General Information 一般信息

A place not far from the walls of Jerusalem where Christ was crucified and near which He was buried (Luke 23:33).某一地點不遠處的牆壁在耶路撒冷的基督被釘在十字架和附近,他被安葬(路23:33 ) 。 The exact location is a matter of dispute.確切位置是一個問題的爭端。

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Advanced Information 先進的信息

Calvary is a word found only in Luke 23:33, the Latin name Calvaria, which was used as a translation of the Greek word Kranion, by which the Hebrew word Gulgoleth was interpreted, "the place of a skull."各各他是一個字僅見於路加23:33 ,拉丁名稱顱骨,這是作為翻譯的希臘詞Kranion ,其中希伯來文字Gulgoleth的解釋“ ,地方的頭骨。 ” It probably took this name from its shape, being a hillock or low, rounded, bare elevation somewhat in the form of a human skull.也許在這個名稱來自其形狀,是一個小丘或低,四捨五入,海拔有點裸露的形式,一個人頭骨。 It is nowhere in Scripture called a "hill."這是聖經中沒有所謂的“山頭” 。 The crucifixion of our Lord took place outside the city walls (Heb. 13:11-13) and near the public thoroughfare.受難我們的主外發生了城牆(希伯來書13:11-13 )和附近的公共通道。 "This thing was not done in a corner." (Also called Golgotha in Aramaic.) “這事卻沒有這樣做在角落裡。 ” (也稱為墓地在阿拉姆語。 )

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (伊斯頓畫報詞典)


Advanced Information 先進的信息

Calvary, kara, "a head" (Eng., "cranium"), a diminutive of kranon, denotes "a skull" (Latin calvaria), Matt.各各他,卡拉, “一個頭” (英, “顱骨” ) ,一個小的kranon ,是指“一個頭骨” (拉丁美洲顱骨) ,馬特。 27:33; Mark 15:22; Luke 23:33; John 19:17. 27:33 ;馬克15:22 ;盧克23:33 ;約翰19:17 。 The corresponding Aramaic word is Golgotha (Heb. gulgoleth; see Judg. 9:53; 2 Kings 9:35).的相應亞拉姆字是墓地(希伯來書gulgoleth ;見Judg 。 9點53分;列王紀下9:35 ) 。

Mount Calvary各各他山

Catholic Information 天主教新聞

The place of the Crucifixion of Jesus Christ.這個地方的十字架上的耶穌。


Etymology and Use詞源和使用

The word Calvary (Latin Calvaria) means "a skull".這個詞髑髏(拉丁文顱骨)的意思是“骷髏” 。 Calvaria and the Gr.顱骨和石墨。 Kranion are equivalents for the original Golgotha. Kranion是等同的原始墓地。 The ingenious conjecture that Golgotha may be a contraction for Gol Goatha and may accordingly have signified "mount of execution", and been related to Goatha in Jer., xxxi, 39, has found scarcely any supporters.獨創的猜測,墓地可能是一個收縮的戈爾Goatha ,並可能因此也標誌著“執行安裝” ,並得到有關Goatha在哲。 ,三十一,第39條,發現幾乎沒有任何支持者。 The diminutive monticulus (little mount) was coupled with the name AD 333 by the "Pilgrim of Bordeaux". monticulus的小(小芒)是加上333名反傾銷的“朝聖者的波爾多” 。

Towards the beginning of the fifth century Rufinus spoke of "the rock of Golgotha".對年初五世紀Rufinus談到“岩石的墓地” 。 Since the sixth century the usage has been to designate Calvary as a mountain.自六世紀的使用率已指定各各他作為一個山區。 The Gospel styles it merely a "place", (Matthew 27:33; Mark 15:22; Luke 23:33; John 19:17).福音風格它只是一個“地方” , (馬太27:33 ;馬克15:22 ;盧克23:33 ;約翰19:17 ) 。

Origin of the Name產地名稱

The following theories have been advanced:下面的理論已經先進:

