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The term scholasticism (from the Latin schola, "school") refers properly both to the doctrine and method of teaching in the medieval European schools and to their successive revivals to the present day.任期院(從拉丁美洲schola , “學校” )是指既正確的理論和教學方法在中世紀歐洲的學校和他們連續revivals到今天。 As a method, scholasticism involves (1) the close, detailed reading (lectio) of a particular book recognized as a great or authoritative work of human or divine origin--for example, Aristotle in logic, Euclid in geometry, Cicero in rhetoric, Avicenna and Galen in medicine, the Bible in theology-- and (2) the open discussion (disputatio) in strict logical form of a relevant question (quaestio) arising from the text.作為一種方法,墨守成規涉及( 1 )收盤時,詳細閱讀( lectio )的特定書籍承認是一個偉大的或權威性的工作的人或神的原產地-例如,亞里士多德的邏輯,歐幾里德幾何,西塞羅的言論,阿維森納和蓋倫在醫藥,聖經神學-( 2 )公開討論( d isputatio)在嚴格的邏輯形式的有關問題( q uaestio)所產生的文字。 As a doctrine, scholasticism refers to the kind of philosophy, theology, medicine, and law (canon and civil) taught by the faculties responsible for these disciplines.作為一個原則,院指的是一種哲學,神學,醫學,法律(佳能和民間)任教的教師負責這些學科。 These four faculties constituted the medieval universities that began to be organized in the 12th century, beginning in Bologna, Paris, and Oxford.這四個學院構成了中世紀大學開始舉辦的12世紀,開始在博洛尼亞,巴黎和牛津大學。

The most important faculties, however, were arts (philosophy) and theology, and the term scholasticism is usually understood in the context of those disciplines.最重要的院系,但是,藝術(哲學)和神學,並長期墨守成規的理解通常是在這些學科。

The basic philosophy of the faculty of arts was Aristotelian because the greatest and most authoritative books in philosophy were believed to be Aristotle's.基本的哲學藝術系,因為是亞里士多德的最大和最權威的哲學書籍被認為是亞里士多德的。 Aristotle, however, was interpreted differently by different professors depending on the commentaries used, notably those of "the Commentator," Averroes; the Christian Neoplatonist, Saint Augustine; or the pagan Neoplatonist, Avicenna.亞里士多德,但是,不同的解釋不同的教授取決於所使用的評注,特別是那些對“評論員” ,阿威羅伊;基督教Neoplatonist ,聖奧古斯丁;或異教徒Neoplatonist ,阿維森納。

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Similarly in theology, the Bible was variously interpreted depending on the kind of philosophy used to understand the Christian faith systematically.同樣,在神學,聖經是不同的解釋,而這樣的哲學用於了解基督教信仰的系統。 Among the numerous ways of systematizing the faith, certain schools of theology stand out as particularly notable and viable throughout the Middle Ages and to the present day.在眾多的方法系統化的信仰,某些學校的神學脫穎而出,特別顯著的和可行的整個中世紀到今天。 The most important of these scholastic theologies were Thomism, developed from the teaching of Saint Thomas Aquinas; Augustinism, developed from Saint Augustine; Scotism, from John Duns Scotus; Nominalism, from William of Occam; and Suarazianism, formulated by Francisco Suarez, a 16th-century Jesuit who tried to synthesize various schools.其中最重要的學術theologies被Thomism ,發達國家從教學的聖托馬斯阿奎那; Augustinism ,發達國家從聖奧古斯丁; Scotism ,從約翰鄧司各脫;唯名論,從奧卡姆的威廉和Suarazianism ,制定舊金山蘇亞雷斯16世紀耶穌誰試圖綜合各學校。 The basic principle underlying all forms of scholasticism was rational consistency with the Christian faith as taught in the Bible and as understood by the living Church of Rome through the writings of the ancient Greek and Latin Fathers, the rulings of the ecumenical councils, the liturgy, and the continuing teaching and practice of the church.的基本原則的一切形式的煩瑣哲學是理性的一致性與基督教信仰的教導在聖經和理解的生活羅馬教會的著作通過對古代希臘和拉丁教父,裁決的基督教議會,禮儀,和持續不斷的教學和實踐中的教堂。

