Doctrine of Man In the Old Testament學說的男子在舊約

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In the Genesis account of creation man's presence in the world is attributed directly to God.在創世記到創作人的存在,在世界上是直接歸因於上帝。 By this act alone, as the God of love and power, man was "created" (bara', 1:27; 5:1; 6:7) and "formed" (yasar, 2:7 - 8).根據這一單獨採取行動,因為上帝的愛和力量,男子被“創造” (巴拉' , 1時27分; 5:1 ; 6點07分)和“建制” (亞沙, 2時07分-8 ) 。 By this creative act man was brought into existence in a duality of relationships, at once to nature and to God himself.通過這一創造性的行為男子被帶進存在雙重關係,一次與大自然和上帝本人。 He was formed of the dust of the earth and was endowed with soul life by the breath of God.他成立的塵埃在地球上,並賦予了靈魂的生命氣息的上帝。 God is the source of his life, and dust the material of his being.神是源泉他的生命,和塵埃物質的福祉。

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Man's Nature人的本質

Man, then, did not spring out of nature by some natural evolutionary process.男人,那麼,沒有春天的性質由一些自然進化的過程。 He is the result of the immediate action of God, who used already existing created material for the formation of the earthly part of his being.他是由於立即採取行動的上帝,誰使用現有的創建材料的形成人間的一部分,他的福祉。 Man has thus physiological similarities with the rest of the created order (Gen. 18:27; Job 10:8 - 9; Ps. 103:14, etc.) and consequently shares with the animal world in dependence on God's goodness for his continuance (Isa. 40:6 - 7; Pss. 103:15; 104, etc.).因此,人的生理異同與其他創造秩序(創18:27 ;就業10時08分-9 ;物質。 1 03:14,等等) ,因此股價與動物世界的依賴上帝的善良,他繼續(以賽亞書40:6 -7 ;症狀評分。 1 03:15; 1 04,等等) 。

Throughout the OT the relationship of man to nature is everywhere stressed.在整個加時賽的關係,人與自然無處不在強調。 As man shares with nature share with man in the actualities of his living.至於男子的股票與大自然與人分享的現狀,他的生活。 Thus, while nature was made to serve man, so man on his part is required to tend nature (Gen. 2:15).因此,雖然性質是服務的人,所以他的人的一部分需要往往性質(創2:15 ) 。 Nature is therefore not a sort of neutral entity in relation to man's life. For between the two, nature and man, there exists a mysterious bond so that when man sinned the natural order was itself deeply afflicted (Gen. 3:17 - 18; cf. Rom. 8:19 - 23).自然,因此沒有一種中立的實體人的生命。對於兩國之間,自然和人為,存在著一個神秘的債券這樣,當人犯過罪的自然秩序本身就是深深困擾(創3點17 -1 8;比照。光碟。 8點19 -2 3) 。 Since, however, nature suffered as a result of man's sin, so does it rejoice with him in his redemption (Ps. 96:10 - 13; Isa. 35, etc.), for in man's redemption it too will share (Isa. 11:6 - 9).但是,由於自然原因造成的人的罪孽,所以它感到高興同他贖回(詩篇96:10 -1 3;伊薩。 3 5等) ,在人的贖回也將分享(以賽亞書十一時06 -9 ) 。

But however deeply related man is to the natural order, he is presented nonetheless as something different and distinctive.但是,無論有關的男子深感是自然秩序,他還是提出了不同的東西和獨特的。 Having first called the earth into existence with its various requisites for human life, God then declared for the making of man.首先所謂的地球存在的各種條件,人的生命,然後宣布上帝的製作人。 The impression that the Genesis account gives is that man was the special focus of God's creative purpose.這樣的印象,即起源帳戶,是名男子是特別注重上帝的創造性的目的。 It is not so much that man was the crown of God's creative acts, or the climax of the process, for although last in the ascending scale, he is first in the divine intention.這是與其說是男子冠上帝的創造性的行為,或高潮的進程,儘管去年在規模遞增,他是第一次在神聖的意圖。 All the previous acts of God are presented more in the nature of a continuous series by the recurring use of the conjunction "and" (Gen. 1:3, 6, 9, 14, 20, 24).以前所有的天災提出了更多的性質,連續的反复使用結合“和” (創1:3 , 6 , 9 , 14 , 20 , 24 ) 。 "Then God said, 'Let us make man.'" "Then", when? “然後上帝說, '讓我們的人。 ” “然後” ,是什麼時候呢? When the cosmic order was finished, when the earth was ready to sustain man.當宇宙秩序已經完成,當地球準備,以維持人。 Thus, while man stands before God in a relationship of created dependence, he has also the status of a unique and special personhood in relation to God.因此,雖然男子站在上帝面前的關係,創造依賴,他還地位的一個獨特的和特殊人格與天主間的關係。

