General Information 一般信息

Determinism is sometimes confused with predestination and fatalism, but as such it asserts neither that human affairs have been prearranged by a being outside the causal order nor that a person has an unavoidable fate.決定有時是混淆預定和宿命論,但它聲稱這種既不是人類的事務一直由一個預先之外的因果秩序,也不是一個人的一個不可避免的命運。

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Brief Definitions簡短的定義

General Information 一般信息

determinism 宿命論
The view that every event has a cause and that everything in the universe is absolutely dependent on and governed by causal laws.據認為,每一個事件的原因,一切都在宇宙中是絕對依賴,並受到法律因果關係。 Since determinists believe that all events, including human actions, are predetermined, determinism is typically thought to be incompatible with free will.自determinists認為,所有事件,包括人的行動,是預定的,決定通常是被認為不符合自由意志。
fatalism 宿命論
The belief that "what will be will be," since all past, present, and future events have already been predetermined by God or another all-powerful force. In religion, this view may be called predestination; it holds that whether our souls go to Heaven or Hell is determined before we are born and is independent of our good deeds.相信, “這將是將” ,因為所有的過去,現在和未來發生的事件已經被預定了上帝或其他所有強大的力量。在宗教,這種看法可能是所謂的運氣,它認為,無論我們的靈魂去天堂或地獄是在我們出生的,是獨立於我們的善行。
free will 自由意志
The theory that human beings have freedom of choice or self-determination; that is, that given a situation, a person could have done other than what he did.該理論認為人類有自由選擇或自決,這是說,鑑於這種情況,一個人可以做以外他做過什麼。 Philosophers have argued that free will is incompatible with determinism.哲學家認為,自由意志是不符合決定。 See also indeterminism.又見非決定。
indeterminism 非決定
The view that there are events that do not have any cause; many proponents of free will believe that acts of choice are capable of not being determined by any physiological or psychological cause.據認為,有事件,沒有任何原因;許多主張自由意志認為,行為選擇有能力沒有得到任何確定的生理或心理的原因。

Fate, Fatalism命運,宿命

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Fate, personified by the Greeks under the name of Moira, signified in the ancient world the unseen power that rules over human destiny.命運,個性化的希臘人的名字莫伊拉,標誌著在古代世界看不見的權力,規則對人類的命運。 In classical thought fate was believed to be superior to the gods, since even they were unable to defy its all - encompassing power.在傳統思想的命運被認為是優於神,因為即使他們不能無視它的一切-包括權力。 Fate is not chance, which may be defined as the absence of laws, but instead a cosmic determinism that has no ultimate meaning or purpose.命運是沒有機會,這可以被定義為沒有法律,而是一個宇宙決定論是沒有終極意義或目的。 In classical thought as well as in Oriental religion fate is a dark, sinister power related to the tragic vision of life.在傳統的思想以及東方宗教的命運是一個黑暗,邪惡的力量有關的悲慘生活的設想。 It connotes not the absence of freedom but the subjection of freedom.這意味著不能沒有自由,但隸屬的自由。 It is the transcendent necessity in which freedom is entangled (Tillich).這是至高無上的必要性,其中自由糾纏(蒂利希) 。 Fate is blind, inscrutable, and inescapable.命運是盲目的,高深莫測,而且不可避免的。

Christianity substituted for the hellenistic concept of fate the doctrine of divine providence.基督教取代希臘命運的概念理論的神。 Whereas fate is the portentous, impersonal power that thwarts and overrules human freedom, providence liberates man to fulfill the destiny for which he was created.雖然命運是奇特,人格力量,阻礙和overrules人的自由,解放普羅維登斯人完成的命運,他已創建。 Fate means the abrogation of freedom; providence means the realization of authentic freedom through submission to divine guidance.命運的手段廢除自由;普羅維登斯的手段實現真正的自由通過提交給神聖的指導。 Providence is the direction and support of a loving God, which makes life ultimately bearable; fate is the rule of contingency that casts a pall over all human striving.普羅維登斯的領導和支持,一個充滿愛的上帝,這使得最終承受的生命;命運是法治的應急認為蒙上了陰影所有人權的努力。 Whereas fate makes the future precarious and uncertain, providence fills the future with hope. Fate is impersonal and irrational; providence is supremely personal and suprarational.雖然命運使未來的不穩定和不確定,普羅維登斯的未來充滿了希望。命運是客觀和不合理;普羅維登斯是極具個人和suprarational 。

