Saint Augustine of Hippo聖奧古斯丁的河馬

General Information 一般信息

Saint Augustine, b.聖奧古斯丁灣 Nov. 13, 354, d. 11月13日, 354 , d. Aug. 28, 430, was one of the foremost philosopher-theologians of early Christianity and, while serving (396-430) as bishop of Hippo Regius, the leading figure in the church of North Africa. 8月28日, 430名,是一個重要的哲學家,神學家對早期基督教的和,而服務( 396-430 )的主教河馬Regius的領導人物教堂北非。 He had a profound influence on the subsequent development of Western thought and culture and, more than any other person, shaped the themes and defined the problems that have characterized the Western tradition of Christian Theology. Among his many writings considered classics, the two most celebrated are his semiautobiographical Confessions, which contains elements of Mysticism, and City of God, a Christian vision of history.他產生了深刻影響後來的發展西方思想和文化,超過任何其他人,形成了主題和界定的問題,特點是西方傳統的基督教神學。在他的許多著作視為經典,這兩個最有名的是他semiautobiographical自白,其中包含了神秘主義的內容,與城市的上帝,基督教的歷史眼光。

Early Life and Conversion早期的生活和轉換

Augustine was born at Thagaste (modern Souk-Ahras, Algeria), a small town in the Roman province of Numidia.奧古斯丁出生於Thagaste (現代蘇格艾赫拉斯,阿爾及利亞) ,小城鎮在羅馬省的努米底亞。 He received a classical education that both schooled him in Latin literature and enabled him to escape from his provincial upbringing.他收到了古典教育,既學習他在拉美文學和使他擺脫了省級撫養。 Trained at Carthage in rhetoric (public oratory), which was a requisite for a legal or political career in the Roman empire, he became a teacher of rhetoric in Carthage, in Rome, and finally in Milan, a seat of imperial government at the time.迦太基訓練中的言論(公眾演講) ,這是一個必要的法律或政治生涯中的羅馬帝國,他成為了一名教師的言論迦太基,羅馬,終於在米蘭,一個席位的帝國政府的時候。 At Milan, in 386, Augustine underwent religious conversion.在米蘭, 386 ,奧古斯丁接受宗教的轉換。 He retired from his public position, received baptism from Ambrose, the bishop of Milan, and soon returned to North Africa.他從他的退休市民的立場,從收到的洗禮,劉漢銓,主教的米蘭,並很快回到北非。 In 391, he was ordained to the priesthood in Hippo Regius (modern Bone, Algeria); five years later he became bishop.在391 ,他晉鐸在河馬Regius (現代骨,阿爾及利亞) ; 5年後他成為主教。

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The first part of Augustine's life (to 391) can be seen as a series of attempts to reconcile his Christian faith with his classical culture.第一部分奧古斯丁的生活(對391 )可以被看作是一系列試圖調和他的基督教信仰與他的古典文化。 His mother, Saint Monica, had reared him as a Christian. Although her religion did not hold an important place in his early life, Christianity never totally lost its grip upon him.他的母親,聖莫尼卡,他飼養了作為一個基督徒。儘管她沒有宗教舉行一次重要的地位在他早期的生活,基督教從來沒有完全失去了對他的抓地力。 As a student in Carthage, he encountered the classical ideal of philosophy's search for truth and was fired with enthusiasm for the philosophic life. Unable to give up Christianity altogether, however, he adopted Manichaeism, a Christian heresy claiming to provide a rational Christianity on the basis of a purified text of Scripture.作為一名學生,在迦太基,他遇到了古典哲學的理想的尋求真理和被解僱的熱情,哲學生活。無法放棄基督教完全然而,他通過摩尼教,基督教異端聲稱提供一個合理的基督教根據純化文聖經。 Nine years later, his association with the Manichees ended in disillusionment; and it was in a religiously detached state that Augustine arrived in Milan.九年後,他聯同Manichees結束的幻滅,它是在一個宗教超脫指出,奧古斯丁抵達米蘭。 There he discovered, through a chance reading of some books of Neoplatonism, a form of philosophy that seemed compatible with Christian belief.在那裡,他發現,通過一個機會讀幾本書的新柏拉圖主義,是一種哲學,似乎符合基督教信仰。 At the same time, he found that he was at last able to give up the ambitions for public success that had previously prevented him from embracing the philosophic life.與此同時,他發現,他是最後能夠放棄野心,供公眾成功,曾使他無法接受的哲學生活。 The result was the dramatic conversion that led Augustine to devote his life to the pursuit of truth, which he now identified with Christianity.其結果是戲劇性的轉換,導致奧古斯丁把他一生追求真理,他現在與基督教確定。 With a small group of friends, he returned to North Africa and, in Thagaste, established a religious community dedicated to the intellectual quest for God.與一小群的朋友,他回到北非,並在Thagaste ,建立了一個宗教社區專門為智力追求上帝。

