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Also Salem, Ariel, Jebus, the "city of God," the "holy city;" by the modern Arabs el-Khuds, meaning "the holy;" once "the city of Judah" (2 Chr. 25:28).又賽勒姆,沙龍, Jebus , “城市的上帝”和“聖城”的現代阿拉伯人埃及Khuds ,意思是“聖地” ;一次“城市猶大” ( 2染色體。 25:28 ) 。 This name is in the original in the dual form, and means "possession of peace," or "foundation of peace."這個名稱是在原來的雙重形式和手段“佔有的和平, ”或“基礎的和平。 ”

It is first mentioned in Scripture under the name Salem (Gen. 14:18; comp. Ps. 76:2). When first mentioned under the name Jerusalem, Adonizedek was its king (Josh. 10:1). the Tell-el-Amarna collection of tablets letters from Amorite king to Egypt, recording the attack of the Abiri about BC 1480.它首先是聖經中提到的名字塞勒姆(創14:18 ;補償。物質。 76:2 ) 。時首先提到的名字耶路撒冷, Adonizedek是其國王( Josh. 10:1 ) 。的告訴,埃爾-阿瑪爾納收集片來信亞摩利國王埃及,記錄攻擊的Abiri約公元前1480年。 The name is spelt Uru-Salim ("city of peace").這個名稱說明烏魯,薩利姆( “和平之城” ) 。

It is named among the cities of Benjamin (Judg. 19:10; 1 Chr. 11:4); but in the time of David it was divided between Benjamin and Judah. After the death of Joshua, it was taken and set on fire by Judah (Judg. 1:1-8); but the Jebusites were not wholly driven out of it. David led his forces against the Jebusites still residing within its walls, and drove them out, which he called "the city of David" (2 Sam. After the disruption of the kingdom on the accession to the throne of Rehoboam, Jerusalem became the capital of the kingdom of the two tribes. It was subsequently often taken and retaken by the Egyptians, the Assyrians, and by the kings of Israel (2 Kings 14:13, 14; 18:15, 16; 23:33-35; 24:14; 2 Chr. 12:9; 26:9; 27:3, 4; 29:3; 32:30; 33:11) after a siege of three years, it was taken and utterly destroyed, by Nebuchadnezzar, the king of Babylon (2 Kings 25; 2 Chr. 36; Jer. 39), BC 588. The desolation of the city was completed (Jer. 40-44), the final carrying captive into Babylon all that still remained, so that it was left without an inhabitant (BC 582).這是命名的城市之一本傑明( Judg. 19:10 ; 1染色體。 11點04 ) ,但在規定的時間內它的大衛之間劃分和猶大本傑明。逝世後,約書亞,這是採取並放火焚燒由猶太( Judg. 1:1-8 ) ;耶布斯人,但沒有完全趕出它。大衛帶領部隊對耶布斯人仍居住在其牆壁,並令他們離開,他所謂的“大衛城” ( 2薩姆。後,破壞了英國對加入王位Rehoboam ,耶路撒冷成為王國首都的兩個部落。後來經常採取和奪回的埃及人,亞述人,以及國王以色列(列王紀下14:13 , 14 ; 18:15 , 16 ; 23:33-35 ; 24:14 ;第2染色體。十二點09分, 26:9 , 27:3 , 4 ; 29:3 ; 32:30 ; 33:11 )結束圍困三年,這是採取完全摧毀,由尼布甲尼撒二世國王巴比倫(列王紀下25 ;第2染色體。 36 ;哲。 39歲) ,公元前588 。荒蕪的城市完成( Jer. 40-44 ) ,最後進行圈養到巴比倫的一切仍然存在,因此,這是沒有的居民(公元前582 ) 。

Jerusalem was again built, after a captivity of seventy years. This restoration was begun BC 536, "in the first year of Cyrus" (Ezra 1:2, 3, 5-11). This restoration of the kingdom of the Jews, consisted of a portion of all the tribes. The kingdom thus constituted was for two centuries under the dominion of Persia, till BC 331; and thereafter, for about a century and a half, under the rulers of the Greek empire in Asia, till BC 167. For a century the Jews maintained their independence under native rulers, the Asmonean princes. At the close of this period they fell under the rule of Herod and of members of his family, but practically under Rome, till the time of the destruction of Jerusalem, AD 70. The city was then laid in ruins.耶路撒冷再次被建成後,被關押70年。這已開始恢復公元前536 “ ,第一年的賽勒斯” (以斯拉1:2 , 3 , 5-11 ) 。這個恢復王國的猶太人,包括一部分的所有部落。王國從而構成了兩個世紀的統治下波斯,到公元前331 ;此後,約一個半世紀,根據統治者的希臘帝國在亞洲,直到公元前167 。一個世紀的猶太人保持其獨立性根據本地的統治者,王子的Asmonean 。收盤時此期間,他們屬於法治的希律王和他的家人,但實際上根據羅馬,到時候,破壞耶路撒冷,公元70 。這座城市,然後埋在一片廢墟。