Man's constituents人的成分

The three most significant words in the OT to describe man in relation to God and nature are "soul" (nepes, 754 times), "spirit" (ruah, 378 times), and "flesh" (basar, 266 times). The term "flesh" has sometimes a physical and sometimes a figuratively ethical sense.這三個最重要的關鍵詞在加時賽來形容人與上帝和性質的“靈魂” ( nepes , 754次) , “精神” ( ruah , 378次) ,和“肉” ( basar , 266倍) 。的術語“肉” ,有時身體有時比喻道德意義。 In its latter use it has its context in contrast with God to emphasize man's nature as contingent and dependent (Isa. 31:3; 40:6; Pss. 61:5; 78:39; Job 10:4).後者在其使用也有其背景,與上帝強調人的性質,特遣隊和依賴(以賽亞書31:3 , 40:6 ;症狀評分。 61:5 ; 78:39 ;就業10時04分) 。 Both nepes and ruah denote in general the life principle of the human person, the former stressing more particularly his individuality, or life, and the latter focusing on the idea of a supernatural power above or within the individual.這nepes和ruah指一般的生活原則的人,前者更特別強調他的個性,或無期徒刑,而後者側重的想法超自然的力量或以上的個人。

Of the eighty parts of the body mentioned in the OT the terms for "heart" (leb), "liver" (kabed), "kidney" (kelayot), and "bowels" (me'im) are the most frequent.在第八十四部位中所提到的催產素的條件“心臟” ( leb ) , “肝” ( kabed ) , “腎” ( kelayot )和“腸” ( me'im )是最常見的。 To each of these some emotional impulse or feeling is attributed either factually or metaphorically. The term "heart" has the widest reference.所有這些部分或感情衝動的感覺是因為無論在事實上或比喻。任期“心臟”具有廣泛的參考。 It is brought into relation with man's total phychical nature as the seal or instrument of his emotional, volitional, and intellectual manifestations.這是帶進與人的共phychical性質,印章或文書的情感,意志和智慧的表現。 In the latter context it acquires a force we should call "mind" (Deut. 15:9; Judg. 5:15 - 16) or "intellect" (Job 8:10; 12:3; 34:10), and is frequently employed by metonymy to denote one's thought or wish with the idea of purpose or resolve.在後一種情況下,獲得力量,我們應該稱之為“心” (申命記15:9 ; Judg 。 5:15 -1 6)或“智慧” (作業8 :10; 1 2點0 3分; 3 4:10) ,並經常採用的轉喻指一個人的思想或希望的想法目的或解決的問題。 For one's thought or wish is what is "in the heart," or, as would be said today, "in the mind."對於一個人的思想或願望是什麼是“心臟” ,或將今天表示, “在銘記。 ”

These several words do not, however, characterize man as a compound of separate and distinct elements.這幾個關鍵詞不這樣做,不過,男子的特點作為一個大院的獨立和獨特的內容。 Hebrew psychology does not divide up man's nature into mutually exclusive parts.希伯來心理學不劃分人的性質變成相互排斥的部分。 Behind these usages of words the thought conveyed by the Genesis account, that man's nature is twofold, remains.在這些慣例的話轉達思想的成因帳戶,該名男子的性質是雙重的,依然存在。 Yet even there man is not presented as a loose union of two disparate entities.然而,即使有人不是作為一個鬆散的國家共同體的兩個不同的實體。 There is no sense of a metaphysical dichotomy, while even that of an ethical dualism of soul and body is quite foreign to Hebrew thought.毫無意義的形而上學的對立,而即使是一個道德的兩重性的靈魂和身體是相當陌生的希伯來思想。 By God's inbreathing the man he formed from the dust became a living soul, a unified being in the interrelation of the terrestrial and the transcendental.由上帝的inbreathing該名男子,他形成的粉塵成為活的靈魂,是一個統一的相互關聯的陸地和超越。