Later Life and Influence後來生活和影響力

Augustine's ordination, unexpectedly forced upon him by popular acclamation during a visit to Hippo in 391, brought about a fundamental change in his life and thought.奧古斯丁的協調,意外地強加於他的鼓掌歡迎在訪問中391河馬,帶來了根本性的改變他的生活和思想。 It redirected his attention from the philosophic Christianity he had discovered in Milan to the turbulent, popular Christianity of North Africa's cities and towns.它引導他注意從哲學的基督教他發現在米蘭的動盪,流行基督教北非的城市和城鎮。

His subsequent career as priest and bishop was to be dominated by controversy and debate.他隨後的職業生涯神父和主教將主要由爭議和辯論。 Especially important were his struggles with the Donatists and with Pelagianism.尤其重要的是他的奮鬥與多納徒派和Pelagianism 。 The Donatists promoted a Christian separatist movement, maintaining that only they were the true church and that, as a result, only their Sacraments were valid.多納徒派提倡的一個基督教分離主義運動,認為只有他們是真正的教堂和說,由於中,只有他們的聖禮是有效的。 Augustine's counterattack emphasized unity, not division, as the mark of true Christianity and insisted that the validity of the sacraments depended on Christ himself, not on any human group or institution.奧古斯丁的反擊強調團結,沒有分裂,因為真正的紀念基督教和堅持的有效性取決於聖禮基督自己,而不是任何人的團體或機構。 Pelagianism, an early 5th-century Christian reform movement, held that no person could be excused from meeting the full demand of God's law. Pelagianism ,早日5世紀的基督教改革運動,舉行,任何人可以免除次會議上的全面需求上帝的法律。 In doing so, it stressed the freedom of the human will and its ability to control motives and regulate behavior.在這樣做的,它強調的自由人的意志和控制能力的動機和行為規範。 In contrast, Augustine argued that because of Original Sin no one can entirely govern his own motivation and that only the help of God's Grace makes it possible for persons to will and to do good.與此相反,奧古斯丁認為,由於原罪沒有人能夠完全支配自己的動機,只有幫助上帝的恩典使者的意願和做好。 In both of these controversies,在這兩個爭議,

Augustine opposed forces that set some Christians apart from others on grounds either of religious exclusivism or of moral worth.奧古斯丁反對力量,設置一些基督徒除了其他任何理由排外主義或宗教的道德價值。

Augustine must be reckoned as one of the architects of the unified Christianity that survived the barbarian invasions of the 5th century and emerged as the religion of medieval Europe.奧古斯丁認為必須作為一個建築師統一的基督教認為倖存下來的野蠻入侵公元5世紀,並成為宗教的中世紀歐洲。 He succeeded in bringing together the philosophic Christianity of his youth and the popular Christianity of his congregation in Hippo. In doing so, he created a theology that has remained basic to Western Christianity, both Roman Catholic and Protestant, ever since. Feast day: Aug. 28.他成功地把基督教的哲學他的青年和流行的基督教教徒,他在河馬。在這樣做時,他創造了一個神學認為仍然基本西方基督教,既羅馬天主教和新教,自從。盛宴一天: 8月。 28 。

