General Information 一般信息

The Essenes were members of an ascetic Jewish sect of the 1st century BC and the 1st century AD. Most of them lived on the western shore of the Dead Sea. 愛色尼人的成員的苦行猶太節的公元前1世紀和公元1世紀。他們大部分居住在西部海岸的死海。 They are identified by many scholars with the Qumran community that wrote the documents popularly called the Dead Sea Scrolls.他們確定的許多學者與昆蘭社區,寫的文件民選稱為死海古卷。 They numbered about 4,000 members.他們的人數約4000名成員。 Admission required two to three years of preparation, and new candidates took an oath of piety, justice, and truthfulness.入學需要兩到三年的準備,並採取了新的候選人宣誓的虔誠,正義和真理。

According to Philo of Alexandria and other writers of the 1st century AD, the Essenes shared their possessions, lived by agriculture and handicrafts, rejected slavery, and believed in the immortality of the soul. Their meals were solemn community affairs.據斐羅的亞歷山大和其他作家的公元1世紀的愛色尼分享他們的財產,靠農業和手工業,反對奴役,並認為在不朽的靈魂。他們的伙食是莊嚴的社區事務。 The main group of Essenes opposed marriage.小組的主要愛色尼反對結婚。 They had regular prayer and study sessions, especially on the Sabbath.他們經常祈禱和學習,尤其是在安息日。 Transgressors were excluded from the sect.違法被排除在第二節。

The similarity between a number of Essene and Christian concepts and practices (kingdom of God, baptism, sacred meals, the position of a central teacher, titles of officeholders, and community organization) has led some people to assume that there was a close kinship between the Essenes and the groups around John the Baptist and Jesus Christ. It is possible that after the dissolution of the Essene community some members followed John the Baptist or joined one of the early Christian communities, but any other direct connection seems unlikely. 之間的相似性的一些厄色尼和基督教的概念和做法(王國的上帝,洗禮,神聖的膳食,立場中央教師,職稱官員和社區組織)已導致一些人認為有密切的親緣關係在愛色尼和團體施洗約翰和耶穌。很可能解體後厄色尼社會的某些成員遵循施洗約翰或加入一個早期基督教社區,但任何其他直接的聯繫似乎不大可能。

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Bibliography 目錄
Beall, Todd S., Josephus' Descriptions of the Essenes Illustrated by the Dead Sea Scrolls (1988); Davies, Philip, Behind the Essenes (1987); Larson, Martin, The Essene-Christian Faith (1980); Simon, Marcel, Jewish Sects at the Time of Jesus, trans.北,南托德,約瑟夫'說明的愛色尼畫報的死海古卷( 1988年) ;戴維斯,菲利普,背後的愛色尼( 1987年) ;拉爾森,馬丁,在厄色尼,基督教信仰( 1980年) ;西蒙,馬塞爾,教派猶太人在耶穌的時代,跨。 by James Farley (1980).詹姆斯法利( 1980年) 。


Advanced Information 先進的信息

The Essenes were an important Jewish group which flourished in Palestine from the late second century BC to the late first century AD在愛色尼是一個重要的猶太團體在巴勒斯坦蓬勃發展的後期公元前二世紀後期到公元一世紀


Our understanding of the Essenes is determined to a large degree by how we delimit our sources.我們的理解,愛色尼決心很大程度如何,我們劃定的來源。 Certainly the sources which explicitly mention the Essenes are pertinent.當然,來源,其中明確提到愛色尼是中肯的。 The most valuable among these are Philo's Apology for the Jews (now lost but preserved in part by Eusebius, Praeparatio evangelica 8.2) and Every Good Man Is Free, both written in the first half of the first century AD; Flavius Josephus's The Jewish War and The Antiquities of the Jews, dating from about AD 75 and 94 respectively; and the elder Pliny's Natural History, completed in about AD 77.最有價值其中包括斐羅的道歉的猶太人(現在已經失去,但保存了部分優西比烏, Praeparatio evangelica 8.2 )和每一個好人是免費的,書面上半年公元一世紀;約瑟夫弗拉菲烏斯的猶太戰爭和古物猶太人的歷史可以追溯到大約公元75和94分別;和老普林尼的自然史,完成了約公元77 。 Also of some independent value is Hippolytus's Philosophumena, written in the third century AD另外,一些獨立的價值是西波呂的Philosophumena ,寫在公元三世紀