Throughout the OT the two concepts of man as a unique and responsible individual and as a social and representative being have emphasis.在整個加時賽這兩個概念的人作為一個獨特的和負責任的個人和作為一個社會和代表正在有重點。 Adam was both a man and yet mankind.亞當既是一個人,但人類。 In him individual personhood and social solidarity found expression.在他個人的人格和社會團結的體現。 At times in Israel's history there is emphasis on individual responsibility (eg, Ezek. 9:4; 20:38; cf. chs. 18, 35), while the "Thou shalt" or "Thou shalt not" of the law and the prophets is characteristically singular, being addressed to the individual is not viewed atomistically but in intimate connection with, and representative of, the whole community.有時,在以色列歷史上有側重於個人的責任(例如, Ezek 。 9點04分; 20:38 ;比照。社區衛生服務。 18日, 35歲) ,而“你應該”或“你不應”的法律和先知是典型的奇異,正在給個人並不認為atomistically但在親密的聯繫,並代表,整個社會。 So does the sin of the single individual involve all in its consequences (Josh. 7:24 - 26; cf. 2 Sam. 14:7; 21:1 - 14; 2 Kings 9:26).因此,沒有罪惡的單一個人涉及所有的後果( Josh. 7點24 -2 6;比照。第二山姆。 1 4時0 7; 2 1時0 1分- 14 ;列王紀下9點2 6 )。 On the other hand, Moses and Phineas stand before God to plead their people's cause because they embody in themselves the whole community.另一方面,摩西和菲尼亞斯站在上帝面前懇求其人民的事業,因為它們體現在自己的整個社會。 In the intertestamental period, however, this awareness of solidarity passed from being a realized actuality in the social consciousness of the nation to being increasingly an idealistic and theological dogma.在intertestamental時期,然而,這種認識的團結通過從一個認識現狀的社會意識的國家正在日益一種理想和神學教條。

From this perspective of racial solidarity in the first man it follows that Adam's sin involved every individual both in himself and in his social relationships.從這個角度看種族團結是第一位所以亞當的罪孽涉及每一個人都在自己和他的社會關係。 Because of Adam's transgression everyone is affected in the whole range of his being and in the totality of his societal living.由於亞當的海侵每個人都受影響在整個範圍內,他正在和他的全部社會生活。

In the NT在NT

The Teaching of Jesus在教學中的耶穌

In formal statements Jesus had little to say about man.在正式發言耶穌沒有什麼要說的男子。 But by his attitude and actions among men he showed that he regarded the human person as significant.但是,他的態度和行動之間的男子,他表明,他認為人是意義重大。 To Jesus man was not just a part of nature, for he is more precious in God's sight than the birds of the air (Matt. 10:31) and the beasts of the field (Matt. 12:12).耶穌的人不僅是大自然的一部分,因為他是更珍貴的上帝的視線比鳥類的空氣(瑪特泰10:31 )和野獸的外地(瑪特泰12:12 ) 。 His distinctiveness lies in his possession of a soul, or spiritual nature, which to forfeit is his ultimate tragedy and final folly (Matt. 16:26).他的獨特性在於他擁有一個靈魂,或精神性的,沒收是他最終的悲劇,最後愚蠢(瑪特泰16:26 ) 。 Man's true life is consequently life under God and for his glory.人的真正的生命,因此生命是上帝之下和他的榮耀。 It does not consist in the plenitude of earthly possessions (Luke 12:15).它不包括在豐足的人間財產(路12:15 ) 。 The sole wealth is therefore the wealth of the soul (Matt. 6:20, 25).唯一的財富,因此財富的靈魂(瑪特泰6:20 , 25 ) 。 Yet while emphasizing the spiritual aspect of man's nature, Jesus did not decry the body, for he showed concern throughout his ministry for total human needs.但同時強調精神方面的人的性質,耶穌沒有譴責身體,因為他關心他的部總人的需要。

This view of man as a creature of value was for Jesus an ideal and a possibility.這種觀點的人作為動物的價值是耶穌的理想和可能性。 For he saw all individuals, whether man or woman, as blind and lost and their relationship with God broken off.他看到的所有個人,無論是男人還是女人,作為盲人,失去和他們與上帝的關係中斷。 Although he nowhere specified the nature of sin, he clearly assumed its universality.雖然他沒有指明性質的罪孽,他清楚地承擔其普遍性。 All men are somehow caught up in sin's plight and enmeshed in its tragic consequences.所有的人都不知陷入了罪惡的困境,並陷入它的悲慘後果。 Thus, all who would live to God's glory and eternal enjoyment must experience newness of life. And it was precisely this purpose that Christ came into the world to accomplish (Matt. 1:21; Luke 19:10).因此,所有誰生活天主的光榮和永恆的享受必須的經驗新奇的生活。而且正是為此目的,基督來到世界上完成(瑪特泰1點21 ;路加19:10 ) 。 It follows therefore that it is by one's attitude to Christ as the Savior of the world that individual human destiny is finally sealed.它如下因此,它是由一個人的態度,以基督為救主的世界,每個人的命運是最後封閉。