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The modern Jerusalem by-and-by began to be built over the immense beds of rubbish resulting from the overthrow of the ancient city; Till AD 131 the Jews who still lingered about Jerusalem quietly submitted to the Roman sway.現代耶路撒冷的和由開始建造了巨大的病床垃圾造成推翻古老的城市;直到公元131誰的猶太人仍然徘徊悄悄地對耶路撒冷提交給羅馬動搖。 But in that year the emperor (Hadrian), in order to hold them in subjection, rebuilt and fortified the city. The Jews, however, took possession of it, having risen under the leadership of one Bar-Chohaba (ie, "the son of the star") in revolt against the Romans. Some four years afterwards AD 135, they were driven out and the city was again destroyed; and over its ruins was built a Roman city called Aelia Capitolina, a name which it retained till it fell under the dominion of the Mohammedans, when it was called el-Khuds, ie, "the holy."但是,在這一年皇帝(哈德良)舉行會議,以便他們在服從,重建和加固的城市。猶太人然而,佔有了它,有上升的領導下,一個酒吧, Chohaba (即“的兒子恆星“ )在反抗羅馬人。有些四年公元135之後,他們被趕出這個城市再次被摧毀;和其遺址是建立了羅馬城所謂Aelia Capitolina ,一個名稱,它保留,直到下跌統治下的伊斯蘭教,當它被稱為埃及Khuds ,即“聖地” 。

AD 326, Helena, mother of the emperor Constantine,公元326赫勒拿島,母親的皇帝君士坦丁,

AD 614, the Persians, after defeating Roman emperor Heraclius公元614 ,波斯人,擊敗羅馬皇帝赫拉克留

AD 637, it was taken by the Arabian Khalif Omar.公元637 ,它是由阿拉伯利夫奧馬爾。

AD 960, under the dominion of the Fatimite khalifs of Egypt,公元960下,自治領的Fatimite khalifs埃及,

AD 1073 under the Turcomans.公元1073年的Turcomans 。

AD 1099 crusader Godfrey of Bouillon took the city from Moslems.公元1099年十字軍的戈弗雷布永城市採取了由穆斯林。

In AD 1187 the sultan Saladin wrested the city from the Christians.在公元1187年的蘇丹薩拉丁奪取城市的基督徒。 From that time to the present day, with few intervals, Jerusalem has remained in the hands of the Moslems. It has, however, during that period been again and again taken and retaken, demolished in great part and rebuilt, no city in the world having passed through so many vicissitudes. In the year 1850 the Greek and Latin monks residing in Jerusalem had a fierce dispute about the guardianship of what are called the "holy places."從那時起至今,很少有時間間隔,耶路撒冷一直留在手中的穆斯林。然而,在此期間被一次又一次地採取奪回,拆毀很大一部分和重建,沒有城市中的世界經歷了這麼多的滄桑。去年1850年的希臘和拉丁僧侶居住在耶路撒冷的激烈爭議的監護什麼是所謂的“聖地” 。 In this dispute the emperor Nicholas of Russia sided with the Greeks, and Louis Napoleon, the emperor of the French, with the Latins.在這場爭端中的皇帝尼古拉俄羅斯片面的希臘人,和路易拿破崙皇帝的法國,與拉丁人。 This led the Turkish authorities to settle the question in a way unsatisfactory to Russia.這導致土耳其當局以解決問題的方式不滿意俄羅斯。 Out of this there sprang the Crimean War, which was protracted and sanguinary, but which had important consequences in the way of breaking down the barriers of Turkish exclusiveness.在這個有神奇的克里米亞戰爭,這是長期和血腥,但其中重要的後果的方式,打破壁壘的土耳其排斥。 Modern Jerusalem "lies near the summit of a現代耶路撒冷的“謊言附近的一個首腦會議

Sennacherib's attack in BC 702. The name Zion (or Sion) appears to have been, like Ariel ("the hearth of God"), a poetical term for Jerusalem,森納赫里布的攻擊公元前702 。錫安的名稱(或錫永)似乎已像沙龍( “爐邊的上帝” ) ,一個詩意的任期為耶路撒冷,

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (伊斯頓畫報詞典)


Advanced Information 先進的信息

The origins of the city are lost in antiquity; but evidence of civilization on the site stretches back to 3000 BC, and the city is referred to by name in Egyptian texts as early as the beginning of the second millennium BC According to Ezek.起源的城市失去了在古代,但文明的證據在網站上可追溯到公元前3000年,這個城市是被點名提到的文本在埃及早在年初的公元前第二個千年根據Ezek 。 16:3, the site was once populated by Amorites and Hittites; and, if it is to be identified with Salem (Gen. 14:18; Ps. 76:2), it was ruled in Abraham's day by the petty king Melchizedek, who was also "priest of God Most High." 16時03分,該網站曾經居住的亞摩利和赫梯;和,如果要確定塞勒姆(創14:18 ;物質。 76:2 ) ,它被排除在亞伯拉罕的一天小國王麥基洗德,誰是“上帝的神父至高。 ” Some hold that the "region of Moriah" (Gen. 22:2), where Abraham was tested with the sacrifice of Isaac, was what became the temple site, but this connection has not been proved.有些人認為, “區域的莫里亞” (創22時02分) ,在測試亞伯拉罕與以撒的犧牲,是什麼成為了寺廟的網站上,但是這方面還沒有得到證實。