Fatalism was present among the ancient Stoics, and it pervades much of the thought of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Islam.宿命是本之間的古代Stoics ,它貫穿大量的思想印度教,佛教和伊斯蘭教。 Modern philosophers who have entertained ideas akin to fate are Oswald Spengler, Herbert Spencer, John Stuart Mill, and Arthur Schopenhauer.現代哲學家誰的想法已受理類似的命運是斯賓格勒,赫伯特斯賓塞,彌爾和阿瑟叔本華。

DG Bloesch總幹事Bloesch
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (規矩福音字典)

Bibliography 目錄
WC Greene, Moira: Fate, Good and Evil in Greek Thought; R Guardini, Freedom, Grace, and Destiny; P Tillich, "Philosophy and Fate," in The Protestant Era, and The Courage to Be; H Ringgren, ed., Fatalistic Beliefs in Religion, Folklore, and Literature; J Den Boeft, Calcidius on Fate.碳化鎢格林莫伊拉:命運,善惡在希臘思想; R伽丁尼,自由,恩典,和命運; P蒂利希, “哲學與命運” ,在新教時代,和勇氣來定; H Ringgren ,編輯。 ,宿命論的信仰宗教,民俗,文學; J鄧Boeft , Calcidius的命運。


Catholic Information 天主教新聞

Fatalism is in general the view which holds that all events in the history of the world, and, in particular, the actions and incidents which make up the story of each individual life, are determined by fate.宿命是一般的觀點認為,所有事件在世界歷史上,尤其是,所採取的行動和事件,使後續的故事每一個人的生活,是命運決定的。

The theory takes many forms, or, rather, its essential feature of an antecedent force rigidly predetermining all occurrences enters in one shape or another into many theories of the universe.理論採取多種形式,或相反,其基本特徵是先行部隊嚴格預先輸入的所有發生在一個形狀或其他許多理論的宇宙。 Sometimes in the ancient world fate was conceived as an iron necessity in the nature of things, overruling and controlling the will and power of the gods themselves.有時,在古代世界的命運被設想為一個鐵的必要性性質的東西,推翻和控制的意志和力量,神本身。 Sometimes it was explained as the inexorable decree of the gods directing the course of the universe; sometimes it was personified as a particular divinity, the goddess or goddesses of destiny. Their function was to secure that each man's lot, "share", or part should infallibly come to him.有時候,有人解釋為不可阻擋的法令,神引導的過程中,宇宙,有時是人格化作為一種特殊的神,神或女神的命運。他們的職能是確保每個人的命運, “分享” ,或部分應infallibly來找他。

Ancient Classical Fatalism古代經典的宿命論

The Greek tragedians frequently depict man as a helpless creature borne along by destiny.希臘tragedians經常描繪男子無助的動物一起承擔的命運。 At times this destiny is a Nemesis which pursues him on account of some crime committed by his ancestors or himself; at other times it is to compensate for his excessive good fortune in order to educate and humble him.在這個時代的命運是一個復仇奉行他就到一些犯下的罪行,他的祖先或本人;在其他時間它是為了彌補他的過度好運,以教育和謙遜的他。 With Æschylus it is of the nature of an unpitying destiny; with Sophocles, that of an overruling personal will.隨著埃斯庫羅斯它的性質unpitying的命運;與索福克勒斯,即一個推翻個人意願。 Still, the most important feature is that the future life of each individual is so rigorously predetermined in all its details by an antecedent external agency that his own volitions or desires have no power to alter the course of events.不過,最重要的特點是,未來生活的每一個人是如此嚴格預定在所有細節的前身外部機構,他自己的意志或願望沒有權力來改變事態的發展過程。 The action of fate is blind, arbitrary, relentless. It moves inexorably onwards, effecting the most terrible catastrophes, impressing us with a feeling of helpless consternation, and harrowing our moral sense, if we venture upon a moral judgment at all.該行動的命運是盲目的,任意的,無情的。它將不可避免地起,影響最可怕的災難,給我們留下深刻印象的感覺無助的驚愕和痛苦我們的道德意義上說,如果我們合資後道德判斷在所有。 Fatalism in general has been inclined to overlook immediate antecedents and to dwell rather upon remote and external causes as the agency which somehow moulds the course of events.宿命一般一直傾向於忽視立即前因和詳細,而對偏遠和外部原因的機構,不知模具事態的發展過程。