Calvary may have been a place of public execution, and so named from the skulls strewn over it.各各他可能已被一個地方的公共執行,所以命名為從頭骨散落權。 The victims were perhaps abandoned to become a prey to birds and beasts, as Jezabel and Pharao's baker had been (2 Kings 9:35; Genesis 40:19, 22).受害者是被遺棄的可能成為一個犧牲品飛禽走獸,如Jezabel和法老的麵包已經(列王紀下9:35 ;創世記40:19 , 22 ) 。

Its name may have been derived from a cemetery that may have stood near.它的名字可能已被來自一個墓地,可能為附近。 There is no reason for believing that Joseph's tomb, in which the body of Christ was laid, was an isolated one, especially since it was located in the district later on described by Josephus as containing the monument of the high-priest John.沒有任何理由相信,約瑟夫的墳墓,其中基督的奧體是基礎,是一個孤立的,尤其是因為它是設在該地區後來所描述的約瑟夫含有紀念碑高牧師約翰。 This hypothesis has the further advantage of explaining the thinness of the population in this quarter at so late a period as that of the siege of Jerusalem (Jos., Bell. jud., V, vi, 2).這種假說的進一步利用解釋瘦弱的人口在本季度在這麼晚的一個時期,在圍攻耶路撒冷(聖何塞,貝爾。珠德。 ,五,六, 2 ) 。 Moreover, each of the rival Calvaries of today is near a group of ancient Jewish tombs.此外,每個競爭對手Calvaries今天是附近的一組古老的猶太墓地。

The name may have been occasioned by the physical contour of the place.的名稱可能已經引起的身體輪廓的地方。 St. Luke (loc. cit.) seems to this by saying it was the place called "a skull" (kranion).聖盧克(如上。 )似乎對這一說,這是發生稱為“骷髏” ( kranion ) 。 Moreover, Golgotha (from a Hebrew root meaning "to roll"), which borrows its signification from the rounded or rolling form of the skull, might also have been applied to a skull-shaped hillock.此外,墓地(從希伯來文根意思是“推廣” ) ,其中借用及其意義的圓形或滾動形式的頭骨,也可能被應用到頭骨形狀崗。

There was a tradition current among the Jews that the skull of Adam, after having been confided by Noah to his son Shem, and by the latter to Melchisedech, was finally deposited at the place called, for that reason, Golgotha.有一種傳統的電流之間對猶太人說,亞當頭骨後,被賦予了諾亞給他的兒子閃,並由後者Melchisedech ,終於被存放在所謂的地方,因此,墓地。 The Talmudists and the Fathers of the Church were aware of this tradition, and it survives in the skulls and bones placed at the foot of the crucifix.該Talmudists和父親教會都知道了這一傳統,它生存的頭骨和骨頭放在腳下的十字架。 The Evangelists are not opposed to it, inasmuch as they speak of one and not of many skulls.在福音派不反對它,因為它們講的一個,而不是許多頭骨。 (Luke, Mark, John, loc. cit.) (盧克,馬克,約翰,同上。前) 。