Jerusalem in History耶路撒冷的歷史

At the time of the conquest Jerusalem (otherwise known as Zion, the name originally given to the southeast hill where the earliest fortress was located) was populated by the Jebusites, a Semitic tribe ruled over by Adoni-zedek.在時間上的征服耶路撒冷(也稱為錫安,原來的名字給東南山最早的地方是位於要塞)是人口稠密的耶布斯人,一個閃族統治的Adoni - zedek 。 Joshua soundly defeated an alliance of rulers headed by Adoni-zedek (Josh. 10) but never took Jerusalem, which became a neutral city between Judah and Benjamin.喬舒亞健全擊敗聯盟的統治者由Adoni領導, zedek ( Josh. 10 ) ,但從未在耶路撒冷,成為一個中立的城市之間的猶太和本傑明。 It was still administered by Jebusites, even though the men of Judah overran and burned at least parts of the city (Judg. 1:8, 21).它仍然管理耶布斯人,即使男子的猶太佔領並燒毀,至少部分市( Judg. 1:8 , 21 ) 。 This situation changed when King David decided to move his capital from Hebron.這種狀況改變時,大衛王決定將他的資本從希伯倫。 He decisively conquered the Jebusites (II Sam. 5:6-10) and established Jerusalem (or Zion) as his strategic center and political capital.他果斷地征服了耶布斯人(二山姆。 5:6-10 ) ,並設立耶路撒冷(或錫安)作為他的戰略中心和政治資本。 Calling it the City of David (II Sam. 5:9), he fortified and beautified it until his death, and his successor, Solomon, pursued the same course even more lavishly.它呼喚城的大衛(二山姆。 5時09分) ,他美化和強化,直到他去世,他的繼任者,所羅門群島,追求相同的課程更豐富。

The division of the kingdom immediately after Solomon's death marked the beginning of several stages of decline.分裂後立即王國所羅門之死標誌著幾個階段的下降。 Now the capital of the southern kingdom only, Jerusalem was plundered by Egyptians under Shishak as early as the fifth year of Rehoboam (I Kings 14:25-26). Fresh looting took place in Jehoram's reign, this time by a concert of Philistines and Arabs; and part of the walls were destroyed in skirmishes between Amaziah of the southern kingdom and Jehoash of the north.現在的首都只有英國南部,耶路撒冷是掠奪下希沙克埃及人早在第五年Rehoboam (一國王14:25-26 ) 。保鮮搶劫發生在Jehoram的統治地位,這一次的音樂會和非利士人阿拉伯人和部分牆壁被炸毀Amaziah之間的小規模戰鬥的南部英國和Jehoash北部。 Repairs enabled the city under Ahaz to withstand the onslaught of Syria and Israel, and again the city providentially escaped when the northern kingdom was destroyed by the Assyrians.修理使城市到下亞哈斯的衝擊,敘利亞和以色列,並再次城市providentially逃脫時,英國北部地區摧毀了亞述人。 But eventually the city was captured (597 BC) and then destroyed (586 BC) by the Babylonians, and most of the inhabitants killed or transported.但最終城市被抓獲( 597年) ,然後銷毀( 586年)的巴比倫人,大多數的居民死亡或運輸。

Persian rule brought about the return of a few thousand Jews to the land and city, and the erection of a smaller temple than the majestic center built by Solomon; but the walls were not rebuilt until the middle of the fifth century under the leadership of Nehemiah. Jerusalem's vassal status continued under the Greeks when Alexander the Great overthrew the Persian Empire; but after his untimely death (323 BC) Jerusalem became the center of a brutal conflict between the Seleucid dynasty in the north and the Ptolemies of Egypt in the south. The struggle bred the Jewish revolt led by the Maccabees, who succeeded in rededicating the temple in 165 BC Infighting and corruption contributed to the decisive defeat of the city by the Romans in 63 BC and its pacification in 54 BC波斯統治了返回的幾千猶太人的土地和城市,並豎立一個小寺廟比宏偉的中心建立了所羅門,但牆上沒有重建之前,中五世紀的領導下,尼希米記。耶路撒冷的附庸地位繼續進行時,希臘人亞歷山大大帝推翻了波斯帝國,但他的不幸逝世( 323年)耶路撒冷成為中心的野蠻之間的衝突塞琉王朝的北部和埃及托勒密在南部。育成的鬥爭,起義的猶太人為首的馬加比,誰成功地重新廟公元前165內訌和腐敗作出貢獻的決定性失敗的城市由羅馬人在63年代和和平在公元前54

