General Information 一般信息

The word convent was first used by the mendicant friars of the 13th century, in place of "abbey" or "monastery." Signifying the building in which monks shared a common life, it was later extended to mean any residence in which the members of a Religious Order lived in community under vows.修道院一詞最早是由行乞修士的13世紀,以取代“修道院”或“修道院。 ”標誌著建立在僧侶的共同生活,後來擴大到指任何居住在其中的成員宗教令生活在社會的誓言。 Today, however, the word is applied almost exclusively to the domiciles of religious women, or nuns, although it is also frequently used to refer to convent life in general.然而,今天,這個詞幾乎完全適用的住所,以宗教的婦女,或尼姑,雖然它也常常用來指壽命修道院一般。 Roman Catholic canon law requires a minimum of three members to establish a convent.羅馬天主教教會法最少需要3名成員建立一個修道院。

Both general and specific requirements are imposed on a person wishing to join a convent. They include normal intelligence, sound mental and physical health, and a desire to serve God in a life dedicated to the work of the church. 一般和具體要求是對一個人希望加入修道院。它們包括智力正常,健全的心理和身體健康,並希望以上帝的生命,致力於工作的教堂。 Specific requirements are set according to the makeup and work of a particular religious group. Cloistered religious orders are called to a life of prayer and contemplation, whereas missionary orders are called to a life of compassionate, loving service.具體要求按照規定的化妝和工作,特別是宗教團體。與世隔絕的宗教命令被稱為生活的祈禱和沉思,而傳教士的訂單被稱為生活的同情心,熱愛服務。 Still others teach and do nursing work in schools and hospitals.還有一些教授和做護理工作在學校和醫院。 The various orders seek to respond to every human need; thus specific requirements depend on the kind of work undertaken.各種訂單尋求應對每個人的需要,因此具體的要求取決於什麼樣的工作。

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The Second Vatican Council called for a renewal of convent life, with adaptation of rules and constitutions in a manner appropriate to the needs of the church and world today.梵蒂岡第二次大公會議呼籲延長修道院生活,適應規則和憲法的方式在適當的需要,教堂和當今世界。 This renewal has led to a diversity of life-styles and structures in the concept of convents and convent living.這延續已經導致了不同的生活方式和結構的概念,修道院和修道院的生活。 This diversity, pursued in a spirit of creative fidelity, serves to make more evident the gospel witness that should characterize religious life.這種多樣性,追求精神的創造性保真度,使服務更加明顯福音見證,應特點的宗教生活。

Agnes Cunningham艾格尼絲坎寧安


Catholic Information 天主教新聞

(Latin conventus). (拉丁美洲conventus ) 。

Originally signified an assembly of Roman citizens in the provinces for purposes of administration and justice.原來標誌著組裝羅馬公民的省份為目的的行政和司法。 In the history of monasticism the word has two distinct technical meanings:歷史上的修道一詞有兩種不同的技術含義:

A religious community of either sex when spoken of in its corporate capacity. The word was first used in this sense when the eremitical life began to be combined with the cenobitical.宗教社會不分性別時,談到了在其企業的能力。這個詞最初是用在這個意義時, eremitical生活開始結合cenobitical 。 The hermits of an Eastern laura, living in separate cells grouped around that of their common superior, when spoken of collectively, were called a conventus.在隱士的東歐勞拉,生活在不同的細胞分組圍繞它們的共同上級,當談到集體,被稱為conventus 。 In Western monasticism the term came into general use from the very beginning and the technical phrase abbas et conventus signifies to this day the entire community of a monastic establishment.在西方修道的任期開始普遍使用從一開始就和技術短語阿巴斯等conventus標誌著這一天整個社會的寺院建立。

