Indian Theology印度神學

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The attempt to reformulate biblical theology in Indian categories of thought, in a manner relevant to the Indian context.企圖改寫聖經神學在印度類別的思想方式,在有關向印度方面。 Until recently Western theology has dominated the Indian theological scene, and Christianity has come under criticism from Hindu thinkers in this regard.直到最近西方神學已經支配了印度的神學現場,和基督教受到批評,印度教思想家在這方面。 The pioneers of Indian theology were not Christians but enlightened Hindus who came under the strong influence of Western thought and Christianity.先鋒印度神學不是基督徒,但開明的印度教徒來到誰下的強大影響力的西方思想和基督教。 These enlightened nationalists wanted to reform Hinduism and Indian society, thereby counterbalancing Christian missionary activities.這些開明的民族主義要改革印度教和印度社會,從而制約基督教傳教活動。 For Indian Christian leaders, Indian theology is an attempt to meet the criticism that Christianity is a foreign and dangerous denationalizing force.印度的基督教領袖,印度神學是企圖以滿足批評基督教是外國和危險denationalizing生效。 It represents a search for and an expression of self identity in India and in the field of Christian theology. It is an attempt to conceptualize the urge for being Christian and Indian simultaneously.它代表了尋找和表達自我在印度和領域的基督教神學。這是一個企圖概念化敦促被基督教和印度同時進行。 It faces the challenge of renascent Hinduism in its relegation of Christianity to a subordinate status.它面臨的挑戰是復興印度教在其降級基督教的從屬地位。 Moreover it stands for the concern of Indian theologians to communicate the gospel in thought patterns familiar to the Indian mind.此外,它代表的關注印度神學傳達福音的思維模式熟悉的印度銘記。 It is to present "the water of life in an Indian cup."這是本“水的生活,印度一杯。 ”

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Trends in Indian Theology.在印度的趨勢神學。 No uniform pattern or common trends can be traced in Indian theology.沒有統一的模式或共同的趨勢可以追溯到印度神學。 Corresponding to the diversified historical context and socioreligious needs, there are varied theological expressions of response to the gospel.對應於多樣化的歷史背景和socioreligious需要,有不同的神學表達的回應福音。

(1) There are attempts to harmonize Christianity, rather than Christ, with Hinduism. ( 1 )有企圖統一基督教,而不是基督,與印度教。 Raam Mohan Roy (1772 - 1833), the father of modern India, and his successor Keshab Chandra Sen (1838 - 1884) interpreted Jesus in Indian traditions. Raam漢爾羅伊( 1772年至1833年) ,父親的現代印度,和他的繼任者Keshab錢德拉森( 1838年至1884年)解釋,耶穌在印度的傳統。 Jesus is portrayed as an Asiatic.耶穌描繪成一個亞洲人。 His ethical precepts, independent of his person, provide the way to happiness and peace.他的道德戒律,獨立的人,提供的方式幸福與和平。 His "Divine Humanity" is explained within the framework of Hindu mystic traditions.他的“神人性”的解釋框架內的印度教神秘的傳統。 Jesus Christ and the "best elements" of Christianity are conveniently accommodated under the wide umbrella of Hinduism.耶穌基督和“最佳內容”基督教方便照顧下,全保護傘印度教。 Because of the universalistic and absorptive features of Hinduism, no tension is experienced in this.由於普遍性和吸收功能的印度教,是沒有經驗的緊張局勢在此。

(2) There is concern for dialogue. ( 2 )人們關注的對話。 Christian theology in India finds itself in the midst of spirited and influential non Christian religious systems, especially Hinduism, which claims the allegiance of eighty four percent of Indians.基督教神學在印度發現自己處於精神和有影響的非基督教宗教系統,尤其是印度教,也宣稱效忠百分之84的印度人。 Hindu religiocultural factors have, therefore, played a decisive role in the emergence of several significant issues of Indian theology, for instance, the uniqueness and finality of Christ and the nature and scope of Christian mission.印度教religiocultural因素,因此,起到了決定性的作用出現的若干重大問題的印度神學,例如,獨特性和終局性和基督的性質和範圍,基督教的使命。 A viable base has been found in the NT synthesis of Hebrew and Greek culture for synthesizing Christian and Hindu culture in India.一個可行的基地已被發現在新界合成希伯來文和希臘文化的綜合基督教和印度教文化中印度。 Hinduism and its scriptures are treated as counterparts to Judaism and the OT in relation to the gospel.印度教和它的經文被視為對口猶太教和催產素有關的福音。 God speaks equally through other religions also.上帝講同樣通過其他宗教也。 PD Devanandan and Raymond Panikkar's theologies emerge in this context of religiocultural pluralism.帕金森病Devanandan和Raymond潘尼迦的theologies出現在這方面religiocultural多元化。 They advocate letting Christ reform Hinduism from within and so unveil the Christ who is already present there, though hidden and unacknowledged.他們主張讓基督的改革從內部印度教和基督教公佈誰已經存在,但隱藏的,秘而不宣。

(3) There is frequently a polemic emphasis. ( 3 )有經常爭論的重點。 God's special revelation is essential for knowing the truth, and Jesus is this divine special revelation.上帝的特殊啟示是必不可少的了解真相,並耶穌是這個神聖的特殊啟示。 Without him intuition and inspiration fall short of "the rock of Christ" in knowing the truth.沒有他的直覺和靈感低於“岩石基督”知道真相。