Herod the Great came to power in 37 BC as a vassal king responsible to Rome, and embarked on the enlargement and beautification of the temple and other buildings, projects not completed until decades after his death.希律王大上台37年作為一個負責任的附庸國王到羅馬,並開始擴大和美化寺廟和其他建築物,項目沒有完成,直到幾十年後去世。 The Jewish revolt that began in AD 66 inevitably led to the destruction of the city by the Romans in AD 70.猶太人起義開始於公元66不可避免地導致破壞城市的羅馬人在公元70 。 A further revolt under Bar Cochba in AD 132 led to the city's destruction once again (135).另一種反抗下酒吧Cochba在公元132導致了城市的破壞再次( 135 ) 。 This time the Romans rebuilt the city on a smaller scale and as a pagan center, banning all Jews from living there, a ban that was not lifted until the reign of Constantine.這一次,羅馬人重建的城市規模較小,並作為一個異教徒中心,禁止所有猶太人生活在那裡的,禁止這不是取消,直到君士坦丁統治。 From the early fourth century on, Jerusalem became a "Christian" city and the site of many churches and monasteries.從早期的第四世紀,耶路撒冷成為一個“基督教”城市與該網站的許多教堂和修道院。 Successive occupiers, Persians, Arabs, Turks, Crusaders, British, Israelis, have left their religious and cultural stamp on the city, which since 1967 has been unified under Israeli military might.歷屆佔領者,波斯人,阿拉伯人,土耳其人,十字軍東征,英國,以色列,離開了他們的宗教和文化郵票的城市,自1967年以來一直統一在以色列的軍事實力。

The Centrality of Jerusalem該中心的耶路撒冷

From the time that Jerusalem became both the political and the cultic capital of the children of Israel, it progressively served as a bifocal symbol: on the one hand it reflected the people and all their sinfulness and waywardness; on the other it represented the place where God made himself known and the anticipation of all the eschatological blessing that God had in store for his people.從耶路撒冷成為政治和邪教資本的兒童以色列,逐步擔任雙部位的象徵:一方面它反映了人民和所有的罪孽和任性;其他它代表的地方上帝創造了自己已知和預期的所有末世論的祝福,上帝在商店為他的人民。 In Scripture, Zion is the city of God (Ps. 46:4; 48:1-2) and therefore the joy of the whole earth (Ps. 48:2).在聖經,是錫安城的神(詩篇46:4 ; 48:1-2 ) ,因此的喜悅整個地球(詩篇48:2 ) 。 The Lord himself has chosen Zion (Ps. 132:13-14), which consequently serves as his abode. But if Jerusalem thus becomes virtually equivalent to "temple," it can in other images represent all of God's covenant people; indeed, to be "born in Zion" is to know God and experience his salvation (Ps. 87:5). These strands come together at least in part because the temple is located on the holy hill called Zion (Ps. 15:1; Isa. 31:4; Joel 2:1); equally, the holy hill is set in parallel with Jerusalem (Isa. 45:13; Dan. 9:16-17).主自己選擇了錫安(詩篇132:13-14 ) ,因而可作為他的居留權。但是,如果耶路撒冷從而成為幾乎等同於“廟會” ,它可以在其他圖像代表所有上帝的契約人,事實上,以是“出生於錫安山” ,就是要認識上帝和經驗,他得救(詩篇87:5 ) 。這些鏈走到一起,至少部分原因是該廟坐落在山坡稱為神聖的錫安(詩篇15:1 ;伊薩。 31:4 ;喬爾2:1 ) ;同樣,神聖的山是平行耶路撒冷(以賽亞書45:13 ;丹。 9:16-17 ) 。 Hence Jerusalem is the holy city (Neh. 11:1; Isa. 48:2; 52:1), so much so that going up to Zion is virtually equivalent to approaching Yahweh (Jer. 31:6) and salvation out of Zion is of course from the Lord (Ps. 14:7; cf. Pss. 128:5; 134:3).因此,耶路撒冷是聖城( Neh. 11:1 ;伊薩。 48:2 , 52:1 ) ,所以走到錫安幾乎相當於接近耶和華( Jer. 31:6 )和拯救了錫安當然是從上帝(詩篇14時07分;比照。症狀評分。 128:5 ; 134:3 ) 。