The Pauline Anthropology人類學的波林

Paul's declarations regarding the nature of man are generally stated in relation to salvation so that his anthropology throughout serves the interests of his soteriology. Foremost, therefore, in his teaching in his insistence on man's need of divine grace.保羅的申報有關的性質,男子一般都在有關救恩,使他在整個人類學的利益,他soteriology 。首要的,因此,在他的教學,他堅持人的需要神聖的寬限期。 Paul is emphatic about the universality of man's sin.保羅是有力的普遍性的人的罪孽。 Because of Adam's fall sin somehow got a footing in the world to make human life the sphere of its activity.由於亞當的罪孽下降了某種平等的世界,使人類生活領域的活動。 Sin "entered the world through one man" (Rom. 5:12; cf. 1 Cor. 15:1 - 2).黃大仙“進入了世界一個人” (羅馬書5時12分;比照。一日心病。 15:1 -2 ) 。 Consequent on Adam's trangression, "all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God" (Rom. 3:23).由此對亞當的trangression “ ,都犯過罪和達不到的榮耀上帝” (羅馬書3時23分) 。 To meet man in his plight, Paul sets forth the gospel as a righteousness of God through faith in Jesus Christ for all who believe (cf. Rom. 3:22 - 25).為了滿足男子在他的困境,保羅提出了福音作為一個上帝的正義通過信仰耶穌基督為所有誰相信(參見光碟。三時22分-2 5) 。

In this context Paul contrasts the "old man" of nature (Rom. 6:6; Eph. 4:22; Col. 3:9) who is "after the flesh" (Rom. 8:4, 12; Gal. 4:23, 29, etc.) with the "new man" in grace (Eph. 4:24; cf. 2 Cor. 5:17; Gal. 6:15) who is "after the Spirit" (Rom. 8:5; Gal. 4:29). He speaks also of the "outer nature" of man which perishes and his "inner nature" which abides and is daily being renewed in Christ (2 Cor. 4:16; cf. Eph. 3:16) and of the "natural man" (psychikos anthropos) and "he who is spiritual" (1 Cor. 2:15; cf. 14:37).在這方面,保羅的對比“舊人”的性質(羅馬書6時06分,厄。 4點22分,上校3時09分)誰是“後的肉” (羅馬書8時04分, 12歲;半乳糖。 4 : 23日, 29日等)與“新好男人”的寬限期(以弗所書4點24分;比照。第2肺心病。 5時17 ;半乳糖。 6:15 )誰是“後的精神” (羅馬書8 : 5 ;半乳糖。 4時29分) 。他還談到了“外部性”的男人這perishes和他的“內在性質”的遵守,並延長每天在基督( 2肺心病。 4點16 ;比照。厄。三: 16 )和“自然的人” ( psychikos anthropos )和“誰是精神” ( 1肺心病。 2:15 ;比照。 14時37分) 。

In contrast with the second Adam, the first Adam is "from the earth, a man of dust" (1 Cor. 15:47), but is yet "a living being" (vs. 45). Though man on his earthly side "bears the image of the man of dust" (vs. 45), he can by grace through faith be made to "bear the image of the man from heaven" (vs. 49).與此相反的第二亞當,亞當的第一個是“來自地球的,一個男人的塵埃” ( 1肺心病。 15:47 ) ,但還沒有“活的” (對45 ) 。雖然他的男子一邊人間“熊的形象,該名男子的灰塵” (與45 ) ,他的寬限期可以通過信仰作“熊的形象,該名男子從天上” (比49 ) 。 Man in himself is a moral being with an innate sense of right and wrong which Paul speaks of as his "conscience" (21 times.) This conscience can, however, lose its sensitiveness for the good and become "defiled" (1 Cor. 8:7) and "seared" (1 Tim. 4:2).人在自己是一種道義上的正與天生的責任感正確和錯誤的保羅談到了他的“良心” ( 21倍。 )本良心然而,失去其敏感性好,並成為“玷污” ( 1肺心病。八點07分)和“烙印” ( 1蒂姆。 4:2 ) 。

As the chief exponent of the application of Christ's saving work to personal life Paul can hardly avoid reference to man's essential nature and makeup, and inevitably such allusions reflect the OT usage of terms.作為主要指數的應用基督的拯救工作,個人生活的保羅就很難避免提及人的本質和化妝,典故等不可避免地反映了催產素的使用條件。 At the same time, while he does employ his words with the same general meaning as in the OT, they are more precisely applied in his epistles.與此同時,雖然他不僱用他的話同一般意義上的加時賽中,他們更準確地適用於他的書信。 The most significant terms in his anthropological vocabulary are "flesh" (sarx, 91 times), which he uses in a physical and an ethical sense; "spirit" (pneuma, 146 times), to denote generally the higher, Godward aspect of man's nature; "body" (soma, 89 times), most often to designate the human organism as such, but sometimes the carnal aspect of man's nature; "soul" (psyche, 11 times), broadly to carry the idea of the vital principle of individual life.最重要的條件在他的人類學的詞彙是“肉” ( sarx , 91倍) ,這是他利用在身體和道德意識; “精神” (元氣, 146次) ,指一般的高, Godward方面的男子性質; “機構” (體, 89倍) ,通常是指定的人的機體本身,但有時肉體方面的人的性質; “靈魂” (靈魂, 11次) ,開展廣泛的思想的重要原則個人的生活。