Scholasticism is generally divided into three periods: medieval scholasticism, extending from Boethius (5th-6th century) to the 16th century, with its Golden Age in the 13th century; "second scholasticism," beginning in the 16th century with Thomas de Vio Cajetan, Conrad Koellin, Peter Crokert, Francesco de Vittoria, and Francisco Suarez; and neoscholasticism, beginning in the early 19th century, given impetus by the encyclical Aeterni Patris (1879) of Pope Leo XIII, and continuing at least until the Second Vatican Council (1962-65).士林一般分為三個時期:中世紀的經院,從Boethius ( 5 〜 6世紀) 16世紀,其黃金時代在13世紀; “第二院” ,開始在16世紀的托馬斯Vio Cajetan ,康拉德Koellin ,彼得Crokert ,弗朗切斯科德維多利亞,和弗朗西斯蘇亞雷斯;和neoscholasticism ,自19世紀初,有力地推動了通諭Aeterni祖國報( 1879年)教皇利奧十三世,並持續至少在第二次梵蒂岡會議( 1962年-65 ) 。

Medieval Scholasticism中世紀經院哲學

Boethius is generally called "the first scholastic" because he provided the first Latin translations of Aristotle's logic and other basic works used in the schools of the early Middle Ages as a prerequisite to understanding the Bible and the Latin Church Fathers and to becoming an educated person. Boethius通常是所謂的“第一學年” ,因為他提供了第一個拉丁美洲翻譯亞里士多德的邏輯和其他基本工程中使用的學校,中世紀早期的一個先決條件,以了解聖經和拉丁美洲教會神父,並成為一個受過教育的人。 In this early period, however, the dominant philosophical influence was Platonism or NeoPlatonism, particularly as it was reflected in the work of Saint Augustine.在這個早期階段,但佔主導地位的哲學是柏拉圖的影響或新柏拉圖主義,特別是體現在工作的聖奧古斯丁。 Augustine formulated the maxim "Understand so that you may believe, believe so that you may understand"--an approach that lay at the heart of scholasticism--and urged the use of dialectics in examining Christian doctrine.奧古斯丁制定的格言“理解,這樣您可以相信,認為這樣您就可以理解” -這種方法的核心所在院-並敦促使用辯證法在審查基督教教義。 His principles were applied with rigor by such early scholastics as John Scotus Erigena, Saint Anselm, Peter Abelard, Alan of Lille, and numerous teachers in the cathedral schools of Laon, Chartres, Paris, Poitiers, and the abbey school of Saint- Victor in Paris.他的原則是適用於這種嚴謹的早期scholastics約翰司各脫Erigena ,降再降,彼得亞伯拉德,艾倫的里爾,和許多教師在學校的教堂拉昂,沙特爾,巴黎,普瓦捷,和修道院學校的聖維克多在巴黎。

In a stricter sense, scholasticism began with the Sentences (c.1150) of Peter Lombard, the Decretum (c.1150) of Gratian, and the flood of new Latin translations of classical philosophers, including all of Aristotle, made from Greek and Arabic throughout the second half of the 12th century.在嚴格意義上來說,煩瑣哲學始於句( c.1150 )彼得隆巴德的教令( c.1150 )的格拉提安,以及大量的新的拉丁美洲翻譯的古典哲學家,包括所有的亞里士多德,從希臘和阿拉伯語整個下半年的12世紀。 Assimilation of this new learning took place in the universities of the 13th century through the genius of the Dominicans Saint Albertus Magnus and his great pupil Thomas Aquinas, whose Summa Theologicae is widely regarded as the pinnacle of scholastic theology; and of the Franciscans Saint Bonaventure, John Duns Scotus, and William of Occam (early 14th century), who challenged the Dominican school.同化這一新的學習發生在大學的13世紀通過的天才多米尼加聖艾伯塔斯Magnus和他的偉大的學生托馬斯阿奎那的神學Theologicae被廣泛認為是巔峰學習神學;和聖方濟文德,約翰鄧司各脫,並奧卡姆的威廉( 14世紀初) ,誰挑戰多米尼加學校。

