General Information 一般信息

Anthropomorphism (Greek anthropos,"human being"; morphe,"shape") is the attribution of human form or qualities to that which is not human.擬人(希臘anthropos , “人” ; morphe , “形” )是人的歸屬形式或素質,這是不是人。 In the history of religion, anthropomorphism refers to the depiction of God in a human image, with human bodily form and emotions, such as jealousy, wrath, or love.歷史上的宗教,擬人化指的是描寫神人形象,與人類身體形式和情感,如嫉妒,憤怒,或愛情。 Whereas mythology is exclusively concerned with anthropomorphic gods, other religious thought holds that it is inappropriate to regard an omnipotent, omnipresent God as human. In order to speak of God, however, metaphorical language must be employed.鑑於神話完全是擬人關注的神,其他宗教思想認為,這是不妥當的方面是萬能的,無所不在的上帝作為人類。為了上帝的說話,但隱喻的語言必須僱用。 In philosophy and theology, seemingly anthropomorphic concepts and language are used because it is impossible to think of God without attributing to him some human traits.在哲學和神學,似乎擬人化的概念和語言的使用,因為它是不可能想到的歸於上帝沒有給他一些人的特徵。 In the Bible, for example, God is endowed with physical characteristics and human emotions, but at the same time he is understood to be transcendent.在聖經中,例如,上帝賦予的物理特性和人類的情感,但與此同時,他被認為是至高無上的。 In art and literature, anthropomorphism is the depiction of natural objects, such as animals or plants, as talking, reasoning, sentient, humanlike beings.在藝術和文學,擬人化的描寫自然物體,如動物或植物,如說話,推理,知覺, humanlike人。

The earliest critique of anthropomorphism in the West was made by Xenophanes, a Greek philosopher of the 5th century BC.最早的擬人化的批判在西方是由色諾芬尼,一個希臘哲學家的公元前5世紀。 Xenophanes observed that whereas the Ethiopians represented the gods as dark-skinned, the northerners in Thrace depicted the gods with red hair and blue eyes.色諾芬尼指出,而埃塞俄比亞人代表了神的黑皮膚,北方人在色雷斯描述了神的紅色頭髮,藍眼睛。 He concluded that anthropomorphic representations of the gods invariably reveal more about the human beings who make them than they reveal about the divine. The Greek philosopher Plato likewise objected to a human representation of the gods; in the dialogue The Republic, he particularly opposed the attribution of human failings to divine beings.他的結論是,擬人化的陳述神總是透露更多的人誰使他們比他們揭示的神聖。希臘哲學家柏拉圖同樣反對一個人代表神;的對話共和國,他尤其反對歸屬人的失誤,以天人。 Both Xenophanes and Plato wished to purify religion by eliminating elements that they considered primitive and crude.這兩種色諾芬尼和柏拉圖希望淨化,消除宗教的內容,他們認為原始和原油。

BELIEVE Religious Information Source web-site相信宗教信息來源
Our List of 2,300 Religious Subjects我們所列出的2300名宗教科目
Nineteenth-century German philosopher GWF Hegel held that Greek anthropomorphic religion represented an improvement over the worship of gods in the shape of animals, a practice called theriomorphism (Greek therion,"animal"; morphe,"shape"). Hegel also maintained that Christianity brought the notion of anthropomorphism to maturity by insisting not only that God assumed a human form, but also that Jesus Christ was both a fully human person as well as fully divine.十九世紀德國哲學家黑格爾GWF舉行,希臘擬人化的宗教代表著改進了神崇拜的形狀的動物,這種做法稱為theriomorphism (希臘therion , “動物” ; morphe , “形” ) 。黑格爾也認為基督教帶來的概念,以擬人化,堅持成熟不僅是上帝承擔了人類的形式,而且耶穌基督既是一個完全人,以及充分的神聖。 Because Christianity incorporates humanity into the very nature of divinity, it has been accused of anthropomorphism by both Jewish and Islamic thinkers.由於基督教納入到人類本身的性質神,它被指控通過擬人化猶太和伊斯蘭思想家。