Socrates and Plato held that the human will was necessarily determined by the intellect.蘇格拉底,柏拉圖認為,人的意志必然決定的智慧。 Though this view seems incompatible with the doctrine of free will, it is not necessarily fatalism.雖然這一觀點似乎不符合教義的自由意志,它不一定是宿命論。 The mechanical theory of Democritus, which explains the universe as the outcome of the collision of material atoms, logically imposes a fatalism upon human volition.力學理論的德謨克利特,其中解釋了宇宙的成果,碰撞的物質原子,在邏輯上施加了宿命論對人的意志。 The clinamen, or aptitude for fortuitous deviation which Epicurus introduced into the atomic theory, though essentially a chance factor, seems to have been conceived by some as acting not unlike a form of fate.該clinamen ,或為偶然能力差而引入伊壁鳩魯的原子理論,但基本上是有機會的因素,似乎已經有些構想代理沒有什麼不同形式的命運。 The Stoics, who were both pantheists and materialists, present us with a very thorough-going form of fatalism.該Stoics ,誰都是pantheists和唯物論,目前我們提供了一個非常詳盡的持續形式的宿命論。 For them the course of the universe is an iron-bound necessity.對於他們的過程中,宇宙是一個鐵的約束的必要。 There is no room anywhere for chance or contingency.沒有任何房間的機會或應急。 All changes are but the expression of unchanging law.所有的變化,但不變的表達法。 There is an eternally established providence overruling the world, but it is in every respect immutable.有一個永遠成立普羅維登斯推翻世界,但它在各方面都不可改變的。 Nature is an unbreakable chain of cause and effect.大自然是一個牢不可破鏈的原因和後果。

Providence is the hidden reason contained in the chain.普羅維登斯是隱藏的原因中所載鏈。 Destiny or fate is the external expression of this providence, or the instrumentality by which it is carried out.命運或下落的外部表達這一普羅維登斯,或工具,其中進行。 It is owing to this that the prevision of the future is possible to the gods.這是由於這一點,在預知的未來是可能的神。 Cicero, who had written at length on the art of divining the future, insists that if there are gods there must be beings who can foresee the future.西塞羅,誰寫了詳細的藝術占卜未來,堅持認為,如果有神靈,必須有被誰可以預見到的未來。 Therefore the future must be certain, and, if certain, necessary. But the difficulty then presents itself: what is the use of divination if expiatory sacrifices and prayers cannot prevent the predestined evils?因此,今後必須確信,如果某些必要的。但困難再提出自己:什麼是利用算命,如果expiatory犧牲和祈禱不能阻止命中註定的罪惡? The full force of the logical difficulty was felt by Cicero, and although he observes that the prayers and sacrifices might also have been foreseen by the gods and included as essential conditions of their decrees, he is not quite decided as to the true solution.的全部力量的邏輯困難是西塞羅認為,儘管他指出,祈禱和犧牲,也可能已經預見的神,並作為必要條件的法令,他不是很決定的真正解決辦法。 The importance ascribed to this problem of fatalism in the ancient world is evinced by the large number of authors who wrote treatises "De Fato", eg Chrysippus, Cicero, Plutarch, Alexander of Aphrodisias, and sundry Christian writers down to the Middle Ages.的重要性歸因於這一問題的宿命論在古代世界是表現出了一大批作家誰寫論文“德Fato ” ,例如Chrysippus ,西塞羅,普魯塔克,亞歷山大阿弗羅狄西亞,和雜基督教作家到中世紀。

