Islam, Muslims伊斯蘭教,穆斯林

General Information 一般信息

Islam is the religion of many Arabic and Persian nations.伊斯蘭教是宗教的許多阿拉伯語和波斯語的國家。 Followers are called Muslims (or Moslems).追隨者被稱為穆斯林(穆斯林) 。

Mahomet Mohammed (or Muhammad) (c. 570 - 632 AD) is the primary prophet穆罕默德穆罕默德(或穆罕默德) (角570 -公元6 32)是主要的先知

(Editor's Note: Muslims strongly dislike the word Mohammedanism and insist on Islam. They feel that Mohammedanism implies some Divine aspect to Muhammad himself. They revere Muhammad as a glorious Prophet but insist on making clear that he is not a God and does not deserve to have their religion named for him. They feel that Islam is the only correct name. Early Western and Christian authors tended to use the term Mohammedanism. Western authors also tended (and some still tend) to use the term Moslem rather than Muslim for the believers.) (編者注: 穆斯林的強烈反感這個詞Mohammedanism ,堅持伊斯蘭教。他們認為,某些意味著Mohammedanism神聖方面穆罕默德本人。他們尊崇穆罕默德作為一個光榮的先知,但堅持清楚地表明,他不是上帝,不值得他們的宗教他的名字命名的。他們認為,伊斯蘭教是唯一正確的名稱。西歐和早期基督教的作者往往使用的術語Mohammedanism 。西方作者也往往(和一些仍然傾向於)使用這個詞,而不是回教的穆斯林信徒。 )

Muhammad taught that man must submit himself to the one God; that nations are punished for rejecting God's prophets; that heaven and hell await in the future life; and that the world will come to an end in a great judgment day. 穆罕默德告訴我們,人必須提交本人的一個上帝; ,各國懲罰拒絕上帝的先知;的天堂與地獄等待著在今後的生活和這個世界將結束在一個偉大的判決一天。

Muhammad offered himself to the Jews and Christians as the successor of Jesus Christ but met with severe opposition.穆罕默德本人提供的猶太人和基督徒的繼承耶穌基督,但會見了嚴重的反對。 He severely condemned the Jews in his teachings.他嚴厲譴責猶太人在他的教誨。 In general, Muhammad and Muslims feel that Jews originally had the correct "book" (The Torah or the First Five Books of the Christian Bible), but that the Jews had improperly altered the texts of those important Manuscripts.一般來說,穆罕默德和穆斯林認為,猶太人原本正確的“書” (在或聖經第一五本書的基督教聖經) ,但猶太人不當改變了文本的這些重要的手稿。 For that reason, Muhammad and Muslims feel that Jews (and Christians) are sinful in following texts that have been distorted.出於這一原因,穆罕默德和穆斯林認為,猶太人(和基督徒)是罪孽深重在下列文本已經被扭曲了。 Muslims rely on a book which presents the Messages that Muhammad received from the Angel Jibril (Gabriel) which they feel are precisely correct, which is called the Koran.穆斯林依靠一本書介紹了其中的郵件穆罕默德收到了天使賈布里勒(加布里埃爾) ,其中他們覺得恰恰是正確的,這是所謂的可蘭經。 The Koran regularly refers to "the book", where it is actually referring to those Original texts, but it is conceded that no copy of those original (correct) texts still exists today.古蘭經經常提到“書” ,它實際上是指那些原始文本,但它承認,沒有這些副本原件(正確)的案文今天仍然存在。 Many Muslims incorrectly interpret those many references to "the book" as somehow referring to the Koran itself, but a careful examination of the Koran text make clear that that is clearly not true. The Original texts of the First Five Books, which Muslims feel no longer exist, are referred to as the Taurah.許多穆斯林錯誤解釋這些許多人提到的“書”作為不知指的是可蘭經本身,而是仔細研究可蘭經的文字清楚地表明,這顯然是不正確的。原始文本的第一個五年的書籍,其中穆斯林覺得沒有不再存在,被稱為Taurah 。

BELIEVE Religious Information Source web-site相信宗教信息來源
Our List of 2,300 Religious Subjects我們所列出的2300名宗教科目
Every good (Sunni) Muslim centers his life about the performance of five duties, referred to as the Pillars of Faith: 每一個良好的(遜尼派)穆斯林中心對他一生的業績五年職責,被稱為支柱信仰:

Eternal punishment is the fate of those guilty of hypocrisy (false religion), murder, theft, adultery, luxury, dishonesty, and a few other sins. 永恆的處罰是命運的那些犯有虛偽的(假宗教) ,謀殺,盜竊,通姦,奢侈品,不誠實,和其他一些罪孽。 There are great similarities to the sins described in the Ten Commandments of Christian Judaist beliefs. Drinking, gambling and usury are rigorously prohibited. 有極大的相似之處的罪孽中描述十誡Judaist的基督教信仰。飲酒,賭博和高利貸是嚴格禁止的。

Since Muslims feel that Jews and Christians use distorted copies of the Torah text as the basis of their beliefs, that is seen as the above mentioned hipocracy or false religion.由於穆斯林認為,猶太人和基督徒使用歪曲副本聖經文本的基礎上他們的信仰,這被看作是上述hipocracy或虛假的宗教。 The fact that Christians and Jews are attempting to Worship that same One True God, is not sufficient for many Muslims, and in some cases, great hatred has developed due to that.事實上,基督徒和猶太人正試圖崇拜同一個真神,是不夠的許多穆斯林,並在某些情況下,巨大的仇恨已經開發由於這一點。

The Koran includes many references that Muslims are to treat "all believers in the One True God" as brothers. Those references in the Koran indicate that Jews and Christians should be treated as brothers.可蘭經包含了許多提法穆斯林對待“所有信徒中的一真神”的兄弟。這種提法在古蘭經表明,猶太人和基督徒應視為兄弟。 It is only that aspect where Muslims insist that Jews and Christians use intentionally distorted versions of the Lord's texts where severe animosity arose.只有在這方面的穆斯林堅持認為,猶太人和基督徒使用故意歪曲版本的主文本在出現嚴重的敵意。

Early on, Muslims divided into two groups.早期,穆斯林分為兩組。 The Eastern (or Persian) Muslims are known as Shiites or Shi'a. The Western (or Arabic) Muslims are known as Sunnites or Sunnis. Sunnites (Arabs) generally consider Shiites as schismatics. Sunnites are Semites; Shiites are not.東區(或波斯灣)的穆斯林被稱為什葉派或什葉派。西部(或阿拉伯文)穆斯林被稱為遜尼派和遜尼派。遜尼派(阿拉伯人)普遍認為什葉派穆斯林作為schismatics 。 遜尼派是閃米特人;什葉派並非如此。

Muhammad was born of poor parents in Mecca.穆罕默德生於貧困的父母在麥加。 He was orphaned early and had to tend sheep for a living, so he received little education.他是孤兒早日往往不得不羊的生活,所以他很少得到教育。 At 25, he became a commercial agent for a rich widow, whom he soon married.在25日,他成為一個商業代理人豐富的遺孀,他很快結婚。

Muhammad was not particularly well-known until one specific incident occurred.穆罕默德不是特別知名的,直到一個特定的事件發生。 The celebrated Black Stone had been removed from the Kaaba building to be cleaned, and four Tribal leaders were arguing over which of them would get the honor of carrying it back to the Kaaba.著名的黑石已經從克爾白建設,以清潔,四個部落領導人爭論而他們將獲得的榮譽攜帶回克爾白。 The argument was becoming extremely serious, as each of the four Tribal leaders wanted that honor personally. It seemed that there was no possible resolution for this situation, and that a Tribal war seemed unavoidably about to begin. At this point, the young Muhammad stepped forward to offer a suggestion.這個論點已成為極其嚴重的,因為每個的四個部落首領希望這一榮譽的個人。似乎有沒有可能解決這種情況,而且部落的戰爭似乎不可避免地即將開始。在這一點上,年輕的穆罕默德加強著提供了一個建議。 He suggested locating a blanket and placing the Black Stone on top of it.他建議尋找一條毯子,把黑石頭上的。 Then each of the four would lift a corner, and all four would equally receive the honor of carrying it back to the Kaaba.然後,每一個取消一個角落裡,和所有四個同樣得到的榮譽攜帶回克爾白。 That suggestion showed such brilliant insight that forever after that, Muhammad was asked for solutions whenever difficult situations arose, and his fame became enormous virtually overnight.這項建議表明這種輝煌的洞察,永遠後,穆罕默德被要求提供解決方案時出現困難的情況下,他成為巨大的名利幾乎在一夜之間。 All Muslim children today, world wide, are taught about this impressive accomplishment of Muhammad.所有穆斯林兒童今天,世界各地,教授對這一令人印象深刻的成績穆罕默德。

Years later, Muhammad had a vision in the desert north of Mecca in which he believed he was commanded to preach.幾年後,穆罕默德曾設想在沙漠北部的麥加,他相信他是指揮說教。 He came to believe that he was a medium for divine revelation and that he was a prophet of God (Allah).他認為,他是一個中型的神聖啟示,他是一個先知的上帝(真主) 。 He received many such revelations in some caves.他收到許多這樣的揭露在一些洞穴。 His followers memorized his revelations and his successor, Abu Bakr, had them compiled as a book (the Koran).他的追隨者背誦他的揭露和他的繼任者,阿布貝克,匯集了他們作為一本書(古蘭經) 。

Muslims believe that Noah, Abraham, Moses and Jesus received revelations from God, but they regard Muhammad as the greatest and the last prophet of God. 穆斯林認為,諾亞,亞伯拉罕,摩西與耶穌收到來自上帝的啟示,但他們認為穆罕默德的最大和最後的先知的上帝。

At first, few converts followed Muhammad.起初,幾個轉換之後穆罕默德。 In 622, the people of Mecca actually drove him out of the city and he fled to Medina. This flight (called the Hegira) was taken as the beginning of the Muslim calendar.在622 ,人民的麥加實際上他開車出城,他逃到麥地。這次飛行(稱為Hegira )採取了如開始的穆斯林的日曆。 After the Hegira, he often turned to warfare, plunder and conquest. Hegira後,他往往變成戰爭,掠奪和征服。 In 630, he returned to Mecca in triumph and treated his former persecutors with kindness. He called all his followers to a holy war in which he promised that all who died fighting (specifically in defending Islam) would ascend straight to Paradise. This single comment from the generally peace - loving Muhammad has been used as the central cause of numerous religious (jihad) wars, and more recently, terrorism. Virtually all of his other teachings emphasize peace, charity, tolerance and kindness to all. After he died in 632, the war was carried on by his successors (Caliphs).在630 ,他返回麥加對待勝利和他的前迫害與善良。 他呼籲所有他的追隨者發動聖戰他在信中承諾,誰所有死亡的戰鬥(特別是在捍衛伊斯蘭教)將連續登上天堂。這種單一的評論從一般的和平-愛穆罕默德已被用作中央事業的許多宗教(聖戰)的戰爭,以及最近恐怖主義。幾乎所有的其他教義強調的和平,慈善,寬容和愛心給所有。去世後,他在6 32 ,戰爭是由他的繼任者( Caliphs ) 。

Critics find many things to attack in Islam.批評者認為很多事情攻擊伊斯蘭教。 Many suras of the Koran were composed before 622 AD, while Muhammad was still in Mecca. In general, those suras tend to be extremely peaceful, compassionate, considerate.許多suras古蘭經組成公元622之前,而穆罕默德仍然在麥加。總的來說,這些suras往往是非常和平,同情心,體諒。 In fact, historian Sir W Muir (in Life of Mahomet , 1864, four volumes, vol. 1, p. 503) said " In the Meccan period of his life there certainly can be traced no personal ends or unworthy motives . . . Mahomet was then nothing more than he professed to be, 'a simple Preacher and a Warner'; he was the despised and rejected prophet of a gainsaying people, having no ulterior object but their reformation. He may have mistaken the right means for effecting this end, but there is no sufficient reason for doubting that he used those means in good faith and with an honest purpose."事實上,歷史學家主席W穆爾( 生命的穆罕默德 , 1864年, 4卷,第一卷。 1 ,頁503 )說: “ 在Meccan期間他的生活有一定可以追溯到任何個人目的或不配的動機。 。 。穆罕默德當時只不過他聲稱要'一個簡單的傳教士和華納' ;他是鄙視和拒絕先知的否認人,沒有不可告人的目的,但他們的改革。他可能有誤正確的手段,為此影響,但沒有足夠的理由懷疑,他用這些手段以誠意和一個誠實的目的。 “

After he arrived in Medina, those suras seem to have a generally much harsher tone, often even mean-spirited and barbaric, as regarding non-believers.抵達後,他在麥地,這些suras似乎已普遍更嚴厲的口氣很大,常常甚至卑鄙的和野蠻的,因為對非信徒。 Muir continued the above citation "But the scene changes at Medina. There temporal power, aggrandisement, and self-gratification mingled rapidly with the grand object of the Prophet's life, and they were sought and attained by just the same instrumentality. Messages from heaven were freely brought down to justify political conduct, in precisely the same manner as to inculcate religious precept. Battles were fought, executions ordered, and territories annexed, under cover of the Almighty's sanction. Nay, even personal indulgences were not only excused but encouraged by the divine approval or command. A special license was produced, allowing the Prophet many wives; the affair with Mary the Coptic bond-maid was justified in a separate Sura; and the passion for the wife of his own adopted son and bosom friend was the subject of an inspired message in which the Prophet's scruples were rebuked by God, a divorce permitted, and marriage with the object of his unhallowed desires enjoined. . . . As the natural result, we trace from the period of Mahomet's arrival in Medina a marked and rapid declension in the system he inculcated. Intolerance quickly took the place of freedom; force, of persuasion. "穆爾繼續上述引文“但是,現場的變化梅迪納。顳有權力,擴張,自我滿足迅速交融的宏偉目標先知的生命,他們要求達到同樣的手段。訊息從天上有自由降低到合理的政治行為,正是在同樣的方式灌輸宗教戒律。戰役的戰鬥,下令處決和領土所附的掩護下萬能的制裁。不,甚至個人indulgences不僅原諒,但鼓舞的是,神聖的批准或命令。一項特別許可生產,使許多先知的妻子;這件事與瑪麗科普特債券女傭是有道理的一個單獨的蘇拉和激情的妻子通過自己的兒子和知己的主題一個靈感的信息,其中先知顧忌被責罵的上帝,允許離婚,婚姻的目的,他的願望責成unhallowed 。 。 。 。由於自然結果,我們從跟踪時期的穆罕默德抵達梅迪納和顯著快速格在他的系統灌輸。容忍迅速取代了自由;武力,說服。 “

Muir later added "If Mohammed deviated from the path of his early years, that should cause no surprise; he was a man as much as, and in like manner as, his contemporaries, he was a member of a still half-savage society, deprived of any true culture, and guided solely by instincts and natural gifts which were decked out by badly understood and half-digested religious doctrines of Judaism and Christianity. Mohammed became thus the more easily corruptible when fortune in the end smiled upon him. . . . [In Medina], he offered very little resistance to the corrupting action of the new social position, more particularly in view of the fact that the first steps were accompanied by bewildering triumphs and by fatal sweetness of practically unlimited political power. . . . The deterioration of his moral character was a phenomenon supremely human, of which history provides not one but a thousand examples."穆爾後來說: “如果穆罕默德背離的道路早年,這應該引起毫不奇怪,他是一個人多,而且,一如他的同時代人,他是一個成員仍然半野蠻的社會,被剝奪了任何真正的文化,並遵循完全由本能和自然的禮物是打扮了嚴重的理解和半消化宗教教義的猶太教和基督教。穆罕默德成為因而更容易腐化的財富時,在結束對他微笑。 。 。 。 [在梅迪納] ,他提供很少抵抗腐蝕作用的新的社會地位,更多的特別鑑於這一事實,即第一個步驟是伴隨著撲朔迷離的勝利和致命的甜度幾乎無限的政治權力。 。 。 。惡化,他的品德是一個人的現象,超級,其中的歷史提供了不是一個而是1000的例子。 “

Following generations of Muslims were often brutal and gruesome in their treatment of people who did not accept Islam or who questioned anything about it.經過幾代人的穆斯林往往是殘酷和可怕的在其治療的人誰不接受伊斯蘭教或誰質疑無能為力。

Muslims consider the Koran to be EXACTLY the very Word of God (Allah). They do not doubt or question even the slightest aspect of it.穆斯林認為古蘭經是非常準確的Word上帝(真主) 。他們沒有疑問或問題有絲毫的一面。 However, by the year 325 AD, three hundred years before the Koran, Christians had established the concept of the Trinity, as being ONE God, Who seemed to exist as Three different Persons, the Father (YHWH or Jehovah), the Son (Jesus) and the Holy Ghost, and never varied from that.然而,到公元325年,三百年前的古蘭經,基督教徒設立了概念的三位一體,作為一個上帝,誰似乎存在著三個不同的人,父親(或耶和華耶和華) ,聖子(耶穌)和聖靈,並沒有因這一點。 (Christians believe that the One True God had decided to "divide Himself in Two" such that He could experience an entirely human lifetime as Jesus, while still remaining in Heaven/Paradise to oversee the Universe. Christians feel that God has unlimited Ability so that He could do that, possibly in order to better understand why His people seemed to always fail Him. So Christians have NO doubt that there has ever only been One True God, but that He chose a course where it appeared for 33 years that He was simultaneously in two places. With these understandings, Christians feel that Muslims should realize that the One True God [Allah] that they worship was actually present in walking the Earth just 600 years before Muhammad.) (基督徒認為,一個真正的上帝已決定將“鴻溝自己兩個”這樣他可以體驗一個完全人類壽命的耶穌,而仍然留在天堂/天堂監督的宇宙。基督徒認為上帝具有無限的能力,以便他可以做到這一點,可能是為了更好地理解為什麼他的人似乎總是失敗他。所以基督徒毫無疑問,有以往任何時候都只有一個真神,但他選擇的道路似乎在為33歲,他是同時在兩個地方。有了這些認識,基督徒認為,穆斯林應該認識到,一個真神[阿拉] ,他們崇拜實際上是存在於地球步行僅600年前穆罕默德。 )

If the Koran is actually the words of God (Allah), and not altered in any way since they were given to Muhammad, it seems odd that the Koran presents the Christian Trinity as being God, Jesus, and Mary !如果古蘭經實際上是的話上帝(真主) ,並沒有改變以任何方式,因為他們給穆罕默德,似乎奇怪的是,蘭介紹了基督教三一是上帝,耶穌和瑪麗 (Sura 5:116) (Christians have never considered Mary to be Divine, except for her function as Mother of Jesus.) This seems to imply that God (Allah) made a mistake, or Muhammad made a mistake, or later copyists/commentators made a mistake (several times, as at Sura 5.77 and Sura 4.169). (蘇拉5:116 ) (基督徒從來沒有考慮瑪麗是神聖的,但她的功能耶穌的母親。 )這似乎意味著,上帝(真主)犯了一個錯誤,或穆罕默德犯了一個錯誤,或稍後copyists /評論員犯了一個錯誤(好幾次,在蘇拉5.77和蘇拉4.169 ) 。 Scholars see such things as obvious problems, but virtually all Muslims overlook them, and consider anyone bringing up such things as blasphemous.學者看到這種事情存在的突出問題,但幾乎所有的穆斯林忽略了他們,並考慮任何人帶來了諸如褻瀆。

Observers have noted that, if the Koran was precisely and exclusively the Word of God, there are many Suras that seem instead to have been expressed by either Muhammad, the Archangel Gabriel or other Angels, without clarification.觀察家們指出,如果可蘭經,正是專門天主的聖言,有許多Suras ,似乎不是已經表示由穆罕默德,天使加布里埃爾或其他天使,沒有澄清。 For example, the opening Sura, called the Fatiha, is clearly address TO Allah and not BY Him.例如,開放蘇拉,稱為Fatiha ,顯然是解決安拉,而不是由他。 If the exact wording had been provided by Allah, it should be worded slightly differently.如果確切措辭提供了真主,應當措辭略有不同。 Sura 19.64 was clearly spoken by Angels. 19.64蘇拉顯然是講天使。 The observation is: the Koran either IS or IS NOT exclusively the Word of God that Muslims claim.觀察是:古蘭經要么是或不是完全天主的聖言,穆斯林索賠。

It is certainly true that the Koran contains many hundreds of concepts, beliefs and stories from the Bible, particularly the Pentateuch, the first five Books of the Bible (also called the Torah or Taurah). These similarities involve roughly half of the 80,000 words of the Koran (while representing but a very small portion of the Bible's 800,000 words).的確,古蘭經包含了許多數以百計的觀念,信仰和故事聖經,特別是五,第一個五年圖書聖經(也稱為聖經或Taurah ) 。這些相似之處包括大約一半的話80000古蘭經(同時代表,但一小部分聖經的80.0萬字) 。 As a result, the Koran and Islam contains many similarities and many parallels with Christianity and Judaism. However, there are very great differences in some areas.因此,古蘭經和伊斯蘭教包含有許多相似之處,許多相似之處與基督教和猶太教。然而,有非常大的差異在某些領域。


General Information 一般信息

The place of the Prophet Muhammad in world history is directly related to the formation of Islam as a religious community founded on the message of the Koran, which Muslims believe to be the words of God revealed to the Prophet.這個地方的先知穆罕默德在世界歷史上是直接相關的形成伊斯蘭教作為一個宗教社區基礎上的信息可蘭經,其中穆斯林認為是上帝的話透露給先知。

Muhammad's Life and Work穆罕默德的生活和工作

Muhammad was born about 570 AD in the city of Mecca, an important trading center in western Arabia.穆罕默德生於公元570約市的麥加,一個重要的貿易中心,在西部沙特阿拉伯。 He was a member of the Hashim clan of the powerful Quraysh tribe.他是一個成員的哈希姆家族的強大Quraysh部落。 Because Muhammad's father, Abd Allah, died before he was born and his mother, Amina, when he was 6 years old, he was placed in the care of his grandfather Abd al-Muttalib and, after 578, of his uncle Abu Talib, who succeeded as head of the Hashim clan.由於穆罕默德的父親,阿卜杜拉去世前他出生和他的母親,阿米娜,當他6歲,他被放置在照顧他的祖父阿卜杜勒Muttalib ,並在578 ,他的伯父叔父阿布塔裡布,誰成功地擔任哈希姆家族。 At the age of about 25, Muhammad entered the employ of a rich widow, Khadijah, in her commercial enterprise.在年齡約25 ,穆罕默德進入僱用了豐富的遺孀, Khadijah ,她的商業企業。 They were married soon after.他們結婚後不久。 Two sons, both of whom died young, and four daughters were born. One of the daughters, Fatima, acquired special prominence in later Islamic history because of her marriage to Muhammad's cousin Ali.兩個兒子,兩人早逝,和四個女兒出生。一個女兒, 法蒂瑪,獲得了特殊的突出在以後的伊斯蘭歷史,因為她的婚姻,以穆罕默德的堂弟阿里。

About 610, Muhammad, while in a cave on Mount Hira outside Mecca, had a vision in which he was called on to preach the message entrusted to him by God. Further revelations came to him intermittently over the remaining years of his life, and these revelations constitute the text of the Koran. The opening verses of chapters 96 and 74 are generally recognized as the oldest revelations; Muhammad's vision is mentioned in 53:1 - 18 and 81:19 - 25, and the night of the first revelation in 97:1 - 5 and 44:3. 大約610 ,穆罕默德,而在一個洞穴希拉山外麥加進行了視力,他要求宣講訊息託付給他的上帝。進一步揭露了他間歇性的剩餘時間內他的生命而這些揭露構成的文本可蘭經。開放的詩句章96和74 ,一般公認的最古老的揭露;穆罕默德的願景是中提到53:1 -1 8和8 1:19- 25 ,以及晚上的第一啟示97 : 1 -5和4 4:3。 At first in private and then [613] publicly, Muhammad began to proclaim his message: that there is but one God and that Muhammad is his messenger sent to warn people of the Judgment Day and to remind them of God's goodness.在第一次私人,然後[ 613 ]公開,穆罕默德開始宣布他的信息只有一個上帝和穆罕默德是他的信使發出警告人民的審判日,並提醒他們上帝的善良。