The buildings in which resides a community of either sex.該建築物,居住社區不論男女。 In this sense the word denotes more properly the home of a strictly monastic order, and is not correctly used to designate the home of what is called a congregation.在這個意義上是指這個詞更恰當的家嚴格的寺院秩序,沒有正確使用指定的家所謂的聚會。 In addition to these technical meanings, the word has also a popular signification at the present day, by which it is made to mean in particular the abode of female religious, just as monastery denotes that of men, though in reality the two words are interchangeable.除了這些技術的含義,這個詞也有流行的意義在本一天,它的意思了,特別是女性居留權的宗教,就像修道院是指男人,但在現實中這兩個詞可以互換。 In the present article the word is taken chiefly in its popular sense.在本文章的字主要是採取在其廣受歡迎的意義。 The treatment, moreover, is limited to those features which are common to all, or nearly all, convents, while peculiarities due to the special purpose, rule, or occupation of each religious order are explained in the pertinent article.治療,而且是只限於那些特點,共同所有或幾乎所有的,修道院,但由於特殊的特殊用途,規則,或佔領的順序每個宗教解釋的有關規定。


The life lived by the inmates of a convent naturally varies in its details, according to the particular object for which it has been founded, or the special circumstances of time and place by which it is affected.生活居住的犯人的修道院自然有所不同,它的細節,根據具體對象,它已成立,或特殊情況,時間和地點由它的影響。 Convents are often roughly divided into two classes, strictly enclosed and unenclosed, but with regard to the convents existing at the present day this division, though correct as far as it goes, it not a very satisfactory one, because both classes are capable of subdivision, and, on account of the varied kinds of work undertaken by the nuns, these subdivisions overlap one another.修道院往往是大致分為兩類,嚴格封閉和unenclosed ,但對於現有的修道院在當今這個師,但正確的盡量不用,它不是一個非常令人滿意的,因為這兩個班有能力細分,並考慮到不同類型的工作所進行的修女,這些分支相互重疊。 Thus, of the strictly enclosed communities, some are purely contemplative, other mainly active (ie engaged in educational or rescue work), while other again combine the two. Similarly, of the unenclosed orders, some are purely active (ie undertaking educational, parochial, hospital, or other work), and others unite the contemplative with the active life, without, however, being strictly enclosed. As a general deduction it may be stated that the contemplative life, in which women are actuated by a desire to save their own souls and the souls of other by their lives of prayer, seclusion, and mortification, was the idea of the older orders, while the distinctive note of the more modern congregations is that of active work amongst others and the relief of their bodily wants.因此,在嚴格封閉的社區,有些是純粹的沉思,其他主要活躍(即從事教育或救援工作) ,同時又結合其他兩個。同樣,在unenclosed訂單,一些純粹是積極的(即開展教育,狹隘,醫院,或其他工作) ,以及其他的沉思的團結與積極的生活,但不嚴格封閉的。總的扣除可以說,沉思的生活中,婦女的驅動的願望以挽救他們的自己的靈魂和靈魂的其他由他們的生命祈禱,與世隔絕,和屈辱,他的想法的老年人的訂單,而獨特注意到了更多的現代教會是積極的工作等等,並減免其身體的要求。