Though they explicitly mention the Essenes, these sources present several problems.雖然他們明確提及愛色尼,目前這些來源的幾個問題。 None of them gives a firsthand, inside view of the Essenes.但他們提供了第一手資料,查看裡面的愛色尼。 Furthermore, these sources generally cater to Greekor hellenized readers and thus, on some points, misrepresent Essene practices, doctrines, and motives.此外,這些消息一般迎合讀者Greekor hellenized ,因此,在某些點,謊稱厄色尼的做法,理論和動機。 Finally, it is doubtful that any of these sources has anything to say, by way of description, about the Essenes as they existed before the reign of Herod the Great (37-4 BC).最後,這是值得懷疑的,任何這些來源有話想說的方式描述,對他們愛色尼之前就存在的希律王統治的大(公元前37-4 ) 。

In the last thirty years scholars have sought to mitigate these difficulties by using information derived from the Dead Sea Scrolls. This approach has problems of its own, however.在過去的三十年學者都試圖減輕這些困難,通過使用信息來自死海古卷。這種做法的問題自己的,但是。 The relationship between the Essenes and the Qumran sectaries is uncertain.之間的關係,愛色尼和庫姆蘭sectaries是不確定的。 The name "Essene" never appears in the Qumran literature, and viable cases have been made for identifying the Qumran sectaries with Pharises, Zealots, Sadducees, and other Jewish and Christian groups.命名為“厄色尼”從來沒有出現在昆蘭文學,和可行的情況下已確定昆蘭sectaries與Pharises ,狂熱,撒都該人,和其他猶太教和基督教團體。 Nevertheless, on the basis of archaeological and literary evidence most scholars now believe that the Qumran sectaries were Essenes, though not necessarily the Essenes.然而,根據考古和文學證據現在多數學者認為,昆蘭sectaries是愛色尼,雖然不一定是愛色尼。 The inhabitants of Qumran may have been the leaders, or perhaps only a small branch, of a broad Essene movement.居民昆蘭可能已領導人,或者只有一小分支,廣泛的厄色尼運動。 In either case it is impossible to know just how and to what extent the Qumran documents reflect standard Essene practices and beliefs.在這兩種情況下是不可能知道如何以及在何種程度上昆蘭文件反映了標準的厄色尼做法和信仰。 For this reason, it would seem prudent to make at least a provisional distinction between what Philo and Josephus claim to know about the Essenes and the potentially relevant evidence of Qumran.出於這個原因,似乎明智的,至少一個臨時區別斐洛和約瑟夫索賠了解愛色尼和潛在的相關證據的昆蘭。 Of the Qumran documents the Manual of Discipline, the Damascus Document, the War Scroll, the recently published Temple Scroll, and the various pesher-type commentaries on the Minor Prophets are proving to be the most useful in the discussion of Essene life, doctrine, and history.昆蘭的文件手冊紀律,大馬士革文件,戰爭滾動,最近出版的廟滾動,以及各種pesher型評論小額預言被證明是最有用的討論厄色尼的生活,學說,和悠久的歷史。