The [pagan] Meccans responded with hostility to Muhammad's monotheism and iconoclasm.在[異教] Meccans回應敵視穆罕默德的一神教和iconoclasm 。 As long as Abu Talib was alive Muhammad was protected by the Hashim, even though that clan was the object of a boycott by other Quraysh after 616.只要阿布塔利班還活著穆罕默德是保護哈希姆,即使是家族的對象抵制其他Quraysh後616 。 About 619, however, Abu Talib died, and the new clan leader was unwilling to continue the protective arrangement.約619名,不過,阿布立死亡,和新的部族領導人不願繼續保護安排。 At about the same time Muhammad lost another staunch supporter, his wife Khadijah.大約在同一時間穆罕默德又喪失了堅定的支持者,他的妻子Khadijah 。 In the face of persecution and curtailed freedom to preach, Muhammad and about 70 followers reached the decision to sever their ties of blood kinship in Mecca and to move to Medina, a city about 400 km (250 mi) to the north.面對迫害和剝奪自由的說教,穆罕默德和大約70名追隨者達成的決定,斷絕他們的血緣關係的親屬關係,並在麥加遷移到麥地市約400公里( 250英里)的北部。 This move, called the Hegira, or hijra (an Arabic word meaning "emigration"), took place in 622, the first year of the Muslim calendar. (Muslim dates are usually followed by AH, "Anno Hegirae," the year of the hegira.)這一舉動,稱為Hegira ,或希吉拉(阿拉伯文字,意思是“移民” ) ,發生在622的第一年,穆斯林的日曆。 (穆斯林日期通常其次是啊, “野Hegirae , ”今年的hegira 。 )

In Medina an organized Muslim community gradually came into existence under Muhammad's leadership.梅迪納在一個有組織的穆斯林社區逐漸開始存在下穆罕默德的領導。 Attacks on caravans from Mecca led to war with the Meccans.攻擊大蓬車從麥加導致戰爭與Meccans 。 Muhammad's followers obtained (624) victory at Badr but were defeated at Uhud a year later. In 627, however, they successfully defended Medina against a siege by 10,000 Meccans.穆罕默德的追隨者獲得( 624 )勝利巴德爾被打敗,但在侯德一年以後。在627 ,但是,他們成功衛冕梅迪納對圍困的10000 Meccans 。 Clashes with three Jewish clans in Medina occurred in this same period.衝突中有三個猶太部族梅迪納發生在同一時期。 One of these clans, the Banu Qurayza, was accused of plotting against Muhammad during the siege of Medina; in retaliation all of the clan's men were killed and the women and children sold into slavery.其中的一個部族,在巴努Qurayza ,被指控陰謀反對穆罕默德在麥地圍困;報復所有的部族男子死亡,婦女和兒童淪為奴隸出售。 Two years later, in the oasis of Khaybar, a different fate befell another Jewish group.兩年後,在綠洲Khaybar ,不同的命運遭遇另一個猶太組。 After defeat they were allowed to remain there for the price of half their annual harvest of dates.失敗後,他們被允許繼續存在的價格一半的年度收穫的日期。

Since 624 AD (2 AH) the Muslims of Medina had been facing Mecca during worship (earlier, they had apparently turned toward Jerusalem). 自公元624 (第2 AH )的穆斯林的麥地已面臨麥加禮拜期間 (前,他們已經明顯轉向耶路撒冷) 。 Mecca was considered of primary importance to the Muslim community because of the presence there of the Kaaba. This sanctuary was then a pagan shrine, but according to the Koran (2:124 - 29), it had been built by Abraham and his son Ishmael and had therefore to be reintegrated in Muslim society. An attempt to go on pilgrimage to Mecca in 628 was unsuccessful, but at that time an arrangement was made allowing the Muslims to make the pilgrimage the next year, on condition that all parties cease armed hostilities.麥加被認為是最重要的穆斯林社區,因為存在的克爾白。這個避難所當時異教參拜靖國神社,但根據古蘭經( 2:124 -2 9日) , 立了亞伯拉罕和他的兒子以實瑪利並因此重新在穆斯林社會。試圖去麥加朝覲的628不成功,但在當時的安排是讓穆斯林朝聖使未來一年,條件是所有各方停止武裝敵對行動。 Incidents in 629 ended the armistice, and in January 630, Muhammad and his men marched on Mecca.在629事件結束了停戰,並在1月630 ,穆罕默德和他的部下遊行麥加。 The Quraysh offer to surrender was accepted with a promise of general amnesty, and hardly any fighting occurred. Muhammad's generosity to a city that had forced him out 8 years earlier is often quoted as an example of remarkable magnanimity. Quraysh提供的投降接受了許諾的普遍大赦,並且幾乎沒有任何的戰鬥發生。 穆罕默德的慷慨的城市,迫使他不得不這樣了8年前是經常引用的一個例子非凡氣度。

In his final years Muhammad continued his political and military involvements, making arrangements with nomadic tribes ready to accept Islam and sending expeditions against hostile groups.在他最後的日子裡,穆罕默德繼續他的政治和軍事介入,使安排游牧部落願意接受伊斯蘭教和派遣遠征打擊敵對的團體。 A few months after a farewell pilgrimage to Mecca in March 632 he fell ill.幾個月後告別麥加朝聖632 3月他病倒。 Muhammad died on June 8, 632, in the presence of his favorite wife, Aisha, whose father, Abu Bakr, became the first caliph.穆罕默德死於6月8日, 632在場,他最喜愛的妻子,阿伊莎,他的父親,阿布貝克,成為第一個哈里發。

God's Messenger上帝的信使

According to Muslim belief, God sent Muhammad as a messenger (rasul, or "apostle") from among the Arabs, bringing a revelation in "clear Arabic" (Koran 26:192 - 95); thus, as other peoples had received their messengers, so the Arabs received theirs. As one who had lived "a lifetime" among them before his calling (10:16), however, Muhammad was rejected by many because he was simply a man among men and not an angelic being (6:50; 18:110). As Moses had brought the Law and Jesus had received the Gospel, the Prophet (al - nabi) Muhammad was the recipient of the Koran. He is "the Seal of the Prophets" (33:40), and the Koran is the perfection of all previous revelations.根據穆斯林信仰,上帝派遣穆罕默德作為一個信使(拉蘇勒,或“使徒” )從阿拉伯人, 帶來了啟示“明確阿拉伯語” (古蘭經26:192 -9 5) ;因此,作為其他國家的人民已收到他們的使者,所以他們收到的阿拉伯人。作為一個誰住“一生”之前,它們之間的電話( 10:16 ) ,但穆罕默德拒絕了許多,因為他只不過是一個男人之間的男子,而不是一個天使正( 6 : 50 ; 18:110 ) 。 正如摩西帶來了法律和耶穌已經收到了福音,先知(基地-先知)穆罕默德是接受可蘭經。他是“印章的先知” ( 3 3:40) , 可蘭經是完善以往所有的啟示。

Exemplar and Guide政務指南

In his sermon during the farewell pilgrimage Muhammad testified that he had fulfilled his mission by leaving behind "God's Book and the sunna (custom) of the Prophet."在他的講道中告別朝聖穆罕默德作證說,他已經完成他的使命所留下“上帝的圖書和空(自訂)的先知。 ” Imitation of the Prophet - following the example of his life in all circumstances - is a prerequisite for every Muslim. 模仿先知-下面的例子,他的生命在所有情況下-的先決條件是每一位穆斯林。 Moreover, the "Blessing of the Prophet," based on a Koranic verse (33:56) and consisting of an invocation of God's blessing on the Prophet (and his family and companions) plays a major role in Muslim piety. In addition to the accomplishments of his lifetime and his significance for the present, most Muslims anticipate a future role for Muhammad - as intercessor, "with God's permission," on Judgment Day. 此外, “祝福的先知” ,根據古蘭經經文( 33:56 ) ,並組成援引上帝保佑的先知(和他的家人和同伴)中起著重要作用虔誠的穆斯林。除了成就他的一生和他的意義目前,大多數穆斯林預見的未來作用的穆罕默德-作為i ntercessor, “在上帝的許可, ”關於審判日。

Willem A Bijlefeld威廉阿Bijlefeld

Bibliography: 參考書目:
M Ali, The Living Thoughts of Muhammad (1950); T Andrae, Muhammad: The Man and His Faith (1936); A Azzam, The Eternal Message of Muhammad (1964); J Glubb, The Life and Times of Muhammad (1970); A Guillaume, ed., The Life of Muhammad: A Translation of Ibn Ishaq's Sirat Rasaul Allah' (1955); A Jeffrey, ed., Islam: Muhammad and His Religion (1958); M Rodinson, Mohammed (1971); WM Watt, Muhammad: Prophet and Stateman (1961). M阿里,生活的思考穆罕默德( 1950年) ; Ť Andrae ,穆罕默德:人與自己的信仰( 1936年) ;阿阿扎姆,永恆的訊息穆罕默德( 1964年) ; J Glubb ,在生活和時代的穆罕默德( 1970年)一個紀堯姆,版。 ,生命的穆罕默德:一個翻譯的伊本伊斯哈格的大道報Rasaul安拉' ( 1955年) ;阿杰弗裡版。伊斯蘭教:穆罕默德和他的宗教( 1958年) ; M羅丁森,穆罕默德( 1971年) ;西醫結合瓦特,穆罕默德:先知和政治家( 1961年) 。


Editor's Note 編者的話

The article above presents the "traditional" story of Muhammad's life, as generally understood by nearly all Muslims. There is extremely little "external" confirmation of the many facts presented, and so virtually all of the knowledge of Muhammad's life come from either the Koran (which was assembled from his statements) or from the Hadith (which was again assembled from his statements and those of people near him).文章首先介紹了“傳統”的故事穆罕默德的生活,一般的理解幾乎所有穆斯林。有極少“外部”確認了許多事實,所以幾乎所有的知識穆罕默德的生命來自要么古蘭經(這是從他的組裝報表) ,或從聖訓(這是組裝再次從他的發言和他身邊的人) 。 There were also a few biographies of Muhammad (he died in 632 AD):也有少數簡歷穆罕默德(他死於公元632 ) :

There are some important details of that traditional Muslim biography that were not included in the article above.也有一些重要細節,傳統的穆斯林傳記是不包括在上述的文章。 These following points are all described in the writings of the respected Muslim writers listed above.這些下列各點都描述的著作的尊重穆斯林作家上面列出。

Critics of Islam recognize the possibility that some, or even all, of those somewhat unpleasant facts might have been exaggerated or even fabricated by much later writers, in an effort to give credibility to the Islamic Faith.批評者承認伊斯蘭教的可能性,有些甚至全部,這些有點不愉快的事實可能被誇大甚至捏造出來的更晚的作家,為了給信譽的伊斯蘭信仰。 This would remove Allah and Muhammad from having any flaws.這將消除阿拉和穆罕默德有任何漏洞。 This seems interesting, because essentially the exact same criticisms have been directed at Christianity and Christ by critics, who note that extremely little external corroborating evidence exists to confirm the facts of the life of Jesus. In both cases, there are extreme critics who question whether Muhammad or Jesus even actually existed!這似乎有趣,因為基本上是完全相同的批評是針對基督教和耶穌的批評,誰注意到,極少的外部存在的確鑿證據證實的事實生命的耶穌。在這兩種情況下,有極端的批評誰質疑穆罕默德或耶穌甚至實際存在的!

There appear to be other parallels.似乎有其他相似之處。 Both the Bible and the Koran seem to contain confusing sections, where there even seem to be internal contradictions.無論是聖經和古蘭經似乎包含混淆節,在那裡甚至似乎是內部矛盾。 Both contain many examples of repetitive statements, where the same concept is repeated, either in exactly the same words or very similar ones.都包含許多例子,反复聲明,在相同的概念重複,無論是在完全一樣的字詞或非常相似的。 Whichever of these two Faiths one might believe, it seems difficult to try to claim the high ground as to absolute credibility if one elects to criticize the other.無論這兩個信仰的人們可能會認為,似乎難以嘗試要求高地上,以絕對的信譽如果選擇其他批評。

As with the many class=qxt>This subject presentation in the original English language本主題介紹在原來的英文

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challenging positions are presented, there is no intention to promote or dismiss Islam or any claims it makes, but rather to just present as accurate a set of facts as is known. We intend no improper criticism of Islam, but rather simply honest discussion of both solid and weak aspects of it.正如許多基督教主題演講相信,在雙方的支持和富有挑戰性的職位介紹,沒有任何打算,以促進或駁回伊斯蘭教或任何索賠它,而是要公正準確本一套的事實是眾所周知的。我們沒有不適當的打算對伊斯蘭教的批評,而是簡單地誠實的討論,固體和薄弱的方面。 In this vein, we include here both the traditional Islamic understandings and some seemingly credible alternatives, hopefully without suggesting judgment.在這種情況下,我們在這裡既包括傳統的伊斯蘭的理解和一些看似可信的替代品,希望沒有暗示的判斷。

Author Michael Cook has researched non-Muslim historical sources regarding these aspects of Muhammad's biography.作者邁克爾庫克,研究非穆斯林的歷史根源就這些方面的穆罕默德的傳記。 He confirms that a person named Muhammad lived, that he was a merchant, and that something significant occurred in 622, and that Abraham was important in his teaching.他證實,一個人住命名為穆罕默德,他是一個商人,並有顯著發生在622 ,這是很重要亞伯拉罕在他的教學。 However, there appears to be no indication that Muhammad was in central Arabia and there is no mention whatever of Mecca or Medina and there is no historical reference to the Koran until nearly 700 AD. He also found compelling evidence that early Muslims prayed in a direction far north of Mecca, which seems to suggest that some different city was involved than Mecca.但是,似乎沒有任何跡象表明,穆罕默德是在中央和阿拉伯沒有提及任何麥加或麥地,也沒有歷史參照古蘭經,直到近700個廣告。他還發現令人信服的證據表明,早期的穆斯林祈禱的方向目前北部的麥加,這似乎表明一些不同的城市參與比麥加。 Also, he found that coins minted around 700 AD which had Koranic quotations, have different wordings than the current authorized canonical text of the Koran.此外,他還發現,硬幣鑄造大約700公元了古蘭經的報價,有不同的文字比目前的授權規範文本可蘭經。 This seems to suggest that the text of the Koran had not yet been permanently established, seventy years after the death of the Prophet.這似乎表明,文蘭尚未建立永久, 70年後死亡的先知。

An early Greek source mentions Muhammad being alive in 634 AD, two years after the traditional Muslim death date.早期希臘源提到穆罕默德被活在公元634兩年後,傳統的穆斯林死亡的日期。 [Wansbrough] That same Greek source (c. 634-636 AD) presents the Prophet's message as essentially being Jewish messianism. [ Wansbrough ]同希臘來源(角634-636 AD )的介紹先知的信息基本上是被猶太彌賽亞。

There was a Christian writer of the fifth century (prior to Muhammad) named Sozomenus who describes an Ishmaelite monotheism identical to that of the Hebrews prior to the time of Moses (1600 BC).有一個基督教作家第五世紀(前穆罕默德)命名Sozomenus誰介紹一個Ishmaelite一神教相同的希伯來之前,摩西( 1600年) 。 He also argued that Ishmael's laws must have been corrupted by the passage of time and by the influence of pagan neighbors.他還認為,伊斯梅爾的法律必須已損壞時間的推移和異教徒的影響鄰居。 Essentially identical beliefs later became central aspects of Islam.基本相同的信念後來成為中央方面伊斯蘭教。

The Arabic term muhajirun corresponds to the English term Hagarism, the reference to their ancestry as being through Hagar, Abraham's maid who was the father of Ishmael.阿拉伯語長期muhajirun對應的英文術語Hagarism ,提到他們的祖先是通過黑格,亞伯拉罕的姑娘誰是父親伊斯梅爾。 This term seems to have arisen early in Islamic history.這個詞似乎已經提前出現在伊斯蘭的歷史。

In early Jewish history (c. 722 BC), a group known as Samaritans did not accept the later Books of the Old Testament of the Bible, and their Bible consisted exclusively of the Pentateuch, the first Five Books. Islam and Muhammad show familiarity with the Samaritans, and indeed, recognized and revered the very same Books.在早期猶太歷史(角722年) ,一組被稱為樂善好施不接受後來圖書舊約聖經,聖經和他們組成專門的五,第一次五本書。伊斯蘭教和穆罕默德顯示熟悉撒瑪利亞,實際上,承認和尊敬的同樣的圖書。 Critics feel that Muhammad adopted most of his early theology from the much earlier Jewish Samaritans.批評者認為,穆罕默德通過他的大部分早期神學的要早得多猶太樂善好施。 Samaritan liturgies constantly included the concept "There is no God but the One", again, a central and essential component of Islam.撒瑪利亞liturgies不斷的概念包括“沒有上帝,但一” ,再次,中央和重要組成部分伊斯蘭教。


General Information 一般信息

Islam, a major world religion, is customarily defined in non - Islamic sources as the religion of those who follow the Prophet Muhammed. The prophet, who lived in Arabia in the early 7th century, initiated a religious movement that was carried by the Arabs throughout the Middle East. 伊斯蘭教中,世界主要宗教,通常界定的非-伊斯蘭來源的宗教的人誰遵循先知穆罕默德。先知,誰住在沙特阿拉伯在7世紀初,發起了一個宗教運動,是由全國各地的阿拉伯人中東。 Today, Islam has adherents not only in the Middle East, where it is the dominant religion in all countries (Arab and non - Arab) except Israel, but also in other parts of Asia, Africa and, to a certain extent, in Europe and in the United States.今天,伊斯蘭教的信徒不僅是在中東,在那裡它的主要宗教在所有國家(阿拉伯和非-阿拉伯)除以色列外,而且在其他地區的亞洲,非洲,並在一定程度上,在歐洲和在美國。 Adherents of Islam are called Muslims (sometimes spelled Moslems).信奉伊斯蘭教的穆斯林被稱為(有時拼寫穆斯林) 。

The Name and Its Meaning的名稱及其意義

The Arabic word al - islam means the act of committing oneself unreservedly to God, and a Muslim is a person who makes this commitment. Widely used translations such as "resignation," "surrender" and "submission" fail to do justice to the positive aspects of the total commitment for which al - islam stands - a commitment in faith, obedience, and trust to the one and only God (Allah). All of these elements are implied in the name of this religion, which is characteristically described in the Koran (Arabic, Qur'an; the sacred book of Islam) as "the religion of Abraham." In the Koran, Abraham is the patriarch who turned away from idolatry, who "came to his Lord with an undivided heart" (37:84), who responded to God in total obedience when challenged to sacrifice his son (37:102 - 105), and who served God uncompromisingly.阿拉伯語詞人-伊斯蘭教是指行為的承諾自己毫無保留地交給上帝,和一個穆斯林是一個人誰使這一承諾。廣泛用於翻譯,如“辭職” , “投降”和“提交”不公平對待的積極方面的承諾總額為基地-伊斯蘭教-一個承諾的信仰,服從,和信任的唯一的神(水道)。所有這些因素都隱含在這名宗教的,這是典型的中描述蘭(阿拉伯文,古蘭經;神聖的伊斯蘭教的書)的“亞伯拉罕的宗教。 可蘭經,亞伯拉罕是誰把家長遠離偶像崇拜,誰“來到他主不可分割的心” ( 37 : 84 ) ,誰回答了上帝的總服從遇到挑戰時犧牲自己的兒子( 37:102 -1 05) ,以及誰擔任上帝毫不妥協。

For Muslims, therefore, the proper name of their religion expresses the Koranic insistence that no one but God is to be worshiped. 穆斯林因此,適當的名稱,他們的宗教表達了古蘭經堅持認為沒有任何人,但上帝是敬拜。 Hence, many Muslims, while recognizing the significance of the Prophet Muhammad, have objected to the terms Muhammadanism (or Mohammedanism) and Muhammadans (or Mohammedans) - designations used widely in the West until recently - since they detect in them the suggestion of a worship of Muhammad parallel to the worship of Jesus Christ by Christians. 因此,許多穆斯林,同時也認識到意義的先知穆罕默德,反對的條款Muhammadanism (或Mohammedanism )和Muhammadans (或伊斯蘭教) -名稱廣泛使用在西方直到最近-因為他們發現在他們的建議,一個禮拜穆罕默德平行的崇拜耶穌的基督徒。


Estimates of the world population of Muslims range from a low of 750 million to a high of 1.2 billion; 950 million is a widely used medium.據估計,世界上穆斯林人口的範圍從低750萬美元的高點12億美元; 9.5億美元是一個廣泛使用的媒介。 Notwithstanding the significant variations in these estimates, many observers agree that the world population of Muslims is increasing by approximately 25 million per year. Thus, a 250 million increase is anticipated for the decade 1990 - 2000.儘管有很大的差異在這些估計,許多觀察家一致認為,世界人口的穆斯林正在增加大約25億美元。因此,增加2.5億美元,預計十年1990年至2000年。 This significant expansion, due primarily but not entirely to the general population growth in Asia and Africa, is gradually reducing the numerical difference between Christians (the largest religious community) and Muslims, whose combined totals make up almost 50 percent of the world's population.這顯著擴大,主要是由於但還沒有完全向普通人群的增長,在亞洲和非洲,是逐步減少的數值差異基督徒(最大的宗教社區)和穆斯林,其合併總數幾乎佔百分之五十的世界人口。


While many Muslims vehemently oppose the language that the Prophet Muhammad is the "founder" of Islam - an expression which they interpret as an implicit denial of God's initiative and involvement in the history of Islam's origins - none would challenge that Islam dates back to the lifetime (570 - 632) of the Prophet and the years in which he received the divine revelations recorded in the Koran. 雖然許多穆斯林強烈反對的語言,先知穆罕默德是“創始人”伊斯蘭-表達他們解釋為一個隱含的拒絕上帝的倡議和參與歷史的伊斯蘭教的起源-沒有將面臨的挑戰,伊斯蘭追溯到一生( 570 -6 32)的先知和多年的他收到了神的啟示記錄在可蘭經。 At the same time, however, most of them would stress that it is only in a sense that Islam dates back to the 7th century, since they regard their religion not as a 7th century innovation, but as the restoration of the original religion of Abraham. They would also stress that Islam is a timeless religion, not just because of the "eternal truth" that it proclaims but also because it is "every person's religion," the natural religion in which every person is born.與此同時,然而,其中大多數是要強調,這只是在一定意義上,伊斯蘭教歷史可以追溯到公元7世紀因為他們認為自己的宗教而不是一個公元7世紀的創新,但作為恢復原始宗教亞伯拉罕。他們還強調,伊斯蘭教是一個永恆的宗教,這不僅僅是因為“永恆的真理” ,它宣告,而且還因為它是“每個人的宗教, ”自然宗教,每個人出生。