With regard to the educational work of the convents, it may here be stated that this includes the teaching of both elementary and secondary schools, as well as the training of teachers for such schools and higher education.關於教育工作的修道院,它可能在這裡指出的是,這包括教學的小學和中學,以及教師培訓等學校和高等教育。 The hospital and nursing work comprises the management of hospitals, bother general and for special classes of patients, as well as the nursing of both rich and poor in their own homes.醫院及護理工作包括管理的醫院,都一般和特殊類型的患者,以及護理富國和窮國在自己的家裡。 Rescue work includes the conduct of penitentiaries, orphanages, and homes for the aged poor.救援工作包括進行監獄,孤兒院,和老人院窮人。 A few convents make special provision for the reception of guests, for retreats and other spiritual purposes, and a large proportion of them receive boarders at moderate charges.有幾個修道院作出特別規定,接待客人,為務虛會和其他的精神宗旨,其中很大一部分寄宿生得到適度收費。 Some, mostly of enclosed communities, have undertaken the work of Perpetual Adoration, while others devote themselves to ecclesiastical embroidery and the making of church vestments.有些人,大多為封閉的社區,開展工作的永恆的崇拜,而另一些投身於教會刺繡和作出的教堂法衣。 This particular kind of work has always been characteristic of English nuns, whose embroidery, known as the opus anglicanum, was famous in medieval times (Matthew Paris, Rolls, ed., IV, an. 1246).這種特殊的工作一直是英語的特點尼姑,其刺繡,稱為anglicanum作品,是著名的中世紀時期(馬修巴黎,勞斯萊斯,編輯。 ,四,一個。 1246 ) 。 The ordinary routine of life in a nunnery has always corresponded approximately with that of a monastery.普通的日常的生活在一個尼姑庵一直相當於大約與一個修道院。 The nunUs day is divided between the choir, the workroom, the schoolroom, the refectory, the recreation room, the cell, and, with the active orders, the outside work, in periodical rotation.每天的nunUs分為之間的合唱團,在車間,教室,在食堂,娛樂室,細胞,並積極訂單,外面的工作,定期輪換。 Idleness or lack of occupation is never permitted.懶惰或缺乏佔領是從來不允許的。 The earliest rules for nuns, as well as the most modern, all prescribe labour of some useful kind.最早的規則,修女,以及最現代的,所有明勞動了一些有益的實物。 The medieval nuns could always read and write Latin, and they also employed themselves in transcribing and illuminating sacred books, and in many of the fine arts, the cultivation of which they consecrated to the service of God.中世紀的修女們總是可以閱讀和書寫拉丁美洲,他們還僱用自己的抄寫和啟發神聖的書籍,並在許多美術,培養他們神聖的上帝服務。 The convents thus were always homes of industry, and just as formerly they played no small part in the spread of civilization, so now they are almost indispensable handmaids to the cause of the Catholic Church.因此,修道院總是家園的產業,就像以前他們打小部分沒有在傳播文明,所以現在他們幾乎是不可缺少的handmaids事業的天主教教會。


It is not necessary here to refute the many base and vile charges that have from time to time been brought against the conventual system; a mere general reference to them is sufficient, for the evidence of the salutary work done by convents and the gruits of the lives of the nuns are in themselves ample refutation.這是沒有必要在這裡駁斥了許多基地和邪惡的指控不時被提起conventual系統;只是籠統地提及他們是充足的,為的證據有益的工作和修道院的gruits生活的修女本身充足的駁斥。 In the past there have been "anti-convent" and "convent-inspection" societies, as well as the lectures of "escaped nuns" and literature in abundance of the "Maria Monk" type, and they may be expected to crop up again periodically in the future.在過去已有的“反修道院”和“修道院檢查”的社會,以及講座“逃脫修女”和文學的豐富的“瑪麗亞和尚”型,他們預期可能再次出現定期的未來。 These may and do for a time hamper the work of the nuns and cause a certain amount of disquietude in some quarters, but it is a significant fact that, whatever excitement they may raise for the time being, the agitation always dies down again as suddenly as it arises, and its harmful effects never appear to leave behind them any lasting results, except perhaps an increased interest in, and respect for, the conventual life that has been vilified.這可能和做了一段時間阻礙了工作的修女,造成了一定程度的不安在一些宿舍,但它是一個重要的事實,無論興奮,他們可能引起暫時的激動總是平息再次突然因為它產生的,它的有害後果不會出現留下他們的任何持久的效果,除了增加的興趣和尊重生命的conventual已被污衊。