The curious origins of many Biblical names, the twofold and sometimes disagreeing explanations offered for them by the Sacred Writers (Genesis passim) should make us pause before accepting any of the above theories as correct.好奇的起源,許多聖經的名稱,雙重,有時不贊同解釋為他們提供了神聖的作家(創各處)應暫停使我們在接受任何上述理論的正確。 Each of them has its weak points: The first seems to be opposed to the Jewish law, which prescribed that the crucified should be buried before sundown (Deuteronomy 21:23).每個人都有其薄弱環節:第一似乎是反對猶太人的法律,其中規定,在十字架上被埋葬之前,日落(申命記21:23 ) 。 Josephus intimates that this enactment was scrupulously observed (Bell. jud., IV, v, 2).約瑟夫親密頒布,這是嚴格遵守( Bell.珠德。 ,四,五, 2 ) 。 The executions cited in support of the opinion are too few, too remote, and too isolated to have the force of proof.引用處決支持的意見太少,太遙遠,太孤立有力量的證明。 Moreover, in this supposition Calvary wold have been called more correctly a place "of skulls" but the Evangelists nowhere use the plural.此外,在這一假設髑髏戰術核武器被稱為更正確的地方“的頭骨” ,但福音派無處使用複數。 In the first tow theories no sufficient reason is assigned for selecting the skull in reference to any other member of the body, or the corpse itself, as a name-giver.在第一絲束的理論沒有足夠的理由被派往選擇的頭骨在提及任何其他成員的身體,或者本身的屍體,作為一個名稱者。 The third theory is plausible and more popular.第三個理論是可信的和更受歡迎。 Yet it may not be urged a priori, as indicating a requisite for a Calvary otherwise unauthenticated.然而,它可能不會要求先驗,因為這表明了必要的各各另有未經。 The Evangelists seem to have been more intent upon giving an intelligible equivalent for the obscure name, Golgotha, than upon vouching for its origin.在福音派似乎已經更多的意圖時給予同等的可理解為掩蓋名稱,墓地,經金幣比其原產地。 The fourth theory has been characterized as too absurd, though it has many serious adherents.第四個理論的特點過於荒謬的,儘管它有許多嚴重的追隨者。 It was not absurd to the uncritical Jew.這不是荒謬的批評猶太人。 It would not seem absurd to untaught Christians.這似乎不是荒謬的untaught基督徒。 Yet it is among the untaught that names arise spontaneously.然而,它的untaught名字出現自發的。 Indeed Christians embellished the legend, as we shall see.事實上基督徒點綴的傳說,因為我們等著瞧。


The New Testament新約

The only explicit notices are that the Crucifixion took place outside the city (Hebrews 13:12), but close to it; a newly-hewn tomb stood in a garden not far away (John 19:20, 41); the spot was probably near a frequented road, thus permitting the passers-by to revile the supposed criminal.唯一明確的告示是,耶穌受難發生城外(希伯來書13:12 ) ,但接近;一個新hewn墓站在一個花園不遠處(約19:20 , 41 ) ;現場很可能經常光顧附近的道路,從而使路人以咒罵假定的犯罪行為。 That the Cyrenian was coming from the country when he was forced into service seems to exclude only two of the roads entering Jerusalem, the one leading from Bethlehem and the one from Siloe (Matthew 27:30; Mark 15:24, 29; Luke 23:26).該Cyrenian是來自該國時,他被迫到服務似乎只有兩個排除的道路進入耶路撒冷,一個領導從伯利恆和一名來自Siloe (馬太27:30 ;馬克15:24 , 29 ;盧克23 : 26 ) 。 Any other road entering Jerusalem might fulfil the condition.任何其他進入耶路撒冷的道路可能滿足的條件。 The incidents recorded along the sorrowful journey are so few that the distance from the praetorium is left a matter of conjecture.這些事件記錄在悲傷的旅程是如此之少的距離praetorium是留下了一個猜想的問題。

Early Medieval Narratives中世紀早期的說明

After the Apostolic Age no more is heard of Calvary until the fourth century. Under pagan rule an idol had been place there, and had been later embraced within the same enclosure as the crypt of the Resurrection (Sozomen, Hist. Eccl., II, 1, 2).在使徒時代更是沒有聽說過各各他,直到第四世紀。異教統治下的偶像已經在那裡,並已接受稍後在同一機箱的隱窩的復活( Sozomen ,組織胺。傳道書。 ,二, 1 , 2 ) 。 Eustachius, Constantine's architect, separated it from the latter by hewing away a great mass of stone. Eustachius ,君士坦丁的建築師,從分離後的hewing了一個偉大大量的石頭。 It was St. Melania the Younger who first adorned Mount Calvary with a chapel (436).這是聖梅拉尼亞年輕誰第一個裝飾各各他山的教堂( 436 ) 。