Islam's Comprehensive Character伊斯蘭教的綜合性

When applied to Islam, the word religion has a far more comprehensive meaning than it commonly has in the West. 當適用於伊斯蘭教,宗教這個詞了深遠的意義更為全面的比通常在西方。 Islam encompasses personal faith and piety, the creed and worship of the community of believers, a way of life, a code of ethics, a culture, a system of laws, an understanding of the function of the state - in short, guidelines and rules for life in all its aspects and dimensions. While many Muslims see the Sharia (the "way," denoting the sacred law governing the life of individuals as well as the structures of society) as fixed and immutable, others make a clear distinction between the unchangeable message of the Koran and the mutable laws and regulations for Muslim life and conduct. 伊斯蘭教包括個人的信仰和虔誠的宗教和信仰的社會的信徒,一種生活方式,道德守則,一種文化,一種制度的法律,理解的功能狀態-簡言之,指導方針和規則生活的各個方面和層面。雖然許多穆斯林認為伊斯蘭教(以下簡稱“辦法” ,意指神聖的法律管轄的個人生活以及社會結構的)作為固定和一成不變的,其他人作出明確的區分不可改變的信息,可蘭經和變化無常的法律和法規為穆斯林的生活和行為。

Throughout history, practices and opinions have differed with regard to the exact way in which Islam determines life in all its aspects, but the basic notion of Islam's comprehensive character is so intrinsic to Muslim thought and feeling that neither the past history of the Muslim world nor its present situation can be understood without taking this characteristic into consideration.縱觀歷史,做法和意見有分歧方面的確切方式確定伊斯蘭教生活的各個方面但基本概念,伊斯蘭教的綜合性是固有的穆斯林思想和感情,無論是過去的歷史,穆斯林世界也目前的狀況是可以理解的沒有考慮這一特點考慮在內。

According to Muslim jurists, the sharia is derived from four sources根據穆斯林法學家, 伊斯蘭教是來自四個來源

History and Spread of Islam歷史與擴頻的伊斯蘭

The Prophet先知

Muhammad was born in 570 in Mecca, a trading center in western Arabia.穆罕默德出生在570名在麥加,一個貿易中心,在西部沙特阿拉伯。 About 610 he received the first of a series of revelations that convinced him that he had been chosen as God's messenger. He began to preach the message entrusted to him - that there is but one God, to whom all humankind must commit themselves. The polytheistic Meccans resented Muhammad's attacks on their gods and finally he emigrated with a few followers to Medina. This migration, which is called the Hegira (Hijrah), took place in 622; Muslims adopted the beginning of that year as the first year of their lunar calendar (Anno Hegirae, or AH). At Medina Muhammad won acceptance as a religious and military leader.大約610他收到了第一批披露,相信他已被選定為上帝的使者。 他開始宣揚的信息託付給他-上只有一個上帝,誰所有人類都必須承諾。的多神教Meccans反感穆罕默德的襲擊他們的神,最後,他移居少數追隨者梅迪納。 這種轉移,即所謂的Hegira (回歷新年) ,發生在622 ;穆斯林開始通過這一年作為第一年的陰曆(阿武Hegirae ,或AH )的。穆罕默德在麥地接受億韓元作為一個宗教和軍事領導人。 Within a few years he had established control of the surrounding region, and in 630 he finally conquered Mecca.在幾年之內,他建立了控制周邊地區,並在630他終於征服了麥加。 There, the Kaaba, a shrine that had for some time housed the idols of the pagan Meccans, was rededicated to the worship of Allah, and it became the object of pilgrimage for all Muslims.在那裡, 克爾白,參拜了一段時間住在偶像的異教徒Meccans ,是再次向真主祈禱,並成為朝聖對象為所有穆斯林。

By the time of his death in 632, Muhammad had won the allegiance of most of the Arab tribespeople to Islam.到他去世時的632 ,穆罕默德贏得了最忠誠的阿拉伯部落伊斯蘭教。 He had laid the foundation for a community (umma) ruled by the laws of God. The Koran records that Muhammad was the Seal of the Prophets, the last of a line of God's messengers that began with Adam and included Abraham, Noah, Moses, and Jesus. He left for the future guidance of the community the words of God revealed to him and recorded in the Koran, and the sunna, the collective name for his opinions and decisions as recorded in the tradition literature (hadith).他奠定了基礎社區(民族)裁決的法律上帝。 古蘭經記載,穆罕默德是密封的先知,最後的一條線上帝的使者開始,包括亞當和亞伯拉罕,挪亞,摩西,和耶穌。他留給未來的指導社區的話上帝給他發現並記錄在可蘭經,以及空的,集體的名字,他的意見和決定記錄在傳統文學(錄) 。

A Rapidly Growing Empire, 632 - 750迅速增長的帝國, 632 -7 50

After the death of Muhammad, a successor (khalifa, or caliph; was chosen to rule in his place. The first caliph, the Prophet's father - in - law, Abu Bakr (r. 632 - 34), initiated an expansionist movement that was carried out most successfully by the next two caliphs, Umar I (r. 634 - 44) and Uthman (r. 644 - 56). By 656 the Caliphate included the whole Arabian peninsula, Palestine and Syria, Egypt and Libya, Mesopotamia, and substantial parts of Armenia and Persia. Following the assassination of Uthman, the disagreements between those upholding the rights of the fourth caliph, Ali (r. 656 - 61), the Prophet's son - in - law, and their opponents led to a division in the Muslim community between the Shiites and the Sunnites that still exists today. When the governor of Syria, Muawiya I, came to power after the murder of Ali, the Shiites refused to recognize him and his successors.去世後,穆罕默德的繼承(哈利法,或哈里發;被選為規則,他的位置。第一哈里發,先知的父親-中-法,阿布貝克(河6 3 2-3 4) ,發起了一個擴張主義運動,是進行了最成功的caliphs未來兩年,奧馬爾口(河634 -4 4)和奧斯曼(河6 44- 56 )。通過65 6哈里發包括整個阿拉伯半島,巴勒斯坦和敘利亞,埃及和利比亞,美索不達米亞,並相當部分亞美尼亞和波斯。 之後奧斯曼被暗殺的分歧堅持這些權利的第四哈里發阿里(河656 -第6 1段) ,先知的兒子-中-法,以及他們的對手導致分裂穆斯林社區之間的什葉派和遜尼派的今天仍然存在。當省長敘利亞, Muawiya我上台後,阿里被謀殺,什葉派拒絕承認他和他的繼任者。

Muawiya inaugurated an almost 90 year rule by the Umayyads (661 - 750), who made Damascus their capital. Muawiya成立了近90年的統治由伍瑪亞德( 661 -7 50) ,誰取得大馬士革的資本。 A second wave of expansion followed.第二波擴大遵循。 After they conquered (670) Tunisia, Muslim troops reached the northwestern point of North Africa in 710. In 711 they crossed the Strait of Gibraltar, rapidly overran Spain, and penetrated well into France until they were turned back near Poitiers in 732.當他們征服( 670 )突尼斯,穆斯林軍隊達成西北部點北非710 。他們在711越過直布羅陀海峽,迅速佔領西班牙,深入到法國,直到他們被擋回普瓦捷附近的732 。 On the northern frontier Constantinople was besieged more than once (though without success), and in the east the Indus River was reached; the Islamic empire now bordered China and India, with some settlements in the Punjab.在北部邊境君士坦丁堡被圍困不止一次(雖然沒有成功) ,並在東部的梧桐河達成的伊斯蘭帝國接壤現在中國和印度,一些定居點的旁遮普邦。

Rival Dynasties and Competing Capitals, 750 - 1258六朝和競爭對手的競爭資本, 750 -1 258

In 750, Umayyad rule in Damascus was ended by the Abbasids, who moved the caliphate's capital to Baghdad.在750名,伍麥耶王朝統治在大馬士革結束的Abbasids ,誰動議哈里發的首都巴格達。 The succeeding period was marked more by an expansion of horizons of thought than by geographical expansion.下一階段的特點是更多地擴大視野的思想而不是地域擴張。 In the fields of literature, the sciences, and philosophy, contributions by such Muslim scholars as al - Kindi, al - Farabi, and Ibn Sina (Avicenna) far surpassed European accomplishments of that time.領域的文學,科學,哲學,捐款等穆斯林學者作為基地-金報-法拉比,伊本西那和(阿維森納)遠遠超過歐洲成績的時間。

Politically, the power of the Abbasids was challenged by a number of rival dynasties.在政治上,權力的Abbasids受到質疑的一些競爭對手朝代。 These included an Umayyad dynasty in Cordoba, Spain (756 - 1031); the Fatimids, a dynasty connected with the Ishmalis (a Shiite sect), who established (909) themselves in Tunisia and later (969 - 1171) ruled Egypt; the Almoravids and the Almohads, Muslim Berber dynasties that successively ruled North Africa and Spain from the mid 11th to the mid 13th century; the Seljuks, a Muslim Turkish group that seized Baghdad in 1055 and whose defeat of the Byzantines in 1071 led indirectly to the Christian Crusades (1096 - 1254) against the Islamic world; and the Ayyubids, who displaced the Fatimids in Egypt and played an important role in the later years of the Crusades.這些措施包括設立一個伍瑪亞德王朝在西班牙科爾多瓦( 756 -1 031) ;的F atimids,王朝與I shmalis(什葉派節) ,誰設立( 9 09)自己在突尼斯和後來( 9 69- 11 71)統治埃及;的A l moravids和Almohads ,穆斯林柏柏爾王朝的統治先後北非和西班牙從11月中到13世紀中期的Seljuks ,土耳其的穆斯林團體在巴格達檢獲1055年,其失敗的拜占廷在1071年間接導致的基督教十字軍東征( 1096至1254年)對伊斯蘭世界和Ayyubids ,誰流離失所的Fatimids在埃及和中發揮了重要作用晚年十字軍東征。

The Abbasids were finally overthrown (1258) in Baghdad by the Mongols, although a family member escaped to Egypt, where he was recognized as caliph. While the brotherhood of faith remained a reality, the political unity of the Muslim world was definitely broken.該Abbasids終於推翻了( 1258 )在巴格達的蒙古人,但家庭成員逃到埃及,在那裡他被承認為哈里發。雖然兄弟情誼的信念仍然是一個現實的政治統一的穆斯林世界的肯定是壞了。

Two Great Islamic Powers: The Ottomans and the Moguls兩個偉大的伊斯蘭權力:奧特曼和大亨

The Ottoman Turkish dynasty, founded by Osman I (c. 1300), became a major world power in the 15th century, and continued to play a very significant role throughout the 16th and 17th centuries. The Byzantine Empire, with which Muslim armies had been at war since the early days of Islam, came to an end in 1453 when Ottoman sultan Mehmed II conquered Constantinople.奧斯曼土耳其王朝,成立由奧斯曼口(角1300 ) ,成為一個世界大國,在15世紀,並繼續發揮非常重要的作用在整個16和17世紀。拜占庭帝國,與穆斯林軍隊已因為在戰爭的初期,伊斯蘭教,結束在1453年時,奧斯曼帝國蘇丹穆罕默德二世征服君士坦丁堡。 That city then became the capital of the Ottoman Empire.該城後來成為首都奧斯曼帝國。 In the first half of the 16th century, Ottoman power, already firmly established over all Anatolia and in most of the Balkans, gained control over Syria, Egypt (the sultans assumed the title caliph after deposing the last Abbasid in Cairo), and the rest of North Africa.在上半年的16世紀,奧斯曼帝國權力,已經牢固地確立對所有安納托利亞,並且在大多數的巴爾幹地區,控制了敘利亞,埃及(承擔的蘇丹哈里發的標題後,推翻過去阿巴斯在開羅) ,其餘北非。 It also expanded significantly northwestward into Europe, besieging Vienna in 1529.它也顯著擴大西北進入歐洲,圍攻維也納1529年。

The defeat of the Ottoman navy in the Battle of Lepanto in 1571 was not, as many in Europe hoped, the beginning of a rapid disintegration of the Ottoman Empire; more than one hundred years later, in 1683, Ottoman troops once again besieged Vienna.打敗奧斯曼帝國海軍在勒班陀戰役在1571年沒有,因為許多歐洲的希望,開始迅速瓦解奧斯曼帝國;超過百年之後,在1683年,奧斯曼帝國軍隊再次圍困維也納。 The decline of the empire becomes more visible from the late 17th century onward, but it survived through World War I. Turkey became a republic under Kemal Ataturk in 1923, and the caliphate was abolished in 1924.下降的帝國變得更加明顯從17世紀末期開始,但它存活通過第一次世界大戰土耳其成為共和國根據凱末爾於1923年,並廢除了政教合一於1924年。 The Moguls were a Muslim dynasty of Turko - Mongol origin who conquered northern India in 1526.該巨頭是一個穆斯林王朝Turko -蒙古血統誰征服印度北部在1 526年。 The Mogul Empire reached the climax of its power in the period from the late 16th century until the beginning of the 18th century.莫臥兒帝國的達到了高潮,其權力的期限從16世紀後期開始,直到18世紀。 Under the emperors Akbar, Jahangir, Shah Jahan, and Aurangzeb, Mogul rule was extended over most of the subcontinent, and Islamic culture (with a strong Persian flavor) was firmly implanted in certain areas.根據皇帝阿克巴,賈漢吉爾,沙賈汗和奧朗則布,輝門公司的規則延長了大部分的印度次大陸,和伊斯蘭文化(具有強烈波斯風味)堅定地植入在某些領域。 The splendor of the Moguls is reflected in a special way in their architecture.輝煌的巨頭也反映在以特殊的方式在其架構。 In the 18th century Mogul power began to decline.在18世紀莫臥兒權力開始下降。 It survived, at least in name, however, till 1858, when the last sultan was dethroned by the British.它活了下來,至少在名稱,但是,直到1858年,當最後凱蒂麗絲蘇丹的英國。

Two Examples of the Coming of Islam in Frontier Areas兩個實例來對伊斯蘭教在邊境地區

Indonesia and West Africa. While there may have been sporadic contacts from the 10th century onward with Muslim merchants, it was only in the 13th century that Islam clearly established itself in Sumatra, where small Muslim states formed on the northeast coast. 印尼和西非。雖然可能已經零星的接觸,從10世紀起,穆斯林商人,它只是在13世紀,伊斯蘭教清楚地確立了自己在蘇門答臘島,在那裡小的穆斯林國家組成的東北部海岸。 Islam spread to Java in the 16th century, and then expanded, generally in a peaceful manner, from the coastal areas inward to all parts of the Indonesian archipelago.伊斯蘭教傳播到Java在16世紀,然後擴大,一般以和平的方式,從沿海地區流入的所有部分的印尼群島。 By the 19th century it had reached to the northeast and extended into the Philippines. Today there are 140 million Muslims in Indonesia, constituting 90 percent of the population.到19世紀它已達到東北延伸到菲律賓。 今天有1.4億穆斯林在印尼,構成百分之九十的人口。

Islam penetrated West Africa in three main phases.伊斯蘭教侵入西非三個主要階段。 The first was that of contacts with Arab and Berber caravan traders, from the 10th century onward.第一,接觸與阿拉伯和柏柏爾大篷車商人,從10世紀起。 Then followed a period of gradual Islamization of some rulers' courts, among them that of the famous Mansa Musa (r. 1312 - 27) in Mali. Finally, in the 16th century the Sufi orders (brotherhoods of mystics), especially the Qadiriyya, Tijaniyya, and Muridiyya, as well as individual saints and scholars, began to play an important role. The 19th century witnessed more than one Jihad (holy war) for the purification of Islam from pagan influences, while later in the 19th century and in the first half of the 20th century, Muslims formed a significant element in the growing resistance to colonial powers. In the post colonial period Islam plays an important role in Nigeria, Senegal, Guinea, Mali and Niger, while there are smaller Muslim communities in the other states in West Africa.隨後一段時間,逐步一些伊斯蘭統治者法院,其中,在著名的芒薩姆薩(河1312年至1327年)在馬里。 最後,在16世紀的蘇菲訂單(教派的神秘主義者) ,特別是Qadiriyya , Tijaniyya ,並Muridiyya ,以及個別的聖人和學者,開始發揮重要作用。十九世紀目睹了一個以上的聖戰組織(傑哈德)的淨化伊斯蘭教的異教徒的影響,而後來在19世紀和上半年,在20世紀,穆斯林形成的一個重要因素日益抵抗殖民統治的權力。在後殖民時期的伊斯蘭教中發揮著重要作用尼日利亞,塞內加爾,幾內亞,馬里和尼日爾,但也有較小的穆斯林社區中的其他西非國家。

Islam in Modern History伊斯蘭教在近代歷史上

Napoleon's invasion of Egypt in 1798, followed three years later by the expulsion of the French troops by the combined British - Ottoman forces, is often seen as the beginning of the modern period in the history of Islam.拿破崙入侵埃及在1798年,之後3年後的驅逐法國軍隊的聯合英國-奧斯曼帝國勢力,往往被視為開始的現代時期的歷史,伊斯蘭教。 The coming to power of Muhammed Ali (r. 1805 - 49) and the modernization of Egypt under his leadership was the beginning of a long struggle throughout the Muslim world to reestablish independence from the colonial powers and to assume their place as autonomous countries in the modern world.該上台的穆罕默德阿里(河1805年至1849年)和現代化建設的埃及在他的領導下是開始了長期的鬥爭整個穆斯林世界重新獨立於殖民列強,並承擔其作為自治區國家現代世界。 Resistance to foreign domination and an awareness of the need to restore the Muslim community to its proper place in world history are integral parts of the pan - Islamic efforts of Jamal Al - Din Al - Afghani as well as the nationalist movements of the 20th century.抵抗外國勢力的支配和必要性的認識,恢復穆斯林社區的適當場所在世界歷史上是不可分割的組成部分泛-伊斯蘭努力賈馬爾鋁-鋁丁-阿富汗,以及民族主義運動在20世紀。 The political, social, and economic developments in the various countries with Muslim majorities show significant differences.政治,社會和經濟發展的各個國家與穆斯林多數呈現出顯著的差異。

For example, Turkey and many of the Arab countries have become secular republics, whereas Saudi Arabia is virtually an absolute monarchy, ruled under Muslim law.例如,土耳其和許多阿拉伯國家已經成為世俗的共和國,而沙特阿拉伯幾乎是一個君主專制統治下的穆斯林法律。 Iran was ruled from 1925 to 1979 by the Pahlavi dynasty, which stressed secularization and westernization.伊朗排除1925至1979年的巴列維王朝,其中強調世俗化和西化。 Growing resistance from the Muslim community, which is overwhelmingly Shiite, culminated in the forced departure of the shah and the establishment of an Islamic republic under the leadership of the Ayatollah Khomeini. However, while opinions differ with regard as to how Islam can continue to function in modern societies as a force relevant to all aspects of life, the great majority of Muslims hold fast to the notion of the comprehensive character of Islam as well as to its basic theological doctrines.日益增長的阻力來自穆斯林社區,這是壓倒多數的什葉派,最終被迫離開國王,並建立一個伊斯蘭共和國的領導下,霍梅尼。然而,儘管見仁見智關於如何伊斯蘭教可以繼續發揮作用在現代社會作為一個部隊有關生活的各個方面,絕大多數的穆斯林堅守這一概念的綜合性伊斯蘭教以及其基本的神學理論。

Islamic Doctrines伊斯蘭主義

Islamic doctrines are commonly discussed and taught widely - often by means of a catechism, with questions and answers - under six headings: God, angels, Scriptures, messengers, the Last Day, and predestination. The Muslims' notion of God (Allah) is, in a sense, interrelated with all of the following points and will be referred to below. 伊斯蘭學說普遍討論,並廣泛學習-往往通過問答,問題和答案-下六個標題:上帝,天使,聖經,送信的最後一天,並命。穆斯林概念的上帝(真主)是在某種意義上說,與所有關聯的下列各點,將下文提到的問題。 Some of the angels (all of whom are servants of God and subject to him) play a particularly important role in the daily life of many Muslims: the guardian angels; the recording angels (those who write down a person's deeds, for which he or she will have to account on Judgment Day); the angel of death; and the angels who question a person in the tomb.一些天使(都是上帝的僕人,並受到他)起著特別重要的作用在日常生活的許多穆斯林: 天使的監護人;記錄天使 (那些誰寫下一個人的事蹟,他或她將帳戶審判日) ;的死亡天使和天使誰的問題在一個人的墓。 One of those mentioned by name in the Koran is Jibril (Gabriel, angel), who functioned in a special way as a transmitter of God's revelation to the Prophet. The importance of the Muslim recognition of Scriptures other than the Koran and of messengers other than Muhammad will be referred to below.其中提到的那些名字在古蘭經是賈布里勒(加布里埃爾,天使) ,誰的運作以特殊的方式作為一個發射機上帝的啟示先知。重要性的穆斯林認識到聖經以外的古蘭經和送信員以外的其他穆罕默德將下文提到的問題。

The promise and threat of the Last Day, which occupy an important place in the Koran, continue to play a major role in Muslim thought and piety. On the Last Day, of which only God knows the hour, every soul will stand alone and will have to account for its deeds. 許諾和威脅的最後一天,其中佔有重要地位的古蘭經,繼續發揮重大作用,穆斯林的思想和虔誠。最後一天,其中只有天曉得小時,每一個靈魂的獨立,並將已考慮到其行動。 In the theological discussions of the Last Day and, in general, of the concept of God, a significant issue has been whether the descriptions in the Koran (of Heaven and Hell, the vision of God, God being seated on the throne, the hands of God, and so on) should be interpreted literally or allegorically.在神學討論的最後一天,以及一般概念的上帝,一個重要的問題已經說明是否在古蘭經(天堂與地獄,遠見的上帝,上帝正坐在王位上,手上帝,等等)應該是字面解釋或allegorically 。 The majority view accepts the principle of literal interpretation (God is seated on the throne, he has hands), but adds the warning and qualification that humans cannot state and should not ask how this is the case, since God is incomparable (bila kayf, "without how"; bila tashbih, "beyond comparison").多數人的意見接受的原則,字面解釋(上帝是坐在王位上,他的手) ,但增加了預警和資格,人類不能狀態,不應該問這種情況下,因為上帝是無與倫比的(比拉kayf , “沒有多少” ;比拉tashbih , “超越比較” ) 。

The last of the six articles, Predestination, is also a theocentric issue. Because the divine initiative is all decisive in bringing humans to faith ("had God not guided us, we had surely never been guided," 7:43), many concluded that God is not only responsible for guiding some but also for not guiding others, allowing them to go astray or even leading them astray. In the debate of later theologians on these questions, the antipredestinarians were concerned less with upholding the notion of human freedom and, therefore, of human dignity, than with defending the honor of God. According to these thinkers - the Qadarites and the Mutazilites, of the 8th to 10th centuries - the Koranic message of the justice of God "who does not wrong people" (". . . they wrong themselves," 43:76) excluded the notion of a God who would punish human beings for evil deeds and unbelief for which they themselves were not really responsible.在過去的6個條款,預定,也是theocentric問題。 由於神聖的倡議是所有決定性的作用,使人類的信仰( “已不能遵循上帝,我們肯定從來沒有導遊, ” 7時43分) ,許多結束上帝不僅是負責指導一些,而且沒有其他人的指導,讓他們誤入歧途,甚至導致他們誤入歧途。在辯論中後期的神學家對這些問題, antipredestinarians關注與維護少的概念,人類自由和因此,人的尊嚴,而不是捍衛榮譽的上帝。根據這些思想家-在Q adarites和M utazilites,第8至1 0世紀-在古蘭經的信息是正義的上帝“誰沒有錯誤的人” ( “ 。 。 。他們自己錯了, “ 43:76 )排除在外的概念誰上帝將懲罰人類的惡行和不信教的,他們本身並非真正負責。