Canon law contains a large and important section relating to the establishment and government of convents.佳能法律包含了大型和重要的一節有關建立和政府的修道院。 The privileges of such as are exempt from episcopal jurisdiction, the appointment of confessors for the nuns, and the duties of the same, the regulations of the Church concerning enclosure, and the admission and testing of candidates, the nature and obligations of the vows, the limits of the powers of superiors, and the conditions regarding the erection of new convents are among the many points of detail legislated for.的特權,如免交主教管轄,任命confessors的修女,和義務的同時,條例教會有關附文,並接納和測試的候選人,其性質和義務的誓言,限制權力的上級,以及有關的條件搭建新的修道院中的許多細節制定的。 One or two points may be alluded to here.一個或兩個點可以提到這裡。 The law of the Church requires that no new convent be established, whether it be one that is exempt from episcopal jurisdiction or not, without the consent of the bishop of the diocese; for what is technically called canonical erection further formalities, including approbation from Rome, have to be complied with.該法的教會需要,沒有新的修道院成立,不論它是一個不受主教管轄範圍內或不同意的情況下主教教區;的是技術上要求進一步規範施工手續,包括從羅馬讚許,都必須遵守。 All confessors for nuns must be specially approved by the bishop, even those of convents that are exempt from his ordinary jurisdiction, and the bishop has also to provide that all nuns can have access two or three times in the year to an "extraordinary" confessor, other than their usual one.所有的尼姑confessors必須特別批准的主教,即使是修道院是免除他的普通管轄權,以及主教還規定,所有的尼姑可以有機會獲得兩次或三次在今年的“特殊”懺悔除通常的。 The bishop also is obliged periodically to visit and inspect all the convents in his diocese, excepting those that are exempt, at the time of which visitation every nun must be free to see him privately in order to make any complaints or suggestions that she may wish.主教也有義務定期訪問和視察所有的修道院在他的教區,除那些有豁免,在這每一個尼姑探視必須是自由地看到他私下以使任何投訴或建議,她不妨。 With regard to the admission of postulants the law provides for every precaution being taken, on the one hand, to prevent coercion and, on the other, to safeguard the community from being obliged to receive those about whose vocation there may be any doubt.關於接納postulants法律規定對每一個正在採取防範措施,一方面,為防止脅迫,另一方面,為維護社會不得不接受這些對他們的使命可能存在任何疑問。 Physical fitness on the part of a candidate is in most orders an indispensable condition, thought there are some which admit women of delicate health; but, once admitted and professed, the tract becomes reciprocal, and while the nun undertakes to keep her vows, the convent, on its side, is bound to provide her with lodging, food, and clothing, and to maintain her in sickness or in health (see NOVITIATE; VOW).體能上的候選人是最訂單一個不可缺少的條件,思想也有一些婦女承認這微妙的健康,但是一旦被接納,並聲稱,該道成為互惠,雖然尼姑承諾讓她發誓,在修道院,在其一側,必然向她提供住宿,食品和衣物,並保持她在生病或健康(見見習; VOW ) 。


With regard to the dowry required of a nun, the customs and rules of the different orders vary much according to circumstances.關於嫁妝所需的尼姑,海關和規則的不同訂單變化不大的情況下根據。 Some convents, on account of their poverty, are obliged to insist upon it, and, generally speaking, most expect their members to bring some contribution to the general fund.有些修道院,考慮到他們的貧困,必須堅持它,一般來說,最期望其成員帶來一些貢獻,一般基金。 A convent that is rich will often dispense with the dowry in the case of a highly promising candidate, but it must always depend upon particular circumstances. The minimum amount of the dowry required is generally fixed by the rule or constitutions of the convent or order.修道院是富國往往會免除嫁妝的情況下,極有希望的候選人,但它必須始終取決於具體情況。最低數額的嫁妝通常是需要固定的規則或章程修道院或命令。