William S. Babcock威廉巴布科克

Bibliography 目錄
Battenhouse, Roy, ed., A Companion to the Study of St. Battenhouse ,羅伊,編輯。 ,配套的研究街 Augustine (1955); Brown, Peter, Augustine of Hippo (1967; repr. 1987); Burnaby, John, Amor Dei: A Study of the Religion of St. Augustine (1938 repr. 1960); Chadwick, Henry, Augustine (1986); Marrou, HI, St. Augustine and His Influence Through the Ages, trans.奧古斯丁( 1955年) ;布朗,彼得,奧古斯丁的河馬( 1967 ; repr 。 1987年) ;伯納比,約翰,阿穆爾棣:研究宗教的聖奧古斯丁( 1938 repr 。 1960年) ;查德威克,亨利,奧古斯丁( 1986年) ; Marrou ,音響,聖奧古斯丁和他的影響力通過時代,跨。 by P. Hepburne-Scott (1957); O'Daly, Gerard, Augustine's Philosophy of the Mind (1987); O'Meara, John, An Augustine Reader (1973); Pagels, Elaine, Adam, Eve, and the Serpent (1988); Pelikan, Jaroslav, The Mystery of Continuity: Time and History, Memory and Eternity in the Thought of St. Augustine (1986); Smith, Warren Thomas, Augustine: His Life and Thought (1980).由P. Hepburne斯考特( 1957年) ; O'Daly ,杰拉德,奧古斯丁的哲學思想( 1987年) ;歐米拉,約翰,一個奧古斯丁讀者( 1973年) ; Pagels ,伊萊恩,亞當,夏娃和蛇( 1988年) ;伯利坎,雅羅斯拉夫,神秘的連續性:時間和歷史,記憶和永恆的思想的聖奧古斯丁( 1986年) ;史密斯,沃倫托馬斯,奧古斯丁:他的生活和思想( 1980年) 。

Saint Augustine of Hippo (354-430)聖奧古斯丁的河馬( 354-430 )

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Perhaps antiquity's greatest theologian, Augustine was born in Tagaste, North Africa (Algeria), to Patricius, a pagan, and Monica, a Christian.也許古代最偉大的神學家,奧古斯丁出生於塔加斯特,北非(阿爾及利亞) ,以Patricius ,一個異教徒,和Monica ,一名基督信徒。 He studied grammar at Madaura and rhetoric in Carthage, and was intellectually stimulated by reading Cicero's Hortensius.他在研究語法,修辭Madaura在迦太基,並刺激的智力讀西塞羅的霍爾登修。 After a carnal life during his school days he joined the Manichaean religion (373).經過肉體生命在他學生時代他就加入了摩尼教宗教( 373 ) 。 He taught grammar and rhetoric in North Africa (373-82) and then in Rome (383), where he abandoned the Manicheans and became a skeptic. He moved to Milan to teach (384), where he was later influenced by the reading of Neoplatonic philosophy and by Ambrose's sermons.他教語法,修辭在北非( 373-82 ) ,然後在羅馬( 383 ) ,在那裡他放棄了Manicheans並成為懷疑論者。他搬到米蘭教( 384 ) ,他在後來的影響,讀Neoplatonic哲學和劉漢銓的說教。 He was converted through an exhortation, overheard in a garden, from Rom. 13:13-14, was baptized by Ambrose (387), and was reunited with his mother, who died shortly thereafter.他是通過一個轉換告誡,無意中在一個花園,從光盤。 13:13-14 ,是受洗的劉漢銓( 387 ) ,是祖國的懷抱,他的母親,誰此後不久死亡。

After years of retreat and study Augustine was ordained a priest in Hippo, North Africa (391), where he established a monastery and where he later became bishop (395).經過多年的務虛會,研究奧古斯丁被任命一名神父在河馬,北非( 391 ) ,他在那裡建立了一個修道院,他後來成為主教( 395 ) 。 The rest of his life can be seen by the controversies he engaged in and the writings he produced.在餘下的生命裡可以看出,他從事的爭議和他的著作產生。 Augustine died August 28, 430, as the vandals laid siege to Rome.奧古斯丁8月28日死亡, 430 ,作為破壞者圍攻羅馬。

Major Writings主要著作

Augustine's works fall roughly into three periods.奧古斯丁的作品屬於大致分為三個時期。

First Period(386-96)第一期( 386-96 )