The major concern of their opponents was to maintain, against any such reasoning, the doctrine of the sovereign freedom of God, upon whom no limits can be placed, not even the limit of "being bound to do what is best for his creatures." Two important theologians of the 10th century, al - Ashari (d. 935) and al - Maturidi (d. 944), formulated answers that would mark for the centuries to come the traditional (Sunni) position on these points. Although one's acts are willed and created by God, one has to appropriate them to make them one's own. 主要關注他們的對手是要保持對任何此類推理,理論的主權自由的上帝,對人沒有任何限制可以放置,甚至沒有限制“的約束做什麼是最好的動物。 ”兩個重要的神學家的10世紀報-A shari(草9 35)和阿爾- Ma turidi(草9 4 4),制定了答案,將標誌著為百年來的傳統(遜尼派)的立場對這些點。雖然一個人的行為意志和上帝創造的,有適當的他們,使他們自己。 A recognition of a degree of human responsibility is combined with the notion of God as the sole creator, the One and Only. 認識到了一定程度的人的責任相結合的概念,上帝作為唯一的創作者,的唯一。

Around this concept of the unity of God another debate arose on the essence and attributes of God; it focused on the question whether the Koran - God's speech - was created or uncreated. Those who held that the Koran was created believed that the notion of an uncreated Koran implied another eternal reality alongside God, who alone is eternal and does not share his eternity with anyone or anything else. 圍繞這一概念的統一,上帝出現另一個辯論的本質和屬性的上帝;它把重點放在是否可蘭經-上帝的講話-創建或u n created。那些誰認為古蘭經是認為概念uncreated古蘭經意味著另一個現實與永恆的上帝,誰僅僅是永恆的,不同意他的永恆與任何人或任何其他人。 Their opponents felt that the notion of a created Koran detracted from its character as God's own speech. The Sunni position that emerged from these discussions was that the Koran as written down or recited is created, but that it is a manifestation of the eternal "inner speech" of God, which precedes any articulation in sounds and letters.他們的反對者認為,這一概念的建立古蘭經有損於它的性質是上帝的講話。 遜尼派的立場,即擺脫這些討論是可蘭經書面或背誦創建的,但它是一個體現了永恆的“內講話“上帝,這之前的任何聲音發音和字母。

None of the theological issues referred to above can be understood fully unless the sociopolitical context of these doctrinal debates is taken into consideration.沒有一個神學問題,上文提到的是可以理解的,除非完全的社會政治背景下這些理論上的爭論是考慮到。 The interrelation between theological positions and political events is particularly clear in the first issues that arose in the history of Islam.之間的相互關係的神學立場和政治事件是特別清楚的問題,首先是在歷史的伊斯蘭教。 Reference has already been made to the division between the Shiites and the Sunnites. The Shiites were those who maintained that only "members of the family" (Hashimites, or, in the more restricted sense, descendants of the Prophet via his daughter, Fatima and her husband Ali) had a right to the caliphate.已經提到的部門之間的什葉派和遜尼派。 什葉派是那些誰主張,只有“家庭成員” ( Hashimites ,或在較受限制意義上說,後代通過先知,他的女兒法蒂瑪和她的丈夫阿里)有權利哈里發。

Another group, the Kharijites (literally "those who seceded"), broke away from Ali (who was murdered by one of their members) and from the Umayyads. They developed the doctrine that confession, or faith, alone did not make a person a believer and that anyone committing grave sins was an unbeliever destined to hell. They applied this argument to the leaders of the community, holding that caliphs who were grave sinners could not claim the allegiance of the faithful. While the mainstream of Muslims accepted the principle that faith and works must go together, they rejected the Kharijite ideal of establishing here on earth a pure community of believers, insisting that the ultimate decision on whether a person is a believer or an unbeliever must be left to God. Suspension of the answer till Judgment Day enabled them to recognize anyone accepting the "five pillars" (see below) as a member of the community of believers, and to recognize those Muslims who had political authority over them, even if they objected to some of their practices.另一組, Kharijites (字面“誰退出” ) ,脫離阿里(誰謀殺了一名成員)和伍瑪亞德人。 他們開發的原則,即口供,或信仰,本身並不作人信徒和任何人犯下了嚴重的罪過是一個異教徒注定要下地獄。他們運用這一論點的社區領袖,認為caliphs誰是罪人嚴重不能要求效忠的忠誠。 雖然主流的穆斯林接受的原則,信仰和工程必須齊頭並進,他們拒絕了Kharijite理想建立在地球上一個純粹的社會信仰,堅持,最終決定一個人是否是一種信仰或異教徒必須留給上帝。 暫停直至判決答案日使他們能夠認識到任何人都接受“五大支柱” (見下文)為成員的國際社會的信徒,並認識到這些穆斯林誰有政治權力,即使他們反對他們的一些做法。

Islamic Worship, Practices, and Duties伊斯蘭宗教習俗和義務

To what extent faith and works go together is evident from the traditional listing of the basic duties of any Muslim, the "five pillars" of Islam:到什麼程度的信念和作品一起去是顯而易見的從傳統的上市的基本職責,任何穆斯林, 五大支柱”伊斯蘭教:

The witness to God stands here side by side with the concern for the poor, reflected in almsgiving.證人向上帝站在這裡並排的關注窮人,反映在施捨。 The personal involvement of the individual believer, expressed most clearly in the formulation of the shahada, "I witness there is no God but God, and Muhammad is the messenger of God," is combined with a deep awareness of the strength that lies in the fellowship of faith and the community of all believers, significant dimensions of both the ritual prayer and the pilgrimage.個人參與的個人信仰,表達最清楚的制定沙哈達 “我的證人沒有上帝,但上帝,穆罕默德是上帝的使者” ,是結合了深刻的認識的力量,在於獎學金的信念和國際社會的所有信徒,重大問題都祈禱儀式和朝聖。

Muslim worship and devotion is not limited to the precisely prescribed words and gestures of the salat, but finds expression also in a wealth of personal prayers, in the gathering of the congregation in the central mosque on Fridays, and in the celebration of the two main festivals: Id al - Fitr, the festival of the breaking of the fast at the end of Ramadan; and Id al - Adha, the festival of the sacrifice (in memory of Abraham's willingness to sacrifice his son).穆斯林禮拜和奉獻精神並不只限於正是明單詞和手勢的薩拉特,但也表現了豐富的個人祈禱,在收集的聚集在中央星期五清真寺,並在慶祝活動的兩個主要節日:開齋節-開齋節,節日的突破快結束時的齋月和開齋節-宰牲節,節日的犧牲(紀念亞伯拉罕願意犧牲自己的兒子)。 The latter, observed on the 10th day of the month of pilgrimage, is celebrated not only by the participants in the pilgrimage, but also simultaneously by those who stay in their own locations.後者,觀察10天,一個月的朝聖,慶祝不僅是參與者朝聖,但也同時是誰留在自己的位置。 The interpretations of jihad (literally, "striving" in the way of God), sometimes added as an additional duty, vary from sacred war to striving to fulfill the ethical norms and principles expounded in the Koran.該解釋的聖戰 (字面上看, “努力”的方式上帝) ,有時會增加額外的義務,因神聖的戰爭要努力實現的倫理規範和原則的闡述可蘭經。

Islamic Views of Other Religions伊斯蘭的看法其他宗教

Islam is definitely an inclusivistic religion in the sense that it recognizes God's sending of messengers to all peoples and his granting of "Scripture and Prophethood" to Abraham and his descendants, the latter resulting in the awareness of a very special link between Muslims, Jews, and Christians as all Abraham's children. Throughout history there have been believers who discerned the Truth of God and responded to him in the right manner, committing themselves to him alone. Of these "Muslims before Muhammad," the Koran mentions, among others, Abraham and his sons, Solomon and the queen of Sheba, and the disciples of Jesus. This inclusiveness is also expressed in the Muslim recognition of earlier Scriptures, namely, the Taurat (Torah) given to Moses, the Zabur (Psalms) of David, and the Injil (Gospel) of Jesus. 伊斯蘭教是絕對inclusivistic宗教的意義,它承認上帝的派遣使者向各國人民和所有給予他的“聖經和Prophethood ”亞伯拉罕和他的後代,後者造成認識一個非常特殊的聯繫穆斯林,猶太人,和基督徒的所有亞伯拉罕的兒童。縱觀歷史已有信徒誰發現真相的上帝,並回答了他的權利的方式,承諾向他獨自其中“穆斯林穆罕默德面前, ”可蘭經中提到,除其他外,亞伯拉罕和他的兒子,所羅門和示巴女王和耶穌的門徒。這種包容性也體現穆斯林早些時候承認聖經,即Taurat (聖經)給摩西的Zabur (詩篇)的大衛,並在Injil (福音)的耶穌。

This recognition of other prophets besides Muhammad and other Scriptures besides the Koran is coupled with the firm conviction that the perfection of religion and the completion of God's favor to humanity have been realized in the sending down of the Koran, the sending of Muhammad as "the Seal of the Prophets," and the establishing of Islam.這種認識的其他先知穆罕默德除了和其他聖經除了可蘭經是加上堅定信念,完善的宗教和完成上帝的青睞,以人類已經實現在發送了可蘭經,派遣穆罕默德為“印章的先知, “和建立伊斯蘭教。 People's reactions and response to this final criterion of truth became, therefore, the evidence of their faith or unbelief.人的反應和響應這一標準最終成為真理,因此,證明他們的信仰或不信教。 Those who, on the basis of what they had previously received from God, recognize the message of the Koran as the ultimate Truth show themselves thereby as true believers, while those who reject it prove themselves to be unbelievers, no matter by what name they call themselves.這些誰的基礎上,他們曾收到來自上帝,認識到信息古蘭經作為終極真理從而顯示自己的忠實信徒,而那些誰拒絕它證明自己是不信教,無論由什麼名字,他們呼籲自己。

Willem A Bijlefeld威廉阿Bijlefeld

Bibliography: 參考書目:
M Abdul - Rauf, Islam: Creed and Worship (1975); K Cragg, The House of Islam (1975); HAR Gibb, Mohammedanism (1949); PK Hitti, Islam, A Way of Life (1970); B Lewis, ed., Islam and the Arab World (1976); KW Morgan, ed., Islam: The Straight Path (1958); SH Nasr, Ideals and Realities of Islam (1966); F Rahman, Islam (1979); J Schacht and CE Bosworth, eds., The Legacy of Islam (1974); WM Watt, What Is Islam? M阿卜杜勒-拉烏夫,伊斯蘭教:宗教和信仰( 1 975年) ; K克拉格,眾議院伊斯蘭教( 1 975年) ;超急性排斥反應吉布, M ohammedanism( 1 949年) ;的P K希提,伊斯蘭教,一種生活方式( 1 970年) ;乙劉易斯版。伊斯蘭和阿拉伯世界( 1976年) ;千瓦摩根版。伊斯蘭教:直路( 1958年) ;上海納斯爾,理想與現實的伊斯蘭教( 1966年) ,女拉赫曼,伊斯蘭教( 1979年) ; J沙赫特和CE博斯沃思合編。原有的伊斯蘭教( 1974年) ;西醫瓦,什麼是伊斯蘭教? (1968). ( 1968年) 。

Islam in Modern History:伊斯蘭教在近代歷史:
K Cragg, Counsels in Contemporary Islam (1965) and The Call of the Minaret (1985); JL Esposito, Islam and Politics (1984); D MacEnoin and A Al - Shahi, eds., Islam in the Modern World (1983); EIJ Rosenthal, Islam in the Modern National State (1965); WC Smith, Islam in Modern History (1959); R Wright, Sacred Rage (1985). K克拉格,律師在當代伊斯蘭教( 1965年)和呼籲的光塔( 1985年) ;巨浪埃斯波西托,伊斯蘭教和政治( 1984年) ; D MacEnoin和A鋁-夏希,合編。 ,伊斯蘭教在現代世界( 1 983年) ; EIJ羅森塔爾,伊斯蘭教在現代民族國家( 1965年) ;廁所史密斯,伊斯蘭教在近代歷史( 1959年) ; R賴特,神聖的憤怒( 1985年) 。

Sociology of Islam and Ethnographical Data:社會學的伊斯蘭教和民族志資料:
IR Al Faruqi and L Lamya, The Cultural Atlas of Islam (1986); R Levy, The Social Structure of Islam (1957); RC Martin, Islam: A Cultural Perspective (1982); RV Weeks, ed., Muslim Peoples: A World Ethnographic Survey (1978).紅外鋁法魯基和L Lamya ,文化地圖集的伊斯蘭教( 1986年) ; R利維,社會結構的伊斯蘭教( 1957年) ;鋼筋混凝土馬丁,伊斯蘭教:一個文化視角( 1982年) ;輪狀病毒週,編輯。穆斯林人民:世界民族志調查( 1978年) 。

Mohammed and Mohammedanism穆罕默德和Mohammedanism

Catholic Information 天主教新聞


Mohammed, "the Praised One", the prophet of Islam and the founder of Mohammedanism, was born at Mecca (20 August?) AD 570.穆罕默德說: “被譽為一個”先知和Mohammedanism的創始人,出生於麥加( 8月20日? )公元570 。

Arabia was then torn by warring factions.沙特阿拉伯當時飽受交戰各派。 The tribe of Fihr, or Quarish, to which Mohammed belonged, had established itself in the south of Hijas (Hedjaz), near Mecca, which was, even then, the principal religious and commercial centre of Arabia.部落Fihr ,或Quarish ,其中屬於穆罕默德,已經確立了自己在南部Hijas ( Hedjaz ) ,麥加附近,這是,即使在那時,主要的宗教和商業中心的沙特阿拉伯。 The power of the tribe was continually increasing; they had become the masters and the acknowledged guardians of the sacred Kaaba, within the town of Mecca - then visited in annual pilgrimage by the heathen Arabs with their offerings and tributes - and had thereby gained such preeminence that it was comparatively easy for Mohammed to inaugurate his religious reform and his political campaign, which ended with the conquest of all Arabia and the fusion of the numerous Arab tribes into one nation, with one religion, one code, and one sanctuary.的權力是部落的不斷增加,他們已成為碩士和公認的監護人的神聖克爾白,在麥加城-然後訪問的年度朝聖的異教徒阿拉伯人與他們的產品和悼念- ,從而獲得這種超群這是比較容易的穆罕默德對他的宗教開創改革和他的政治運動,該運動結束時,征服的所有阿拉伯和融合了許多阿拉伯部落到一個民族,同一個宗教,一個代碼,一個避難所。 (See ARABIA, Christianity in Arabia.) (見沙特阿拉伯,基督教在沙特阿拉伯。 )

Mohammed's father was Abdallah, of the family of Hashim, who died soon after his son's birth.穆罕默德的父親是阿卜杜拉,家庭的哈希姆,誰去世後不久,他兒子的出生。 At the age of six the boy lost his mother and was thereafter taken care of by his uncle Abu-Talib.在6歲男童失去了他的母親和其後照顧他的叔叔阿布立。 He spent his early life as a shepherd and an attendant of caravans, and at the age of twenty-five married a rich widow, Khadeejah, fifteen years his senior.他度過了早期生命作為一個牧羊人和一個隨之而來的住房,並在年齡25嫁給了一個豐富的寡婦, Khadeejah , 15年來他的高級。 She bore him six children, all of whom died very young except Fatima, his beloved daughter.她承擔他的六個孩子,他們都非常年輕的死亡,除非法蒂瑪,他心愛的女兒。

On his commercial journeys to Syria and Palestine he became acquainted with Jews and Christians, and acquired an imperfect knowledge of their religion and traditions.在他的商業行程,敘利亞和巴勒斯坦,他結識了猶太人和基督徒,並獲得了完美的知識,他們的宗教和傳統。 He was a man of retiring disposition, addicted to prayer and fasting, and was subject to epileptic fits.他是一位退休處分,沉迷於祈禱和禁食,並受到癲癇適合。 In his fortieth year (AD 612), he claimed to have received a call from the Angel Gabriel, and thus began his active career as the prophet of Allah and the apostle of Arabia.在他的第四十個年頭(公元612 ) ,他聲稱已接到一個電話從天使加布里埃爾,從而開始了他的積極的職業生涯作為真主的先知和使徒的沙特阿拉伯。 His converts were about forty in all, including his wife, his daughter, his father-in-law Abu Bakr, his adopted son Ali Omar, and his slave Zayd.他轉換了約40人,包括他的妻子,他的女兒,他的岳父阿布貝克,他收養的兒子阿里奧馬爾和他的奴隸栽德。 By his preaching and his attack on heathenism, Mohammed provoked persecution which drove him from Mecca to Medina in 622, the year of the Hejira (Flight) and the beginning of the Mohammedan Era.他的說教和他的攻擊異教,穆罕默德挑起的迫害,將他從麥加到麥地在622年的Hejira (飛行) ,並開始穆罕默德時代。 At Medina he was recognized as the prophet of God, and his followers increased.在梅迪納,他被確認為先知的上帝,和他的追隨者增加。 He took the field against his enemies, conquered several Arabian, Jewish, and Christian tribes, entered Mecca in triumph in 630, demolished the idols of the Kaaba, became master of Arabia, and finally united all the tribes under one emblem and one religion.他實地對他的敵人,征服了阿拉伯,猶太和基督教的部落,進入麥加630勝利,摧毀了偶像的克爾白,成為國家主人,最後統一各部落之一徽章和一個宗教。 In 632 he made his last pilgrimage to Mecca at the head of forty thousand followers, and soon after his return died of a violent fever in the sixty-third year of his age, the eleventh of the Hejira, and the year 633 of the Christian era.在他632他最後一次到麥加朝聖的負責人4.0萬追隨者,不久他返回死於暴力熱第六十二第三年他的年齡,第十一屆的Hejira ,以及一年633基督教時代。

The sources of Mohammed's biography are numerous, but on the whole untrustworthy, being crowded with fictitious details, legends, and stories.據穆罕默德的傳記有很多,但整體上不可信的,是擠滿了虛構的細節,傳說和故事。 None of his biographies were compiled during his lifetime, and the earliest was written a century and a half after his death.沒有他的傳記,是在他的一生,以及最早的寫在一個半世紀後,其死因。 The Koran is perhaps the only reliable source for the leading events in his career.古蘭經也許是唯一可靠的來源,主要活動在他的職業生涯。 His earliest and chief biographers are Ibn Ishaq (AH 151=AD 768), Wakidi (207=822), Ibn Hisham (213=828), Ibn Sa'd (230=845), Tirmidhi (279=892), Tabari (310-929), the "Lives of the Companions of Mohammed", the numerous Koranic commentators [especially Tabari, quoted above, Zamakhshari 538=1144), and Baidawi (691=1292)], the "Musnad", or collection of traditions of Ahmad ibn Hanbal (241=855), the collections of Bokhari (256=870), the "Isabah", or "Dictionary of Persons who knew Mohammed", by Ibn Hajar, etc. All these collections and biographies are based on the so-called Hadiths, or "traditions", the historical value of which is more than doubtful.他最早的傳記作家兼是伊本伊斯哈格(歷151 =公元768 ) , Wakidi ( 207 = 822 ) ,本希沙姆( 213 = 828 ) ,本Sa'd ( 230 = 845 ) ,鐵密濟( 279 = 892 ) ,塔巴里( 310-929 )的“生命的同伴穆罕默德” ,眾多的可蘭經評論員[特別塔巴里,上面引述Zamakhshari 538 = 1144 ) ,以及巴大維( 691 = 1292 ) ] ,在“ Musnad ” ,或收集的傳統艾哈邁德本Hanbal ( 241 = 855 ) ,收藏博哈里( 256 = 870 )的“ Isabah ”或“詞典的人誰知道穆罕默德” ,由本哈賈爾,等等所有這些收藏品和傳記是基於所謂聖訓,或“傳統”的歷史價值超過懷疑。

These traditions, in fact, represent a gradual, and more or less artificial, legendary development, rather than supplementary historical information. According to them, Mohammed was simple in his habits, but most careful of his personal appearance.這些傳統,事實上,代表一個漸進的,而且或多或少人為的,傳奇的發展,而不是補充歷史資料。據他們說,穆罕默德在他簡單的習慣,但最認真的他的個人外觀。 He loved perfumes and hated strong drink.他喜歡香水和恨強有力的飲料。 Of a highly nervous temperament, he shrank from bodily pain.高度緊張的氣質,他減少從身體疼痛。 Though gifted with great powers of imagination, he was taciturn.雖然天才與大國的想像力,他沉默寡言。 He was affectionate and magnanimous, pious and austere in the practice of his religion, brave, zealous, and above reproach in his personal and family conduct.他深情和大度,虔誠和簡樸的實踐中,他的宗教,勇敢,熱情,並無可指責在他的個人和家庭的行為。 Palgrave, however, wisely remarks that "the ideals of Arab virtue were first conceived and then attributed to him". Nevertheless, with every allowance for exaggeration, Mohammed is shown by his life and deeds to have been a man of dauntless courage, great generalship, strong patriotism, merciful by nature, and quick to forgive.帕爾格雷夫然而,明智的講話說: “理想的阿拉伯憑藉首次設想,然後歸咎於他。 ”儘管如此,每津貼,毫不誇張地說,穆罕默德是表明了他的生活和事蹟已被一個男人的大無畏的勇氣,偉大的將軍,強烈的愛國主義,仁慈的性質,並迅速地原諒。 And yet he was ruthless in his dealings with the Jews, when once he had ceased to hope for their submission.然而,無情的,他在他打交道的猶太人,當一旦他已不再希望他們能提交。 He approved of assassination, when it furthered his cause; however barbarous or treacherous the means, the end justified it in his eyes; and in more than one case he not only approved, but also instigated the crime. Concerning his moral character and sincerity, contradictory opinions have been expressed by scholars in the last three centuries.他贊成暗殺時,推動他的事業,然而野蠻或陰險的手段,最終的理由在他的眼睛和一個以上的情況下,他不僅獲得批准,而且還唆使犯罪。關於他的品德和誠意,矛盾的意見表達了學者在過去的三個世紀。 Many of these opinions are biased either by an extreme hatred of Islam and its founder or by an exaggerated admiration, coupled with a hatred of Christianity.許多這些意見是偏向任何一個極端仇恨的伊斯蘭教和它的創始人或誇大的欽佩,再加上仇恨基督教。

Luther looked upon him as "a devil and first-born child of Satan".路德期待他為“魔鬼和第一個孩子撒旦” 。 Maracci held that Mohammed and Mohammedanism were not very dissimilar to Luther and Protestantism. Maracci認為,穆罕默德和Mohammedanism並不十分相似,以路德和新教。 Spanheim and D'Herbelot characterize him as a "wicked impostor", and a "dastardly liar", while Prideaux stamps him as a wilful deceiver.施潘海姆伯爵與德Herbelot特點他是一個“邪惡的騙子” ,和“卑鄙的騙子” ,而普里郵票他是一個故意的騙子。 Such indiscriminate abuse is unsupported by facts.這種不分青紅皂白地濫用是不受支持的事實。