Jerusalem's Sin耶路撒冷的罪惡

Precisely because of these associations, the sin of its people is the more grievous.正是由於這些協會,其罪惡的人是比較嚴重的。 The prophets (esp. Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and Micah) speak of Jerusalem as a prostitute, fallen away from God, guilty of idolatry and of flagrant disregard of God's commandments.先知(尤其是以賽亞,耶利米,以西結,並米卡)說耶路撒冷是一個妓女,下降遠離上帝,犯了偶像崇拜和公然無視上帝的誡命。 The city must stand under the judgment of God (eg Isa. 1:21; 29:1-4; 32:9ff.; Jer. 6:22ff.).城市必須根據上帝的判決(如伊薩。 1時21分; 29:1-4 ; 32:9頁。 ;哲。 6點22頁。 ) 。 Jerusalem's social and religious transgressions are so gross and persistent that Ezekiel labels it "the city of bloodshed" (Ezek. 22:2-3; 24:6).耶路撒冷的社會和宗教越軌是如此嚴重和持續的基爾的標籤是“城市的流血衝突” ( Ezek. 22:2-3 ; 24:6 ) 。 In its sin Jerusalem is counted as part of the pagan world (Ezek. 16:1-3).在其罪惡耶路撒冷是算作部分異教世界( Ezek. 16:1-3 ) 。 The citizens of Jerusalem are worse than Samaria and Sodom (Lam. 4:6; Ezek. 16:44-58; cf. Amos 2:4-5; Mal. 2:11).公民的耶路撒冷不如撒馬利亞和索多瑪( Lam. 4:6 ; Ezek 。 16:44-58 ;比照。阿莫斯2:4-5 ;誤。二時11分) 。 The city taken by David will now be taken in judgment (Isa. 29:1-7).該市採取的大衛現在應採取的判決(以賽亞書29:1-7 ) 。

Analogous to this bifocal casting of Jerusalem's symbolic significance stands the prophetic intertwining of threatened destruction and promised eschatological blessing.類似這種雙部位鑄耶路撒冷的象徵意義看台預言交織的破壞和威脅答應末世恩賜。 Because Jerusalem is so sinful, it must be judged and destroyed (Isa. 1:21; 32:13-14; Ezek. 22:19); the guilty must be brought to account (Zeph. 1:12).由於耶路撒冷是如此罪孽深重,必須判斷和銷毀(以賽亞書1時21分; 32:13-14 ; Ezek 。 22:19 ) ;有罪必須把帳戶( Zeph. 1:12 ) 。 At one level this judgment is executed in the horrors of the Exile (II Kings 24:13, 20; Jer. 42:18; 44:13; Lam. 1-5); but according to Jesus this is not the only judgment Jerusalem must face (Matt. 23:37-39).在一個層次上這一判決是執行的恐怖流放(二國王24:13 , 20 ;哲。 42:18 ; 44:13 ;林。 1-5 ) ;但根據耶穌,這並非是唯一的判斷耶路撒冷必須面對(瑪特泰23:37-39 ) 。

Jerusalem's Glory耶路撒冷的榮耀

Yet all is not gloom.然而,並非所有的陰霾。 Nations used by God to punish Jerusalem must themselves by called to account (Ps. 137:1, 4-9; Isa. 10:12).聯合國使用的上帝來懲罰耶路撒冷必須要求自己帳戶(詩篇137:1 , 4-9 ;伊薩。 10:12 ) 。 Promises for the restoration of Jerusalem following the Exile become linked with promises of eschatological blessing (Isa. 40:1-5; 54:11-17; 60; cf. Hag. 2:19; Zech. 1:12-17).承諾為恢復耶路撒冷後,流亡成為與承諾的末世論的祝福(以賽亞書40:1-5 ; 54:11-17 ; 60 ;比照。哈格。 2點19分;撒加利亞。 1:12-17 ) 。 Yahweh can no more forget Jerusalem than a woman can forget her child (Isa. 49:13-18).耶和華不能忘記耶路撒冷更比一個女人可以忘記她的孩子(以賽亞書49:13-18 ) 。 Ezekiel anticipates the return of Yahweh to Zion (43:1-9).基爾預計返回耶和華向錫安( 43:1-9 ) 。 In Zion, Yahweh will inaugurate his eschatological rule (Pss. 146:10; 149:2; Isa. 24:23; 52:7; Obad. 21; Mic. 4:7; Zeph. 3:15; Zech. 14:9), whether personally or through Messiah (Zech. 9:9-10), his servant (Isa. 40-66).在錫安,耶和華將開創他的末世論規則( Pss. 146:10 ; 149:2 ;伊薩。 24:23 ; 52:7 ; Obad 。 21 ;麥克風。 4點07分; Zeph 。 3:15 ;撒加利亞。 14 : 9 ) ,不論是親自或通過彌賽亞( Zech. 9:9-10 ) ,他的僕人(以賽亞書40-66 ) 。