The first category in this period consists of philosophical dialogues: Against the Academics (386), The Happy Life (386), On Order (386), On Immortality of the Soul and On Grammar (387), On the Magnitude of the Soul (387-88), On Music (389-91), On the Teacher (389), and On Free Will (FW, 388-95).第一類在此期間由哲學對話:反對學術( 386 ) ,快樂人生( 386 ) ,秩序( 386 ) ,在不朽的靈魂和語法( 387 ) ,震級的靈魂( 387-88 ) ,音樂( 389-91 ) ,論教師( 389 ) ,並在自由意志(星期六, 388-95 ) 。 The second group is the anti-Manichaean works such as On the Morals of the Catholic Church (MCC) and On the Morals of the Manicheans (388), On Two Souls (TS, 391), and Disputation Against Fortunatus the Manichean (392).第二組是反摩尼教作品如論道德天主教(移動)和道德的Manicheans ( 388人) ,在兩個靈魂(的TS , 391名) ,並在福圖納圖斯爭議的摩尼教( 392 ) 。 The last category is made up of theological and exegetical works such as Against the Epistle of Manichaeus (397), Diverse Questions (389-96), On the Utility of Believing (391), On Faith and Symbol (393), and some Letters (L) and Sermons.最後一類是由神學和訓詁的作品,如反對書Manichaeus ( 397 ) ,多元化問題( 389-96 ) ,在效用相信( 391 ) ,信仰和符號( 393 ) ,以及一些信函( L )和布道。

Second Period (396-411)第二期( 396-411 )

This group of writings contains his later anti-Manichaean writings such as Against the Epistle of Manichaeus (397), Against Faustus the Manichean (AFM, 398), and On the Nature of the Good (399).這組作品包含他後來反摩尼教的著作,如對書Manichaeus ( 397 ) ,在浮士德的摩尼教(原子力顯微鏡, 398 ) ,並在自然好( 399 ) 。 Next were some ecclesiastical writings, as On Baptism (400), Against the Epistle of Petilian (401), and On the Unity of the Church (405).下一步有一些教會的著作,如論洗禮( 400 ) ,對書Petilian ( 401 ) ,並在統一的教會( 405 ) 。 Finally there were some theological and exegetical works such as the famous Confessions (C,398-99), On the Trinity (T,400-416), On Genesis According to the Literal Sense (400-415), On Christian Doctrine I,III (CD,387).最後有一些神學和訓詁的作品,如著名的自白(丙,398 - 99 ) ,在三一( Ť ,400 - 416 ) ,在創世記根據字面意義( 400-415 ) ,基督教學說一,三(光盤, 387頁) 。 Letters, Sermons, and Discourses on Psalms were also written during this period.信函,布道,並話語的詩篇還寫在此期間。

Third Period (411-30)第三階段( 411-30 )

The works in the final period of Augustine's writings were largely antiPelagian.該工程的最後一段奧古斯丁的著作大多antiPelagian 。 First against the Pelagians he wrote On the Merits and Remission of Sins (MRS, 411-12), On the Spirit and the Letter (SL,412), On Nature and Grace (415), On the Correction of the Donatists (417), On the Grace of Christ and On Original Sin (418), On Marriage and Concupiscence (419-20), On the Soul and Its Origin (SO,419), The Enchiridion (E,421), and Against Julian (two books, 421 and 429-30).首先對Pelagians他寫的是非曲直和緩解的罪孽(劉健, 411-12 ) ,在精神和文字(可溶性L , 412 ) ,在自然和格雷斯( 415 ) ,在校正多納徒派( 417 ) ,在基督的恩典與原罪論( 418 ) ,關於婚姻和Concupiscence ( 419-20 ) ,論靈魂及其起源(周艷, 419 ) ,該便覽(英文, 421 ) ,並在朱利安(兩本書, 421和429-30 ) 。 The second group of anti-Pelagian writings include On Grace and Free Will (GFW,426), On Rebuke and Grace (426), On Predestination of the Saints (428-29), and On the Gift of Perseverance (428-29).第二組的反Pelagian著作包括在格雷斯和自由意志(桂枝茯苓丸, 426 ) ,在訓斥和格雷斯( 426 ) ,在預定的聖徒( 428-29 ) ,並在禮品的堅忍( 428-29 ) 。 The last writings in this period are theological and exegetical, including perhaps his greatest work, The City of God (CG,413-26).在過去的著作在這一時期是神學和訓詁,包括也許是他最大的工作,上帝之城的( CG ,413 - 26 ) 。 On Christian Doctrine (CD, Book IV, 426) and the Retractations (426-27) fit here, as well as numerous Letters, Sermons, and Discourses on Psalms.基督教學說(光盤,圖書四, 426 )和Retractations ( 426-27 )適合在這裡,以及眾多的信函,布道,並話語的詩篇。