Paul has several words translated "mind" in the English versions to specify man's native rational ability which is in the natural man seriously affected by sin (Rom. 1:8; 8:6 - 7; Eph. 4:17; Col. 2:18; I Tim. 3:8; Titus 1:15).保羅有幾個字詞翻譯“心”的英文版本,指定人的母語能力合理這是自然的人受到嚴重影響罪孽(羅馬書1:8 ; 8點06分-7 ;厄。 4時1 7分;上校第2 : 18 ,我添。 3時08分;泰特斯1:15 ) 。 But the mind transformed brings God acceptable worship (Rom. 12:2; Eph. 4:23) and so becomes in the believer the mind of Christ (1 Cor. 2:16; cf. Phil. 2:5).但是,考慮到轉變帶來了上帝接受禮拜(羅馬書12:2 ;厄。 4:23 ) ,因此成為在信徒心靈的基督( 1肺心病。二點16分;比照。菲爾。 2:5 ) 。 The term "heart" (kardia, 52 times) specifies for Paul the innermost sanctuary of man's psychical being either as a whole or with one or another of its significant activities, emotional, rational, or volitional.這個詞“心臟” ( kardia , 52次)指定為保羅的內心庇護人的心理也被作為一個整體或同一個或另一個重要活動,情感,理性,或意志。

Sometimes Paul contrasts these aspects, flesh and spirit, body and soul, to give the impression of a dualism of man's nature.有時保羅對比這些方面,肉體和精神,身體和靈魂,給人的印象一個二元論人的性質。 At other times he introduces the threefold characterization, body, soul, and spirit (1 Thess. 5:23), which raises the question whether man is to be conceived dichotomously or trichotomously.在其他時候,他介紹了三個特點,身體,靈魂,精神( 1洛尼基。 5時23分) ,其中引起的問題是人是設想dichotomously或trichotomously 。 The interchangeable use of the terms "spirit" and "soul" seems to confirm the former view, while the fact that they are sometimes contrasted is held to support the latter.在互換使用“精神”和“靈魂”似乎證實了前一種看法的,而事實上,他們有時是對比舉行,以支持後者。 Yet, however used, both terms refer to man's inner nature over against flesh or body, which refers to the outer aspect of man as existing in space and time.然而,然而使用,這兩個詞是指人的內在性質對肉以上或機構,這是指外部方面,現有的男子在空間和時間。 In reference, then, to man's psychical nature, "spirit" denotes life as having its origin in God and "soul" denotes that same life as constituted in man. Spirit is the inner depth of man's being, the higher aspect of his personality.在提及,那麼,人的心理性質, “精神”是指有生命起源於上帝和“靈魂”是指同樣的生活,人組成。精神是內在深入人的福祉,更高的方面他的個性。 Soul expresses man's own special and distinctive individuality.人的靈魂表示自己的特殊和獨特的個性。 The pneuma is man's nonmaterial nature looking Godward; the psyche is that same nature of man looking earthward and touching the things of sense.的靈魂是人的nonmaterial性質尋找Godward ;的心靈是同樣性質的人尋找earthward和感人的事情的意義。

Other NT Writings其他新台幣著作

The rest of the NT in its scattered allusions to man's nature and constituents is in general agreement with the teaching of Jesus and of Paul.其餘的新台幣在其分散的典故,以人的性質和成分是普遍同意的教學耶穌和保羅。 In the Johannine writings the estimate of man is centered on Jesus Christ as true man and what man may become in relation to him.在Johannine著作的估計數名男子是圍繞耶穌基督真正的男人和什麼人可能成為與他。 Although John begins his Gospel by asserting the eternal Godhead of Christ as Son of God, he declares in the starkest manner the humanity of the Word made flesh.雖然約翰開始他的福音的主張神體永恆的基督作為上帝之子,他宣布在赤裸裸的方式人類的Word了肉。 Jesus does all that may become a man, all that God intended man should be. What people saw was a "man that is called Jesus" (John 9:11; cf. 19:5).耶穌也都可能成為一個男人,所有的人打算上帝應。什麼人看到的是“人是所謂的耶穌” (約9時11 ;比照。 19點05 ) 。 It is against the perfect humanness of Jesus that the dignity of every man is to be measured.這是對完美人性的耶穌的尊嚴,每個人都是來衡量。 By uniting himself with man, God's Son has made it clear for always that being human is no mean condition.團結自己的人,上帝的兒子已經明確的始終是人類的意思是沒有條件。 For he took upon himself all that is properly human to restore man to his sonship with God (John 1:13; 1 John 3:1).對於他對自己的一切是正確的,恢復他的人sonship與上帝(約翰1:13 ;約翰一書3:1 ) 。 Such too is the theme of the Epistle to the Hebrews.這些也是的主題書希伯來人。 James declares that man is created in the "likeness" (homoiosin) of God (3:9).詹姆斯宣布,男子是建立在“肖像” ( homoiosin )神(三時09分) 。