"Essenes" is an English transliteration of the Greek Essenoi. The derivation and meaning of the Greek word have been a mystery since the first century AD Philo, our earliest source (ca. AD 40), speculated that "Essenes" was derived from the Greek hosios, meaning "holy." “愛色尼”是英文音譯希臘Essenoi 。推導和意義的希臘詞一直是個謎,因為公元一世紀哲學,我們最早的來源(約公元40 ) ,推測, “愛色尼”是源自希臘hosios ,意思是“神聖的。 ” Modern scholars have preferred to go back to Semitic originals. The two most probable etymologies offered to date are from the Aramaic 'asen,' asayya, "healers," and from the East Aramaic hasen, hasayya, "the pious."現代學者們更願意回到猶太人的原件。這兩個最有可能etymologies提供日期從阿拉姆'奧森, asayya , “醫士” ,並從東阿拉姆哈森, hasayya “的虔誠。 ” The first etymology would suggest a link between the Essenes and the Therapeutae (Gr. "healers"), a similar Jewish group flourishing contemporaneously in Egypt.第一詞源建議之間的聯繫和愛色尼Therapeutae ( Gr. “醫士” ) ,類似的猶太團體蓬勃發展contemporaneously在埃及。 The second etymology would imply a historical relationship between the Essenes and the Hasidim (Hebrew: "pious ones"), the faithful Jews who distinguished themselves during the Maccabean revolt (ca. 167 BC).第二詞源將意味著一個歷史之間的關係和愛色尼Hasidim (希伯來文: “虔誠者” ) ,忠實猶太人誰尊敬自己在Maccabean起義(約公元167年) 。 Extant evidence will not allow a firm decision between the two etymologies, though it would seem that the latter currently enjoys more credence.現存的證據將不會允許一個堅定的決定兩國之間的etymologies ,儘管它看來,後者目前享有更多的信任。 In any case, there is no reason to assume that "Essenes," or Semitic equivalent, was a selfdesignation.在任何情況下,沒有理由認為, “愛色尼” ,或猶太人的當量,是一個selfdesignation 。 It may have been a label applied to the group by outsiders.它可能已被一個標籤適用於該小組由外人。 As such, it would point to the manner in which the Essenes were perceived by their contemporaries.因此,它會指向以何種方式愛色尼被視為他們的同時代人。

Life and Doctrine生活與學說

Philo, Josephus, Pliny, and Hippolytus generally agree quite closely on the main characteristics of the group. Asceticism was a central triat.斐洛,約瑟夫,普利尼,並西波呂普遍認同相當密切的主要特徵組。禁慾主義是一個中央triat 。 Many Essenes were devoted to the celibate ideal, though Josephus mentions a group who married.許多人愛色尼人專門獨身主義的理想,但約瑟夫提到了一組誰結婚。 They eschewed luxury items, such as oil, and avoided all unnecessary social and economic contacts with non-Essenes.他們迴避奢侈品,如石油,並避免一切不必要的社會和經濟的聯繫與非愛色尼。 Their highly regimented life centered on prayer, rigorous work, frequent lustrations, and the study of Scriptures.其高度regimented生活為中心的祈禱,嚴格的工作,經常lustrations ,並研究聖經。

Essene life was also communal.厄色尼還生活社區。 Not only was property held in common, but it seems that many, if not all, of their meals were taken together as well.不僅是財產共同舉行,但似乎許多人來說,如果不是全部的話,他們的伙食被帶到一起的。 An essene traveler could always be certain of finding free lodging wherever fellow Essenes lived.旅行支票的厄色尼總是可以找到一些免費住宿的地方同胞愛色尼人。 Essene communities were highly structured with four different classes of membership divided according to seniority.厄色尼社區的高度結構化的四個不同類別的會員分為根據工齡。 It would seem that priests occupied the top rung of the Essene social ladder; Josephus explicity mentions that the ones who administered the communal finances were priests.看來,神父被佔領的頂端響的厄色尼社會的階梯;約瑟夫明確地提到,誰管理的公共財政司鐸。 The internal social structure of Essene communities was maintained by careful and exacting discipline.內部社會結構的厄色尼社區保持謹慎和嚴格的紀律。 An entrance procedure requiring a three-year novitiate and solemn vows ensured a committed membership.入口的程序,需要一個三年期見習和莊嚴的誓言確保了承諾的成員。

There is some disagreement between Philo and Josephus on the Essene attitude toward the temple and sacrifices.有一些分歧斐洛和約瑟夫的厄色尼的態度寺廟和犧牲。 Philo claims that the Essenes abstained from animal sacrifices altogether, while Josephus reports that, because of their views on purity, the Essenes were excluded from the temple courts and for this reason sacrificed among themselves.菲洛稱,愛色尼棄權票,從動物的犧牲完全,而約瑟夫的報告說,由於他們的意見純潔性,在愛色尼被排除在寺廟法院為此犧牲了他們之間。

Finally, Josephus says that the Essenes were thoroughgoing predestinarians, and that along with a belief in the immortality of the soul they held to a doctrine of preexistence.最後,約瑟夫說,愛色尼被徹底predestinarians ,並連同信念不朽的靈魂,他們舉行了一個理論的前世。