The place is described as a "knoll of scanty size" (deficiens loci tumor -- Eucherius, 427-440), apparently natural, and in the sixth century approached by steps.這個地方被稱為“小丘的微薄大小” ( deficiens腫瘤基因-E ucherius, 4 27-440) ,顯然是自然的,並在第六世紀接觸的步驟。 It was fifteen paces from the Holy Sepulchre.這是從15步聖墓。 It was encircled with silver railings and contained a cell in which the Cross was kept, and a great altar (Theodosius, 530).這是包圍銀欄杆並載有細胞的交叉存放,偉大的祭壇(狄奧, 530 ) 。 Two years after the ravages of the Persians (614), a large church replaced the ruined chapel (Arculfus, 680).兩年後的蹂躪波斯人( 614 ) ,大型教堂取代了破壞教堂( Arculfus , 680頁) 。 From its roof a brazen wheel adorned with lamps was suspended over a silver cross that stood in the socket of Our Saviour's gibbet.從屋頂厚顏無恥車輪裝飾燈被禁賽了兩岸的銀站在插座我們的救世主的絞架。 This Church was destroyed in 1010, but was restored in 1048.這教堂被摧毀的1010 ,但在1048年恢復。 The rock beneath is spoken of by Soewulf (1102) as being "much cracked near the fosse of the Cross".岩石下方是談到了Soewulf ( 1102 )為“多破獲附近的溝渠十字架” 。 In the traditions, Adam's burial and Abraham's sacrifice are repeatedly located there.在傳統,亞當的喪葬費和亞伯拉罕的犧牲是位於有反复。

By 1149 the Calvary chapel had been united by the crusaders with the surrounding oratories into a vast basilica.到1149年的各各他教堂已統一由十字軍與周圍oratories成一個巨大的教堂。 The part of the rock believed to have held the Cross is said to have been removed and lost in a shipwreck on the coast of Syria while being transported to Constantinople (1809).部分岩石認為,舉行了跨據說已被拆除,失去了在沉船海岸上的敘利亞,而被運往君士坦丁堡( 1809 ) 。 Another fragment is shown in the chapel of Longinus, one of many in the basilica.另一個片段是表現在教堂的槍之一,許多人在教堂。

Contemporary Sources當代來源

Wilson, Warren, Fraas, and other eminent topographers engaged in the interests of the English Ordinance Survey (1864-5), declare that the lower part of this traditional Calvary is natural, and that the upper part "may very likely be so". The knoll is of soft white limestone (nummulitic) containing nodules, and occupies a position normally required for such a bed in Palestine, viz.威爾遜,華倫, Fraas ,及其他知名人士topographers從事利益的英語條例調查( 1864-5 ) ,宣布該降低的一部分這一傳統各各他是很自然的,而且上游的一部分“很可能是這樣。 ”在小丘是軟白石灰( nummulitic ) ,其中載有結節,並佔據了位置通常需要這樣的床在巴勒斯坦,即。 above the Missae and Malaki strata respectively.以上的彌撒,並分別馬拉基階層。 These last beds are seen on lower levels in the basilica.這些過去被視為病床上下級的教堂。 The direction taken by the rent in the rock, 96 degrees east of north, is practically the same as that of the veining of the rocks roundabout.所採取的方向的租金在岩石中, 96度以北地區,幾乎是一樣的veining岩石迴旋。 Other points of similarity have been observed.其他的相似點已經得到遵守。 The fissure broadens eastwards.裂隙擴大向東。 The rock has been cut away on the side of the Holy Sepulchre, thus bearing out the architectural datum afforded by the period of Constantine. Calvary is 140 feet south- east of the Holy Sepulchre and 13 feet above it.岩石已減少了一方的聖墓,從而影響了建築基準所提供的君士坦丁時期。各各他是一四零英尺東南聖墓和13英尺以上它。 The early traditions mentioned at the beginning of this article still cling to it. The chapel of Adam beneath that of Calvary stands for the first.早期的傳統提到本文開頭仍堅持它。教堂亞當底下的各各他站在第一。 A picture in it represents the raising of Adam to life by the Precious Blood trickling down upon his skull.圖片中它代表了亞當提高生命的寶血滴看不起他的頭骨。 An altar is there dedicated to Melchisedech.祭壇有專門Melchisedech 。 A vestige of the second tradition subsists in a scraggy olive tree a few yards away, religiously guarded, which the Abyssinians still claim to have been the bush in which the ram's horns were caught when the angel stayed the hand of Abraham.阿遺跡的第二次的傳統生存在一個scraggy橄欖樹幾碼遠,宗教森嚴,其中Abyssinians仍然聲稱已在叢林中的RAM的喇叭時被捕的天使之手留亞伯拉罕。