Modern scholars, such as Sprenger, Noldeke, Weil, Muir, Koelle, Grimme, Margoliouth, give us a more correct and unbiased estimate of Mohammed's life and character, and substantially agree as to his motives, prophetic call, personal qualifications, and sincerity.現代學者,如Sprenger , Noldeke ,威爾,繆爾, Koelle ,格力莫, Margoliouth ,給我們一個更正確和公正的估計穆罕默德的生活和性格,並大大同意以他的動機,先知呼籲,個人資格,和誠意。 The various estimates of several recent critics have been ably collected and summarized by Zwemer, in his "Islam, a Challenge to Faith" (New York, 1907).各種估計,最近的一些批評人士一直在巧妙地收集和總結了Zwemer ,在他的“伊斯蘭教的信仰的挑戰” (紐約, 1907年) 。 According to Sir William Muir, Marcus Dods, and some others, Mohammed was at first sincere, but later, carried away by success, he practised deception wherever it would gain his end.據威廉爵士繆爾,馬庫斯Dods ,和其他一些穆罕默德是第一次真誠的,但後來,帶走了成功,他的做法欺騙而將獲得他的目的。 Koelle "finds the key to the first period of Mohammed's life in Khadija, his first wife", after whose death he became a prey to his evil passions. Koelle “認定的關鍵,第一期穆罕默德的生命Khadija ,他的第一任妻子” ,其死亡後,他成為他的獵物邪惡的激情。 Sprenger attributes the alleged revelations to epileptic fits, or to "a paroxysm of cataleptic insanity". Zwemer himself goes on to criticize the life of Mohammed by the standards, first, of the Old and New Testaments, both of which Mohammed acknowledged as Divine revelation; second, by the pagan morality of his Arabian compatriots; lastly, by the new law of which he pretended to be the "divinely appointed medium and custodian". Sprenger屬性指稱的啟示癲癇適合,或到“發作發呆的瘋狂” 。 Zwemer他接著批評穆罕默德生活的標準,第一,老和新約,這兩個穆罕默德承認,神聖的啟示;第二,道德的異教徒的阿拉伯同胞;最後,通過新的法律,他假裝要成為“神任命中期和保管。 ” According to this author, the prophet was false even to the ethical traditions of the idolatrous brigands among whom he lived, and grossly violated the easy sexual morality of his own system.據筆者,先知甚至是虛假的道德傳統的盲目崇拜的強盜其中他住,並嚴重違反了方便性道德他自己的系統。 After this, it is hardly necessary to say that, in Zwemer's opinion, Mohammed fell very far short of the most elementary requirements of Scriptural morality.在此之後,這是沒有必要地說, Zwemer認為,穆罕默德下跌很遠低於最基本的要求,聖經道德。 Quoting Johnstone, Zwemer concludes by remarking that the judgment of these modern scholars, however harsh, rests on evidence which "comes all from the lips and the pens of his own devoted adherents. . .And the followers of the prophet can scarcely complain if, even on such evidence, the verdict of history goes against him".據斯通, Zwemer最後議論,這項判決對這些現代學者,但嚴酷,在於證據“是所有從嘴唇和筆自己專門的追隨者。 。 。而追隨者先知幾乎可以抱怨,如果即使在這種證據,判決違背歷史上他。 “


A. Geographical Extent, Divisions, and Distribution of Mohammedans After Mohammed's death Mohammedanism aspired to become a world power and a universal religion.字母a.地域範圍,分類,分佈及伊斯蘭教穆罕默德後死亡Mohammedanism渴望成為世界強國和一個普遍的宗教。 The weakness of the Byzantine Empire, the unfortunate rivalry between the Greek and Latin Churches, the schisms of Nestorius and Eutyches, the failing power of the Sassanian dynasty of Persia, the lax moral code of the new religion, the power of the sword and of fanaticism, the hope of plunder and the love of conquest - all these factors combined with the genius of the caliphs, the successors of Mohammed, to effect the conquest, in considerably less than a century, of Palestine, Syria, Mesopotamia, Egypt, North Africa, and the South of Spain.的弱點拜占庭帝國,不幸之間的對抗希臘和拉丁基督教協進會,分裂的聶斯脫裡和Eutyches的沒有權力的波斯薩珊王朝波斯,管理鬆懈的道德準則的新的宗教,權力的劍和狂熱,希望掠奪和征服的愛-所有這些因素結合的天才的c aliphs,接班人的穆罕默德,以征服的影響,在大大少於一個世紀以來,巴勒斯坦,敘利亞,美索不達米亞,埃及,北非洲和西班牙南部。 The Moslems even crossed the Pyrenees, threatening to stable their horses in St. Peter's at Rome, but were at last defeated by Charles Martel at Tours, in 732, just one hundred years from the death of Mohammed.穆斯林甚至越過了比利牛斯山脈,威脅要穩定他們的馬匹在聖彼得在羅馬,但最後輸給了查理馬特在旅遊,在732 ,公正百年從死亡的穆罕默德。 This defeat arrested their western conquests and saved Europe.這種失敗被捕西方征服歐洲和保存。

In the eighth and ninth centuries they conquered Persia, Afghanistan, and a large part of India, and in the twelfth century they had already become the absolute masters of all Western Asia, Spain and North Africa, Sicily, etc. They were finally conquered by the Mongols and Turks, in the thirteenth century, but the new conquerors adopted Mohammed's religion and, in the fifteenth century, overthrew the tottering Byzantine Empire (1453).在第八和第九世紀,他們征服了波斯,阿富汗,以及大量印度的一部分,並在12世紀,他們已經成為絕對的主人,所有西亞,西班牙和北非,西西里島等,他們最終征服蒙古人和土耳其人,在13世紀,但通過新的征服者穆罕默德的宗教,並在15世紀,推翻了搖搖欲墜拜占庭帝國( 1453 ) 。 From that stronghold (Constantinople) they even threatened the German Empire, but were successfully defeated at the gates of Vienna, and driven back across the Danube, in 1683. Mohammedanism now comprises various theological schools and political factions. The Orthodox (Sunni) uphold the legitimacy of the succession of the first three caliphs, Abu Bakr, Omar, and Uthman, while the Schismatics (Shiah) champion the Divine right of Ali as against the successions of these caliphs whom they call "usurpers", and whose names, tombs, and memorials they insult and detest.從這個據點(君士坦丁堡) ,他們甚至威脅德意志帝國,但成功地打敗的大門,維也納和推動各地回來的多瑙河,在1683年。 Mohammedanism現在有各種神學院和政治派別。東正教(遜尼派)堅持合法性的繼承前三caliphs ,阿布貝克,奧馬爾和奧斯曼,而Schismatics (什葉派)冠軍的神聖權利,阿里對繼承這些caliphs他們所謂的“篡權” ,以及他們的名字,墓碑,和紀念館,他們的侮辱和憎恨。 The Shiah number at present about twelve million adherents, or about one-twentieth of the whole Mohammedan world, and are scattered over Persia and India.什葉派人數目前約有1200.00萬信徒,或大約二十分之一整個伊斯蘭教世界,並分散在波斯和印度。 The Sunni are subdivided into four principal theological schools, or sects, viz., the Hanifites, found mostly in Turkey, Central Asia, and Northern India; the Shafites in Southern India and Egypt; the Malikites, in Morocco, Barbary, and parts of Arabia; and the Hanbalites in Central and Eastern Arabia and in some parts of Africa.遜尼派是分成四個主要的神學學校,或教派,即。的Hanifites ,發現主要是在土耳其,中亞和印度北部的Shafites南印度和埃及的Malikites ,摩洛哥,北非和部分沙特阿拉伯;和Hanbalites在中歐和東歐國家以及非洲一些地區。 The Shiah are also subdivided into various, but less important, sects.什葉派也分為不同,但同樣重要的是,教派。 Of the proverbial seventy-three sects of Islam, thirty-two are assigned to the Shiah.的諺語73伊斯蘭教的教派,三二頃分配給什葉派。 The principal differences between the two are:主要兩國間的分歧是:

as to the legitimate successors of Mohammed;作為合法的繼任者穆罕默德;

the Shiah observe the ceremonies of the month of fasting, Muharram, in commemoration of Ali, Hasan, Husain, and Bibi Fatimah, whilst the Sunnites only regard the tenth day of that month as sacred, and as being the day on which God created Adam and Eve;什葉派紀念儀式的一個月的齋戒,新年,以紀念阿里,哈桑,侯賽因,並比比法蒂瑪,而遜尼派方面只有十一天的每月神聖的,被認為是這一天上帝創造亞當和夏娃;

the Shiah permit temporary marriages, contracted for a certain sum of money, whilst the Sunnites maintain that Mohammed forbade them;什葉派允許臨時婚姻,承包某一筆錢,而遜尼派堅持認為,穆罕默德禁止他們;

the Shi'ites include the Fire-Worshippers among the "People of the Book", whilst the Sunnites acknowledge only Jews, Christians, and Moslems as such;什葉派包括消防公廟之間“人民書” ,而遜尼派承認只有猶太人,基督教徒和穆斯林的這種;

several minor differences in the ceremonies of prayer and ablution;一些小的分歧在祈禱儀式和浴室;

the Shiah admit a principle of religious compromise in order to escape persecution and death, whilst the Sunni regard this as apostasy.什葉派承認的宗教原則的妥協,以逃避迫害和死亡,而遜尼派認為這是叛教。

There are also minor sects, the principal of which are the Aliites, or Fatimites, the Asharians, Azaragites, Babakites, Babbis, Idrisites, Ismailians and Assassins, Jabrians, Kaissanites, Karmathians, Kharjites, followers of the Mahdi, Mu'tazilites, Qadrains, Safrians, Sifatians, Sufis, Wahabis, and Zaidites.也有輕微的教派,主要的是Aliites ,或Fatimites的Asharians , Azaragites , Babakites , Babbis , Idrisites , Ismailians和刺客, Jabrians , Kaissanites , Karmathians , Kharjites ,追隨者救世主, Mu'tazilites , Qadrains , Safrians , Sifatians ,蘇非派人, Wahabis ,並Zaidites 。 The distinctive features of these various sects are political as well as religious; only three or four of them now possess any influence. In spite of these divisions, however, the principal articles of faith and morality, and the ritual, are substantially uniform.特色這些不同教派的政治以及宗教,只有三個或四個他們現在擁有的任何影響。儘管存在這些分歧,但主要條款的信念和道德,和儀式,基本上是統一的。

According to the latest and most reliable accounts (1907), the number of Mohammedans in the world is about 233 millions, although some estimate the number as high as 300 millions, others, again, as low as 175 millions.根據最新的和最可靠的賬戶( 1907年) ,數量伊斯蘭教在世界上約233百萬,但也有一些估計的人數高達300百萬美元,其他國家同樣,低175數以百萬計。 Nearly 60 millions are in Africa, 170 millions in Asia, and about 5 millions in Europe. Their total number amounts to about one-fourth of the population of Asia, and one-seventh that of the whole world.數以百萬計近60個在非洲, 170個百萬計的亞洲和約5百萬在歐洲。總數達到大約四分之一的人口的亞洲,七分之一是整個世界。 Their geographical distribution is as follows:它們的地理分佈情況如下:


India, 62 millions; other British possessions (such as Aden, Bahrein, Ceylon, and Cyprus), about one million and a half; Russia (Asiatic and European), the Caucasus, Russian Turkestan, and the Amur region, about 13 millions; Philippine Islands, 350,000; Dutch East Indies (including Java, Sumatra, Borneo, Celebes, etc.) about 30 millions; French possessions in Asia (Pondicherry, Annam, Cambodia, Cochin-China, Tonking, Laos), about one million and a half; Bokhara, 1,200,000; Khiva, 800,000; Persia, 8,800,000; Afghanistan, 4,000,000; China and Chinese Turkestan, 30,000,000; Japan and Formosa, 30,000; Korea, 10,000; Siam, 1,000,000; Asia Minor; Armenia and Kurdistan, 1,795,000; Mesopotamia, 1,200,000; Syria, 1,100,000; Arabia, 4,500,000.印度, 62百萬;其他英國屬地(如亞丁,巴林,錫蘭,和塞浦路斯) ,其中約150萬;俄羅斯(亞洲和歐洲) ,高加索,俄羅斯土耳其斯坦和阿穆爾地區,約13百萬;菲律賓群島, 350000 ;荷屬東印度(包括爪哇,蘇門答臘,婆羅洲,西里等)約30百萬;法國在亞洲的財產( Pondicherry的,安南,柬埔寨,科欽,中國, Tonking ,老撾) ,大約有100萬和一半;博卡拉, 120.00萬;希瓦, 800000 ;波斯, 880萬;阿富汗, 400.00萬;中國和中國土耳其斯坦,三千萬;日本和台灣, 30000 ;韓國, 10000 ;暹羅, 1000000 ;小亞細亞,亞美尼亞和庫爾德斯坦, 1795000 ;美索不達米亞120.0萬;敘利亞,一百十萬;沙特阿拉伯,四百五十〇點零零零萬。 Total, 170,000,000.共計170,000,000 。


Egypt, 9,000,000; Tripoli, 1,250,000; Tunis, 1,700,000; Algeria, 4,000,000; Morocco, 5,600,000; Eritrea, 150,000; Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, 1,000,000; Senegambia-Niger, 18,000,000; Abyssinia, 350,000; Kamerun, 2,000,000; Nigeria, 6,000,000; Dahomey, 350,000; Ivory Coast, 800,000; Liberia, 600,000; Sierra Leone, 333,000; French Guinea, 1,500,000; French, British, and Italian Somaliland, British East African Protectorate, Uganda, Togoland, Gambia and Senegal, about 2,000,000; Zanzibar, German East Africa, Portuguese East Africa, Rhodesia, Congo Free State, and French Congo, about 4,000,000; South Africa and adjacent island, about 235,000.-Approximate total, 60,000,000.埃及, 900.0萬;的黎波里, 1250000 ;突尼斯, 170.0萬;阿爾及利亞, 4000000 ;摩洛哥, 560.000萬;厄立特里亞, 150000 ;英埃及蘇丹, 1000000 ;塞內岡比亞,尼日爾一千八百點○萬;阿比西尼亞, 350000 ;喀麥隆, 2000000 ;尼日利亞, 6000000 ;達荷美, 350000 ;象牙海岸, 800000 ;利比里亞, 600000 ;塞拉利昂, 33.3萬;法國幾內亞,一百五十萬;法國,英國,意大利索馬里蘭,英國東非保護國,烏干達, Togoland ,岡比亞和塞內加爾,約2000000 ;桑給巴爾,德國東非洲,葡萄牙東非,南羅得西亞,剛果自由邦,法國剛果,約400.00萬,南非和鄰近島嶼,大約235000. -近似總額, 60000000 。


Turkey in Europe, 2,100,000; Greece, Servia, Rumania, and Bulgaria, about 1,369,000.土耳其在歐洲, 210.00萬;希臘,塞爾維亞,羅馬尼亞,保加利亞,大約一百三十六萬九千。 Total, about 3,500,000.共計約3,500,000 。

America and Australia北美和澳大利亞

About 70,000.約70,000 。

About 7,000,000 (ie, four-fifths) of the Persian Mohammedans and about 5,000,000 of the Indian Mohammedans are Shiahs; the rest of the Mohammedan world - about 221,000,000 - are almost all Sunnites.約700.00萬(即五分之四)的波斯伊斯蘭教和5000000印度伊斯蘭教是Shiahs ;其餘的伊斯蘭教世界-約2 .21億-是幾乎所有的遜尼派。

B. Tenets灣原理

The principal tents of Mohammedanism are laid down in the Koran.主要的Mohammedanism帳篷中規定了可蘭經。 As aids in interpreting the religious system of the Koran we have: first, the so-called "Traditions", which are supposed to contain supplementary teachings and doctrine of Mohammed, a very considerable part of which, however, is decidedly spurious; second, the consensus of the doctors of Islam represented by the most celebrated imâms, the founders of the various Islamic sects, the Koranic commentators and the masters of Mohammedans jurisprudence; third, the analogy, or deduction from recognized principles admitted in the Koran and in the Traditions.艾滋病在解釋宗教制度的可蘭經我們:第一,所謂的“傳統” ,這是為了遏制補充教義和學說的穆罕默德,非常相當大的一部分,但絕對是虛假的;第二,的共識醫生的伊斯蘭教派最有名的阿訇,創始人的各種教派的古蘭經評論家和當家作主的伊斯蘭教法學;第三,類比,或減公認的原則承認古蘭經和傳統。 Mohammed's religion, known among its adherents as Islam, contains practically nothing original; it is a confused combination of native Arabian heathenism, Judaism, Christianity, Sabiism (Mandoeanism), Hanifism, and Zoroastrianism.穆罕默德的宗教,在其著名的伊斯蘭教信徒,幾乎沒有包含原來,它是一種困惑結合本地阿拉伯異教,猶太教,基督教, Sabiism ( Mandoeanism ) , Hanifism ,以及拜火教。

The system may be divided into two parts: dogma, or theory; and morals, or practice.該系統可分為兩個部分:教條,或理論;和道德,或實踐。 The whole fabric is built on five fundamental points, one belonging to faith, or theory, and the other four to morals, or practice.整個結構是建立在五個基本點,一個屬於信仰,或理論,和其他4至道德,或實踐。 All Mohammedan dogma is supposed to be expressed in the one formula: "there is no God but the true God; and Mohammed is His prophet."所有伊斯蘭教教義應該是表達了一個公式: “沒有上帝,但真正的上帝;和穆罕默德是他的先知。 ” But this one confession implies for Mohammedans six distinct articles:但是,這意味著一個懺悔的伊斯蘭教6個不同的文章:

belief in the unity of God;相信上帝的團結;

in His angels;在他的天使;

in His Scripture;在他的經文;

in His prophets;在他的先知;

in the Resurrection and Day of Judgment; and在復活和審判日;和

in God's absolute and irrevocable decree and predetermination both of good and of evil.在上帝的絕對的和不可改變的法令,並預先都好邪惡。

The four points relating to morals, or practice, are:四點有關的道德,或實踐,是:

prayer, ablutions, and purifications;祈禱,浴室,並purifications ;


fasting; and空腹;和

pilgrimage to Mecca.麥加朝聖。

(1) Dogma ( 1 )教條

The doctrines of Islam concerning God - His unity and Divine attributes - are essentially those of the Bible; but to the doctrines of the Trinity and of the Divine Sonship of Christ Mohammed had the strongest antipathy.在伊斯蘭教的教義關於上帝-他的團結和神聖的屬性-基本上是那些聖經,但對理論的三一和神聖的基督So nship穆罕默德的強烈反感。 As Noldeke remarks, Mohammed's acquaintance with those two dogmas was superficial; even the clauses of the Creed that referred to them were not properly known to him, and thus he felt that it was quite impossible to bring them into harmony with the simple Semitic Monotheism; probably, too, it was this consideration alone that hindered him from embracing Christianity (Sketches from Eastern History, 62). The number of prophets sent by God is said to have been about 124,000, and of apostles, 315.作為Noldeke言論,穆罕默德的熟人與這兩個教條是膚淺的;甚至條款的信條中提到他們沒有適當的了解他,因此他認為這是十分不可能使其和諧與反猶簡單一神教;或許,也正是這種考慮單獨妨礙他接受基督教(素描來自東歐的歷史, 62歲) 。數目先知上帝派來的,據說是約12.40萬,和使徒, 315 。 Of the former, 22 are mentioned by name in the Koran - such as Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus.前, 22人中點名提到古蘭經-如亞當,諾亞,亞伯拉罕,摩西,耶穌。

According to the Sunni, the Prophets and Apostles were sinless and superior to the angels, and they had the power of performing miracles.據遜尼派,先知和使徒的清白和優秀的天使,他們的權力表演奇蹟。 Mohammedan angelology and demonology are almost wholly based on later Jewish and early Christian traditions.穆罕默德天使和魔鬼是幾乎完全基於後來猶太人和早期基督教的傳統。 The angels are believed to be free from all sin; they neither eat nor drink; there is no distinction of sex among them.天使被認為是擺脫一切罪惡,他們既不吃也不喝,沒有區分性別的其中之一。 They are, as a rule, invisible, save to animals, although, at times, they appear in human form.他們是,作為一項規則,看不見的,保存動物,但有時,他們似乎在人類形式。 The principal angels are: Gabriel, the guardian and communicator of God's revelation to man; Michael, the guardian of men; Azrail, the angel of death, whose duty is to receive men's souls when they die; and Israfil, the angel of the Resurrection.天使的主要有:加布里埃爾,監護人和溝通上帝的啟示人;邁克爾,監護人的男子; Azrail的死亡天使,其職責是接收男子的靈魂時,模具;和伊斯拉,天使的復活。

In addition to these there are the Seraphim, who surround the throne of God, constantly chanting His praises; the Secretaries, who record the actions of men; the Observers, who spy on every word and deed of mankind; the Travellers, whose duty it is to traverse the whole earth in order to know whether, and when, men utter the name of God; the Angels of the Seven Planets; the Angels who have charge of hell; and a countless multitude of heavenly beings who fill all space. The chief devil is Iblis, who, like his numerous companions, was once the nearest to God, but was cast out for refusing to pay homage to Adam at the command of God.除了這些還有天使,誰環繞寶座的上帝,不斷高呼他的讚譽;的秘書,誰的行動紀錄的男子;的觀察員,誰間諜一言一行對人類的旅客,其職責是穿越整個地球,以便知道,當男人完全以上帝的名義;天使七行星;天使誰掌管地獄;和無數眾多的天上人誰填補所有的空間。的首席魔鬼Iblis ,誰一樣,他的許多同伴,曾經是最接近上帝,但投了拒絕表示敬意亞當在上帝的命令。 These devils are harmful both to the souls and to the bodies of men, although their evil influence is constantly checked by Divine interference.這些魔鬼都有害的靈魂和機構的男人,雖然他們的邪惡影響力正在不斷檢查神聖干涉。

Besides angels and devils, there are also jinns, or genii, creatures of fire, able to eat, drink, propagate, and die; some good, others bad, but all capable of future salvation and damnation.除了天使和魔鬼,也有jinns ,或genii ,生物防火,能夠吃,喝,宣傳,和模具;一些好,其他不好,但所有的未來能夠拯救和詛咒。

God rewards good and punishes evil deeds.上帝獎勵和懲罰良好的惡行。 He is merciful and is easily propitiated by repentance.他是仁慈的,並很容易propitiated的懺悔。 The punishment of the impenitent wicked will be fearful, and the reward of the faithful great.情節嚴重的,不知悔改的惡人將是可怕的,並懸賞忠實很大。 All men will have to rise from the dead and submit to the universal judgment.所有的人將不得不增加從死並提交普遍的判斷。 The Day of Resurrection and of Judgment will be preceded and accompanied by seventeen fearful, or greater, signs in heaven and on earth, and eight lesser ones, some of which are identical with those mentioned in the New Testament.日的復活和判斷將先的陪同下, 17恐懼,或更大,標誌在天堂和在地球上,和8個較小的,其中有些是相同中提到的新約。 The Resurrection will be general and will extend to all creatures - angels, jinns, men, and brutes.復活的將是一般,將擴大到所有的生物-天使, j inns,男人和b rutes。 The torments of hell and the pleasures of Paradise, but especially the latter, are proverbially crass and sensual.折磨的地獄和天堂的樂趣,尤其是後者,是諺語粗魯和感性。 Hell is divided into seven regions: Jahannam, reserved for faithless Mohammedans; Laza, for the Jews; Al-Hutama, for the Christians; Al-Sair, for the Sabians; Al-Saqar, for the Magians; Al-Jahim, for idolaters; Al-Hawiyat, for hypocrites.地獄分為七個區域: Jahannam ,保留的不忠實伊斯蘭教;拉扎,為猶太人;基地Hutama ,為基督徒;基地Sair ,為Sabians ;基地Saqar ,為襖教徒;基地Jahim ,為偶像崇拜者;基地Hawiyat ,為偽君子。 As to the torments of hell, it is believed that the damned will dwell amid pestilential winds and in scalding water, and in the shadow of a black smoke.至於痛苦的地獄,人們認為該死的將住在疫風和在滾燙的水,並在陰影中的黑煙。 Draughts of boiling water will be forced down their throats.吃水的開水將被迫減少他們的喉嚨。 They will be dragged by the scalp, flung into the fire, wrapped in garments of flame, and beaten with iron maces.他們將被拖入了頭皮,偏遠的火災,包裹在服裝的火焰,並遭到毆打鐵maces 。 When their skins are well burned, other skins will be given them for their greater torture.當他們的皮膚都被燒毀,其他皮膚將給予他們更多的酷刑。 While the damnation of all infidels will be hopeless and eternal, the Moslems, who, though holding the true religion, have been guilty of heinous sins, will be delivered from hell after expiating their crimes.雖然詛咒所有異教徒將是無望的和永恆的穆斯林,誰,但持有真正的宗教,已經犯了滔天罪惡,將交付後,從地獄expiating他們的罪行。