Historical Development歷史發展

From these biblical statements about man's nature, the history of Christian though has focused on three main issues.從這些聖經聲明關於人的性質,歷史上的基督教雖然側重於三個主要問題。

Content of the Image內容的圖像

The most enduring of these concerns is the content of the image.最讓人難以忘懷的這些問題是內容的圖片。 Irenaeus first introduced the distinction between the "image" (Heb. selem; Lat. imago) and "likeness" (Heb. demut; Lat. similitudo).依首次引入之間的區別“形象” (希伯來書selem ;叻。意象)和“肖像” (希伯來書demut ;叻。 similitudo ) 。 The former he identified as the rationality and free will which inhere in man qua man.他的前確定的合理性和自由意志而在男子inhere條件的人。 The likeness he conceived to be a superadded gift of God's righteousness which man, because of his reason and freedom of choice, had the possibility to retain and advance by obedience to the divine commands.像他的設想是一個superadded上帝的禮物的正義的人,因為他的理由和選擇的自由,有可能保留和提前服從神的命令。 But this probationary endowment man was to forfeit by his act of willful disobedience for both himself and descendants.但是,這試用養老男子被沒收他的行為,故意不服從命令為自己和後代。 This thesis of Irenaeus was generally upheld by the scholastics and was given dogmatic application by Aquinas.這一論斷的依普遍堅持的scholastics ,並給予教條式的申請阿奎那。 In Aquinas's view, however, Adam had need of divine aid to continue in the path of holiness.在阿奎那的觀點,但是,亞當有需要神聖的援助,繼續在路徑的聖德。 But this aid, in its turn, was conditioned on Adam's effort and determination to obey God's law.但這種援助,反過來,條件是亞當的努力和決心服從上帝的法律。 Thus from the first, in Aquinas's scheme, divine grace was made to depend on human merit.因此,從第一,在阿奎那的計劃,神的恩典是依賴於人的優點。

The Reformers denied this distinction between image and likeness upon which the works - salvation of medievalism was reared in their insistence upon the radical nature of sin and its effect upon the total being of man.改革者否認這一點區別的形象和肖像在此基礎工程-拯救中世紀被飼養在其堅持的根本性質的罪惡和其影響的總的福利的人。 Thus did they maintain that salvation is by grace alone and by faith alone as the gift of God.因此,他們堅持認為,得救的恩典是單獨和獨立信仰的上帝的禮物。

Some moderns have revived Irenaeus's distinction under new terms. Emil Brunner, for example, speaks of the "formal" image to express the essential structure of man's being, which is not greatly affected by the fall.有些現代人已經恢復了愛任紐的區別在新的條件。埃米爾布,例如,談到“正式”的形象表達的基本結構,人的福利,這不是很大的影響的下跌。 The "material" image on the other hand, he regards as quite lost by man's sin.在“材料”的形象另一方面,他認為,這是相當失去人的罪孽。 Reinhold Niebuhr has returned to the scholastic distinction more closely as regards both terminology and thesis.萊因霍爾德尼布爾又回到了學校更密切的區別就雙方的術語和論文。 Those who do not admit a different connotation for the terms have sought to identify the content of the image as either corporeal form or pure spirit.這些誰不承認一個不同內涵的詞彙,力求確定的內容,形象或者物質的形式或純粹的精神。 Schleiermacher speaks of the image as man's dominion over nature, a view expounded in more recent days by Hans Wolff and L Verdium.施講的形象,人的支配權性質,以期更多的闡述了最近幾天的漢斯沃爾夫和L Verdium 。

Karl Barth conceived of it in terms of male and female, although he stresses at the same time that only in relation to Christ is there a true understanding of man.卡爾巴特設想它在男性和女性,但他強調在同一時間,只有在與基督是有一個真正了解的人。 The Reformed position is that the image of God in man consists in man's rationality and moral competency, but that it is precisely these realities of his being which were lost or marred through sin.改革的立場是,上帝的形象在男子組成,在人的理性和道義上的競爭力,但是,正是這些現實,他正在被遺失或破壞通過罪孽。 Others consider personality as the ingredient of the image, while still others prefer to see it as sonship, contending that man was created for that relationship.其他考慮人格的組成部分的形象,同時還有一些更願意把它看作sonship ,認為人是為這種關係。 But by his sin he repudiated his sonship, which can be restored only in Christ.但是,他的罪過,他否認他sonship ,這才能恢復在基督。