In most of the older contemplative orders the choir nuns are bound to rthe whole Divine Office in choir.在大多數老人沉思訂單修女合唱團勢必rthe整個神聖辦事處合唱團。 In only a very few of the English convents, eg Cistercians, Dominicans, and Poor Clares, do the nuns rise in the night for Matins and Lauds; in the others these Offices are generally said in the evening "by anticipation".只有在極少數的英文修道院,如熙,多米尼加,標準普爾Clares ,這樣做尼姑上升晚上Matins和讚揚,在這些寫字樓等,一般說,在晚上“的期待” 。 In some there are other additional offices recited daily; thus the Cistercians and the Poor Clares say the Office of Our Lady and that of the Dead every day, and the Brigittines say the latter thrice in the week, as well as an Office of the Holy Ghost.在一些有其他額外的辦事處每天背誦;從而熙和窮人Clares說,我們的辦公室和夫人的死,每天和Brigittines說,後者在兩三週,以及一個辦事處的聖地鬼。 Almost all the active orders, both enclosed and unenclosed, use the Office of Our Lady, but some, like the Sisters of Charity, are not bound to the recitation of any Office at all.幾乎所有的積極的訂單,都封閉和unenclosed ,使用Office聖母,但一些像慈善修女,沒有約束的背誦任何Office在所有。


In most orders the nuns are divided into choir sisters and lay sisters.在大多數訂單修女分為合唱團姐妹和奠定姐妹。 The latter are usually employed in the household duties and other manual work.後者通常是受僱於家務和其他體力勞動。 They take the usual vows and are as truly religious as the choir nuns, but they are not bound to the choir Office, though they often attend the choir at the time of Office and recite certain prayers in the vernacular.他們通常的誓詞是真正的宗教作為合唱團的修女,但它們並非綁定到合唱團辦公室,但他們往往參加合唱團時的辦公室和背誦一些祈禱的白話文。 There is always a distinction between their habit and that of the choir nuns, sometimes very slight and sometimes strongly marked.總是有區別的習慣和修女合唱團,有時很小,有時甚至強烈明顯。 In some orders where the choir sisters are enclosed the lay sisters are not; but in others they are as strictly enclosed as the choir nuns.在一些訂單的合唱團姐妹是封閉的奠定姐妹沒有,但在另一些國家,他們是嚴格封閉的唱詩班修女。 Several orders have, by their rule, no lay sisters, among them being the Sisters of Notre Dame, the Sisters of Charity, the Sisters of Bon Secours, the Little Sisters of the Poor, and the Poor Servants of the Mother of God.幾個訂單,他們的規則,沒有奠定姐妹,它們之間是聖母修女會的修女慈善修女邦Secours的安貧小姊妹會,和窮人的公務員天主之母。


The internal arrangement of a properly constituted convent is, for the most part, similar to that of a monastery for men (see ABBEY and MONASTERY), but from poverty and other obvious causes, many convents have had to be established in already-existing ordinary dwelling-houses, which do not always lend themselves to ideal adaption.內部安排一個適當的修道院是,在大多數情況下,類似修道院的男子(見修道院和寺) ,而是來自貧窮和其他明顯的原因,許多修道院都必須建立在現有的普通住宅,這並不總是適合於理想的適應性。 (See CLOISTER; DOWER OF RELIGIOUS; NUN; OFFICE; SCHOOLS.) (見迴廊;嫁妝宗教;尼姑;辦公室;學校。 )

Publication information Written by G. Cyprian Alston.出版信息撰稿,由G.塞浦路斯阿爾斯通。 Transcribed by Marcia L. Bellafiore. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume IV.轉錄的瑪西婭研究Bellafiore 。天主教百科全書,第四卷。 Published 1908. 1908年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat. Nihil Obstat 。 Remy Lafort, Censor.雷米Lafort ,檢查員。 Imprimatur.認可。 +John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰M法利,大主教紐約

Also, see:此外,見:
Religious Orders 宗教訂單
Jesuits 耶穌
Trappists Trappists
Christian Brothers 基督教兄弟
Carmelites Carmelites
Discalced Carmelites Discalced Carmelites
Augustinians 奧古斯丁
Dominicans 多米尼加
Marist Brothers 聖母兄弟會

Nuns 修女
Friars 修士
Major Orders 大訂單
Holy Orders 羅馬訂單

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