Although there are frequent demands that Jerusalem (and by metonymy all Israel) repent as a presage of the eschatological glory, yet ultimately Jerusalem's glory rests on God's saving intervention (Isa. 62; 66:10-15).儘管有頻繁的要求,耶路撒冷(轉喻和所有以色列)懺悔作為一個預言的末世輝煌,但最終耶路撒冷的榮耀在於上帝的拯救干預(以賽亞書62 ; 66:10-15 ) 。 He it is who washes away the filth of Zion's sin (Isa. 4:4).他這是誰沖走污穢錫安的罪孽(以賽亞書四時04 ) 。 Jerusalem will become the eschatological capital (Isa. 16:1; 45:14), will be awarded a new name expressive of Yahweh's delight and rights (Isa. 62:4, 12; Jer. 3:17; 33:16; Ezek. 48:35; Zech. 8:3), will be built with unfathomable opulence (Isa. 54:11-17), and will be secure from all enemies (Isa. 52:1; Joel 2:32; 3:17).耶路撒冷將成為末世論資本(以賽亞書16:1 ; 45:14 ) ,將獲得一個新的名字表達對耶和華的喜悅和權利(以賽亞書62:4 , 12 ;哲。 3時17 ; 33:16 ; Ezek 。 48:35 ;撒加利亞。八時03分) ,將建立與深不可測的富裕(以賽亞書54:11-17 ) ,將確保所有的敵人(以賽亞書52:1 ;喬爾2時32分; 3時17分) 。 The redeemed who return to Zion constitute the holy remnant (II Kings 19:31; Isa. 4:3; 35:10; 51:11), a theme which suggests that the early return to Jerusalem after the Exile constitutes an anticipation of an eschatological return (Isa. 27:13; 62:11; Zech. 6:8, 15).誰的贖回返回錫安構成了神聖的殘餘(二國王19:31 ;伊薩。 4:3 ; 35:10 ; 51:11 ) ,一個主題這表明早日返回耶路撒冷後,流亡構成了預期的末世返回(以賽亞書27:13 ; 62:11 ;撒加利亞。 6點08分, 15歲) 。 The temple is central to the city (Ezek. 40-48; cf. Isa. 44:28; Zech. 1:16).廟的中心城市( Ezek. 40-48 ;比照。伊薩。 44:28 ;撒加利亞。一時16分) 。

The eschatological glory to be experienced by Zion is accompanied by a transformation of nature and by long and abundant life, heroic strength, economic prosperity, joy, and thankful praise (Isa. 11; 12:4-6; 61:3; 62:8-9; 65:20; Jer. 33:11; Zech. 2:4, 5).光榮的末世論要經歷的錫安是伴隨著改革的性質和長期和豐富的生活,英雄的力量,經濟繁榮,歡樂,讚美和感謝(以賽亞書11 ; 12:4-6 ; 61:3 ; 62 : 8-9 ; 65:20 ;哲。 33:11 ;撒加利亞。 2:4 , 5 ) 。 Although there is repeated assurance that the nations that have savaged Jerusalem will themselves be ravaged, in another emphasis the nations of the earth, after an unsuccessful campaign against Jerusalem (Isa. 29: 7-8; Mic. 4:11), join in a great pilgrimage to Zion, where they are taught by Yahweh to live according to his will (Isa. 2:2-4; Jer. 33:9; Mic. 4:1-3; Zech. 2:11).雖然一再保證,國家已勳章耶路撒冷將被蹂躪自己,在另一個重點國家的泥土,失敗後對耶路撒冷運動(以賽亞書29 : 7-8 ;麥克風。 4點11分) ,加入一個偉大錫安山朝聖,在那裡教他們的生活耶和華按照他的意志(以賽亞書2:2-4 ;哲。 33:9 ;麥克風。 4:1-3 ;撒加利亞。 2時11分) 。 In all this Jerusalem retains a central place.在所有這些方面耶路撒冷保留了中心位置。