The Origin of the Soul的起源之魂

In the light of such passages as Ps.鑑於這些通道的物質。 12:7; Isa. 12時07分;伊薩。 42:5; Zech. 42:5 ;撒加利亞。 12:1; and Heb. 12:1 ;和河北。 12:9, the creationist doctrine that God is the immediate creator of the human soul has been built. 12時09分,在創世學說,上帝是立即製作人的靈魂已經建成。 First elaborated by Lactantius (c. 240 - c. 320), it had the support of Jerome and of Calvin among the Reformers.首先闡述潭修斯(角240 -角3 20) ,它的支持,杰羅姆和卡爾文之間的改革者。 Aquinas declared any other view to be heretical and so followed Peter Lombard, who in his Sentences says, "The Church teaches that souls are created at their infusion into the body."阿奎那宣布任何其他認為是異端邪說,因此隨後彼得倫巴第,誰在他的句子說, “教會教導我們的靈魂是建立在其注入到身體。 ”

The alternative view, traducianism (Lat. tradux, a branch or shoot), expounded by Tertullian, is that the substances of both soul and body are formed and propagated together.另一種認為, traducianism ( Lat. tradux ,一個部門或射擊) ,闡述良,是物質的靈魂和身體的形成和傳播在一起。 Favored by Luther, it is consequently generally adopted by later Lutheran theologians.路德的青睞,因此,它是一般通過後路德神學。 In support of the view is the observation that Gen. 1:27 represents God as creating the species in Adam to be propagated "after its kind" (cf. Gen. 1:12, 21, 25).在支持的觀點是看法,即1點27分將軍代表上帝創造的物種在亞當是宣揚“後,那種” (見將軍1:12 , 21 , 25 ) 。 And this increase through secondary causes is implied in the following verse (cf.vs. 22; 5:3; 46:26; John 1:13; Heb. 7:9 - 10) and in the passages which suggest the solidarity of the race and its sin in the first man (Rom. 5:12 - 13; I Cor. 15:22; Eph. 2:3).並通過增加次要原因是隱含在下面的詩句( cf.vs. 22 ; 5時03 ; 46:26 ;約翰1:13 ;河北。七時09分-1 0) ,並在通道的建議的團結種族和其罪惡中的第一人(羅馬書五點12分-1 3,我肺心病。 1 5:22;厄。 2 :3) 。

From its stress on the continuing kinship of God and man, the Eastern church has favored creationism.從強調血緣關係的持續上帝和人類,東部教會創青睞。 Here God is regarded as acting immediately to bring individual life into being.在這裡上帝被看作是立即採取行動,使個人生活中。 The Western church, on the other hand, by emphasizing God's otherness from the created order and the depth of the yawning gulf between the human and divine consequent on man's sin, sees God's contact with man in the world as more distant.西方教會,另一方面,強調上帝的異類從建立秩序和深度的巨大差距的人力和神聖因而對人的罪孽,認為上帝的聯繫與男子在世界上更為遙遠。 Traducianism, therefore, in which God's relation to individual conception and birth is held to be mediated, has had from the third century wide support. Traducianism ,因此,在上帝的個別概念和出生將舉行介導的,已經從三世紀廣泛的支持。

The Extent of Freedom程度的自由

Consonant with his idea of the imago Dei as grounded in man's nature as rational and free, Justin Martyr set in motion the view that every man is responsible for his own wrongdoing, which was to become a characteristic note of the Eastern church.符合他的想法的意象棣作為植根於人的自然理性和自由,賈斯汀烈士啟動認為,每個人負責自己的錯誤,這是成為一個特點注意到東歐教堂。 Thus Adam is seen as the primary type of each man's sinning, and his fall is the story of Everyman.因此,亞當被看作是主要類型的每個人的斯辛寧,他的秋天是普通人的故事。 Western theology, by contrast, regards Adam's transgression as the fountainhead of all human evil, but against Gnosticism refused to locate its source in individual life in the material of the body.西方神學,相反,關於亞當的海侵的源泉所有人權的罪惡,而是針對諾斯替主義拒絕找出其根源在個人生活中的材料的機構。 Tertullian traced sin to humanity's connection with Adam, through whom it has become a natural element of every man's nature.良追溯到罪孽人類與亞當,通過他們這已成為一種自然的因素每個人的性質。 Yet he allowed some residue of free will to remain.然而,他使一些殘留的自由意願依然存在。