Fatalism and Christianity宿命論和基督教

With the rise of Christianity the question of fatalism necessarily adopted a new form.隨著基督教的問題宿命論不一定通過了一項新的形式。 The pagan view of an external, inevitable force coercing and controlling all action, whether human or divine, found itself in conflict with the conception of a free, personal, infinite God.異教徒鑑於外部,不可避免武力脅迫和控制所有行動,無論是人或神,發現自己處於衝突的概念,一個自由,個人,無限的上帝。 Consequently several of the early Christian writers were concerned to oppose and refute the theory of fate.因此一些早期基督教作家關切地反對和駁斥的理論的命運。 But, on the other hand, the doctrine of a personal God possessing an infallible foreknowledge of the future and an omnipotence regulating all events of the universe intensified some phases of the difficulty.但是,另一方面,理論的上帝個人擁有一個可靠的預知的未來和一個無所不能的所有活動調節的宇宙強化階段的一些困難。 A main feature, moreover, of the new religion was the importance of the principle of man's moral freedom and responsibility.一個主要特點,此外,新的宗教原則的重要性人的自由和道德責任。 Morality is no longer presented to us merely as a desirable good to be sought.道德不再是向我們介紹僅僅作為一種可取的好意見。 It comes to us in an imperative form as a code of laws proceeding from the Sovereign of the universe and exacting obedience under the most serious sanctions.它給我們一個重要的形式作為法典從主權的宇宙和嚴格服從下的最嚴重的制裁。 Sin is the gravest of all evils.黃大仙是最嚴重的一切罪惡。 Man is bound to obey the moral law; and he will receive merited punishment or reward according as he violates or observes that law.人是服從約束的道德法律; ,他將獲得值得懲罰或獎勵根據他違反或遵守這項法律。 But if so, man must have it in his power to break or keep the law.但是,如果是的話,男子必須有它自己的權力,打破或保持法律。 Moreover, sin cannot be ascribed to an all-holy God.此外,罪惡不能歸咎於都神聖的上帝。 Consequently, free will is a central fact in the Christian conception of human life; and whatever seems to conflict with this must be somehow reconciled to it.因此,自由意志是一個中心事實在基督教概念的人的生命和一切似乎與此衝突必須以某種調和它。 The pagan problem of fatalism thus becomes in Christian theology the problem of Divine predestination and the harmonizing of Divine prescience and providence with human liberty.異教徒問題的宿命論從而成為基督教神學中的問題,神命和統一的神聖預知和普羅維登斯與人類的自由。 (See FREE WILL; PREDESTINATION; PROVIDENCE.) (見自由意志;命; PROVIDENCE 。 )