The joys and glories of Paradise are as fantastic and sensual as the lascivious Arabian mind could possibly imagine.在歡樂和輝煌的天堂是荒唐的和感官的挑逗阿拉伯銘記可能想像的。 "As plenty of water is one of the greatest additions to the delights of the Bedouin Arab, the Koran often speaks of the rivers of Paradise as a principal ornament thereof; some of these streams flow with water, some with wine and others with honey, besides many other lesser springs and fountains, whose pebbles are rubies and emeralds, while their earth consists of camphor, their beds of musk, and their sides of saffron. But all these glories will be eclipsed by the resplendent and ravishing girls, or houris, of Paradise, the enjoyment of whose company will be the principal felicity of the faithful. These maidens are created not of clay, as in the case of mortal women, but of pure musk, and free from all natural impurities, defects, and inconveniences. They will be beautiful and modest and secluded from public view in pavilions of hollow pearls. The pleasures of Paradise will be so overwhelming that God will give to everyone the potentialities of a hundred individuals. To each individuals a large mansion will be assigned, and the very meanest will have at his disposal at least 80,000 servants and seventy-two wives of the girls of Paradise. While eating they will be waited on by 300 attendants, the food being served in dishes of gold, whereof 300 shall be set before him at once, containing each a different kind of food, and an inexhaustible supply of wine and liquors. The magnificence of the garments and gems is conformable to the delicacy of their diet. For they will be clothed in the richest silks and brocades, and adorned with bracelets of gold and silver, and crowns set with pearls, and will make use of silken carpets, couches, pillows, etc., and in order that they may enjoy all these pleasures, God will grant them perpetual youth, beauty, and vigour. Music and singing will also be ravishing and everlasting" (Wollaston, "Muhammed, His Life and Doctrines"). “由於大量的水是一個最大的增加了歡樂的貝都因阿拉伯人,古蘭經常常談到的河流天堂作為一個主要的裝飾人;其中的一些河流流量與水,其中一些葡萄酒和其他蜂蜜,除了許多其他較小的溫泉和噴泉,其鵝卵石的紅寶石和綠寶石,而他們的地球由樟腦,其病床麝香,其兩岸的藏紅花。但所有這些輝煌將黯然失色的輝煌和ravishing女孩,或houris ,天堂,享受該公司將主要幸福的忠誠。這些姑娘沒有建立的粘土,如致命的婦女,但純粹的麝香,並免受各種自然雜質,缺陷和不便。它們將美麗和溫和,僻靜的公共鑑於在展覽館空心珍珠。樂趣的天堂將十分熱烈,上帝給每個人的潛力一百個人。每一個人的一個大豪宅將被分配,並非常卑鄙將他掌握至少80000公務員和72妻子的女孩的天堂。雖然吃他們將等待對300名乘務員,食品被送達菜金,信守300應定在他面前一次,載有每個不同種類的食物,以及取之不盡的葡萄酒和酒類。壯麗的服裝和珠寶是符合美味的飲食。對於他們將衣物最富有的絲綢和錦,並飾有手鐲的黃金和白銀,並冠一套珍珠,將充分利用絲綢地毯,沙發,枕頭等,使他們可享受所有這些樂趣,上帝會給予他們永久的青年,美感和活力。音樂及唱歌也將ravishing和永恆的“ (沃拉斯頓, ”穆罕默德,他的生活和理論“ ) 。

The Mohammedan doctrine of predestination is equivalent to fatalism.在伊斯蘭教教義命等於宿命論。 They believe in God's absolute decree and predetermination both of good and of evil; viz., whatever has been or shall be in the world, whether good or bad, proceeds entirely from the Divine will, and is irrevocably fixed and recorded from all eternity.他們相信上帝的絕對命令,並預先都很好,邪惡;即。 ,不管已經或將在世界上,不論是好還是壞,收益完全由神的意志,是不可改變的固定和記錄從所有永恆。 The possession and the exercise of our own free will is, accordingly, futile and useless.擁有和行使自己的自由意志,因此,徒勞的和無用的。 The absurdity of this doctrine was felt by later Mohammedan theologians, who sought in vain by various subtile distinctions to minimize it.的荒謬這一學說認為後來伊斯蘭教的神學家而言,誰試圖徒勞的各種微妙的區別,盡量減少它。

(2) Practice ( 2 )實踐

The five pillars of the practical and of the ritualistic side of Islam are the recital of the Creed and prayers, fasting, almsgiving, and the pilgrimage to Mecca.五大支柱的實際和走過場一側的伊斯蘭教是演奏的信念和祈禱,齋戒,施捨,以及麥加朝聖。

The formula of the Creed has been given above, and its recital is necessary for salvation.該公式的信條給予了上述情況,其演奏是必要的救助。

The daily prayers are five in number: before sunrise, at midday, at four in the afternoon, at sunset, and shortly before midnight.每天祈禱5個號碼:日出前,中午,在四個下午,夕陽,以及午夜前。 The forms of prayer and the postures are prescribed in a very limited Koranic liturgy.各種形式的祈禱和姿勢明在一個非常有限的可蘭經禮儀。 All prayers must be made looking towards Mecca, and must be preceded by washing, neglect of which renders the prayers of no effect.所有的祈禱必須面向麥加的,必須先洗手,忽視使得祈禱不具法律效力。 Public prayer is made on Friday in the mosque, and is led by an imâm.公共祈禱是上週五在清真寺,是由一名伊瑪目。 Only men attend the public prayers, as women seldom pray even at home.只有男子參加的公共祈禱,因為婦女祈禱甚至很少在家裡。 Prayers for the dead are meritorious and commended.祈禱死者中有立功和讚揚。

Fasting is commended at all seasons, but prescribed only in the month of Ramadan.禁食是讚揚在所有季節,但明僅在一個月的齋月。 It begins at sunrise and ends at sunset, and is very rigorous, especially when the fasting season falls in summer.它始於日出和日落時結束,並且是非常嚴格的,尤其是在空腹賽季屬於夏季。 At the end of Ramadan comes the great feast-day, generally called Bairam, or Fitr, ie, "Breaking of the Fast".在齋月結束是偉大的節日天,一般稱為開齋節,或開齋節,即“打破快速” 。 The other great festival is that of Azha, borrowed with modifications from the Jewish Day of Atonement.其他偉大的節日是Azha ,借來的修改從猶太人贖罪日。

Almsgiving is highly commended: on the feast-day after Ramadan it is obligatory, and is to be directed to the "faithful" (Mohammedans) only.施捨是高度讚揚:在宴席,一天後齋月是強制性的,並要導向到“忠實” (伊斯蘭教)只。

Pilgrimage to Mecca once in a lifetime is a duty incumbent on every free Moslem of sufficient means and bodily strength; the merit of it cannot be obtained by deputy, and the ceremonies are strictly similar to those performed by the Prophet himself (see MECCA).麥加朝聖一次一生中是一個義不容辭的責任都免費穆斯林足夠的手段和身體強度;的優點是它不能得到的副手和儀式都嚴格類似於由先知本人(見麥加) 。 Pilgrimages to the tombs of saints are very common nowadays, especially in Persia and India, although they were absolutely forbidden by Mohammed.朝聖的墳墓聖人是非常普遍的今天,尤其是在波斯和印度,儘管他們是絕對禁止的穆罕默德。

(2) Morals ( 2 )道德

It is hardly necessary here to emphasize the fact that the ethics of Islam are far inferior to those of Judaism and even more inferior to those of the New Testament.這是沒有必要在這裡強調一個事實,即伊斯蘭教的道德遠不如猶太教和更不如新約。 Furthermore, we cannot agree with Noldeke when he maintains that, although in many respects the ethics of Islam are not to be compared even with such Christianity as prevailed, and still prevails, in the East, nevertheless, in other points, the new faith - simple, robust, in the vigour of its youth - far surpassed the religion of the Syrian and Egyptian Christians, which was in a stagnating condition, and steadily sinking lower and lower into the depths of barbarism (op. cit., Wollaston, 71, 72).此外,我們不能同意Noldeke當他堅持認為,儘管在許多方面對伊斯蘭教道德不能相比,即使是這些基督教盛行,現在仍然普遍存在,在東部,但在其他各點,新的信仰-簡單,功能強大,在它的活力青年-遠遠超越了宗教,敘利亞和埃及的基督徒,這是一個停滯的狀態,並持續下降低到深處的野蠻行徑(同前。 ,沃拉斯頓, 7 1, 72 ) 。 The history and the development, as well as the past and present religious, social, and ethical condition of all the Christian nations and countries, no matter of what sect or school they may be, as compared with these of the various Mohammedan countries, in all ages, is a sufficient refutation of Noldeke's assertion.的歷史和發展,以及過去和現在的宗教,社會,和道德條件的所有基督教民族和國家,不管什麼節或學校,他們可能會,因為與這些相比,各伊斯蘭教國家,不分年齡人人共享的,是一個足以反駁Noldeke的論斷。 That in the ethics of Islam there is a great deal to admire and to approve, is beyond dispute; but of originality or superiority, there is none.在伊斯蘭教的道德有一個很大的欽佩和批准,是無可爭議的,但原創或優越,有沒有。 What is really good in Mohammedan ethics is either commonplace or borrowed from some other religions, whereas what is characteristic is nearly always imperfect or wicked.什麼是真正良好的伊斯蘭教道德不是司空見慣的或借來的一些其他宗教,而什麼是特點是幾乎總是不完善的或邪惡的。

The principal sins forbidden by Mohammed are idolatry and apostasy, adultery, false witness against a brother Moslem, games of chance, the drinking of wine or other intoxicants, usury, and divination by arrows.主要的罪過禁止穆罕默德是偶像崇拜和叛教,通姦,偽證對穆斯林兄弟,遊戲的機會,飲用葡萄酒或其他intoxicants ,高利貸和占卜的箭頭。 Brotherly love is confined in Islam to Mohammedans.兄弟的愛情是局限在伊斯蘭教伊斯蘭教。 Any form of idolatry or apostasy is severely punished in Islam, but the violation of any of the other ordinances is generally allowed to go unpunished, unless it seriously conflicts with the social welfare or the political order of the State.任何形式的偶像崇拜或叛教是嚴懲伊斯蘭教,但違反任何其他條例通常是讓逍遙法外,除非它嚴重衝突的社會福利或政治秩序的國家。 Among other prohibitions mention must be made of the eating of blood, of swine's flesh, of whatever dies of itself, or is slain in honour of any idol, or is strangled, or killed by a blow, or a fall, or by another beast.在其他禁令必須提到的吃血,豬的肉,無論死亡本身,還是在榮譽殺害任何的偶像,或勒死,或死亡的打擊,或下降,或由另一野獸。 In case of dire necessity, however, these restrictions may be dispensed with.如果在可怕的必要性,但是,這些限制可免除。 Infanticide, extensively practiced by the pre-Islamic Arabs, is strictly forbidden by Mohammed, as is also the sacrificing of children to idols in fulfilment of vows, etc. The crime of infanticide commonly took the form of burying newborn females, lest the parents should be reduced to poverty by providing for them, or else that they might avoid the sorrow and disgrace which would follow, if their daughters should be made captives or become scandalous by their behaviour.女嬰,廣泛實行的前伊斯蘭阿拉伯人,是嚴格禁止的穆罕默德,因為也是犧牲兒童的偶像,履行承諾等犯罪的女嬰常見的形式是新生兒女性掩埋,以免家長應減少貧困,提供他們,否則,他們可能避免悲傷和恥辱這將後續,如果他們的女兒應該成為人質或可恥的行為。

Religion and the State are not separated in Islam.宗教和國家分離是不是在伊斯蘭教。 Hence Mohammedan jurisprudence, civil and criminal, is mainly based on the Koran and on the "Traditions".因此,穆罕默德法理學,民法和刑法,主要是基於古蘭經和“傳統” 。 Thousands of judicial decisions are attributed to Mohammed and incorporated in the various collections of Hadith.數以千計的司法決定的原因是穆罕默德,並納入各收藏的聖訓。 Mohammed commanded reverence and obedience to parents, and kindness to wives and slaves.穆罕默德指揮的尊敬和服從父母,善待妻子和奴隸。 Slander and backbiting are strongly denounced, although false evidence is allowed to hide a Moslem's crime and to save his reputation or life.誹謗和讒言的強烈譴責,但假證據可以隱藏一個穆斯林的犯罪和挽救自己的名譽或生活。

As regards marriage, polygamy, and divorce, the Koran explicitly (sura iv, v. 3) allows four lawful wives at a time, whom the husband may divorce whenever he pleases.至於婚姻,一夫多妻,和離婚,可蘭經明文(蘇拉四,五3 )允許4個合法妻子的時間,他的丈夫可能會離婚只要他高興。 Slave-mistresses and concubines are permitted in any number.奴隸情婦和姘婦被允許在任何號碼。 At present, however, owing to economic reasons, concubinage is not as commonly practiced as Western popular opinion seems to hold.目前,然而,由於經濟原因,妾並不像通常實行西方民意似乎擱置。 Seclusion of wives is commanded, and in case of unfaithfulness, the wife's evidence, either in her own defense or against her husband, is not admitted, while that of the husband invariably is.隱居的妻子是指揮,並在案件異心,妻子的證據,無論是在她自己的國防或反對她的丈夫,是不承認,而往往是丈夫。 In this, as in there judicial cases, the evidence of two women, if admitted, is sometimes allowed to be worth that of one man.在這方面,在有司法案件,證據的兩名婦女,如果承認,有時是可以值得的一名男子。 The man is allowed to repudiate his wife on the slightest pretext, but the woman is not permitted even to separate herself from her husband unless it be for ill-usage, want of proper maintenance, or neglect of conjugal duty; and even then she generally loses her dowry, when she does not if divorced by her husband, unless she has been guilty of immodesty or notorious disobedience.這名男子是允許否定他的妻子絲毫的藉口,但該名女子是不允許單獨甚至自己從她的丈夫,除非它被虐待的使用,要適當的維修,或忽視婚姻的責任;即使在那時,她一般失去她的嫁妝,當時她並沒有離婚,如果她的丈夫,除非她犯了臭名昭著的immodesty或不服從命令。 Both husband and wife are explicitly forbidden by Mohammed to seek divorce on any slight occasion or the prompting of a whim, but this warning was not heeded either by Mohammed himself or by his followers.夫妻雙方都是明文禁止的穆罕默德要求離婚對任何輕微場合或提示的心血來潮,但這一警告沒有得到重視由穆罕默德本人或由他的追隨者。 A divorced wife, in order to ascertain the paternity of a possible or probable offspring, must wait three months before she marries again.離婚的妻子,以確定親子關係的可能或很可能的後代,必須等待三個月前,她再次結婚。 A widow, on the other hand, must wait four months and ten days. Immorality in general is severely condemned and punished by the Koran, but the moral laxity and depraved sensualism of the Mohammedans at large have practically nullified its effects.寡婦,另一方面,必須等待4個月10天。不道德的一般是嚴厲譴責和懲罰的古蘭經,但道德墮落不嚴和感覺論的伊斯蘭教大幾乎抵消其影響。

Slavery is not only tolerated in the Koran, but is looked upon as a practical necessity, while the manumission of slaves is regarded as a meritorious deed.奴隸制不僅是不能容忍的古蘭經,而是看作一種實際需要,而manumission奴隸被看作是有價值的契據。 It must be observed, however, that among Mohammedans, the children of slaves and of concubines are generally considered equally legitimate with those of legal wives, none being accounted bastards except such as are born of public prostitutes, and whose fathers are unknown.必須指出的是,伊斯蘭教之間,孩子們的奴隸和妾一般被認為是同樣合法與這些法律的妻子,但沒有一個佔混蛋除外,如出生公共妓女,其父親下落不明。 The accusation often brought against the Koran that it teaches that women have no souls is without foundation.通常的指控提起蘭教授認為,婦女沒有靈魂是沒有根據的。 The Koranic law concerning inheritance insists that women and orphans be treated with justice and kindness.古蘭經法的有關遺產繼承堅持認為,婦女和孤兒進行治療正義和善良。 Generally speaking, however, males are entitled to twice as much as females.但總的來說,男女均有權兩倍多為女性。 Contracts are to be conscientiously drawn up in the presence of witnesses.合同要認真制定了在場的證人。 Murder, manslaughter, and suicide are explicitly forbidden, although blood revenge is allowed.謀殺,誤殺,和自殺是明文禁止,但血復仇是不允許的。 In case of personal injury, the law of retaliation is approved.如人身傷害,法律的報復批准。

In conclusion, reference must be made here to the sacred months, and to the weekly holy day.最後,必須提到這裡的神聖個月,每週神聖的一天。 The Arabs had a year of twelve lunar months, and this, as often as seemed necessary, they brought roughly into accordance with the solar year by the intercalation of a thirteenth month.阿拉伯人有一年的農曆12個月,這一點,經常似乎有必要,他們將大致分為根據太陽一年間的十三分之一個月。 The Mohammedan year, however, has a mean duration of 354 days, and is ten or eleven days shorter than the solar year, and Mohammedan festivals, accordingly, move in succession through all the seasons.今年的伊斯蘭教然而,平均期限354天,是10或11天短於太陽能一年,伊斯蘭教的節日,因此,此舉在繼承所有的季節。

The Mohammedan Era begins with the Hegira, which is assumed to have taken place on the 16th day of July, AD 622.在穆罕默德時代開始的Hegira ,這是假設發生了16天的7月,公元622 。 To find what year of the Christian Era (AD) is represented by a given year of the Mohammedan Era (AH), the rule is: Subtract from the Mohammedan date the product of three times the last completed number of centuries, and add 621 to the remainder.為了找到哪一年的基督教時代( AD )的是由某一年份的穆罕默德時代( AH )的,規則是:減從穆罕默德日期的產品的3倍去年完成數百年來,並新增621到其餘的。 (This rule, however, gives an exact result only for the first day of a Mohammedan century. Thus, eg, the first day of the fourteenth century came in the course of the year of Our Lord 1883.) The first, seven, eleventh and twelfth months of the Mohammedan year are sacred; during these months it is not lawful to wage war. (這條規則,但是,給出了一個確切的結果只有第一天的穆罕默德世紀。因此,例如,第一天來到14世紀的過程中的一年我們的主1883年。 )第一,七,第十一屆和第十二個月的穆罕默德今年是神聖的;在這幾個月是不合法發動戰爭。 The twelfth month is consecrated to the annual pilgrimage to Mecca, and, in order to protect pilgrims, the preceding (eleventh) month and the following (first of the new year) are also inviolable.第十二屆每月神聖年度麥加朝聖,並以保護朝聖者,前(第十一屆)一個月以下(首先是新的一年裡)也不可侵犯。 The seventh month is reserved for the fast which Mohammed substituted for a month (the ninth) devoted by the Arabs in pre-Islamic times to excessive eating and drinking.第7個月是保留給迅速,而穆罕默德取代了一個月(第九屆)由專門的阿拉伯人前伊斯蘭時代的過度飲食。 Mohammed selected Friday as the sacred day of the week, and several fanciful reasons are adduced by the Prophet himself and by his followers for the selection; the most probable motive was the desire to have a holy day different from that of the Jews and that of the Christians. It is certain, however, that Friday was a day of solemn gatherings and public festivities among the pre-Islamic Arabs.穆罕默德選定的星期五作為神聖的一天,一周,一些幻想的理由是所引證的先知本人和他的追隨者所為遴選;最有可能的動機是希望有一個神聖的一天不同於猶太人和基督徒。這是肯定的,但是,週五一天的莊嚴集會和市民之間的節日前伊斯蘭阿拉伯人。 Abstinence from work is not enjoined on Friday, but it is commanded that public prayers and worship must be performed on that day.禁慾的工作還沒有責成上週五,但它是指揮,公共祈禱和禮拜必須履行的那一天。 Another custom dating from antiquity and still universally observed by all Mohammedans, although not explicitly enjoined in the Koran, is circumcision. It is looked upon as a semi-religious practice, and its performance is preceded and accompanied by great festivities.另一種習俗可追溯到古代,仍然普遍遵守所有伊斯蘭教,雖然沒有明文禁止的古蘭經,是割禮。它看成一種半宗教習俗,其性能之前,並伴隨巨大的慶祝活動。

In matters political Islam is a system of despotism at home and aggression abroad.在問題的政治伊斯蘭教是一個專制制度在國內和國外的侵略。 The Prophet commanded absolute submission to the imâm.先知指揮絕對提交的伊瑪目。 In no case was the sword to be raised against him.在任何情況下,劍是要對他提出的。 The rights of non-Moslem subjects are of the vaguest and most limited kind, and a religious war is a sacred duty whenever there is a chance of success against the "Infidel".權利的非穆斯林科目的模糊和最有限的實物,一場宗教戰爭是神聖的職責只要有成功的機會對“異教徒” 。 Medieval and modern Mohammedan, especially Turkish, persecutions of both Jews and Christians are perhaps the best illustration of this fanatical religious and political spirit.中世紀和現代伊斯蘭教,尤其是土耳其,迫害的猶太人和基督徒,也許是最好的說明了這狂熱的宗教和政治的精神。

Publication information Written by Gabriel Oussani.出版信息撰稿加布里埃爾Oussani 。 Transcribed by Michael T. Barrett.轉錄由邁克爾巴雷特。 Dedicated to the Poor Souls in Purgatory The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume X. Published 1911.致力於扶貧的靈魂在煉獄的天主教百科全書,卷十, 1911年發布。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1911. Nihil Obstat , 1911年10月1日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.雷米Lafort ,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York認可。 +約翰法利樞機主教,大主教紐約


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Jewish Viewpoint Information 猶太觀資料

Arabic word denoting "submission to God"; the name given to the religion of Mohammed and to the practises connected therewith.阿拉伯語單詞,意指“提交給上帝” ;的名字給穆罕默德的宗教和習俗相關。 This religion was preached first to Mohammed's follow citizens in Mecca, then to all Arabia; and soon after his death it was spread to distant lands by the might of the sword.這是宣揚宗教首先穆罕默德的後續公民在麥加,然後向所有阿拉伯; ,並很快去世後有人蔓延到遙遠的國度的可能的劍。 Its followers are called "Moslems" (Arabic,"Muslimin").其追隨者被稱為“穆斯林” (阿拉伯語, “穆斯林” ) 。 The word "Islam" represents the infinitive, the noun of action, of the factitive stem of the Arabic root "salam," and is rightly compared (Zunz, "Literaturgesch." p. 641; comp. Steinschneider, "Polemische und Apologetische Literatur," p. 266, note 56) with the use of the "hif'il" of "shalam" in later Hebrew; eg, Pesiḳ.這個詞“伊斯蘭”是不定式,名詞的行動,在製作幹的阿拉伯文根“薩拉姆” ,是正確的比較( Zunz , “ Literaturgesch 。 ”頁641 ;補償。 Steinschneider , “ Polemische與Apologetische文學“第266頁,注56 )與使用” hif'il “的” shalam “在以後的希伯來文;例如, Pesiḳ 。 125a ("mushlam"); Tan., ed. 125a ( “ mushlam ” ) ;譚。主編。 Buber, Gen. p.布伯,將軍頁 46 ib. 46 123 。 (where "hishlim" is used of proselytes). (其中“ hishlim ”是用來對proselytes ) 。