Advanced Information 先進的信息

The term (not found in the Bible, derived from Greek anthropos, man, and morphe, form) designates the view which conceives of God as having human form (Exod. 15:3; Num. 12:8) with feet (Gen. 3:8; Exod. 24:10), hands (Exod. 24:11; Josh. 4:24), mouth (Num. 12:8; Jer. 7:13), and heart (Hos. 11:8), but in a wider sense the term also includes human attributes and emotions (Gen. 2:2; 6:6; Exod. 20:5; Hos. 11:8).任期(沒有發現在聖經中,來自希臘anthropos ,人, morphe ,形式)指定的觀點設想上帝為人類形式( Exod. 15點零三;數。十二時08分)與英尺(將軍3時零八; Exod 。 24:10 ) ,手( Exod. 24:11 ;喬希。 4點24分) ,口(民數記12時08分;哲。 7點13分) ,心臟( Hos. 11點零八) ,但在更廣泛的意義上的任期也包括人類的屬性和情感(創2時零二;六點06分, Exod 。 20點05分;飯店。 11點08分) 。

This tendency toward anthropomorphism, common to all religions, found such full expression in Greek polytheism that the common man thought of the gods as mortal men.這擬人化傾向,共同的宗教,發現這種充分體現了希臘多神教,共同男子以為神的凡人男子。 Xenophanes (ca. 570-480 BC) reacted strongly, accusing man of making the gods in his own image.色諾芬尼(約公元570-480年)作出了強烈反應,指責的人,使神在他自己的形象。 Later developments in Greek thought considered men as mortal gods (an early form of humanism) or viewed God in the metaphysical sense of pure, absolute Being.後來事態發展的思想認為希臘男人致命的神(一種早期形式的人文主義) ,或認為上帝的形而上學意義上純粹的,絕對的存在。 The transcendentalism of the latter influenced the hellenistic Jews of Egypt so that the translators of the Greek OT, the LXX, made during the third and second centuries BC, felt compelled to alter some of the anthropomorphisms.該超越後者的影響了希臘的猶太人埃及以便翻譯希臘加時賽的LXX ,提出在第三和第二次公元前數百年,覺得要改變一些anthropomorphisms 。 eg, where the Hebrew reads "they saw the God of Israel" (Exod. 24:10) the LXX has "they saw the place where the God of Israel stood"; and for "I will speak with him mouth to mouth" (Num. 12:8) the LXX translates "I will speak to him mouth to mouth apparently."例如,希伯來文寫著“他們看到以色列的上帝” ( Exod. 24:10 )在LXX了“他們看到的地方,以色列上帝站在” ;和“我將與他講口口” (數。十二時08分)在LXX翻譯“我會向他講口口明顯。 ”

However, the OT, if read with empathy and understanding, reveals a spiritual development which is a corrective for either a crude, literalistic view of anthropomorphism or the equally false abhorrence of any anthropomorphic expressions.然而,催產素,如果閱讀了同情和理解,揭示了精神方面的發展是一個糾正兩種原油, literalistic鑑於擬人或同樣錯誤的憎惡任何擬人化的表達。 The "image of God" created in man (Gen. 1:27) was in the realm of personality, of spirit, not of human form. “形象的上帝”創造的男子(創1時27分)在該領域的人格,精神的,而不是人類的形式。 Because the Israelites "saw no form" (Deut. 4:12) at Sinai, they were prohibited images in any form; male or female, beast, bird, creeping thing, or fish (Deut. 4:15-19).由於以色列人“看不出有什麼形式” (申命記4時12分)在西奈半島,他們被禁止的圖像以任何形式;男性或女性,野獸,鳥類,爬行的事情,或魚(申命記4:15-19 ) 。 The NT declaration of Jesus, "God is spirit, and those who worship him must worship in spirit and truth" (John 4:24), is anticipated by Job 9:32; Ps.新台幣聲明耶穌, “真主的精神,和那些誰崇拜他必須崇拜的精神和真理” (約4時24分) ,預計9點32分由工作;物質。 50:21; and Hos. 11:9. 50:21 ;和居屋。十一點09 。