With the multiplication of universities between the 14th and 16th centuries came a decline in the standard of teaching and the caliber of teachers, and a "logicism" or formalism of thought that aroused the animosity of a new humanism that arose mainly outside university circles.隨著大學的乘法之間的第14和第16世紀是下降的教學水平和高素質的教師,和一個“ logicism ”或形式主義的思想,引起的仇恨一個新的人文主義認為主要是由於大學圈子外面。 The term scholasticism then began to be used in a derogatory sense.在長期墨守成規然後開始用在貶義。

Second Scholasticism第二士林

The Protestant Reformation in the 16th century stimulated a revival of theology by a return to the language of the Bible, the Fathers of the Church, and the great scholastics of the 13th century.新教改革在16世紀復甦刺激了神學的回歸語言的聖經,父親教會,偉大的scholastics 13世紀。 This second scholasticism was aided by the founding (1540) of the Society of Jesus (the Jesuits) by Saint Ignatius Loyola with the approval of Pope Paul III.這是第二院的協助下成立( 1540年)的耶穌會(耶穌)的聖依納爵羅耀拉的批准教皇保羅三世。 Foremost among the Jesuit scholastics of this period were Saint Robert Bellarmine, Francisco Suarez, and Gabriel Vazquez.其中最主要的耶穌scholastics此期間,羅伯特貝拉明聖弗朗西斯科蘇亞雷斯,巴斯克斯和加布里埃爾。 Due largely to the scientific revolution of the 17th century (beginning with Galileo), the quest for philosophic originality (beginning with Rene Descartes), the rise of nationalism and colonization, and the splintering of Protestant religions, second scholasticism declined.主要原因是科技革命的17世紀(從伽利略) ,尋求哲學的原創性(從笛卡爾) ,崛起的民族主義和殖民統治,以及分裂的新教,第二院拒絕。 Some forms of schoolbook scholasticism, however, remained for a time in Catholic countries, particularly Spain and Latin America.某些形式的教科書院,但仍然是今後一個時期的天主教國家,尤其是西班牙和拉丁美洲。 By the 18th century, scholasticism had again become a derogatory term, especially in non-Catholic countries.到18世紀,院再次成為一個貶義詞,尤其是在非天主教國家。


Early in the 19th century in Italy certain Catholic professors of philosophy began to see in Aquinas's teaching basic principles that might resolve the problems associated with Kantian and Hegelian Idealism, British Empiricism, current Rationalism, Skepticism, and Liberalism.早在19世紀在意大利的某些天主教哲學教授開始看到在阿奎那的教學基本原則,可以解決相關問題的康德和黑格爾的唯心主義,英國經驗主義,當前的理性,懷疑主義,與自由主義。 By 1850, neo-Thomism or neoscholasticism began to be heard through the writings of Gaetano Sanseverino in Naples, Matteo Liberatore in Rome, and the Jesuit periodical Civilita Cattolica founded in Naples in 1850.到1850年,新Thomism或neoscholasticism開始通過聽取著作加埃塔諾Sanseverino在那不勒斯,利瑪竇Liberatore在羅馬,和耶穌期刊Civilita天主教在那不勒斯成立於1850年。 These efforts were brought to a head by Josef Kleutgen in Germany, Henri LaCordaire in France, Zeferino Gonzales in the Philippines and Spain, and Tommaso Zigliara and Pope Leo XIII in Italy.這些努力使頭由約瑟夫Kleutgen在德國,法國拉科代爾在法國, Zeferino岡薩雷斯在菲律賓和西班牙,和托馬索Zigliara和教皇利奧十三世在意大利。 The charter of this neo-Thomism was Leo's Aeterni Patris (1879).該憲章的這一新Thomism是獅子座的Aeterni祖國報( 1879年) 。 Through subsequent encyclicals, Leo exemplified the applicability of Thomistic ideas to contemporary problems.通過以後的通諭,利奧體現的適用性Thomistic思想對當代的問題。 All subsequent popes, including John Paul II, reiterated the need for a Christian philosophy based on Thomistic principles.後來所有的教皇,其中包括約翰保羅二世,重申需要一個基督教哲學的基礎上Thomistic原則。

