Coptic Church科普特教會

General Information 一般信息

The Coptic church is the major Christian community in Egypt, numbering between 6 and 7 million.科普特教堂是主要的基督教社區在埃及,人數從6日和7億美元。 The name Coptic is derived from the Greek word for Egyptian and reflects the national character of this ancient church, which goes back to the origins of Christianity.科普特人的名稱源自希臘詞為埃及,反映了民族性格的這一古老的教堂,可以追溯到它的源頭,基督教。 When the Christian church was torn apart by the 5th century controversies on the identity of Christ, most Egyptian Christians sided with the Monophysite party, which held that Christ has one nature, a doctrine condemned at the Council of Chalcedon (451).當基督教教堂是四分五裂的爭議5世紀的身份基督,最片面的埃及基督徒與Monophysite黨,認為基督有一個性質,理論譴責安理會卡爾西( 451 ) 。

Monophysitism is still formally affirmed by the Coptic church.基督一性仍然是正式確認的科普特教堂。 Coptic is sometimes used improperly to refer to the Ethiopian church because of its unity in faith and close affinity with Christian Egypt.科普特有時是使用不當提及埃塞俄比亞教堂,因為它團結的信念和密切的親和與基督教埃及。 The Ethiopian church, however, declared itself independent of the Coptic patriarch in 1959.埃塞俄比亞教堂,但是,宣布獨立的科普特主教於1959年。 The Coptic church is headed by the "patriarch and pope of Alexandria, Pentapolis and Ethiopia," who is elected by the entire community of clergy and laity.科普特教堂是由“主教和教皇亞歷山大Pentapolis和埃塞俄比亞, ”誰當選由整個國際社會的神職人員和信徒。 His permanent residence is in Cairo.他的永久居留是在開羅舉行。

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John Meyendorff約翰Meyendorff

Bibliography 目錄
BL Carter, The Copts in Egyptian Politics 1918 - 1952 (1985); OFA Meindarus, Christian Egypt, Faith and Life (1970); K Murad, Coptic Egypt (1968); CH Roberts, Manuscript, Society and Belief in Early Christian Egypt (1979).基本法卡特,在埃及科普特人在政治1918年至52年( 1985年) ;業務基金Meindarus ,基督教埃及,信仰和生活( 1970年) ; K穆拉德,埃及科普特人( 1968年) ;的CH羅伯茨,手稿,社會和信仰的早期基督教埃及( 1979年) 。

Coptic Church科普特教會

General Information 一般信息

The Coptic Church (Arabic qubt; from Greek aiguptios, "Egyptian"), is the major Christian church in Egypt.科普特教堂(阿拉伯語qubt ;從希臘aiguptios , “埃及” ) ,是主要的基督教教堂在埃及。 Its name points to its national origins.它的名字點,其國家的起源。 Unsubstantiated tradition attributes to the apostle Mark the initial preaching of Christianity in Egypt.未經證實的傳統屬性的使徒馬克的初步宣揚基督教在埃及。 Recent scholarship suggests that the origins of Egyptian Christianity are to be found among the Jews living in Alexandria in the 1st century AD. By the end of the 2nd century in Alexandria, the major city of Hellenistic Egypt, the Christian catechetical school headed by Clement of Alexandria had already acquired great fame.最近獎學金表明,起源埃及基督教是要找到之間的猶太人生活在亞歷山大在公元1世紀。到了2世紀的亞歷山大,在主要城市的埃及古希臘,基督教教義問答學校領導的克萊門特亞歷山大已經有了巨大的名氣。 Origen, the founder of Greek Christian theology and biblical science, followed Clement as head of the school.奧利的創始人,希臘基督教神學和聖經的科學,其次克萊門特擔任學校。 In the 4th and 5th centuries, two great bishops of Alexandria defended Christian orthodoxy - Saint Athanasius, against Arianism, and Saint Cyril, against Nestorianism.在第4和第5世紀,兩個偉大的亞歷山大主教捍衛基督教的正統-聖亞他那修,對A rianism,聖西里爾,對景教。