Moslem Fatalism穆斯林宿命

The Moslem conception of God and His government of the world, the insistence on His unity and the absoluteness of the method of this rule as well as the Oriental tendency to belittle the individuality of man, were all favourable to the development of a theory of predestination approximating towards fatalism. Consequently, though there have been defenders of free will among Moslem teachers, yet the orthodox view which has prevailed most widely among the followers of the Prophet has been that all good and evil actions and events take place by the eternal decrees of God, which have been written from all eternity on the prescribed table.穆斯林概念的上帝和他的政府的世界中,他堅持團結和絕對化的方法,這條規則以及東方趨勢貶低個性的人,都是有利於發展的理論命逼近走向宿命論。因此,儘管出現了捍衛自由意志穆斯林之間的教師,但正統的觀點佔了上風之間最廣泛的追隨者先知已,所有善惡的行動和活動的地方了永恆的法令上帝,這已寫入所有永恆的明就座。 The faith of the believer and all his good actions have all been decreed and approved, whilst the bad actions of the wicked though similarly decreed have not been approved.信仰的信徒和他的所有良好的行動都已經頒布並批准,而壞的行動雖然同樣邪惡的命令沒有得到批准。 Some of the Moslem doctors sought to harmonize this fatalistic theory with man's responsibility, but the Oriental temper generally accepted with facility the fatalistic presentation of the creed; and some of their writers have appealed to this long past predestination and privation of free choice as a justification for the denial of personal responsibility.一些穆斯林醫生尋求協調這一宿命理論與男人的責任,但東方普遍接受的脾氣與設施的宿命介紹了信仰;以及他們的一些作家都呼籲這一長期過去預定和匱乏的自由選擇的理由對拒絕個人責任。 Whilst the belief in predestined lot has tended to make the Moslem nations lethargic and indolent in respect to the ordinary industries of life, it has developed a recklessness in danger which has proved a valuable element in the military character of the people.雖然命中註定的信念往往很多,使穆斯林國家昏昏欲睡和惰性在尊重普通行業的生命,它已經開發出了魯莽的危險已證明了寶貴的因素,軍事性質的人民。

Modern Fatalism現代宿命

The reformers of the sixteenth century taught a doctrine of predestination little, if at all, less rigid than the Moslem fatalism.改革者的16世紀教育理論的小命,如果所有,那麼嚴格的穆斯林比宿命論。 (See CALVIN; LUTHER; FREE WILL.) With the new departure in philosophy and its separation from theology since the time of Descartes, the ancient pagan notion of an external fate, which had grown obsolete, was succeeded by or transformed into the theory of Necessarianism. (見卡爾文; LUTHER ;自由的意志。 )隨著新的出發點哲學和神學分離以來,笛卡爾,古老的異教的概念,一個外部的命運,這已經過時的增長,是成功的,或轉化為理論Necessarianism 。 The study of physics, the increasing knowledge of the reign of uniform law in the world, as well as the reversion to naturalism initiated by the extreme representatives of the Renaissance, stimulated the growth of rationalism in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries and resulted in the popularization of the old objections to free will.研究物理,越來越多的知識統治的統一法在世界上,以及回歸自然發起的極端代表的文藝復興運動,刺激增長的理性在第十七和十八世紀,並導致推廣舊的反對自由意志。 Certain elements in the mechanical philosophy of Descartes and in the occasionalism of his system, which his followers Malebranche and Geulinex developed, confining all real action to God obviously tend towards a fatalistic view of the universe.某些因素在機械哲學,笛卡爾和occasionalism他的系統,他的追隨者馬勒伯朗士和Geulinex開發,圍所有的實際行動向上帝顯然傾向於認為宿命的宇宙。