The anthropomorphism of the Israelites was an attempt to express the nonrational aspects of religious experience (the mysterium tremendum, "aweful majesty," discussed by Rudolf Otto) in terms of the rational, and the early expressions of it were not as "crude" as so-called enlightened man would have one think.在擬人化的以色列人是企圖表示,非理性方面的宗教經驗(戰栗的奧秘“ , aweful陛下” ,討論了魯道夫奧托)在合理,早期表達的不是作為“粗”的所謂開明的人將有一個想法。 The human characteristics of Israel's God were always exalted, while the gods of their Near Eastern neighbors shared the vices of men.人的特點,以色列的上帝總是崇高的,而他們的神近東鄰居共同惡習的男子。 Whereas the representation of God in Israel never went beyond anthropomorphism, the gods of the other religions assumed forms of animals, trees, stars, or even a mixture of elements.鑑於代表上帝在以色列從未超出了擬人化,神的其他宗教的假定形式的動物,樹木,星星,甚至是混合的內容。 Anthropomorphic concepts were "absolutely necessary if the God of Israel was to remain a God of the individual Israelite as well as of the people as a whole.... For the average is very essential that his god be a divinity who can sympathize with his human feelings and emotions, a being whom he can love and fear alternately, and to whom he can transfer the holiest emotions connected with memories of father and mother and friend" (WF Albright, From the Stone Age to Christianity, 2nd ed., p. 202).擬人化的概念是“絕對必要的,如果上帝的以色列仍然是一個上帝的個人以色列人以及全體人民....對於一般信徒...這是非常重要,他是一個神神誰可以同情他的人的情感,一個被他可以愛和恐懼的交替,並且他可以轉讓神聖的情感與記憶的父親和母親和朋友“ (白表奧爾布賴特,從石器時代到基督教,第二版。 ,第202頁) 。

It is precisely in the area of the personal that theism, as expressed in Christianity, must ever think in anthropomorphic terms.正是在該地區的個人的有神論,所表達的基督教,都認為必須在擬人化條件。 To regard God solely as Absolute Being or the Great Unknown is to refer to him or it, but to think of God as literally personal, one with whom we can fellowship, is to say Thou.把上帝只作為絕對存在或大未知是指他或它,但想上帝的字面個人,其中一個我們可以研究,就是說你。 Some object to this view, to explain how the creatures of an impersonal force became personal human beings conscious of their personality.一些反對這一觀點,來解釋生物如何的客觀力量成為個人的人意識到自己的人格。

"To say that God is completely different from us is as absurd as to say that he is completely like us" (DE Trueblood, Philosophy of Religion, p. 270). “如果說,上帝是完全不同於我們是荒謬的說,他是完全跟我們一樣” (德國特魯布拉德,宗教哲學,第270頁) 。 Paradoxical as it may seem, there is a mediating position which finds the answer in the incarnation of Jesus the Christ, who said, "He who has seen me has seen the Father" (John 14:9).自相矛盾的,因為它看起來可能,有一個調解的立場認為,答案的化身基督耶穌,誰說, “誰看到我看到了父” (約翰十四時09分) 。 Finite man will ever cling to the anthropomorphism of the incarnation and the concept of God as Father (Matt. 7:11), but at the same time he will realize the impossibility of absolute, complete comprehension of God, for "my thoughts are not your thoughts, neither are your ways my ways, says the Lord" (Isa. 55:8).有限的人將永遠堅持的擬人化的化身和概念的上帝作為父親(瑪特泰7點11 ) ,但在同一時間,他將不可能實現絕對的,完全理解上帝,為“我的想法不您的想法,也不是你的方法我的方式說,上帝“ (以賽亞書大約) 。

DM Beegle馬克Beegle
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (規矩福音字典)

Bibliography 目錄
W. Eichrodt, Theology of the OT, I; J. Hempel, "Die Grenzen des Anthropormorphismus Jahwes im Alten Testament: ein Vortrag," ZAW 57: 75ff.; GD Hicks, The Philosophical Bases of Theism; R. Otto, The Idea of the Holy; HH Rowley, The Faith of Israel; HB Swete, An Introduction to the OT in Greek.美國Eichrodt ,神學催產素,我的J.亨普爾, “模具Grenzen萬Anthropormorphismus Jahwes免疫老全書:艾因Vortrag , ”梭57 : 75ff 。 ;廣東希克斯的哲學基礎的有神論;河奧托,理念羅馬;時時羅利,信仰以色列;哈爾濱Swete ,介紹催產素在希臘。