Calvary Chapel各各他教堂

The small, low, poorly lighted oratory, built upon the traditional Calvary, is divided into two sections by a pair of massive pillars.小,低,差燈火通明演講,借鑒傳統的各各他,分為兩節一對巨大的支柱。 The chapel of the Exaltation of the Cross comprises the section on the north and belongs to the Orthodox Greeks.教堂的提升十字組成部分和北部地區屬希臘東正教。 That of the Crucifixion on the south is in possession of the Latins.這對受難的南部擁有拉丁人。 At the eastern end, behind a thickly-set row of sanctuary lamps kept constantly burning, there are three altars of the eleventh, twelfth, and thirteenth stations of the Way of the Cross.在東端,後面厚厚集連續庇護燈不斷燃燒,有三個祭壇的第十一,第十二和第十三站的十字架的途徑。 That of the twelfth station is in the Greek chapel, and marks the position of Our Saviour's Cross.這第十二站是在希臘教堂,它標誌著的立場我們的救世主的十字架上。 It is near the rent made in the rock by the earthquake.這是附近的租金在岩石的地震。 Two black marble discs at its sides indicate the presumed positions of the malefactors' crosses.兩個黑色大理石光盤在雙方表明了推定的立場, 263 '跨越。 Behind it, among numerous icons, stands a large painted image of the Crucified Saviour. The altars of the Crucifixion and Mater Dolorosa (eleventh and thirteenth stations) belong to the Latins.它的背後,眾多的圖標,隨時一個大畫形象的十字架救主。在祭壇的十字架和材料Dolorosa (第十一和第十三站)屬於拉丁人。 The image on the latter, or middle, altar is screened, and incased with a profusion of votive offerings.圖像對後者,或中等,祭壇是篩選,並incased了豐富的votive產品。 The floor of the chapel, which is on a level with the top of the rock, is covered with coarse mosaics.地板的教堂,這是一個水平與頂部的岩石,是覆蓋著粗大的馬賽克。 A round stone in the pavement on the Latin side, near the eleventh station, marks the place of the tenth.第一輪的石頭路面上拉丁美洲方面,第十一屆附近的車站,這標誌著地點的十分之一。 In the roof, there is a mosaic representation of Christ.在屋頂,有代表性的馬賽克基督。 Entrance to the chapel is obtained by the stairways. The two most frequently used are at the west end.進入教堂是得到了樓梯。這兩個最常用的是在西端。 The eighteen steps in each stairway, which are narrow, steep and much worn, are mostly of pink Santa Croce marble commonly quarried in Palestine. 18步驟的每一個樓梯,這是狹隘的,陡峭,許多破舊,大多是粉紅色聖十字大理石開採通常在巴勒斯坦。


It is beyond doubt that the Calvary we have been considering is the same as that of the Middle Ages, but is it correct to identify it with that of the Gospels? It has long been far within the city walls.這是毫無疑問,各各我們一直在考慮是一樣的中世紀,但是它正確識別它的福音?長期以來一直遠遠內城牆。 But did the city wall which has enclosed it for so many centuries enclose it when Christ was crucified?但是,城牆已封閉它使許多世紀附上它當基督被釘在十字架? That is, did the present city wall exist when the Saviour was put to death?也就是說,本沒有城牆存在的當時的救世主付諸死亡? If so, this could not have been the place of the crucifixion; for Christ was crucified outside the walls (Hebrews 13:12), St. Willibald (eighth century), Soewulf (twelfth century), and many others asked themselves this question.如果是這樣,這不可能被取代十字架;基督被釘在十字架外面的牆壁(希伯來書13:12 ) ,聖Willibald (八世紀) , Soewulf ( 12世紀) ,以及其他許多問自己這個問題。 But it was not until two centuries ago that an affirmative answer was ventured by Korte, a German bookseller (see below).但直到兩個世紀前,一個肯定的回答是冒險的Korte ,德國書商(見下文) 。 Not, however, until the last century did the new opinion obtain supporters.然而,直到上個世紀沒有新的見解獲得支持者。 Then a school sprang up which first rejected the old side and eventually set about seeking new ones.然後,一所學校興起首先拒絕了老方,並最終謀求建立新的定居點。 Catholics, as a class, with many leading Anglicans support the traditional claims.天主教徒,作為一類,許多領導聖公會支持傳統的索賠要求。