Some Egyptian Christians, however, refused to follow the decrees of the Council of Chalcedon (451), which defined the person of Jesus Christ as being "one in two natures."一些埃及基督教徒,但是,拒絕遵守法令理事會的卡爾西( 451 ) ,確定了人耶穌基督作為“一兩個性質。 ” The doctrine of "two natures" appeared to them to imply the existence of two Christs, divine and human, and was therefore tainted with Nestorianism.該學說的“兩個性質”似乎意味著他們存在兩個基督,神聖和人力,因此污染景教。 They upheld the terminology of Cyril, who had spoken of "one incarnate nature of God the Word."他們堅持術語西里爾,誰曾說過“一個體現性質的上帝的詞。 ” Those Egyptian Christians who rejected the Council of Chalcedon - a council accepted both in Constantinople (present-day Ýstanbul) and in Rome - faced charges of Monophysitism, the belief that Christ has only one nature rather than two.這些埃及基督教徒誰拒絕了安理會的迦克墩-理事會接受了這兩項君士坦丁堡(現在的Ý stanbul)和羅馬-面臨的指控基督一性,相信基督只有一個性質,而不是兩個。

Only a few Alexandrians remained faithful to Chalcedonian orthodoxy. Because this minority was supported by Byzantine imperial authorities, the Copts developed national and cultural animosity against the Byzantine Empire.只有少數Alexandrians仍然忠實於迦克正統。由於這少數人得到了拜占庭帝國當局,科普特人發達的民族和文化的敵意對拜占庭帝國。 This hostility facilitated the conquest of Egypt by the Arab Muslims in the 7th century.這種敵視促進了征服埃及的阿拉伯穆斯林在公元7世紀。 Today the Coptic Christian population of Egypt constitutes a substantial minority of about 7 million, although official government statistics lower this figure. Traditionally the Coptic church is headed by the pope and patriarch of Alexandria, who is nominated by an electoral college of clergy and laity, with the final selection among three leading nominees decided by lot.今天的科普特基督徒埃及人口的構成了實質性的少數民族約700萬,雖然政府官方統計,這一數字降低。傳統的科普特教堂是由教皇和主教的亞歷山大,誰被提名的選舉團的神職人員和信徒,在最後的選擇三個主要候選人通過抽籤決定。 After the Egyptian government banished the pope to a desert monastery in September 1981, church-state relations were handled by a commission of five Coptic clergymen; the pope was restored to his powers early in 1985.之後,埃及政府教皇流放到沙漠修道院於1981年9月,教會的關係是由一個委員會5科普特神職人員;教皇已恢復到他的權力早在1985年。

With a flourishing monastic tradition dating from the early Christian era (1st century to 8th century), the church has, in recent times, encouraged the development of a modern school system.與傳統的寺院繁榮追溯到早期基督教時代( 1世紀至8世紀) ,教會已在最近時期,鼓勵發展現代學校制度。 The Coptic church has also been in fruitful communication with the Ethiopian, Armenian, Jacobite, and Malabâr communities.科普特教堂也已在富有成效的交流與埃塞俄比亞,亞美尼亞,詹姆斯黨和馬拉巴爾社區。 Recent discussion between Coptic and Eastern Orthodox theologians has indicated that the controversies of the past, provoked mainly by verbal differences, could be overcome and communion restored between the two.最近的討論和科普特東正教神學家表示,爭議的過去,挑起主要是由語言差異,是可以克服和共融恢復兩者之間的關係。

Rev. John Meyendorff牧師約翰Meyendorff

Also, see:此外,見:
(Eastern) Orthodox Church (東)東正教教堂
Oriental Orthodox Churches 東方東正教教堂
Monophysitism 基督一性
Chalcedon 卡爾西
Nestorianism 景教
Apollinarianism 亞波里拿留派
Alexandrian Theology 亞歷山大神學
Origen 奧利

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