In Pelagius and Augustine these two views came into sharp conflict. Pelagius taught that man was unaffected by Adam's transgression, his will retaining the liberty of indifference so that he possesses in himself the ability to choose good or evil.在伯拉糾和奧古斯丁這兩種觀點開始鮮明的衝突。貝拉基告訴我們,人沒有受到亞當的海侵,他將保留自由的冷漠,使他擁有在自己的能力,選擇好或邪惡。 In the light of Rom. 5:12 - 13 Augustine maintained that Adam's sin has so crippled man that he can act only to express his sinful nature inherited from his first parents.鑑於光盤。五點12 -1 3奧古斯丁認為,亞當的罪孽已經癱瘓的人,他的行為不僅可以表達自己罪孽深重的性質繼承他的父母。 The inevitable compromise appeared in the semi - Pelagian (or semi - Augustinian) synergistic thesis that while all men do inherit a bias to sin, a freedom of decision remains that permits at least some men to take the first step toward righteousness.不可避免的妥協似乎在半決賽-P elagian(或半-奧古斯丁)協同作用的論文,雖然所有男性繼承偏差,罪過,一個自由的決定是,允許至少有一些人採取的第一步正氣。 In the Calvinist - Arminian controversy of the seventeenth century the conflict was reenacted.在加爾文主義-A rminian爭議, 1 7世紀的衝突重演。 Calvin contended for the total depravity of man; man "has no good remaining in him." Therefore the will is not free to choose the good; so salvation is an act of God's sovereign grace.卡爾文爭辯的總墮落的人;人“沒有良好的留在他。 ”因此,將沒有自由選擇的好,所以得救是一種上帝的主權寬限期。

Arminius allowed that Adam's sin had dire consequences and that each posseses a "natural propensity" to sin (John Wesley), while maintaining, at the same time, that it belongs to every man of his own free will to ratify this inner direction of his nature.亞米紐斯允許該亞當的罪孽了可怕的後果,每個擁有“自然傾向”的罪孽(約翰衛斯理) ,同時保持,在同一時間,它屬於每個人自己的自由意志,批准這一內在的方向性質。 On the other hand, it is possible for any man, by accepting the aid of the Holy Spirit, to opt for God's way, for he still possesses an inner ability so to do.另一方面,有可能對任何人,通過接受援助的聖靈,選擇上帝的道路,他仍然擁有一個內部能力這樣做。

In the Pelagian - humanist scheme all men are well and need only a tonic to keep them in good health.在Pelagian -人文主義計劃所有的人都很好,只需要補藥,以使他們健康狀況良好。 In the semi - Pelagian (semi - Augustinian) - Arminian doctrine man is sick and requires the right medicine for his recovery.在半決賽-P elagian(半-奧古斯丁)- A rm inian學說男子生病,需要對症下藥,為他的康復。 In the Augustinian - Calvinist view man is dead and can be renewed to life only by a divinely initiated resurrection.在奧古斯丁-加爾文主義觀點的人已經死了,可新的生命只能由神開始復活。

HD McDonald高清麥當勞
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (規矩福音字典)

Bibliography 目錄
SB Babbage, Man in Nature and Grace; E Brunner, Man in Revolt; G Carey, I Believe in Man; S Cave, The Christian Estimate of Man; D Cairns, The Image of God in Man; W Eichrodt, Man in the OT ; WG Kummel, Man in the NT ; J Laidlaw, The Bible Doctrine of Man; JG Machen, The Christian View of Man; HD McDonald, The Christian View of Man; J Moltmann, Man; J Orr, God's Image in Man; HW Robinson, The Christian Doctrine of Man; RF Shedd, Man in Community; CR Smith, The Bible Doctrine of Man; WD Stacey, The Pauline View of Man; TF Torrance, Calvin's Doctrine of Man; CA vanPeursen, Body, Soul, Spirit; JS Wright, What Is Man?銻巴貝奇,人在自然和恩典;電子郵件布,人在起義; G凱里,我相信人;山洞,基督教估計人; D凱恩斯,圖像在上帝的人; W Eichrodt ,人在加時賽;工作組Kummel ,人在新台幣; J萊德勞,聖經學說的人; JG麥,基督教觀的人;高清麥當勞,基督教觀的人; J莫爾特曼,男; J奧爾,上帝的形象在人;老羅賓遜,基督教學說的人;射頻謝德,人在共同體;責任史密斯,聖經學說的人;的WD斯泰西,波利娜觀的人;因子托蘭斯,加爾文的學說的人;加利福尼亞州vanPeursen ,身體,靈魂,精神;江蘇賴特,什麼是人?

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