The authenticity of Calvary is intimately bound up with that of the Holy Sepulchre.的真實性髑髏密切了與聖墓。 Relative to the authenticity of the sites of both, the ecclesiastical writers who are the first to break silence after the Evangelists seem to leave no room for doubt.相對的真實性,這兩個網站,教會作家誰是第一個打破沉默後的福音派似乎沒有留下任何疑問。 Now it is not easy to see how these, the chief representatives of an apologetical age, could have overlooked the above difficulty advanced by modern writers, especially since simple pilgrims are known to have advanced it.現在是不容易看到這些,主要代表是apologetical年齡,可能忽略了上述困難先進的現代作家,尤其是因為簡單的朝聖者都知道它擁有先進的。 The spirit of investigation had awakened in the Church long years previous to them; and the accredited custodians of the tradition, the Jerusalem community, had been ruled by a continuous succession of bishops since Apostolic times.精神的調查喚起了教會多年以前的人;和認可保管人的傳統,耶路撒冷社會,已排除了一個連續的主教繼承自使徒倍。 Under these circumstances, our first available witnesses tell us that a remembrance of the site had actually been transmitted. As a telling testimony to the confidence they merit herein, it need only be remarked that of sixteen modern charts of the Holy City collated by Zimmermann (Basle, 1876) only four place Golgotha within the second or outermost wall in the time of Christ Moreover, Dr. Schick, the author of one of these, accepted the traditional view before his death.在這種情況下,我們的第一個可用的證人告訴我們,一個紀念網站實際上已轉交。作為一個講證明,值得信任,他們在此,它只需要指出的16個現代圖表聖城整理的齊默爾曼(巴塞爾, 1876年)只有4個地方墓地內的第二次或外層牆的時候基督此外,錫克博士的作者之一,其中,接受傳統的觀點之前,他的死亡。 Dr. Reiss, in his "Bibel-Atlas" (Freiburg im Breisgau, 1895), also agrees with the majority.賴斯博士,在他的“聖經-地圖集” (弗賴堡布賴斯高, 1895年) ,還同意多數。 (See JERUSALEM; HOLY SEPULCHRE.) (見耶路撒冷聖墓。 )


The most popular of several sites proposed is that of Otto Thenius (1849), better known as Gordon's Calvary, and styled by the latter, "Skull Hill", because of its shape.其中最受歡迎的幾個地點建議是奧托Thenius ( 1849年) ,更好地稱為戈登的各各他,和式由後者, “骷髏山” ,由於其形狀。 Conder is the chief supporter of this view. Conder是主要支持這一觀點。 This site is the elevation over Jeremiah's Grotto, not far from the Damascus Gate.這個網站是海拔超過耶利米的山洞,不遠處的大馬士革門。 In default of an historic basis, and owing to the insufficiency of the Gospel data -- which may be verified equally well on any side of the city -- the upholders of the new theories usually take for granted one or other of the following statements, viz: that Christ should have been immolated north of the altar, like the typical victims (Leviticus 1:10, 11); that Calvary was a place of public execution; that the place reserved for crucifixion, if there was one, was identical with a presumed stoning-place; that a modern Jewish tradition as to a fixed stoning-place could be substantiated in the time of Christ; and that the violent mob to which Christ was delivered would have conformed to whatever custom prescribed for the occasion.在默認的一個歷史性的基礎上,由於缺乏數據的福音-這可能是驗證同樣的任何一方的城市-的u p holders的新的理論通常是理所當然的一個或其他下列報表,即:基督本來應該殉葬北部的祭壇,像典型的受害者(利未記1:10 , 11 ) ;認為各各他是一個公用場所執行;這地方保留十字架,如果有一個是相同假定亂石位; ,現代猶太傳統,以一個固定的亂石地可以得到證實在規定的時間內基督;和暴民的暴力而基督交付將符合任何自訂明的時刻。 These affirmations all bear the mark of fitness; but until documents are produced to confirm them, they must inevitably fall short as proof of facts.這些主張都承擔的標誌健身;但直到文件的編制,以確認他們時,他們必然會低於證明的事實。