Anthropomorphism, Anthropomorphites擬人化, Anthropomorphites

Catholic Information 天主教新聞

(anthropos, man, and morphe, form). ( anthropos ,人, morphe ,形式) 。

A term used in its widest sense to signify the tendency of man to conceive the activities of the external world as the counterpart of his own.這個稱呼在其最廣泛的意義,象徵傾向的人想像的活動的外部世界的對應自己。 A philosophic system which borrows its method from this tendency is termed Philosophic Anthropomorphism.哲學系統,借用其方法從這一趨勢被稱為哲學的擬人化。 The word, however, has been more generally employed to designate the play of that impulse in religious thought.這個詞,但已更普遍採用指定發揮這一衝動的宗教思想。 In this sense, Anthropomorphism is the ascription to the Supreme Being of the form, organs, operations, and general characteristics of human nature.在這個意義上,是擬人化的歸屬向最高法院作為的形式,機構,業務,和一般特點,人類的本性。 This tendency is strongly manifested in primitive heathen religions, in all forms of polytheism, especially in the classic paganism of Greece and Rome.這種傾向表現在強烈的原始宗教的異教徒,在各種形式的多神教,尤其是在經典的異教的希臘和羅馬。 The charge of Anthropomorphism was urged against the Greeks by their own philosopher, Xenophanes of Colophon.該負責敦促擬人對希臘人自己的哲學家,色諾芬尼的Colophon 。 The first Christian apologists upbraided the pagans for having represented God, who is spiritual, as a mere magnified man, subject to human vices and passions.第一基督教辯護士選民的異教徒為代表的上帝,誰是精神,僅僅是一個放大的人,但對人類罪惡和激情。 The Bible, especially the Old Testament, abounds in anthropomorphic expressions.聖經,尤其是舊約,比比皆是的擬人化的表達。 Almost all the activities of organic life are ascribed to the Almighty.幾乎所有的活動有機生活歸因於萬能的。 He speaks, breathes, sees, hears; He walks in the garden; He sits in the heavens, and the earth is His footstool.他說,生命力,看到,聽到;他走在花園裡,他坐在天,與地球是他的腳凳。 It must, however, be noticed that in the Bible locutions of this kind ascribe human characteristics to God only in a vague, indefinite way.但是,它必須看到,在聖經locutions的這種特性歸因於人類對上帝只在一個模糊的,無限期的方式。 He is never positively declared to have a body or a nature the same as man's; and human defects and vices are never even figuratively attributed to Him.他是從來沒有積極申報有一個機構或一個性質相同的人的;和人類的缺陷和罪惡的象徵甚至從來沒有歸咎於他。 The metaphorical, symbolical character of this language is usually obvious.隱喻,象徵性質的這種語言通常是顯而易見的。 The all-seeing Eye signifies God's omniscience; the everlasting Arms His omnipotence; His Sword the chastisement of sinners; when He is said to have repented of having made man, we have an extremely forcible expression conveying His abhorrence of sin.全標誌眼部看到上帝的全知;永恆的武器他無所不能,他的劍的責罰的罪人;時,據說,他有悔改的人了,我們有一個非常強的表達轉達他憎惡的罪孽。 The justification of this language is found in the fact that truth can be conveyed to men only through the medium of human ideas and thoughts, and is to be expressed only in language suited to their comprehension.的理由是這種語言中發現的事實真相可以轉達給男人只有通過媒介的人類意見和想法,並表示將只在語言適合自己的理解。 The limitations of our conceptual capacity oblige us to represent God to ourselves in ideas that have been originally drawn from our knowledge of self and the objective world.的限制,我們的概念能力迫使我們代表上帝對自己的想法,已經從最初的認識自我和客觀世界。 The Scriptures themselves amply warn us against the mistake of interpreting their figurative language in too literal a sense.聖經本身充分警示我們對錯誤的比喻解釋他們的語言文字也感。 They teach that God is spiritual, omniscient, invisible, omnipresent, ineffable.他們告訴我們,上帝是精神,無所不知,無形的,無處不在,不可言喻。 Insistence upon the literal interpretation of the metaphorical led to the error of the Anthropomorphites. Throughout the writings of the Fathers the spirituality of the Divine Nature, as well as the inadequacy of human thought to comprehend the greatness, goodness, and infinite perfection of God, is continually emphasized.堅持的字面解釋隱喻導致錯誤的Anthropomorphites 。整個著作的父親的靈性的神性,以及不足的人類思想的理解,偉大,善良,和無限完善的上帝,不斷強調。 At the same time, Catholic philosophy and theology set forth the idea of God by means of concepts derived chiefly from the knowledge of our own faculties, and our mental and moral characteristics.與此同時,天主教哲學和神學提出的想法,上帝的方式主要概念衍生的知識我們自己的學院,和我們的精神和道德的特點。 We reach our philosophic knowledge of God by inference from the nature of various forms of existence, our own included, that we perceive in the Universe.我們實現我們的哲學知識的推理上帝的性質不同形式的存在,包括我們自己,我們認為宇宙中。 All created excellence, however, falls infinitely short of the Divine perfections, consequently our idea of God can never truly represent Him as He is, and, because He is infinite while our minds are finite, the resemblance between our thought and its infinite object must always be faint.所有創造卓越,但是,屬於短期的無限神聖完善,因此我們的想法上帝永遠不能真正代表他的他是,而且,由於他是無限的,而我們的頭腦是有限的相似之處我們的思想和無限的對象必須始終是微弱的。 Clearly, however, if we would do all that is in our power to make our idea, not perfect, but as worthy as it may be, we must form it by means of our conceptions of what is highest and best in the scale of existence that we know. Hence, as mind and personality are the noblest forms of reality, we think most worthily of God when we conceive Him under the attributes of mind, will, intelligence, personality.但是很顯然,如果我們將盡一切力量,使我們的想法,並非十全十美,但值得,因為它可能是,我們必須形式,通過我們的概念是什麼最高及最佳規模的存在我們知道。因此,作為思想和人格的崇高形式的現實,我們認為最worthily上帝當我們想像他根據屬性的心態,意志,智慧,個性。 At the same time, when the theologian or philosopher employs these and similar terms with reference to God, he understands them to be predicated not in exactly the same sense that they bear when applied to man, but in a sense controlled and qualified by the principles laid down in the doctrine of analogy.與此同時,當神學家或哲學家僱用這些和類似的條款提及的上帝,他理解他們是前提不完全一樣的感覺,他們承擔時,適用於男子,但在一定意義上控制和合格的原則中規定的原則類推。