Jerusalem in NT Teachings耶路撒冷在NT教義

In the NT "Zion" occurs only seven times: Rom.在NT “錫安”只發生7次:光碟。 9:33 and I Pet. 9點33分,我寵物。 2:6 (citing Isa. 28:16), Rom. 2點06 (援引伊薩。 28:16 ) ,光盤。 11:26 (citing Isa. 59:20), Matt. 11:26 (援引伊薩。 59:20 ) ,馬特。 21:5 and John 12:15 (cf. Zech. 9:9; Isa. 40:9; 62:11, all with reference to the inhabitants addressed as the daughter of Zion), and in two independent uses, Heb. 21時05和約翰12:15 (參見撒加利亞。 9時09分;伊薩。 40:9 ; 62:11 ,所有參考的居民解決的女兒錫安) ,並在兩個獨立的用途,河北。 12:22 and Rev. 14:1 (both "Mount Zion"). 12:22和Rev 14時01分(包括“錫安山” ) 。 But "Jerusalem" occurs 139 times.但是, “耶路撒冷”出現139次。 Even many of the occurrences in the Gospels and Acts that at first glance seem to bear nothing more than topographical significance tend to fall into identifiable patterns.即使許多發生在福音和行為乍一看似乎承擔只不過地形意義往往落入識別模式。 Jerusalem is still "the holy city" (Matt. 4:5; 27:53), the home of the temple and its priestly service, as well as the center of rabbinic authority.耶路撒冷仍然是“聖城” (瑪特泰4點05分; 27:53 ) ,家庭廟宇及其祭司服務,以及中心的拉比的權威。 Jesus must die in the Jerusalem area (Matt. 16:21; Mark 10:33-34; Luke 9:31), in direct conflict with these central Jewish institutions.耶穌必須死在耶路撒冷地區(瑪特泰16:21 ;馬克10:33-34 ;盧克9時31 ) ,直接與這些衝突的中央猶太機構。 His death and resurrection stand in fulfillment of all they represented; but the irony and tragedy of the sacrifice is that the people connected with these institutions recognized little of this salvation-historical fulfillment.他的死和復活的立場履行他們所代表所有,但具有諷刺意味和悲劇的犧牲是人民與這些機構認識到這一點拯救歷史完成。 The temple had become a den of thieves (Mark 11:17), and Jerusalem itself lived up to its reputation as killer of the prophets (Matt. 23:37-39; cf. Luke 13:33).廟已成為小偷巢穴(馬克11:17 ) ,和耶路撒冷本身履行了它的聲譽殺手先知(瑪特泰23:37-39 ;比照。路加13:33 ) 。 Jerusalem must be destroyed by foreign invaders (Matt. 23:38; Luke 19:43-44; 21:20, 24).耶路撒冷必須銷毀的外國入侵者(瑪特泰23:38 ;盧克19:43-44 ; 21:20 , 24 ) 。 In Acts, Jerusalem is the hub from which the gospel radiates outward (Acts 1:8), the site both of Pentecost and of the apostolic council; but if it is the moral and salvation-historical center of Christianity, it is also the ideological home of Judaizers who wish to make the entire Mosaic code a precondition for Gentile conversion to Jesus Messiah, a position Paul condemns (Gal. 1:8-9). Paul himself, however, is quick to recognize how beholden all other believers are to the Christian remnant of Jerusalem (Gal. 2:10; II Cor. 8-9) which in a salvation-historical sense is truly the mother church.在行為,耶路撒冷是從該中心的向外輻射福音(使徒1:8 ) ,這兩個網站的聖靈降臨節和使徒的國家,但如果它的道德和拯救歷史中心的基督教,它也是思想家中Judaizers誰願使整個花葉代碼的先決條件詹蒂萊轉換為耶穌的彌賽亞,保羅的立場譴責( Gal. 1:8-9 ) 。保羅本人,不過,很快認識到如何感激所有其他信徒是基督教殘餘耶路撒冷( Gal. 2時10分;二肺心病。 8-9 ) ,其中在拯救歷史是真正意義上的母親教堂。

A still deeper connection links OT treatment of Jerusalem to the "heavenly Jerusalem" (Heb. 12:22), to which Christian believers have already come, and to "Jerusalem above" (Gal. 4:26), which in an extended typology embraces new covenant believers and relegates geographical Jerusalem and its children to slavery: Jesus fulfills and to that extent replaces the OT types and shadows that anticipated him. Jesus enters Jerusalem as messianic king (Mark 11:1-11 par.) and is concerned to see Jerusalem's temple pure (Mark 11:15-17 par.) precisely because the city and temple anticipate his own impending death and resurrection, events that shift the focal meeting place between God and man to Jesus himself (Mark 14:57-58; John 2:19-22).仍然更深的聯繫環節催產素治療耶路撒冷的“天上的耶路撒冷” (希伯來書12:22 ) ,而基督教信徒已經開始,並以“耶路撒冷上述” ( Gal. 4時26分) ,其中在延長類型學包括新契約信徒和relegates地域耶路撒冷及其子女奴役:耶穌滿足,並認為程度上取代了催產素的類型和陰影預計他。耶穌進入耶路撒冷為救世主國王(馬克11:1-11標準桿。 )和關注的是看到耶路撒冷的廟宇純(馬克11:15-17桿) 。恰恰是因為城市和寺廟預測自己即將到來的死亡和復活,事件,轉移中心會場之間的上帝和人類耶穌本人(馬克14:57-58 ;約翰2:19-22 ) 。 This constitutes part of a broader pattern, worked out in some detail in the Epistle to the Hebrews, in which the gospel and its entailments simultaneously fulfill OT institutions and expectations and render them obsolete (eg, Heb. 8:13).這構成的一部分,更廣泛的模式,制定了比較詳細的書希伯來人,其中福音及其entailments同時履行職能治療機構和期望,使他們過時的(例如,河北。 8點13分) 。 The ultimate goal is the new Jerusalem.最終目標是新耶路撒冷。