This picture of Essene life and doctrine is, on the whole, corroborated by the information derived from Qumran and its documents. As one might expect, however, the agreement is not perfect; there are some outright contradictions.這張照片的厄色尼生活和理論,從總體上看,證實了該信息來自昆蘭和文件。正如人們可能預期,但該協議並不完美,也有一些直接的矛盾。 For example, the Manual of Discipline mandates a two-year, not a three-year, novitiate.例如,手冊的學科任務兩年,而不是一個三年期,見習。 According to Philo, the Essenes eschewed oaths, but the Damascus Document prescribes several oaths for the Qumran sectaries.據斐羅的愛色尼避免宣誓,但大馬士革文件規定若干宣誓的昆蘭sectaries 。 These and other incongruities highlight the uncertainties of using the Dead Sea Scrolls to illuminate Essenism.這些和其他一些不協調的突出的不確定性利用死海古卷照亮Essenism 。 Even if one assumes that Philo and Josephus were mistaken on some points (and this is quite probable), one must still reckon with the possibility that the Dead Sea Scrolls do not reflect universal Essene characteristics.即使假定斐洛和約瑟夫錯了的一些問題(這是非常可能的) ,一個仍然必須正視的可能性,死海古卷沒有反映普遍厄色尼的特點。

Yet, with this possibility in mind, one can still appreciate the tremendous value of the Qumran scrolls for Essene studies.然而,這種可能性一點,但是人們還是可以理解的巨大價值的昆蘭捲軸的厄色尼的研究。 The scrolls give clear evidence that at least some of the Essenes followed a solar, 364-day calendar as opposed to official Judaism, which used a lunar one.該條幅提供明確的證據表明,至少有一些愛色尼後,太陽能, 364天的日曆,而不是官方猶太教,使用月球之一。 Moreover, the scrolls intimate that the Qumran Essenes (if no others) were implacable foes of the Hasmonean high priests.此外,春聯親密的昆蘭愛色尼(如果沒有其他人)被無情的敵人的Hasmonean高神父。 In fact, it seems that many Essene leaders were Zadokites, members of the high priestly family displaced by the Hasmoneans.事實上,這似乎是許多厄色尼領導人Zadokites成員,高牧師家庭流離失所的哈斯摩年王朝。 This information has in turn shed light on the vexing problem of the Essenes and temple sacrifices.這一信息又揭示了令人煩惱的問題,愛色尼和寺廟的犧牲。 It seems that the Qumranians abstained from temple sacrifices because of a rift with the ruling priests in Jerusalem, not because they repudiated the sacrificial system, as Philo implies. Finally, the scrolls expose an Essenism which was thoroughly eschatological in outlook.看來, Qumranians棄權廟犧牲,因為裂痕與執政的神職人員在耶路撒冷,而不是因為他們反對祭祀系統,意味著斐羅。最後,揭露了春聯Essenism這是徹底的末世論前景。 The writers of the scrolls believed themselves the true remnant of Israel living in the last days.作者的春聯認為自己真正的殘餘生活在以色列的最後幾天。 They eagerly awaited the appearance of both a political messiah and an eschatological high priest.他們熱切盼望的外觀既是一個政治救世主和末世論的大祭司。

In general it can be said that the Dead Sea Scrolls have preserved a place for Essenism within the mainstream of Judaism.一般來說,可以說,死海古卷保存的位置Essenism內的主流猶太教。 Josephus's and Philo's accounts show it was difficult to fit the Essenes into what was known about late second temple Judaism.約瑟夫和斐羅的帳目顯示,難以適應愛色尼到什麼是已知的第二年底廟猶太教。 The Essenes were often regarded as syncretistic monastics, imbued with a hellenistic asceticism.在愛色尼通常被視為融monastics ,充滿了希臘禁慾主義。 Recent studies on the Qumran scrolls, however, have revealed an ascetic and communal life style not based on some Greek philosophical ideal but on an overwhelming concern for ritual purity.最近的研究昆蘭捲軸,但是,有一個苦行揭示和社區生活作風不是基於一些希臘哲學的理想,但對絕大多數關注的儀式的純潔性。 Regardless of the identity of the Qumran sectaries, it is now possible to understand the Essenes as one of the numerous purity-conscious groups which flourished in Judaism before AD 70.無論人的身份昆蘭sectaries ,現在是可以理解的愛色尼作為一個無數純潔意識的群體蓬勃發展之前,猶太教公元70 。