A few decades ago thinkers and writers of the Spencerian and other kindred schools seldom touched upon the doctrine of a personal God without designating it Anthropomorphism, and thereby, in their judgment, excluding it definitively from the world of philosophic thought.幾十年前的思想家和作家斯賓塞和其他同類學校很少涉及的理論,個人的上帝沒有指定它擬人化,從而在他們的判斷,它明確地排除來自世界的哲學思想。 Though on the wane, the fashion has not yet entirely disappeared.雖然在下降,時尚還沒有完全消失。 The charge of Anthropomorphism can be urged against our way of thinking and speaking of God by those only who, despite the protestations of theologians and philosophers, persist in assuming that terms are used univocally of God and of creatures.該負責擬人可以要求對我們的思維方式和說話的上帝只有那些誰,儘管抗議的神學家和哲學家,堅持假設詞的使用univocally上帝和動物。 When arguments are offered to sustain the imputation, they usually exhibit an incorrect view regarding the essential element of personality.當論點提供維持估算,他們通常表現出了不正確的看法的重要組成部分的個性。 The gist of the proof is that the Infinite is unlimited, while personality essentially involves limitation; therefore, to speak of an Infinite Person is to fall into an absurdity.的精神證明的是,無限是無限的,而人格主要涉及限制,因此,說話的人是無限落入一個荒唐的。 What is truly essential in the concept of personality is, first, individual existence as opposed to indefiniteness and to identity with other beings; and next, possession, or intelligent control of self.什麼是真正的基本概念的個性是:第一,個人的存在,而不是不確定性和身份與其他人;和明年,佔有或智能控制的自我。 To say that God is personal is to say that He is distinct from the Universe, and that He possesses Himself and His infinite activity, undetermined by any necessity from within or from without. This conception is perfectly compatible with that of infinity.如果說,上帝是個人也就是說,他是有別於宇宙,而且他擁有他和他的無限的活動,未以任何必須從內部或從沒有。這個概念是完全兼容的無限。 When the agnostic would forbid us to think of God as personal, and would have us speak of Him as energy, force, etc., he merely substitutes lower and more imperfect conceptions for a higher one, without escaping from what he terms Anthropomorphism, since these concepts too are derived from experience.當不可知論者將禁止我們認為上帝作為個人,並希望我們對他講,能源,部隊等,他只是替代品降低和更完美的概念,更高的一個,沒有擺脫他所稱擬人化,因為這些概念也源於經驗。 Besides, he offers violence to human nature when, as sometimes happens, he asks us to entertain for an impersonal Being, conceived under the mechanical types of force or energy, sentiments of reverence, obedience, and trust.此外,他提供了暴力的人的本性時,因為有時,他要求我們受理的客觀存在,根據設想的機械類型的武力或能源,感情的崇敬,服從,和信任。 These sentiments come into play only in the world of persons, and cannot be exercised towards a Being to whom we deny the attributes of personality.這些情緒開始發揮只有在世界上的人,不能行使對作為我們向他否認屬性的個性。