Translations of Augustine's works can be found in numerous sources, including Ancient Christian Writers; Catholic University of America Patristic Studies; The Works of Aurelius Augustinus; The Fathers of the Church; Library of Christian Classics; and A Select Library of Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers.翻譯奧古斯丁的作品中可以找到許多來源,包括古代基督教作家;美國天主教大學研究教父;的作品奧里利厄斯奧古斯丁;的父親教會;圖書館的基督教經典;和A選擇圖書館尼西亞與後尼西亞父親。


Augustine is the father of orthodox theology.奧古斯丁是父親的正統神學。


Augustine argued for aseity (CG XI, 5), absolute immutability (CG XI, 10), simplicity (CG VIII, 6), and yet a triunity of persons (L 169, 2, 5) in this one essence.奧古斯丁主張aseity的( CG十一, 5 ) ,絕對不可改變的( CG十一, 10 ) ,簡單的( CG八, 6人) ,和尚未成為triunity的人(長169 , 2 , 5 )在此一本質。 God is also omnipresent (CG VII, 30), omnipotent (CG V, 10), immaterial (spiritual) (CG VIII, 6), eternal (TXIV, 25, 21).上帝也無所不在的( CG七, 30歲) ,萬能的( CG五, 10 ) ,無形(精神)的( CG八, 6人) ,永恆( TXIV , 25 , 21 ) 。 God is not in time but is the creator of time (CXI,4).上帝是不是在時間,但創作者的時間( CXI , 4 ) 。


For Augustine creation is not eternal (C XI, 13, 15).對於奧古斯丁創造不是永恆的(丙十一, 13日, 15日) 。 It is ex nihilo (out of nothing) (C XII, 7, 7), and the "days" of Genesis may be long periods of time (CG XI, 6-8).這是無中生有(無中生有) (丙十二,第7 ,第7 )和“天”的成因可能是很長一段時間內的( CG十一, 6-8 ) 。 Each soul is not created at birth but is generated through one's parents (SO 33).每一個靈魂是沒有建立,但在出生時是通過一個人的父母(蘇33 ) 。 The Bible is divine (E 1,4), infallible (CG XI, 6), inerrant (L 28, 3), and it alone has supreme authority (CG XI, 3) over all other writings (AFM XI, 5).聖經是神(戊1,4 ) ,可靠的( CG十一, 6 ) , inerrant (長28日, 3 ) ,它僅具有最高權威的( CG十一, 3 )所有其他著作(原子力顯微鏡十一, 5 ) 。 There are no contradictions in the Bible (CD VII, 6, 8).沒有矛盾的聖經(裁談會第七, 6 , 8 ) 。 Any error can be only in the copies, not in the original manuscripts (L 82, 3).任何錯誤只能在副本,而不是在原來的手稿(長82 , 3 ) 。 The eleven books of the Apocrypha are also part of the canon (CD II, 8, 12) because they were part of the LXX, which Augustine believed to be inspired, and because they contain many wonderful stories of martyrs (CG XVIII, 42).十本書的偽經也部分佳能(裁談會二, 8 , 12 ) ,因為他們的一部分, LXX ,其中奧古斯丁認為是鼓舞,因為它們包含許多精彩的故事烈士的( CG十八, 42歲) 。 Augustine recognized that the Jews did not accept these apocryphal books (CG XIV, 14).奧古斯丁承認,猶太人不接受這些未經證實的書籍的( CG十四14 ) 。 The canon was closed with the NT apostles (CG XXXIX, 38).佳能被關閉的新台幣使徒的( CG三十九, 38 ) 。