Motive Principles.動機原則。

The preaching of Mohammed as the messenger of God ("rasul Allah"; See Mohammed) owed its origin to the prophet's firm conviction of the approach of the Day of Judgment ("Yaum al-Din") and to his thorough belief in monotheism.在宣講穆罕默德作為上帝的使者( “拉蘇勒安拉” ;見穆罕默德)欠其原產地為先知的堅定信念的方針審判日( “ Yaum al - Din的” )和他的徹底的信仰一神教。 The former was primarily a reaction against the conduct of the Meccan aristocracy of his time, which in his eyes was sensual, avaricious, proud, oppressive, and wholly indifferent to things spiritual; the latter was a protest against the polytheistic traditions of the Arabs.前者主要是針對反應進行的Meccan貴族的時間,而他的眼睛是感性,貪婪,驕傲,壓迫,並完全無動於衷精神的東西,後者是一種抗議多神教傳統的阿拉伯人。 Mohammed was led to both through Jewish and Christian influences, to which he was subjected in his immediate surroundings as well as during the commercial journeys undertaken by him in his youth.穆罕默德是導致通過猶太教和基督教的影響,這是他受到他的周圍環境以及在開展商業旅行他在青年。 Only in the second period of his activity, after the Hegira-the departure of himself and his most faithful followers to Medina (formerly Yathrib) in 622-did he undertake a practical organization of his prophetic work, and, by making concrete laws, give a definite form to the general religious feelingwhich had been aroused by his preaching.只有在第二階段的活動後, Hegira ,離開他和他的最忠實追隨者梅迪納(原Yathrib )在622他進行切實可行的安排他的預言工作,並提出具體的法律,使一個明確的形式一般宗教feelingwhich引起了他的說教。 These laws dealt both with social relations and with religious worship.這些法律既涉及社會關係和宗教崇拜。 It was only then that the religious tendency which had arisen out of a reaction against the heathenism of Arabia took on the form of a real, positive institution.這是只有到那時,宗教的傾向已經出現了一種反應對異教的沙特阿拉伯採取的形式一個真正的,積極的機構。

Mohammed's conception of his own calling and the fate which his efforts had to endure at the hands of the infidels ("kafir"= "kofer") appeared to his mind as a reflection of the prophets of the Bible, whose number he increased by a few characters (eg, Hud and Ṣaliḥ) borrowed from an old tradition (see Jubilees, Book of).穆罕默德的概念,要求自己的命運和他的努力不得不忍受之手異教徒( “卡佛爾族” = “ kofer ” )似乎他心裡反映了先知的聖經,他的數目增加了幾個字符(例如,平視顯示器和薩利赫)借用一個古老的傳統(見Jubilees ,圖書) 。 The persecutions which were suffered at the hands of their fellow citizens by those whose work he had now taken up were repeated in his own career.其中的迫害遭受的手中他們的同胞的那些工作,他現在已經採取了多次在自己的職業生涯。 There was the same obstinate refusal, the same appeal to ancestral traditions, the resigning of which for the sake of a Godsent message heathen nations had ever opposed.有相同的頑固拒絕,同樣的呼籲祖先的傳統,其中辭職是為了一個Godsent訊息異教徒國家曾經反對。 In the conduct of the Meccans toward Mohammed were repeated the actions of earlier peoples toward the messengers and prophets sent from time to time by Allah to mankind.在開展對穆罕默德Meccans重複的行動較早人民對使者和先知發出不時由真主給人類。 Mohammed himself was the last link in the prophetic chain; the conclusion, the "seal of the prophets" ("khatam al-anbiya'"; comp. parallels in "JQR" xiv. 725, note 5).穆罕默德本人的最後一個環節中的預言鏈;的結論, “印章的先知” ( “ khatam基地, anbiya ' ” ;補償。平行“ JQR ”十四。 725 ,注5 ) 。

Relation to Predecessors.前人的關係。

In reality this confession or practise which he sought to establish was nothing new: it was only a restoration of the ancient religion of Ibrahim, to which God had called him (Mohammed) through the medium of Gabriel, the angel of revelation, whom he identified with the Holy Ghost.在現實中這一招供或執業,他試圖建立沒有新:這只是一個恢復古老的宗教易卜拉欣,而上帝叫他(穆罕默德)通過媒介的加布里埃爾,天使的啟示,他發現與聖靈。 He claimed that he was to continue the mission of the earlier prophets from Adam to Jesus, and demanded for all of them faith and recognition; he would have their revealed books recognized as Holy Scriptures, viz., the Torah ("Taurat"), the Psalms ("Zabur"), and the Gospel ("Injil").他聲稱,他將繼續的使命早些時候從亞當先知耶穌,並要求所有這些信仰和識別;他將自己發現的書籍公認的聖經,即。的律法( “ Taurat ” ) ,的詩篇( “ Zabur ” ) ,並福音( “ Injil ” ) 。 In addition, certain other prophets had written the will of God on rolls.此外,其他一些先知寫了上帝的意志的名冊。 As to his personal valuation, he made the most modest demands: he did not wish to be regarded as being above the sphere of humanity; he was only a man, of the same flesh and blood as those to whom his speech was directed; and he even declined with consistent firmness the suggestion to perform miracles, the one and only miracle being God's inimitable, unsurpassable word ("ḳur'an"), as the instrument of which he was called by God.至於他個人的價值,他最保守的要求:他不希望被視為上述領域的人類,他只是一個人,同樣的血肉因為這些人的講話是針對;和他甚至拒絕與一致的堅定性的建議創造奇蹟,一個奇蹟,只有被上帝的獨特的,無法超越字( “ ḳur'an ” ) ,作為文書他是所謂的上帝。 Hence he emphatically denied the claims which Christianity made in regard to the character of its founder-a character which he held to be in contradiction not only to that of a prophet sent by God, but also to that of the transcendental monotheism which he (Mohammed) preached: "He is Allah, one alone; he begets not, and is not born; and no one equals him in power" (sura cxii.).因此,他斷然否認了這種說法的索賠基督教方面取得的特徵,其創始人,性格舉行,他將在矛盾不僅是一個先知上帝派來的,而且是超越一神教他(穆罕默德)講道: “他是真主,一個獨自;他帶來不,是不是天生的; ,沒有一等於他的力量” (蘇拉cxii 。 ) 。

Since he claimed to be a restorer of the ancient, pure religion revealed to Abraham, he connected his teaching with that of the Holy Scriptures of the Jews and Christians, of whose contents, however, he had in many particulars only a very imperfect knowledge-his teachers having been monks or half-educated Jews-and this knowledge he often repeated in a confused and perverted fashion.由於他自稱是恢復古代的,純粹的宗教亞伯拉罕透露,他與他的教學與聖經的猶太人和基督徒,他們的內容,然而,他在許多細節只有極不完善的知識他的老師了僧侶或半受過教育的猶太人和這方面的知識,他經常反复的混亂和扭曲的時尚。 What he received from the Jews was mixed with haggadic elements current orally among Arabian Jews or existing in written form [-probably preserved in Ethiopic translations of Hebrew pseudepigraphic writings.-K.]; and his conception of Christian teachings was sometimes that of the heretical sects (Collyridians, Docetæ) scattered throughout the Orient, and not recognized in the canonical doctrines of Christianity.他收到了猶太人是混合haggadic要素之間目前的口頭阿拉伯猶太人的或現有的以書面形式[ -可能保存在埃塞俄比亞的希伯來文翻譯pseudepigraphic writings. - K表。 ] ;和他的概念,基督教的教義,有時是邪教教派( Collyridians , Docetæ )分佈在整個東方,而不是公認的典型理論的基督教。 As has recently been shown, Mohammed himself not only borrowed from Jews and Christians, but was influenced also by Parseeism, with the professors of which ("majus," "magian") he came into direct contact (I. Goldziher, "Islamisme et Parsisme," in "Actes du ler Congrès Internat. d'Histoire des Religions," i. 119-147, Paris, 1901).由於最近已表明,穆罕默德本人不但借來從猶太人和基督徒,但也受到影響Parseeism ,與其中教授( “草” , “ magian ” ) ,他直接接觸到(一Goldziher , “ Islamisme等Parsisme , “中的”行為都勒會議中心Internat 。德宗教史, “島119-147 ,巴黎, 1901年) 。

The Koran.可蘭經。

The first and most ancient document of Islam is naturally the Koran ("Proclamation"), which, containing God's revelations to Mohammed, forms the foundation of his religion.第一和最古老的文件自然是伊斯蘭教可蘭經( “公告” ) ,其中載有上帝的啟示,以穆罕默德,形式的基礎,他的宗教。 The doctrine of faith and practise preached by Mohammed is unfolded gradually with the succession of stages in the growth of the Koran.該學說的信仰和實踐所宣揚的穆罕默德是逐步展開的繼承階段的增長可蘭經。 In the first period of his activity (at Mecca) he was occupied chiefly with his inspirations in regard to the truths of the faith, the monotheistic idea, the divine judgment, and his prophetic calling.在第一期的活動(在麥加) ,他是被佔領的主要是他的靈感是關於真理的信仰,一神教的想法,神聖的判決,並要求他的預言。 The monotheistic conception of God, which he opposes to Arabian heathendom, agrees in substance with that of the Old Testament; he emphasizes, however, as Nöldeke has pointed out, "more the universal power and the unhindered free will of God than His holiness." Mohammed connects the idea of omnipotence with the attribute of mercy, which forms an essential element in the exercise of God's omnipotence and which is expressed in the name for God taken from the mother religion, "al-Raḥman" ("Raḥmana"), usually joined with "al-Raḥim" (="the Compassionate").一神教觀念的上帝,他反對阿拉伯heathendom ,同意在實質內容與舊約;他強調,但是,由於Nöldeke指出, “更多的普遍力量和不受阻礙地自由意願的老天爺比陛下。 “穆罕默德連接的想法無所不能的屬性與憐憫,形成一個基本要素在行使上帝的無所不能,並表示這是在為上帝的名字取自母親的宗教, ”拉赫曼“ ( ” Raḥmana “ ) ,通常是同“基地拉希姆” ( = “的憐憫” ) 。 The formulation of the social and ritualistic laws was revealed to him principally after the Hegira, during his sojourn in Medina; while the most essential elements of the ritual ordinances had been evolved during the Meccan period.制定社會和老一套的法律發現他的主要Hegira後,在他逗留在梅迪納,而最重要的組成部分儀式條例已形成在Meccan時期。 In Medina he had counted much on the support of the influential Jews, by whom he expected to be regarded as the final messenger of God promised in the Scriptures.在梅迪納,他算很大的支持,有影響力的猶太人,由他預計將被視為最後的上帝的使者中承諾的聖經。 He accordingly at first made them various concessions.因此,他首先使他們的各種優惠。 He pointed to Jerusalem as the direction ("ḳiblah") toward which they should turn when praying, and he established the tenth day of the first lunar month ('Ashura) as the great annual fast-day.他指出,耶路撒冷的方向( “ ḳiblah ” )對他們應該把祈禱時,他成立了第十天的農曆正月( '阿修羅) ,作為偉大的年度快一天。 The prohibition against eating swine's flesh was also taken from Judaism, and, like that against drinking wine, was accepted, since it was difficult in those days for Arabs to procure that beverage; whereas the adoption of the Biblical prohibition against camel's flesh would have encountered great opposition, because such meat formed an integral part of the national food (Fränkel, "Aramäische Fremdwörter im Arabischen," iii.).禁止吃豬的肉也從猶太教,和一樣,對飲用葡萄酒,被接受,因為它是很難在那些日子裡的阿拉伯人採購的飲料;而通過聖經禁止駱駝的肉會遇到偉大的反對,因為這種肉類的一個組成部分國家糧食(弗蘭克爾, “ Aramäische Fremdwörter免疫Arabischen , ”三。 ) 。 Circumcision, a custom preserved from old Arabian heathendom, does not possess in Islam the fundamental character peculiar to it among the Jews.割禮,自定義保存從舊的阿拉伯heathendom ,不具備在伊斯蘭教的基本特徵,以它特有的猶太人。

Opposition to Judaism.反對猶太教。

In view, however, of the obstinate opposition maintained by the Jews, Mohammed soon annulled some of these concessions.鑑於然而,頑固的反對派保持的猶太人,穆罕默德盡快取消一些讓步。 The ḳiblah was directedtoward Mecca (sura ii. 136); the month Ramaḍan became the great period of fasting, in place of the tenth day of the first month; and in other cases also he opposed some of the principal details of Jewish practise.該ḳiblah是directedtoward麥加(蘇拉二。 136 ) ;月份齋月成為偉大的禁食期間,在十一天的第一個月,而在其他情況下,他也反對一些主要細節的猶太執業。 He set aside the restrictions of the dietary laws (retaining only those in regard to swine's flesh and animals which die a natural death or are offered as heathen sacrifices); and he protested against the Jewish conception and observation of the Sabbath.他擱置限制飲食法(只保留那些關於豬的肉和動物壽終正寢,或作為不信教的犧牲) ;和他抗議猶太觀念和觀察的安息日。 Instead of the day of rest in commemoration of God's resting, he appointed Friday ("Jum'ah") as a day of assembly for divine worship ("Die Sabbath-Institution in Islam," in "Kaufmann Gedenkbuch," pp. 86-101).相反的休息日,以紀念上帝的休息,他任命星期五( “ Jum'ah ” )作為一天的大會神聖的崇拜( “模具安息日,在伊斯蘭教協會” ,在“考夫曼Gedenkbuch , ”頁。 86 - 101 ) 。 In the abolition of such Biblical ordinances he laid down the principle of Abrogation which forms the basis of Islamic theology.在廢除這種聖經條例,他放下的原則,廢除這些形式的基礎上的伊斯蘭神學。

Institutions of Islam.機構伊斯蘭教。

The fundamental obligations of Islam, called "pillars of religion," in their most complete systematic form are five in number:的基本義務伊斯蘭教,所謂的“宗教支柱” ,在其最完整系統的形式有五個在號碼:

(1) The "shahadah," the confession of faith: "There is no God but Allah; and Mohammed is his apostle." ( 1 ) “ shahadah , ”坦白的信念: “有沒有真主,阿拉和穆罕默德是他的門徒。 ” This twofold confession ("kalimata al-shahadah") is amplified into the following creed: "I believe in Allah, in his angels, in his [revealed] Scriptures, in his Prophets, in the future life, in the divine decree [in respect to] the good as well as [to] the bad, and in the resurrection of the dead."這雙重的自白( “ kalimata基地, shahadah ” )是擴增到下面的信條是: “我相信真主,在他的天使,在他的[顯示]聖經,在他的預言,在未來的生活中,神聖的法令[中關於]的良好以及[向]壞,並在復活的死了。 “

(2) "Ṣalat" (divine worship), to be performed five times a day; viz., at noon ("ẓuhr"), in the afternoon ("'aṣr"), in the evening ("maghrib"), at the approach of night ("'isha'"), and in the morning between dawn and sunrise ("ṣubḥ"). ( 2 ) “禮拜” (神的崇拜) ,將進行5次一天;即。 ,中午12時( “ ẓuhr ” ) ,在下午( “ '的ASR ” ) ,在傍晚( “馬格里布” ) ,在該辦法的夜晚( “宵” ) ,並在今天上午的黎明和日出( “ ṣubḥ ” ) 。 The institution of these five times of prayer developed gradually; to the three daily prayers which Mohammed himself appointed after the Jewish pattern were soon added the other two, in imitation of the five "gah" of the Parsees.該機構的5次禱告逐步發展;三個每天祈禱它自己任命穆罕默德後,猶太人的模式很快就增加了其他兩個,在仿製的五個“加赫”的Parsees 。

(3) "Zakat," the levying of an annual property-tax on all property, the sum coming into the state treasury from this source to be used for the public and humanitarian objects enumerated in the Koran (sura ix. 60). ( 3 ) “慈善” ,徵收的年度物業稅的所有財產,總結進入國庫這一來源,用於公共和人道主義物品中所列的可蘭經(蘇拉九。 60 ) 。

(4) "Al-ṣiyam" (= Hebr. "ẓom"), fasting from morning till evening every day during the month Ramaḍan (the severity of this law was lightened by certain indulgences). ( 4 ) “基地ṣiyam ” ( = Hebr 。 “ ẓom ” ) ,空腹從從早到晚每天晚上月份期間,齋月(嚴重性的這項法律是減輕某些indulgences ) 。

(5) "Al-ḥajj" (the pilgrimage) to Mecca, imposed on every one for whom the performance of this duty is possible. ( 5 ) “基地哈吉” (朝覲)麥加朝覲,對每一個人的表現這一義務是有可能的。 The ceremonies incident to this pilgrimage Mohammed preserved from the traditional practises followed during the period of heathendom, although he reformed and reinterpreted them in a monotheistic sense (C. Snouck Hurgronje, "Het Mekkaansche Feest," Leyden, 1880).紀念儀式在這一事件朝聖穆罕默德保存的傳統習俗其次期間heathendom ,儘管他改革和重新在一個一神教意義(角Snouck Hurgronje , “黑Mekkaansche Feest ” ,萊頓, 1880年) 。 Dozy's theory, based on I Chron.想睡的理論,基於I慢性。 iv.四。 39-43 (see his "De Israelieten te Mekka," Haarlem, 1864; German transl., Leipsic, 1864), that the pilgrimage ceremonies of olden times in Mecca were instituted by Israelites, more particularly by Simeonites who had been scattered thither, and that even the nomenclature of the rites may be etymologically explained from the Hebrew, has found little favor (comp. Geiger, "Jüd. Zeit." iv. 281; "ZDMG" xix. 330). 39-43 (見他的“德Israelieten德Mekka , ”哈萊姆, 1864年;德國譯。 , Leipsic , 1864年) ,即朝聖儀式的古代人在麥加所建立猶太人,尤其是由Simeonites誰已分散到那裡,和,甚至命名儀式可etymologically解釋從希伯來文,發現很少有( comp.蓋格, “珠德。時代。 ”四。 281 “ ; ZDMG ”十九。 330 ) 。

In addition to the religious duties imposed upon each individual professing Islam, the collective duty of the "jihad" (= "fighting against infidels") is imposed on the community, as represented by the commander of the faithful.除了宗教義務強加於每個人信奉伊斯蘭教,集體責任“聖戰” ( = “打擊異教徒” )是對社會,所代表的指揮官的忠誠。 Mohammed claimed for his religion that it was to be the common property of all mankind, just as he himself, who at first appeared as a prophet of the Arabs, ended by proclaiming himself the prophet of a universal religion, the messenger of God to all humanity, or, as tradition has it, "ila al-aḥmar wal-aswad" (to the red and the black).穆罕默德聲稱他的宗教,它是共同財產全人類的事業,就像他自己,誰第一次出現在作為一個先知的阿拉伯人,宣布結束自己先知的普遍宗教,上帝的信使向所有人類,或者作為它的傳統, “伊拉基地阿赫馬爾沃爾瑪艾斯沃德” (以紅色和黑色) 。 For this reason unbelief must be fought with the force of weapons, in order that "God's word may be raised to the highest place."出於這個原因不信教必須與作戰部隊的武器,以便“上帝的話可能會提高到最高的地方。 ” Through the refusal to accept Islam, idolaters have forfeited their lives.通過拒絕接受伊斯蘭教,偶像崇拜者已喪失了生命。 Those "who possess Scriptures" ("ahl al-kitab"), in which category are included Jews, Christians, Magians, and Sabians, may be tolerated on their paying tribute ("jizyah") and recognizing the political supremacy of Islam (sura ix. 29). The state law of Islam has accordingly divided the world into two categories: the territory of Islam ("dar al-Islam") and the territory of war.這些“誰擁有聖經” ( “教派基地,基塔” ) ,其中包括類猶太人,基督教徒,襖教徒,並Sabians ,可能會容忍他們致敬( “ jizyah ” ) ,並認識到政治至高無上的伊斯蘭教(蘇拉九。 29 ) 。 國家法律的伊斯蘭教因此將世界分為兩類:境內的伊斯蘭教( “達爾伊斯蘭組織” )和領土的戰爭。 ("dar al-ḥarb"), ie, territory against which it is the duty of the commander of the faithful ("amir al-mu'minin") to lead the community in the jihad. For the exercise of the ritual duties certain ceremonies are appointed (eg, the preliminary ablutions and the definite number of bows and prostrations in the case of the ṣalat), the forms of which were, however, still variable during the first century of Islam. ( “出版社,港” ) ,即領土對其中的責任是指揮官的忠實( “阿米爾基地, mu'minin ” ) ,以引導社會的聖戰。為行使職責的某些儀式任命儀式(例如,浴室,並初步定人數的弓箭和prostrations的情況禮拜) ,各種形式的其中然而,變數仍然在第一世紀的伊斯蘭教。 The early dispersion of the Moslems into distant lands, in which they conducted wars of conquest, made it difficult to establish a fixed practise.早期分散的穆斯林到遙遠的國度,他們進行征服戰爭,很難建立一個固定的執業。 The most varying opinions arose concerning the regulations which the prophet had ordained in regard to these forms and the manner in which he had himself performed the ceremonies-in a word, concerning what was the "sunna" (traditional custom) in these matters.最不同的看法是關於規章先知了祝對這些形式和以何種方式,他本人完成了儀式的一個詞,關於什麼是“空” (傳統習俗)在這些問題上。 The claim as to the validity of each opinion was based on some alleged report ("ḥadith") either of a decree or of a practise of the prophet or of his companions ("aṣḥab").索賠是有效的每一個觀點是基於一些所謂的報告( “聖訓” )的任何一項法令或執業先知或他的同伴( “阿沙卜” ) 。 In regard to these questions of detail, as indeed in regard to questions of law in general-which latter embraces both jurisprudence and matters of ritual-it was only in the second century after the establishment of Islam that fixed rules were adopted.關於這些問題的細節,因為事實上,在關於法律問題的普通而後者包括兩個判例和事項的儀式,只是在第二世紀成立後,伊斯蘭教,固定的規則獲得通過。 These were founded partly on what was recognized as tradition, partly on speculative conclusions, and partly on the generally acknowledged and authenticated consensus of opinion in the community ("ijma'").這些都是建立部分是公認的傳統,部分投機性的結論,部分的普遍承認和認證的共識,認為在社區( “ ijma ” ) 。 These legal regulations were worked up systematically, and furnished material for the activity of those theological schools in which was developed the Mohammedan law that to-day is still recognized as authoritative.這些法律法規的工作了系統,並提供材料的活動,這些神學院是在發達國家的伊斯蘭教法,今天仍然是公認的權威性。

The study of law is one of the most important of Mohammedan sciences, "fiḳh" (lit. "reasonableness" ="juris prudentia"; Hebr. "ḥokmah").這項研究的法律是一個最重要的伊斯蘭教科學, “ fiḳh ” ( lit. “合理性” = “法律prudentia ” ; Hebr 。 “ ḥokmah ” ) 。 Its students are the "fuḳaha" (sing. "faḳih"; ie, "prudentes" ="ḥakamim").學生是“ fuḳaha ” ( sing. “ faḳih ” ,即“ prudentes ” = “ ḥakamim ” ) 。 On the development of this science Roman and Talmudic law, especially the former, has exercised a great influence.在發展這一科學羅馬和猶太法典的法律,尤其是前者,已經行使了重大影響。 The studies of the oldest law schools have led to different results in the regulation of many details of the law according to the varying application of the data and of the fundamental principles.研究歷史最悠久的法律學校,導致不同的結果在規定的許多細節的法律根據不同應用的數據和基本原則。 Hence arose the differencesin the ritualistic practises and in the verdicts of the various legal sects ("madhahib") of Islam.因此產生的differencesin老一套做法,並在判決中的各種法律教派( “ madhahib ” )的伊斯蘭教。 Many of these sects have since disappeared; but the Hanafites, the Shafiites, the Malikites, and the Hanfalites have survived to the present day, and are distributed over large tracts of the extensive Islamic world.許多這些教派已經消失;但Hanafites的Shafiites的Malikites ,並Hanfalites生存至今,而且分佈著大片的廣泛的伊斯蘭世界。