Publication information Written by Thomas À K. Reilly.出版信息撰稿:托馬斯賴利光。 Transcribed by Michael T. Barrett.轉錄由邁克爾巴雷特。 Dedicated in memory of the Passion of Our Lord The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume III.專用內存中的激情我們的主的天主教百科全書,第三卷。 Published 1908. 1908年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, November 1, 1908. Nihil Obstat , 08年11月一日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor. Imprimatur.雷米Lafort ,性病,檢查員。認可。 +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰法利樞機主教,大主教紐約


For Fathers, see article, HOLY SEPULCHRE. Pilgrims.-GLYER, Itinera Hierosolymilana; TOBLER, Descriptions Terrae Sanctae (1874).對父親,見第,聖墓。 Pilgrims. - GLYER , Itinera Hierosolymilana ;托布勒,說明Terrae聖( 1874 ) 。

General Treatment.-Dictionaries of the Bible; Quarterly statement PEF (passim, especially 1902-1903); WARREN, Ordinance Survey of Jerusalem in Notes (London, 1865); WARREN and CONDER in Jerusalem (1881). Controversial (authors marked with an asterisk * oppose the traditional view):- BREEN*, Harm.一般Treatment. -詞典聖經;按季聲明肺(各處,尤其是1902年至〇三年) ;沃倫調查條例耶路撒冷筆記(倫敦, 1865年) ;沃倫和CONDER在耶路撒冷( 1881年) 。爭議(作者標有星號*反對傳統的觀點) : -布林* ,危害。 Expos.博覽會。 of the Four Gospels (Rochester, New York), IV; FERGUSSON*, Essay on Ancient Topography of Jerusalem (London, 1847); FINDLAY, On the Site of the Holy Sepulchre (London, 1847); LEWIN, Siege of Jerusalem (London, 1863); REILLY, Authenticity, etc. in Ecclesiastical Review (Philadelphia), NXXVI, nn.四福音(羅切斯特,紐約) ,四;弗格森* ,論古代地形耶路撒冷(倫敦, 1847年) ;芬德利,在網站上聖墓(倫敦, 1847年) ;溫,圍攻耶路撒冷(倫敦, 1863年) ;賴利,真實性等教會回顧( 76 ) , NXXVI ,神經網絡。 6 sqq; ROBINSON*, Biblical Researches (Boston, 1840), I; SANDAY, Sacred Sites of the Gospels (Oxford, 1903); THRUPE, Ancient Jerusalem (Cambridge, 855); WILLIAMS, The Holy City (London, 1845); CHATEAUBRIAND, Itineraire de Paris a Jerusalem (Paris, 1811), II;p KORTE*, Reise nach dem gelolden Laude Aeg. 6日sqq ;羅賓遜* ,聖經研究(波士頓, 1840年) ,我;桑迪,聖地的福音(牛津, 1903年) ; THRUPE ,古代耶路撒冷(劍橋, 855 ) ;威廉姆斯,聖城(倫敦, 1845年) ;夏, Itineraire巴黎耶路撒冷(巴黎, 1811年) ,第二章; p KORTE * ,旅行班上串聯gelolden成績AEG公司。 Syr. tr.錫爾河。文。 Mea (Halle, 1751); KRAFFT, Die Topographie Jerusalems (Bonn, 1846); TOBLER*, Topographic von Jerusalem a.測量(哈雷, 1751 ) ;克拉夫特,模具Topographie耶路撒冷(波恩, 1846年) ;托布勒* ,地形馮耶路撒冷字母a. Seinen Ungebungen (Berlin, 1853), I. Seinen Ungebungen (柏林, 1853年) ,一

Also, see:此外,見:
Jesus on the Cross 耶穌在十字架上
The Arising of Jesus 產生的耶穌

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