History and Influence歷史和影響

Our explicit sources contain very little information of a historical nature.我們明確的來源包含的信息非常少的歷史性質。 The Qumran documents are full of historical allusions, but they are notoriously ambiguous.在昆蘭文件是充分的歷史典故,但他們也非常含糊。 Moreover, the history of the Qumran community may not accurately reflect the history of Essenism as a whole.此外,歷史上的昆蘭社區可能無法準確地反映歷史的Essenism整體。 By using a combination of sources, however, scholars have developed the following tentative outline of Essene history.通過使用相結合的來源,但是,學者們制定了以下初步提綱厄色尼的歷史。 The Essenes seem to have arisen after the Maccabean revolt (ca. 167-160 BC).在愛色尼似乎已經出現後Maccabean起義(約公元167-160年) 。 Sometime between 152 and 110 BC at least some of the Essenes, perhaps only the leaders, retreated to Qumran, on the shores of the Dead Sea.有時之間的152和110年至少有一些愛色尼,也許只有領導人,撤退到昆蘭,對海岸的死海。 There they stayed until the Parthian invasion of 40 BC or the earthquake of 31 BC forced them to leave.他們在那裡逗留到帕提亞入侵公元前40或31日的地震公元前迫使他們離開。 At that time they settled in the regions around Jerusalem.當時,他們定居在耶路撒冷周圍地區。 Soon after Herod the Great's death (4 BC) at least some of the Essenes returned to Qumran. Some seventy years later Essenes were involved in the revolt against the Romans.不久之後的大希律王死後( 4年)至少有一些愛色尼返回昆蘭。一些七十年後愛色尼參與了反抗羅馬人。 The survival and persistence of the Essenes as a separate group after AD 70 is still debated.的生存和持續的愛色尼作為一個單獨的組公元70後仍是辯論的。 Many scholars have found traces of Essenism within such later sects as the Ebionites, the Mandaeans, and the Karaites.許多學者已發現的痕跡Essenism在這種後來教派的以便尼派的曼德安,以及卡拉派信徒。

Also still undecided is the importance and influence of Essenism within pre-AD 70 Judaism and early Christianity.也仍然是未定的重要性和影響力Essenism內預先公元70猶太教和早期基督教。 It has often been dismissed as a peripheral Jewish sect or hailed as the very seedbed of the Christian faith.人們常常被視為次要的猶太節或稱為非常苗床基督教信仰。 Both of these positions are too extreme.這兩個職位是過於極端。 It is more likely that the Essenes were one expression of a widespread pietistic reaction to the pragmatic and tepid spirit of the official Judaism.這是更可能是愛色尼是一個表達廣泛pietistic反應,務實和溫和的精神正式猶太教。 From the ranks of such a reaction the early church would have drawn heavily.從隊伍的這種反應的早期教堂將大量利用。

S Taylor這是一種為了滿足泰勒
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (規矩福音字典)

Bibliography 目錄
G. Vermes, The Dead Sea Scrolls in English; A. Dupont-Sommer, The Jewish Sect of Qumran and the Essenes; M. Burrows, the Dead Sea Scrolls; FF Bruce, Second Thoughts on the Dead Sea Scrolls; WS LaSor, The Dead Sea Scrolls and the NT; R. deVaux, Archaeology and the Dead Sea Scrolls; JH Charlesworth, "The Origin and Subsequent History of the Authors of the Dead Sea Scrolls: Four Transitional Phases among the Qumran Essenes," RQum 10:213-33; CD Ginsburg, The Essenes.灣Vermes ,死海古卷中英文的A.杜邦,索默,猶太人教的昆蘭和愛色尼;先生伯羅斯,死海古卷;法郎布魯斯,第二思考死海古卷;是LaSor ,該死海古卷和NT ;河deVaux ,考古學與死海古卷;家查爾斯沃思說: “起源和更強的歷史作者的死海古卷:四過渡階段之間的昆蘭愛色尼” , RQum 10:213 - 33 ;裁談會金斯伯格,在愛色尼。

Also, see:此外,見:
(Advanced) Pharisees, Sadducees, and Essenes (高級)法利,撒都該人,以及愛色尼

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