The rise of Modernism in the Roman Catholic church after 1900, however, resulted in a multiplicity of ecclesiastical condemnations, a legislated Thomism, and a failure to realize the hopes of Leo XIII.崛起的現代主義在羅馬天主教後, 1900年,但是,由於多種宗教的譴責,法律規定的Thomism ,並未能實現的希望利奧十三世。 Despite this and two world wars, much fruitful work was accomplished by outstanding scholars, numerous periodicals, and editors of historical texts, including the critical edition of the works of Aquinas (the Leonine Edition).儘管這和兩次世界大戰,大量卓有成效的工作是由傑出的學者,許多期刊,和編輯的歷史文本,其中包括關鍵的版本的作品阿奎那(在Leonine版) 。 Among the great number of modern scholars who called themselves Thomists (but not neo-Thomists or neoscholastics) were Jacques Maritain, Etienne Gilson, Martin Grabmann, and Yves Congar.在大量的現代學者的人稱自己是誰Thomists (但不是新Thomists或neoscholastics )是雅克馬里丹,艾蒂安吉爾森,馬丁Grabmann ,和Yves Congar 。

For reasons still not fully understood, a decided reaction against Aquinas and neoscholasticism occurred in the 1960s.出於還沒有完全理解,一個決定對阿奎那的反應和neoscholasticism發生在20世紀60年代。 Some have erroneously associated this with the Second Vatican Council, which turned people's minds toward social rather than doctrinal issues.有些人誤與此相關的第二次梵蒂岡會議之際,人們的思想走向社會,而不是理論上的問題。 Aquinas was, however, the only scholastic doctor mentioned by name in all the conciliar documents.阿奎那然而,只有學習的醫生中點名提到的所有conciliar文件。 The real reasons for the decline of neoscholasticism must be sought in the wider sociological and psychological concerns of contemporary society.真正的原因,下降neoscholasticism必須尋求在更廣泛的社會和心理關注的當代社會。

James A. Weisheipl詹姆斯A Weisheipl

Bibliography 目錄
Cassidy, Frank P., Molders of the Medieval Mind (1944; repr., 1966); Congar, Yves, A History of Theology (1968); Gilson, Etienne, The Christian Philosophy of Saint Thomas Aquinas (1957) and History of Christian Philosophy in the Middle Ages (1955); McInerny, RM, ed., New Themes in Christian Philosophy (1968); Pieper, Josef, Scholasticism: Personalities and Problems of Medieval Philosophy, trans.卡西迪,弗蘭克體育,模塑中世紀的心靈( 1944 ; repr 。 , 1966年) ; Congar ,伊夫,歷史神學( 1968年) ;吉爾森,艾蒂安,基督教哲學的聖托馬斯阿奎那( 1957年)和基督教的歷史哲學在中世紀( 1955年) ; McInerny ,產品,編輯。 ,新的主題在基督教哲學( 1968年) ;皮珀,約瑟夫,士林:人格及存在的問題中世紀哲學,跨。 by Richard and Clara Winston (1960); Smalley, Beryl, The Becket Conflict and the Schools: A Study of Intellectuals in Politics (1973); Weinberg, JR, A Short History of Medieval Philosophy (1964).由理查德和克拉拉溫斯頓( 1960年) ;斯莫利,綠柱石,貝克特衝突與學校:研究知識分子在政治( 1973年) ;溫伯格,紅外,簡史中世紀哲學( 1964年) 。

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