Augustine believed sin originated with free will, which is a created good (TR XIV, 11).奧古斯丁認為罪惡起源與自由意志,這是一個創造了良好(一架TR十四11 ) 。 Free will implies the ability to do evil (CG XII, 6).免費將意味著能力做邪惡的( CG十二, 6 ) 。 It is a voluntary (TR XIV, 27), noncompulsory (TS X, 12), self-determined act (FW III, 17, 49).這是一個自願(一架TR十四, 27歲) , noncompulsory (的TS十, 12 ) ,自我決定行為(星期六三, 17歲, 49歲) 。 Augustine appears to have later contradicted this view when he concluded that Donatists could be forced to believe against their will (Correction of the Donatists III, 13). With the fall man lost the ability to do good without God's grace (E 106), yet he retains the ability of free choice to accept God's grace (L 215, 4; GFW 7).奧古斯丁似乎已經後來這一觀點相矛盾時,他的結論是,多納徒派可能會被迫認為違背自己的意願(修正多納徒派三, 13 ) 。隨著秋季的人失去的能力,做好事沒有上帝的恩典(戊106 ) ,但他保留的能力自由選擇接受上帝的恩典(長215 , 4 ;桂枝茯苓丸7 ) 。 True freedom, however, is not the ability to sin but the ability to do good (CG XIV, 11), which only the redeemed have (E 30).真正的自由,但是,是不是能夠罪過,但能夠做好的( CG十四, 11人) ,其中只有贖回了(戊30 ) 。


Augustine believed man was directly created by God without sin (On the Nature of God, 3), which the whole race derived from Adam (CG XII, 21).奧古斯丁認為人是直接由上帝創造出來的罪惡(本質論上帝, 3 ) ,而整場比賽來自亞當的( CG十二21 ) 。 When Adam sinned, all man sinned in him seminally (MRS 14). Man is a duality of body and soul (MCC 4, 6), and the image of God is in the soul (CD I, 22, 20).當亞當罪,所有的人在他罪seminally (劉健14 ) 。人是雙重的身體和靈魂(移動第4 ,第6 ) ,並形象的上帝是在的靈魂(裁談會我, 22 , 20 ) 。 The fall did not erase this image (SL 48), although man's nature was corrupted by sin (Against the Epistle of Manichaeus XXXIII, 36).秋天並未消除這種形象(可溶性L 48 ) ,但人的性質是腐化的罪惡(對書Manichaeus三十三, 36歲) 。 Human life begins in the womb at the time of animation (E 85).人的生命開始在子宮內時的動畫(戊85 ) 。 Miscarriages before this time simply "perish" (E 86). Man's soul is higher and better than his body (CG XII, 1), which is man's adversary (CX, 21, 43; TR 111, 103).流產前這個時候只是“亡” (戊86 ) 。人的靈魂是高等教育和優於他的身體的( CG十二, 1 ) ,這是人類的敵人( 138 , 21 , 43 ;一架TR 111 , 103 ) 。 There will be a physical resurrection of the bodies of all men, just and unjust (E 84, 92), to eternal bliss or agony respectively.將身體復活的屍體,所有的人,公正和不公正的(英文84 , 92 ) ,以永恆的幸福或痛苦的分別。


Augustine believed that Christ was fully human (On Faith and the Creed [FC]IV, 8), yet without sin (E 24).奧古斯丁認為,耶穌是完全人(在信仰和信念[俱樂部]四, 8 ) ,但沒有罪過(戊24 ) 。 Christ assumed this human nature in the virgin's womb (FC IV, 8), yet he was also God from all eternity, of the same essence as the Father (TI, 6, 9).基督承擔起這一人類本性中的處女的子宮(四隊, 8 ) ,但他還上帝從所有永恆,同一本質的父親(德州儀器, 6 , 9 ) 。 Christ, however, was only one person (E 35).基督然而,只有一人(戊35 ) 。 Yet these two natures are so distinct (L CXXXVII, 3, 11) that the divine nature did not become human at the incarnation (TI, 7, 14).然而,這兩個性質是如此不同(左CXXXVII , 3日, 11日)表示,神聖的性質並沒有成為人類的化身(德州儀器, 7日, 14日) 。