(4) There is an apologetic emphasis. ( 4 )有一個道歉的重視。 Renascent Hinduism stripped Christ and Christianity of everything that they claim and possess. Christ is made one among those who experienced the advaitic (monistic) experience.復興印度教剝奪耶穌和基督教的一切,他們的索賠和擁有。基督是其中之一是誰經歷了advaitic (一元)的經驗。 Christianity is treated as one of the earlier stages in the evolution of religion.基督教被視為一個早期階段的發展過程中的宗教。 The church has been accused of denationalism.該教堂被指控denationalism 。 The crucial issues reflected in Brahmabandab Upadhyaya's theology are to be judged in this context.關鍵的問題反映在Brahmabandab烏帕德亞雅的神學要判斷在這方面。 He reformulated the doctrine of Trinity in which he portrayed Christ as "nothing but the highest."他重學說三一他在描繪基督為“只不過是最高的。 ” He was a Hindu Catholic, ie, at heart a Christian, yet culturally a Hindu.他是一個印度教天主教,即在心臟一個基督徒,但印度教文化。

(5) There is concern for evangelism. ( 5 )人們關注的福音。 Jesus Christ is not a monopoly of the West.耶穌基督是不是一個壟斷的西方國家。 He is equally for India too.他同樣也為印度。 There he is to be presented not in Western robes and image, but in terms and thought - forms intelligible to the Indian mind.在那裡,他將提交不是在西方長袍和形象,而且在條件和思想-形式向易懂印度銘記。 Sadhu Sunder Singh's Christocentric theology is a conscious attempt toward this. Sadhu桑德辛格的Christocentric神學是有意識地朝這個企圖。

(6) One finds emphasis on relevancy. ( 6 )一個認定側重於相關性。 Indian theologians want to erase the ghetto mentality of the minority Christians.印度神學家要抹掉的貧民區的心態少數基督教徒。 Their task is to help Christians see themselves as an integral part of the larger community in India and participate in the common life and experience.他們的任務是幫助基督徒認為自己是不可分割的一部分較大的社會,印度和參與共同生活和經驗。 The struggles for socioeconomic development and humanization are seen as "Christ at work today."該鬥爭的社會經濟發展和人性化被視為“基督在今天的工作。 ” MM Thomas and others contend that Christian theology has to be relevant in this context, and therefore the context and social dimension of the gospel are primary.莫斯利托馬斯和其他人認為,基督教神學必須在這方面,因此,背景和社會層面的福音是首要。

Summary and Evaluation總結和評價

These attempts to explain, interpret, and formulate the essentials of Christianity in Indian thought - patterns have enabled Indian thinkers to contribute something to Christian theology.這些企圖解釋,解釋,並制定最基本的基督教在印度的思想-模式已經使印度的思想家作出貢獻一些基督教神學。 While contributing to the field of apologetics, these attempts to wed faith with reason, revealed theology with natural theology, have had only partial success.同時也有助於領域的護教學,這些企圖結婚的信念與理由,發現神學與自然神學,只有部分成功。 It has, to an extent, made the gospel relevant in the context of Indian nationalism, religiocultural pluralism, and socioeconomic development.它在一定程度上使有關福音的背景下印度的民族主義, religiocultural多元化,和社會經濟發展。 It marks the beginning of Indian biblical scholarship and creative theological formulations.這標誌著印度聖經獎學金和創造性的神學配方。 Yet none has managed to be faithful to Christian theology in its entirety, nor to the context and content simultaneously.然而,沒有設法忠實於基督教神學的全部內容,也不範圍和內容同時進行。 Quite often "context" has become more decisive than the "text," and this is critical.往往“背景”已成為更具有決定性的不是“文字” ,這是至關重要的。

The final authority seems to rest upon context and not the Bible. More than the special revelation in Scripture, various social sciences influence and determine the content and scope of Indian theology.最後的權威似乎有賴於方面,而不是聖經。以上的特殊啟示聖經,各種社會科學的影響力和確定的內容和範圍印度神學。 Instead of being theocentric, God in relation to man, it becomes more anthropocentric, man in relation to man or structures. However, no one philosophy or sociology can provide an adequate framework for Christian theology that is faithful to revealed content of Scripture.而不是theocentric ,上帝與人,它變得更加人類,人類有關的人或機構。然而,沒有一個哲學或社會學可以提供一個適當的框架,基督教神學是忠實於顯示內容的聖經。 The quest for relevance in theology, whether European, American, African, or Indian, should not be at the expense of commitment to the finality of the written and living Word尋求神學的意義,不論是歐洲,美洲,非洲,或印度,不應該以犧牲承諾的終局性的書面和生活的Word

CV Mathew馬修簡歷
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (規矩福音字典)

Bibliography: 參考書目:
K Baago, Pioneer in Indigenous Christianity; RHS Boyd, An Introduction to Indian Christian Theology; H Burkle and WMW Roth, eds., Indian Voices in Today's Theological Debate; MM Thomas, The Acknowledged Christ of the Indian Renaissance. K Baago ,先鋒的土著基督教;皇家園藝協會博伊德介紹印度的基督教神學; H伯克爾和WMW羅斯編。 ,印度的聲音在今天的神學辯論;莫斯利托馬斯,公認的基督印度文藝復興時期。

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