Crypto - Calvinism密碼-加爾文主義

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In the sixteenth century questions arose about how much the influence of Calvin should be allowed to penetrate into Lutheranism.在16世紀出現的問題多少影響卡爾文應被允許進入路德教。 Philip Melanchthon and some of his followers (Philippists) were accused of being too accommodating to Calvin's doctrines and of thus practicing Crypto - Calvinism, or "secret" Calvinism, whereby Calvin's views were covertly being held by members of the Lutheran church.菲利浦梅蘭希頓和他的一些追隨者( Philippists )被指控過於遷就,以加爾文的理論和實踐的從而密碼-加爾文主義,或“秘密”加爾文主義,即加爾文的觀點正在舉行秘密成員的路德教會。 In particular, controversies raged over the Lord's Supper, with debates taking place in Heidelberg, Bremen, and Saxony.尤其是爭論激烈的上帝的晚餐,與辯論發生在海德堡,不來梅和薩克森州。

In 1552 Joachim Westphal, an ardent Lutheran, published a book which pointed out divergences between Luther and Calvin, including their differences on the Lord's Supper.在1552年約阿希姆韋斯特,一個殷切路德宗,出版了一本書,指出分歧路德和加爾文,包括他們之間的分歧對上帝的晚餐。 Strict Lutherans held views of the ubiquity (omnipresence) of Christ's glorified body, its physical presence in the supper, and the partaking of Christ's body by unbelievers.嚴格路德會舉行意見無處不在(無所不在)基督的榮耀機構,其實際存在的晚飯,和partaking基督的身體不信教。 Melanchthon, however, inclined toward Calvin's view on these issues that Christ was genuinely present at the supper but in a spiritual way, but he did not wish to commit himself publicly.梅蘭希通不過,傾向於加爾文的觀點對這些問題的基督真正出席了晚餐,但在精神上,但他不希望自己公開承諾。 His spirit of conciliation toward the Reformed had earlier led him to change his Augsburg Confession by omitting from its article on the supper the phrase "truly present" and the condemnation of opposite views (1542).他的和解精神對改革曾使他改變他的奧格斯堡信條漏報其文章的晚餐“一詞確實存在” ,並譴責相反的意見( 1542年) 。 But after Melanchthon's death, his views were declared to have been the same as Luther's.但在梅蘭希頓的死亡,他的觀點被宣布已經同路德。

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The Elector Augustus of Wittenberg declared the Philippists to be enemies of the state, expelling or imprisoning all of their leaders. In 1574 a commemorative medal was struck celebrating true Lutheranism's victory.選舉人的古斯塔斯維滕貝格宣布Philippists是敵人的國家,驅逐或監禁的所有的領導人。在1574年紀念金牌被慶祝真正的路德教的勝利。 The Formula of Concord (1577) formalized theologically the rejection of the view of Calvin and his followers that the "true, essential, and living body and blood of Christ" become truly present in the Holy Supper only "spiritually by faith."該公式的康科德( 1577 )正式拒絕神學的看法卡爾文和他的追隨者說, “真正的,必要的,活體和血的基督”真正成為目前在羅馬的晚餐只是“精神上的信仰。 ”

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Bibliography 目錄
JL Gonzalez, A History of Christian Thought, III; K R Hagenbach, A Text Book of the History of Doctrines, II; Mst, II, 597; R Seeberg, Text book of the History of Doctrines; DC Steinmetz, Reformers in the Wings.巨浪岡薩雷斯,歷史的基督教思想,三; K R哈根巴赫,文字圖書史的理論,二;的MST ,二, 597 ; R西貝爾格,文字書史的理論;直流斯坦梅茨,改革者的翅膀。

Also, see:此外,見:
Formula of Concord 公式的康科德

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