Anthropomorphites (Audians) Anthropomorphites ( Audians )

A sect of Christians that arose in the fourth century in Syria and extended into Scythia, sometimes called Audians, from their founder, Audius.一個教派的基督教徒中出現的第四世紀在敘利亞和延伸到Scythia ,有時被稱為Audians ,從他們的創始人, Audius 。 Taking the text of Genesis, i, 27, literally, Audius held that God has a human form.以文字起源,我, 27歲,字面上看, Audius舉行,上帝有一個人的形式。 The error was so gross, and, to use St. Jerome's expression (Epist. vi, Ad Pammachium), so absolutely senseless, that it showed no vitality.這個錯誤是如此嚴重,並使用聖杰羅姆的表達( Epist.六,廣告Pammachium ) ,所以窮極無聊,它沒有生命力。 Towards the end of the century it appeared among some bodies of African Christians.實現在本世紀末出現的一些機構之間的非洲基督徒。 The Fathers who wrote against it dismiss it almost contemptuously.誰的父親寫信反對解除它幾乎輕蔑。 In the time of Cyril of Alexandria, there were some anthropomorphites among the Egyptian monks.在時間的西里爾亞歷山大,有一些anthropomorphites之間的埃及僧侶。 He composed a short refutation of their error, which he attributed to extreme ignorance.他組成的短駁他們的錯誤,他歸咎於極端的無知。 (Adv. Anthrop. in PG, LXXVI.) Concerning the charges of anthropomorphism preferred against Melito, Tertullian, Origen, and Lactantius, see the respective articles. The error was revived in northern Italy during the tenth century, but was effectually suppressed by the bishops, notably by the learned Ratherius, Bishop of Verona. ( Adv. Anthrop 。中前列腺素, LXXVI 。 )關於收費的擬人傾向於反對美利托,良,奧利和潭修斯,見各自的文章。錯誤是恢復在意大利北部10世紀,但有效地抑制了主教,特別是教訓Ratherius ,主教維羅納。

Publication information Written by James J. Fox.出版信息撰稿:詹姆斯J福克斯。 Transcribed by Bob Elder. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume I. Published 1907.轉錄由Bob老年人。天主教百科全書,體積一發布1907年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, March 1, 1907. Nihil Obstat , 1907年三月一日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.雷米Lafort ,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York認可。 +約翰法利樞機主教,大主教紐約


ST.意法半導體。 THOMAS, C. Gent., I, x; III, xxxviii, xxxix; Summa Theol., QQ.托馬斯,角根。 ,我則;三,三十八,三十九;大全Theol 。 ,聊天。 ii, iv, xiii; WILHELM AND SCANNELL, Manual of Catholic Theology (London, 1890), I, Bk.二,四,十三;威廉和斯坎內爾,手動天主教神學(倫敦, 1890年) ,我淺灘。 II, Pt. 1; SHANAHAN, John Fiske's Idea of God in Cath.二,鉑。 1 ;夏納罕,約翰菲斯克的思想上帝的蛋白酶。 Univ.大學。 Bull., III; MARTINEAU, A Study of Religion (New York, 1888), I, Bk.紅牛。 ,三;馬蒂諾,研究宗教(紐約, 1888年) ,我淺灘。 II, i; FLINT, Theism (New York, 1903), Lect.二,我;弗林特,有神論(紐約, 1903年) , Lect 。 III; THEODORET, Hist.三; THEODORET ,組織胺。 Eccl., IV, ix; VIGOUROUX, in Dict.傳道書。 ,四,九; VIGOUROUX ,在快譯通。 de la Bible, sv; ST.德拉魯阿聖經,希沃特;秘。 AUGUSTINE, De divers.奧古斯丁,去潛水。 quaest., Ad Simplicianum, Q. vii;De civ. Dei, I, Q. ii. quaest 。 ,廣告Simplicianum ,問:七;德持續輸注。棣,我問:二。

This subject presentation in the original English language本主題介紹在原來的英文

Send an e-mail question or comment to us: E-mail發送電子郵件的問題或意見給我們:電子郵箱

The main BELIEVE web-page (and the index to subjects) is at主要相信網頁(和索引科目),是在