰對未來的懲罰在其不可改變的終結是耶穌和使徒約翰,非常的誰也派代表最暢談的最高榮耀上帝的愛和不可動搖的肯定,他最終的勝利。

R Nicole R妮可
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (規矩福音字典)

Bibliography 目錄
BB Warfield, SHERK, I, 183 - 86; GC Joyce in HER E. In support of annihilationism: H Constable, The Duration and Nature of Future Punishmen; CH Hewitt, A classbook in Eschatology; E Lewis, Life and Immortality; FL Piper, Conditionalism.體沃菲爾德, SHERK ,我183 -8 6;氣相色譜喬伊斯在她E .在支持a nnihilationism: H的康斯,的時間長短和性質未來P unishmen;的C H休伊特,一個c lassbook在末世論;電子郵件劉易斯,生命和不朽;佛羅里達州派珀, Conditionalism 。 In opposition to annihilationism: H Buis, The Doctrine of Eternal Punishment; R Garrigou - Lagrange, Life Everlasting; WGT Shedd, Dogmatic Theology, II.在反對annihilationism : H的Buis ,中庸永恆的處罰; R加里古-拉格朗日,生命永恆的; W GT謝德,教條主義神學,二。

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