Modern Pantheistic Fatalism現代Pantheistic宿命論

Spinoza's pantheistic necessarianism is, however, perhaps the frankest and most rigid form of fatalism advocated by any leading modern philosopher.斯賓諾莎pantheistic necessarianism然而,也許是frankest和最嚴格的形式宿命論主張任何領先的現代哲學家。 Starting from the idea of substance, which he so defines that there can be but one, he deduces in geometrical fashion all forms of being in the universe from this notion.從思想內容,他這樣的定義可以有一個,他在幾何推導出時裝的一切形式的被宇宙中的這一概念。 This substance must be infinite.這種物質必須是無限的。 It evolves necessarily through an infinite number of attributes into an infinity of modes.它的發展必然通過無限多的屬性到無限的模式。 The seemingly individual and independent beings of the world, minds and bodies, are merely these modes of the infinite substance.看似個別和獨立的人的世界,頭腦和機構,只是這些模式的無限內容。 The whole world-process of actions and events is rigidly necessary in every detail; the notions of contingence, of possible beings other than those which exist, are purely illusory.整個世界進程的行動和活動是必要的,僵硬的每一個細節;概念的應變,可能人以外的存在,純粹是幻想。 Nothing is possible except what actually is.什麼是可能除了實際的。 There is free will in neither God nor man. Human volitions and decisions flow with the same inexorable necessity from man's nature as geometrical properties from the concept of a triangle.有自由意志既沒有上帝,也沒有人。人類意志和決定流同無情的必要性從人的本質屬性從幾何概念的一個三角形。 Spinoza's critics were quick to point out that in this view man is no longer responsible if he commits a crime nor deserving of praise in recompense for his good deeds, and that God is the author of sin.斯賓諾莎的批評者很快指出,在這種觀點的人不再是負責任的,如果他犯下罪行,也不值得稱讚的報答他的善行,而且上帝是作者的罪孽。 Spinoza's only answer was that rewards and punishments still have their use as motives, that evil is merely limitation and therefore not real, and that whatever is real is good.斯賓諾莎的唯一答案是,獎懲仍然有其使用的動機,這一罪惡僅僅是限制,因此不是真實的,無論是真實的是好的。 Vice, however, he holds, is as objectionable as pain or physical corruption.副然而,他認為,是不適宜的疼痛或身體腐敗。 The same fatalistic consequences to morality are logically involved in the various forms of recent pantheistic monism.同樣的宿命後果道德邏輯參與各種形式的最近pantheistic論。

Modern Materialistic Fatalism現代唯物主義宿命論

Modern materialism, starting from the notion of matter as the sole original cause of all things, endeavours to elaborate a purely mechanical theory of the universe, in which its contents and the course of its evolution are all the necessary outcome of the original collocation of the material particles together with their chemical and physical properties and the laws of their action.現代唯物主義,從概念的問題作為唯一的原始事業的一切事物,努力制定一個純粹的力學理論的宇宙中,其內容和過程及其演變的一切必要的成果的原始配置的材料顆粒連同其化學和物理性質和法律的行動。 The more thoroughgoing advocates of the mechanical theory, such as Clifford and Huxley, frankly accept the logical consequences of this doctrine that mind cannot act upon matter, and teach that man is "a conscious automaton", and that thoughts and volitions exercise no real influence on the movements of material objects in the present world.更深入的倡導者力學理論,如克利福和赫胥黎,坦率地接受合乎邏輯的後果,這種理論,牢記不能採取行動的問題,並教人是“有意識的自動機” ,而且思想和意志行使沒有真正的影響關於運動物體的物質在目前的世界。 Mental states are merely by-products of material changes, but in no way modify the latter.精神狀態僅僅是副產品的重大變化,但絕不修改了後者。 They are also described as subjective aspects of nervous processes, and as epiphenomena, but however conceived they are necessarily held by the disciples of the materialistic school to be incapable of interfering with the movements of matter or of entering in any way as efficient causes into the chain of events which constitute the physical history of the world.他們還描述為主觀方面的緊張過程,並作為epiphenomena ,但是設想,但他們不一定舉行的弟子的唯物主義學校無法干涉的動向事項或進入以任何方式效率的原因一連串的事件構成了物理世界歷史。 The position is in some ways more extreme than the ancient pagan fatalism.的立場在某些方面更為極端古老的異教宿命論。 For, while the earlier writers taught that the incidents of man's life and fortune were inexorably regulated by an overwhelming power against which it was useless as well as impossible to strive, they generally held the common-sense view that our volitions do direct our immediate actions, though our destiny would in any case be realized.因為,雖然以前的作家告訴我們,這些事件的人的生命和財產被無情地調節以壓倒性力量來打擊它是毫無用處的,以及無法努力,他們一般舉行的常識認為,我們的意志不直接我們立即採取行動雖然我們的命運在任何情況下都能夠實現。 But the materialistic scientist is logically committed to the conclusion that while the whole series of our mental states are rigidly bound up with the nervous changes of the organism, which were all inexorably predetermined in the original collocation of the material particles of the universe, these mental states themselves can in no way alter the course of events or affect the movements of a single molecule of matter.但是,物質的科學家致力於邏輯的結論是,雖然整個系列的精神狀態受到嚴格約束與神經變化的有機體,這些都是不可阻擋地預定在原來配置的物質粒子的宇宙,這些精神國家本身絕不能改變的過程中發生的事件或影響運動的單分子的問題。