The source of salvation is God's eternal decree (CG XI, 21), which is unchangeable (CG XXII, 2).來源救恩是上帝的永恆的法令的( CG十一, 21歲) ,這是不可改變的( CG二十二, 2 ) 。 Predestination is in accord with God's foreknowledge of man's free choice (CG V, 9).預定是符合上帝的預知人的自由選擇的( CG五, 9 ) 。 Both those who are saved and those who are lost are so predestined (SO IV, 16). Salvation is wrought only through Christ's substitutionary death (E 33).無論是誰保存和誰丟失如此命中註定(周艷四, 16 ) 。救國造成只有通過基督的substitutionary死亡(戊33 ) 。 It is received by faith (E 31).這是收到的信仰(戊31 ) 。 Infants, however, are regenerated by baptism apart from their faith (On Forgiveness of Sins, and Baptism I,44).嬰幼兒然而,再生的洗禮除了他們的信仰(在寬恕的罪孽,並洗禮我, 44歲) 。


For Augustine love is the supreme law (CG XV, 16).對於奧古斯丁愛情是最高法律的( CG十五16 ) 。 All the virtues are defined in terms of love (MCC XII, 53).所有的美德是指在愛的字詞(移動第十二章, 53條) 。 Lying is always wrong, even to save a life (L 22, 23).躺在始終是錯誤的,甚至是拯救生命(長22日, 23日) 。 In conflicting situations it is for God, not us, to determine which sins are greater (E 78, 79).在相互矛盾的情況下,它是上帝,而不是我們,以確定哪些是更大的罪孽(戊78 , 79 ) 。 God sometimes grants exceptions to a moral command so that killing is permissible in a just war (CG XIX, 7) and even in cases such as Samson's self-sacrificing suicide (CG I, 21).上帝有時贈款例外的道德命令,以便殺死,允許在一個正義戰爭的( CG 19 , 7 ) ,甚至在情況下,如大力士的自我犧牲自殺的( CG一, 21 ) 。

NL Geisler聯蓋斯勒
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (規矩福音字典)

Bibliography 目錄
AH Armstrong, St. Augustine and Christian Platonism; AugS; RW Battenhouse, ed., A Companion to the Study of Saint Augustine; G. Bonner, ST.的AH阿姆斯特朗,聖奧古斯丁和基督教的柏拉圖; AugS ; RW光碟Battenhouse ,編輯。 ,配套的研究聖奧古斯丁;灣邦納,意。 Augustine of Hippo; VJ Bourke, Augustine's Quest for Wisdom; P. Brown, Augustine of Hippo; J. Burnaby, Amor Dei: A Study of the Religion of St. Augustine; MP Garvey, Saint Augustine: Christian or Neo-Platonist; E. Gilson, The Christian Philosophy of Saint Augustine; MJ McKeough, The Meaning of the Rationes Seminales in St. Augustine; HI Marrou, Saint Augustine and His Influence Through the Ages; ADR Polman, The Word of God According to Saint Augustine; ER TeSelle, Augustine the Theologian, Augustinian Institute, St. Augustine Lectures 1959; T. Miethe, Augustinian Bibliography 1970-1980; T. Van Bauel, Repertoire bibliographique de Saint Augustine 1950-1960; F. Van der Meer, Augustine the Bishop; NL Geisler, What Augustine Says; E. Przywara, An Augustine Synthesis.奧古斯丁的河馬;南軍伯克,奧古斯丁的追求智慧;布朗,奧古斯丁的河馬;學者伯納比,阿穆爾棣:研究宗教的聖奧古斯丁;議員加維,聖奧古斯丁:基督教或新柏拉圖;電子郵件。吉爾森,基督教哲學的聖奧古斯丁;麻將麥考夫,的意義Rationes Seminales在聖奧古斯丁;音響Marrou ,聖奧古斯丁和他的影響力通過中世紀;美國存託憑證波爾曼,上帝的話,根據聖奧古斯丁;雌TeSelle ,奧古斯丁的神學家,奧古斯丁研究所,聖奧古斯丁講座1959年;噸Miethe ,奧古斯丁書目1970至1980年; T.范博Bauel ,匯輯bibliographique聖奧古斯丁1950年至六〇年;樓范德爾米爾,奧古斯丁主教;聯蓋斯勒,奧古斯丁說什麼;體育皮茲瓦拉,合成的奧古斯丁。

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Augustinians 奧古斯丁
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