Jerusalem and the Church耶路撒冷和教會

Difficulties in rightly relating OT and NT materials on Jerusalem have contributed to the church's changing perceptions regarding itself, the Jews, and Jerusalem.正確的難點與催產素和NT關於耶路撒冷的材料作出了貢獻教會的看法改變自己,對猶太人和耶路撒冷。 Especially in the wake of the destruction of AD 132-35 Christians saw themselves as the exclusive heirs of the covenant people of old: Christians constituted the true Jerusalem.尤其是在後銷毀公元132-35基督徒認為自己作為唯一繼承人人民的契約歲:基督徒構成了真正的耶路撒冷。 Geographical Jerusalem became a focal point for Christian piety and tradition, an ideal location for monasteries and basilicas, especially after Helena, mother of Constantine, devoted so much attention to Christian sites around the city.地理耶路撒冷成為一個聯絡點,基督教的虔誠和傳統,一個理想的位置寺廟和大教堂,特別是在赫勒拿島,母親君士坦丁,專門這麼多注意周圍基督網站的城市。 The Constantinian settlement (early fourth century) continued to see Christianity as the legitimate heir of Judaism, but its mingling of ecclesiastical and spiritual authority led both to persecution of Jews and to substantial disillusionment when Rome, perceived as the successor of Jerusalem, was ransacked by barbarians.在君士坦丁解決方案( 4世紀初)繼續看到基督教的合法繼承猶太教,但其混合教會和精神權威領導既迫害的猶太人和大量的幻滅時,羅馬,被視為繼承耶路撒冷,被洗劫的野蠻人。 The latter event prompted Augustine to write his famous City of God, which shifted the focus of the true city from either Jerusalem or Rome to the spiritual dimension; but this stance was easily overlooked during the height of medieval Catholicism, when Rome's authority frequently extended itself to all temporal spheres.後者事件提示奧古斯丁寫他著名的上帝之城,它把重點放在真正的城市從耶路撒冷或羅馬的精神層面,但這一立場是容易被忽視的高度在中世紀天主教,當羅馬的權力本身經常延長所有時空領域。 The Reformation, and especially the Puritan awakening in England, while preserving a certain harshness toward Jews, became progressively interested in Jewish evangelism, not in order to restore the Jews to Jerusalem, but to reincorporate them into the people of God and thus (in the case of the Puritan hope) to usher in the expected millennial age.改革,特別是覺醒清教徒在英國,同時保持一定的嚴酷的猶太人,逐步感興趣的猶太福音,而不是為了恢復猶太人前往耶路撒冷,但他們reincorporate人民的上帝,因而(在如清教徒希望) ,以迎接千禧年的預期年齡。

Modern theological treatments frequently focus on the replacement theme (WD Davies, Gospel and Land) or use the city as a cipher for a colorful intermingling of sociology and Barthianism (J. Ellul, The Meaning of the City).現代神學的治療側重於經常更換主題(西部戴維斯,福音和土地) ,或使用城市作為一個密碼豐富多彩交織的社會學和Barthianism (學者埃呂爾含義,市) 。 Conservatives tend to dispute how much of the OT promises regarding Jerusalem's restoration are taken up in NT typological fulfillment.保守黨往往爭端多少催產素的承諾就耶路撒冷的恢復採取了新台幣類型完成。 Positions range from a thoroughgoing affirmation of typology (various forms of amillennialism) to equally thoroughgoing disjunction (various forms of dispensationalism) .職位從徹底肯定的類型(各種形式的amillennialism ) ,以同樣徹底的分離(各種形式的dispensationalism ) 。 The typological cannot be ignored, nor can the NT's substantial silence on the future of Jerusalem and the land; but some passages, notably Luke 21:21-24, seem to anticipate the restoration of Jerusalem's fortunes.該類型不能忽視,也不能新台幣的實質性沉默耶路撒冷的未來和土地;但有些段落,尤其是盧克21:21-24 ,似乎預見恢復耶路撒冷的命運。

DA Carson多巴胺卡森
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (規矩福音字典)

Bibliography 目錄
FF Bruce, "Paul and Jerusalem," TB 19:3-23; M. Burrows, IDB, II, 843-66; G. Fohrer and E. Lohse, TDNT, VII, 292-338; J.教職研究員布魯斯, “保羅和耶路撒冷, ”結核19:3-23 ;先生伯羅斯,美洲開發銀行,二, 843-66 ;灣Fohrer和E. Lohse , TDNT ,七, 292-338 ;學者 Jeremias, Jerusalem in the Time of Jesus; KM Kenyon, Digging up Jerusalem B. Mazar, The Mountain of the Lord; J. Munck, Paul and the Salvation of Mankind; GF Oehler, Theology of the OT, 509-21; DF Payne, IBD, II, 752-60; JB Payne, ZPEB, III, 459-95; GNH Peters, The Theocratic Kingdom, III, 32-63; NW Porteous, "Jerusalem-Zion: the Growth of a Symbol," in Living the Mystery; GA Smith, Jerusalem, 2 vols.; Y. Yadin, ed., Jerusalem Revealed. Jeremias ,耶路撒冷時代的耶穌;知識凱尼恩,挖了耶路撒冷灣馬扎裡沙里夫,山區的上帝;學者Munck ,保羅和拯救人類;石墨Oehler ,神學催產素, 509-21 ;東風佩恩,雞傳染性法氏囊病,二, 752-60 ;巴頓佩恩, ZPEB ,三, 459-95 ; GNH彼得斯,英國的神,三, 32-63 ;西北波蒂厄斯, “耶路撒冷錫安:生長的一個象徵, ”在生活之謎;遺傳史密斯,耶路撒冷,第2卷。 ;元果亞丁,編輯。耶路撒冷揭示。

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