The Refutation of Fatalism of all types lies in the absurd and incredible consequences which they all entail.該駁宿命論各類在於荒唐和不可思議的後果,他們都需要。

(1) Ancient fatalism implied that events were determined independently of their immediate causes. ( 1 )古代宿命論的暗示,活動自主確定其直接原因。 It denied free will, or that free will could affect the course of our lives.它否認自由意志,或自由意志可能影響的過程中我們的生活。 Logically it destroyed the basis of morality.從邏輯上講它摧毀了道德基礎。

(2) The fatalism resting on the Divine decrees (a) made man irresponsible for his acts, and (b) made God the author of sin. ( 2 )在宿命論休息的神聖法令(一)取得男子不負責任的行為,和( b )神了作者的罪孽。

(3) The fatalism of materialistic science not only annihilates morality but, logically reasoned out, it demands belief in the incredible proposition that the thoughts and feelings of mankind have had no real influence on human history Mill distinguished: (a) Pure or Oriental fatalism which, he says, holds that our actions are not dependent on our desires, but are overruled by a superior power; (b) modified fatalism, which teaches that our actions are determined by our will, and our will by our character and the motives acting on us--our character, however, having been given to us, (c) finally determinism, which, according to him, maintains that not only our conduct, but our character, is amenable to our will: and that we can improve our character. ( 3 )宿命論的唯物主義的科學不僅annihilates道德,但在邏輯上合理的,它要求的信念令人難以置信的命題的思想和感情的人類已經沒有真正的影響,人類歷史上傑出的軋機: (一)或純東方宿命論其中,他說,認為我們的行動是不依賴於我們的願望,但經過上級權力; (二)修改宿命論,它教導我們,我們的行動取決於我們的意願,我們將我們的性質和動機代理我們-我們的性格,但是,已經給我們, ( c )最後決定,而根據他堅持認為,不僅是我們的行為,但我們的性格,是服從我們的意志:我們可以改善我們的特點。 In both forms of fatalism, he concludes, man is not responsible for his actions.在這兩種形式的宿命論,他的結論是,人是不負責他的行動。 But logically, in the determinist theory, if we reason the matter out, we are driven to precisely the same conclusion.但是,從邏輯上講,在決定論的理論,如果我們這個問題的原因,我們的動力,以準確地得出同樣的結論。 For the volition to improve our character cannot arise unless as the necessary outcome of previous character and present motives.為意志,以改善我們的性質不能產生,除非必要的結果,以前的特點和目前的動機。 Practically there may be a difference between the conduct of the professed fatalist who will be inclined to say that as his future is always inflexibly predetermined there is no use in trying to alter it, and the determinist, who may advocate the strengthening of good motives.實際上,可能有區別的行為宿命論者誰宣稱將傾向於認為他的未來始終是靈活事先沒有使用試圖改變它,並決定論,誰可主張加強良好的動機。 In strict consistency, however, since determinism denies real initiative causality to the individual human mind, the consistent view of life and morality should be precisely the same for the determinist and the most extreme fatalist (see DETERMINISM).在嚴格的一致性,但是,由於決定房地產倡議否認因果關係的個別人的頭腦,始終如一的人生觀和道德應該正是同樣的決定論和最極端的宿命論者(見決定) 。

Publication information Written by Michael Maher.出版信息撰稿:邁克爾馬赫。 Transcribed by Rick McCarty. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume V. Published 1909.轉錄由里克麥卡蒂。天主教百科全書,體積五, 1909年發布。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, May 1, 1909. Nihil Obstat , 1909年5月1號。 Remy Lafort, Censor.雷米Lafort ,檢查員。 Imprimatur.認可。 +John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰M法利,大主教紐約

Also, see:此外,見:
Determinism 決定
Predestination 預定

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