By far the largest sect is that of the Hanafites, founded in the school of the Imam Abu Ḥanifah (d. 150 AH=767 CE); it predominates in Turkey, in middle Asia, and in India.迄今為止最大的節是在Hanafites ,成立於學校的伊瑪目阿布Ḥanifah (草150的AH = 767 CE認證) ;它佔主導地位的土耳其,中亞和印度。 The Shafiites, named after the Imam Al-Shafi'i (d. 204=819), prevail in Egypt, southern Arabia, the Dutch colonies, and in German East-African territory.該Shafiites ,命名後的伊瑪目鋁沙菲儀(草204 = 819 ) ,盛行於埃及,沙特阿拉伯南部,荷蘭的殖民地,並在德國東部非洲的領土。 The Malikites, named after Malik ibn Anas, the great Imam of Medina (d. 179=795), include those who profess Islam in northern Africa and some in Upper Egypt.該Malikites命名,馬利克本鴨,偉大的伊瑪目梅迪納(草179 = 795 ) ,包括那些信奉伊斯蘭教誰在北部非洲和一些在上埃及。 The Hanbalites, distinguished for their rigor and intolerance, and for a strict adherence to tradition, are named after the Imam Aḥmad ibn Ḥanbal (d. 241=855). This sect suffered a serious decline after the fifteenth century; but it revived in the eighteenth century in the Wahabite movement of central Arabia, where the general adoption of its point of view led to the foundation of the Wahabitic dynasty.該Hanbalites ,尊敬他們的嚴謹和不容忍,並嚴格遵守傳統,被命名後的伊瑪目艾哈邁德本Ḥanbal (草241 = 855 ) 。此節遭受了嚴重衰退後的15世紀,但它在恢復十八世紀的Wahabite運動中央沙特阿拉伯,在那裡一般通過其觀點導致的基礎Wahabitic王朝。 These four sects stand on the common basis of the sunna.這四個教派立場的共同基礎的空。

The Mohammedan schismatic movement was in origin not religious, but political.在伊斯蘭教分裂運動的起源不是宗教,而是政治問題。 Its central point is the question as to the rightful successor to the prophet in the government of the Islamic community. While the Sunnites recognize the right of election to the califate, the Shiites refuse to accept the historical facts, and recognize as legitimate rulers and successors ("khalifah") to the prophet only his direct blood relations and descendants in the line of his daughter Fatima, the wife of Ali.其核心的一點是這個問題,以合法的繼承先知在政府的伊斯蘭社會。雖然遜尼派承認的權利,當選為califate ,什葉派穆斯林拒絕接受歷史事實,並承認為合法的統治者和接班人( “哈利法” )的先知只有他的直接血緣關係和後代的路線他的女兒法蒂瑪的妻子阿里。 But they are again divided among themselves according to which branch of the prophet's descendants they recognize.但是,他們又分成彼此根據該部門的先知的後裔,他們承認。 The Shiitic High Church, represented by the sect of the Ithna-ashariyyah (="Twelvers"), also called "Imamites," derive the legitimate succession in the califate (they prefer the term "Imam" to "Khalifah") from Ali, and transmit it from father to son until the twelfth Imam, Mohammed b.該Shiitic高級教會,出席了該教派的Ithna - ashariyyah ( = “ Twelvers ” ) ,也被稱為“ Imamites ” ,獲得合法繼承中califate (他們喜歡的“伊瑪目”到“哈利法” )由阿里,並轉交由父親傳給兒子,直到第十二伊瑪目穆罕默德灣 Ḥasan al-'Askari.哈桑- 'Askari 。 This Mohammed is said to have disappeared mysteriously in the year 266 AH (=879 CE), when he was but eight years old; and the "Twelvers" hold that since then he has lived in concealment, and will appear again at the last day as Imam Mahdi.這是穆罕默德說,有神秘失踪在今年266的AH ( = 879行政長官) ,當時他,但8歲;和“ Twelvers ”認為,自那時以來,他一直住在隱瞞,並且將再次出現在最後一天作為伊瑪目馬赫迪。 Another branch of the Shiites, the so-called "Isma'iliyyah," known in history as "the Fatimites," founded a dynasty which was powerful for some time in North Africa and in Egypt (909-1171 CE).另一支什葉派,所謂的“ Isma'iliyyah , ”在歷史上著名的“ Fatimites ” ,成立了王朝是強大的一段時間在北非和埃及( 909-1171 CE認證) 。 As a result of the veneration paid by the Shiites to the family of Ali and Fatima (belief in the infallibility of the Imams is obligatory on all Shiites), doctrines of incarnation have sprung up within these sects, which join to the theory of the legitimate imamate the belief that the possessor of this dignity becomes super human; and this belief is even carried to the point of recognizing the existence of "God-men."由於崇拜支付的什葉派穆斯林家庭的阿里和法蒂瑪(相信犯錯誤的伊瑪目是強制性對所有什葉派穆斯林) ,理論的化身,湧現出在這些教派,其中加入理論的合法伊斯蘭教長認為,這一擁有尊嚴成為超級大國人;和這個信念甚至進行到了承認存在“上帝的男人。 ”

Liberal Movement in Islam.自由運動在伊斯蘭教。

The Gnostic teachings that have developed in Islam have exercised an influence on its cosmogonic and emanational theories, plainly evidencing the effect of Babylonian and Parsee ideas.在諾斯底教義已制訂了在伊斯蘭教行使影響其cosmogonic和emanational理論,顯然證明效果巴比倫和帕西的想法。 To this day the stunted remains of these old tendencies survive in the Druses, Noṣairians, and the other sects scattered through Persia and Syria; and the history of Islam as well as a not inconsiderable literature bears testimony to the extent of their influence (comp. Dussaud, "Histoire et Religion des Noṣairis," Paris, 1900; Seybold, "Die Drusenschrift 'Das Buch der Punkte und Kreise,'" Tübingen, 1902).為了這一天的阻礙仍然是這些舊的傾向生存Druses , Noṣairians ,和其他宗派的分散通過波斯和敘利亞;和伊斯蘭歷史,以及作為一個不可小視的文獻證明程度的影響( comp. Dussaud , “歷史與宗教之Noṣairis , ”巴黎, 1900年; Seybold , “模具Drusenschrift '達斯書之Punkte與Kreise ” ,蒂賓根大學, 1902年) 。 An acquaintance with the dogmatic movement in Islam and with the sects that have proceeded from it is of great importance for the study of the history of religious philosophy in Judaism, and of its expression in the Jewish literature of the Middle Ages.一個熟人的教條運動的伊斯蘭教和與教派已經從它是非常重要的研究歷史上的宗教哲學,猶太教,和其表達的猶太文學的中世紀。 As early as the second century of Islam, through the influence of Greek philosophy a rationalistic reaction took place in Syria and Mesopotamia against a literal acceptance of several conceptions of orthodox belief.早在第二世紀的伊斯蘭教,通過影響一古希臘哲學理性反應發生在美索不達米亞和敘利亞對字面接受一些觀念正統的信仰。 This reaction touched especially upon the definition of the attributes of God, the doctrine of revelation, and the conceptions of free will and fatalism.這反應感動尤其是對定義的屬性的上帝,理論的啟示和觀念的自由意志和宿命論。 While the strictly orthodox party, represented for the greater part by the followers of Ibn Ḥanbal (see above), clung in all questions to a literal interpretation of the Koran and tradition, the Motazilites introduced a more reasonable religious view, one more in keeping with the essence of monotheism (see Arabic Philosophy).雖然嚴格的正統的黨,代表的較大部分的追隨者本Ḥanbal (見上文) ,堅持在所有問題的字面解釋可蘭經和傳統, Motazilites介紹了一個較為合理的宗教認為,一個更符合本質的一神教(見阿拉伯哲學) 。

Its Spread.其蔓延。

Wholly without parallel in the history of the world was the rapid and victorious spread of Islam, within scarcely a century after the death of its founder, beyond the boundaries of Arabia, over Asia Minor, Syria, Persia, middle Asia to the borders of China, the whole coast of North Africa (ancient Mauritania and Numidia), and Europe as far as Spain.完全沒有平行在世界歷史上是勝利的迅速和傳播伊斯蘭教,在幾乎一個世紀逝世後,其創始人,超越界限的沙特阿拉伯,在小亞細亞,敘利亞,波斯,中亞的邊界中國,整個海岸北非(古代毛里塔尼亞和努米底亞) ,和歐洲而言,西班牙。 It subdued the Sudan as well as India; it flooded the Malayan islands; and it has not yet finished its propaganda among the negroes of Africa, where it is steadily gaining ground. Starting from Zanzibar, it has spread to Mozambique, to the Portuguese colonies on the coast, to the negro tribes of South Africa, and it has even penetrated Madagascar.它制服蘇丹以及印度,它淹沒了馬來亞群島,它尚未完成其宣傳的黑人非洲,在那裡正在穩步取得進展。從桑給巴爾島,它已經蔓延到莫桑比克,葡萄牙的殖民地在沿海,到黑人部落的南非,它甚至侵入馬達加斯加。 Islam is represented in America also, in some of the negroes who have immigrated to the western hemisphere.伊斯蘭教是在美國代表的同時,在一些黑人誰也移民到西半球。 The slight Islamic propaganda of modern times among the Christians of North America is a peculiar one.略有伊斯蘭宣傳現代基督徒之間的北美是一個特殊的一個。 It finds its expression in an English-Mohammedan service, in an Islamic literature, as well as in a newspaper ("The Moslem World").它認為其表達的英文伊斯蘭教服務的,在一個伊斯蘭文獻,以及在一家報紙( “穆斯林世界” ) 。 In England, also, a Mohammedan community has recently been founded (Quilliam; comp. "Islam in America," New York, 1893).在英格蘭,還一個伊斯蘭教界最近已成立( Quilliam ;補償。 “伊斯蘭教在美國, ”紐約, 1893年) 。

The total number of professors of the Mohammedan faith in the world has been variously estimated.總數教授伊斯蘭教的信仰在世界上已不同的估計。 Two computations of modern times should especially be mentioned: that of the Mohammedan scholar Rouhi al-Khalidi, who gives the total number as 282, 225, 420 ("Revue de l'Islam, "1897, No. 21), and that of Hubert Jansen ("Verbreitung des Islams," etc., Friedrichshagen, 1897), whose estimate, in round numbers, is 260,000,000.兩種計算近代應特別提到:即伊斯蘭教學者Rouhi基地主任哈利迪,誰給的總人數為282 , 225 , 420 ( “雜誌伊斯蘭教” , 1897年,第21號) ,而休伯特揚森( “伊斯蘭Verbreitung沙漠”等, Friedrichshagen , 1897年) ,其估計,在第二輪號碼,是2.6億。

Relation to Judaism:猶太教的關係:

In connection with the general sketch given above it is of especial importance from the Jewish standpoint to note the relations between Jews and Mohammedans.In the Koran many a harsh word is spoken against the Jews, probably as the immediate effect of the difficulties which people in Arabia offered to the fulfilment of Mohammed's hopes and of the obstinate refusal with which they met his appeal to them.與一般素描上述這是特別重要的猶太人的角度指出,猶太人之間的關係和Mohammedans.In古蘭經許多嚴厲的詞是表示反對猶太人,也許作為立即生效的困難,使人們在沙特阿拉伯表示願意履行穆罕默德的希望和頑固拒絕與他們會面,他呼籲他們。 They are characterized as those upon whom "God's anger rests" (suras v. 65, lviii. 15, and, according to the traditional exegesis of Mohammedans, i. 7).他們的特點是這些人對“上帝的憤怒在於” ( suras訴65 , lviii 。 15日,根據傳統的註釋的伊斯蘭教島7 ) 。 They are taxed with having a special hatred for the faithful (v. 85); hence friendships with them should not be formed (v. 56).他們是與徵稅有一個特殊的仇恨的忠實(訴85 ) ,因此與他們的友誼不應該形成(訴56 ) 。 This sentiment is presupposed to a still greater degree in the old ḥadith.這種情緒是先決條件,但仍較大程度在舊錄。 It was a general conviction that the Jew who seems to salute a Moslem with the usual salaam greeting, instead of saying the word "salam" (health) says "sam" (death), which has a similar sound.這是一個普遍的信念,即猶太人似乎誰致敬一個穆斯林通常達累斯薩拉姆的問候,而不是說改為“薩拉姆” (衛生)說: “薩姆” (死亡) ,其中也有類似的聲音。 One instance of this is related as having taken place even as early as the time of the prophet (Bukhari, "Isti'dhan," No. 22; idem, "Da'awat," No. 56).一個實例,這是有相關的地方甚至採取儘早的時間先知(布哈里, “ Isti'dhan , ”第22號;同上, “ Da'awat , ”第56號) 。 "Never is a Jew alone with a Moslem without planning how he may kill him" (Jaḥiẓ, "Bayan," i. 165). “絕不是單單一個猶太人與穆斯林沒有規劃如何,他可能會殺了他” ( Jaḥiẓ , “巴彥, ”島165 ) 。 In this way a fanatical rage against the Jews was infused into the minds of the Mohammedans.這樣,狂熱的憤怒反對猶太人被注入心中的伊斯蘭教。 On the last day the faithful will battle with the Jews, whereupon the stones will say to the believers: "Behind me lurks a Jew, oh Moslem! Strike him dead!"在最後一天忠實地將戰場的猶太人,在這種情況下,石頭會說的信徒: “我背後潛伏著一個猶太人,穆斯林哦!攻擊他死了! ” (Musnad Aḥmad, ii. 122, 131, 149; Bukhari, "Jihad," No. 93). ( Musnad艾哈邁德二。 122 , 131 , 149 ;布哈里, “聖戰” ,第93號) 。

Treatment of Jews.治療猶太人。

But, in spite of the continuance of this malevolent disposition in single cases, one gathers from the old literature of Islam the general impression that after the foundation of the Mohammedan community a milder sentiment in respect to the Jews was introduced. Even Mohammed had already proclaimed toleration of the "Ahl al-Kitab" in consideration of their paying a certain tax ("jizyah") into the state treasury; although, to be sure, a certain humiliation for the unbelievers attached to the collection of this tax (sura ix. 29).但是,儘管繼續這項惡意處置單情況下,一個集從舊文學的伊斯蘭教的一般印象是,成立後穆罕默德社會溫和情緒方面的猶太人了。即使穆罕默德已宣布容忍“教派基地,基塔”在考慮其繳納一定的稅( “ jizyah ” )納入國庫;不過,可以肯定,一定屈辱的信教重視收集本稅(蘇拉九。 29 ) 。 In the following generation, under the calif Omar, the details were fixed for the execution of this general law.在下面的一代,在加利福尼亞奧馬爾的細節被固定為執行這一一般規律。 One might say that side by side with the harshness shown by Mohammed and Omar toward the Jews settled in Arabia itself (they were, in fact, all driven out), there existed a more tolerant disposition toward those who were brought under the Mohammedan yoke through the extensive conquests of Islam.人們可以說,並肩與嚴酷表明穆罕默德奧馬爾和對猶太人定居在沙特阿拉伯本身(他們,事實上,所有趕出) ,存在一個更加寬容的處置對那些誰被帶到下通過穆罕默德枷鎖廣泛的征服伊斯蘭教。 This disposition is expressed in many old ḥadiths, of which the following may serve as an illustration: "Whoever wrongs a Christian or a Jew, against him shall I myself appear as accuser on the Judgment Day."這是處置中表達了許多老聖訓,其中以下可作為一個例子: “誰錯一個基督徒或猶太人,對他應我本人作為原告出庭的審判日。 ” A number of current decrees emphasize the duties toward the "mu'ahad" (those with whom a compact has been made to protect them), or the "dhimmi" (those recommended to protection)-such are the names given to the professors of other faiths who are granted protection-and whenever mention is made of protection of the "persecuted," the commentators never omit to add that this is obligatory in regard to Moslems and also in regard to the "ahl al-dimmah."一些現行法令,強調職責對“ mu'ahad ” (那些與緊湊已經取得了保護他們) ,或“ dhimmi ” (這些建議保護)等的名字給教授其他信仰誰給予保護和每當提到了保護“受迫害”的評論員從來沒有忽略補充說,這是強制性的關於穆斯林和在關於“教派基地, dimmah 。 ” It is probable that the influence of the old Arabic conception of the duty of caring for whomsoever the tribe had taken under its protection is to be seen here; according to that conception, difference in religion was not sufficient ground for making an exception (an example of this may be found in "Kitab al-'Aghani," xi. 91).這是可能的影響,舊的觀念阿拉伯文的義務,照顧誰的部落已採取的保護下是在這裡看到,根據該構想,宗教的差異是不夠的理由,使一個例外(例如這可能會發現在“基塔基地, 'Aghani , ”十一。 91 ) 。

Pact of Omar.公約奧馬爾。

In the instructions which Omar gave to the generals as they set forth to spread the supremacy of Islam by the power of the sword, and to the officials to whom he entrusted the administration of the conquered lands, the injunction to respect and guard the religious institutions of the inhabitants of such lands who profess other faiths often occurs; eg, in the directions given to Mu'adh ibn Jabal for Yemen, that no Jew be disturbed in the exercise of his faith ("Baladhuri," ed. De Goeje, p. 71).在奧馬爾指示,給將軍因為他們規定,以傳播伊斯蘭教至上的權力之劍,和官員,他委託的行政征服的土地,該禁令的尊重和保護宗教機構居民的這些土地誰信奉其他宗教經常發生;例如,在指示Mu'adh本山也門,沒有受到干擾的猶太人在行使自己的信仰( “ Baladhuri , ”版。德Goeje ,磷。 71 ) 。 Omar likewise directed that some of the money and food due to the poor from public revenues be given to non-Moslems (ib. p. 129).奧馬爾同樣針對一些錢和食物由於貧窮公立收入給予非穆斯林( ib.第129頁) 。 Characteristic of this attitude toward the Jew is a story-somewhat fabulous, it is true-told of a house in Busrah.這一特徵的態度是一個猶太人的故事,有點驚人,這是事實,告訴了家中Busrah 。 When Omar's governor in this conquered city desired to build a mosque, the site of a Jew's house appeared to him to be suitable for the purpose.當奧馬爾的州長在此想要征服的城市建立了一座清真寺,該網站的一個猶太人的房子看來他是適合作此用途。 In spite of the objections of the owner, he had the dwelling torn down, and built the mosque in its place.儘管有反對意見的人,他的住宅拆除,並修建了清真寺,它的位置。 The outraged Jew went to Medina to tell his grievance to Omar, whom he found wandering among the graves, poorly clad and lost in pious meditation.猶太人的憤怒到麥地講述自己的不平,以奧馬爾,他發現遊蕩的墳墓,穿著很差,失去在虔誠的冥想。 When the calif had heard his complaint, anxious to avoid delay and having no parchment with him, he picked up the jaw-bone of an ass and wrote on it an urgent command to the governor to tear down his mosque and rebuild the house of the Jew.當加利福尼亞已聽到了他的投訴後,急於避免延遲並沒有與他羊皮紙,他拿起了下顎骨的屁股,寫上了一項緊急命令,省長拆掉他的清真寺,重建住宅猶太人。 This spot was still called "the house of the Jew" up to modern times (Porter, "Five Years in Damascus," 2d ed., p. 235, London, 1870).這點還是所謂的“內部的猶太人”到當今時代(波特, “五年大馬士革, ” 2版。 ,第235頁,倫敦, 1870年) 。 To Omar, however, is likewise ascribed the origin of a pact ("'ahd 'Omar"; See Omar) whose provisions were very severe.為了奧馬爾,但也同樣賦予的原產地協議( “ '新紀元'奧馬爾” ;見奧馬爾)的規定是非常嚴重的。

Whatever may be true as to the genuineness of these "pacts" (see in this connection De Goeje, "Mémoire sur la Conquête de la Syrie," p. 142, Leyden, 1900; TW Arnold, "The Preaching of Islam," p. 52), it is certain that not until the science of Mohammedan law had reached its full development in the Fiḳh school and the canonical law had been definitely codified after the second century of the Hegira, was the interconfessional law definitely established.無論如此的真實性,這些“協議” (見在這方面,德Goeje , “備忘錄拉河畔Conquête德拉魯阿敘利亞” ,第142頁,萊頓, 1900 ;荃灣阿諾德說: “宣講伊斯蘭教的” P 。 52歲) ,可以確定的是,直到科學的伊斯蘭教法已經達到了全面發展的Fiḳh學校和規範的法律已明確編纂後,第二個世紀的Hegira ,是絕對interconfessional法律設立。 A chapter dealing with the social and legal position of those "possessing Scriptures" may be found in every Mohammedan legal code. There is a regular gradation in respect to the degree of tolerance granted by the various legal sects ("madhahib").一章,涉及的社會和法律地位的那些“擁有聖經”中可以找到每一個伊斯蘭教的法律準則。有一個層次經常在尊重程度的寬容給予的各種法律教派( “ madhahib ” ) 。 On the whole, the attempt was made in these codes to adhere in theory to the original fundamental laws.整體而言,有人企圖在這些代碼中要堅持理論原來的基本法律。 The adherence was modified, however, by a certain amount of increased rigor, corresponding to the public feeling of the age in which the codes came into existence-that of the Abbassids.堅持修改,但是,一定數額的增加嚴謹,相應的公眾感情的年齡,其中的代碼也開始存在,即拔。 The most intolerant were the followers of Aḥmad ibn Ḥanbal.最不能容忍的追隨者艾哈邁德本Ḥanbal 。 The codification of the laws in question has been given in detail by Goldziher in "Monatsschrift," 1880, pp.編纂的法律問題給予了詳細Goldziher在“月刊” , 1880年,頁。 302-308. 302-308 。

Anti-Jewish Traditions.反猶太人的傳統。

The different tendencies in the codifications are shown in divergences in the decrees attributed to the prophet.不同的傾向在編纂中顯示不同的法令,原因是先知。 While one reads, "Whoever does violence to a dhimmi who has paid his jizyah and evidenced his submission-his enemy I am" ("Usd al-Ghaba," iii. 133), people with fanatical views haveput into the mouth of the prophet such words as these: "Whoever shows a friendly face to a dhimmi is like one who deals me a blow in the side" (Ibn Ḥajar al-Haitami, "Fatawi Ḥadithiyyah," p. 118, Cairo, 1307).雖然有一個內容, “誰不暴力dhimmi誰支付他的jizyah和提交證明自己,他的敵人我” ( “基地美元, Ghaba , ”三。 133 ) ,有狂熱的意見haveput到口的先知這樣的話,因為這些: “誰表明了友好面臨的dhimmi就像是一個誰處理我的打擊,一邊” (本哈傑爾基地, Haitami , “ Fatawi Ḥadithiyyah ” ,第118頁,開羅, 1307年) 。 Or: "The angel Gabriel met the prophet on one occasion, whereupon the latter wished to take his hand. Gabriel, however, drew back, saying: 'Thou hast but just now touched the hand of a Jew.'或: “天使加布里埃爾會見了先知有一次,在這種情況下,後者希望他的手。加布里埃爾然而,後退,說: '你,但你剛才談到的手一個猶太人。 The prophet was required to make his ablutions before he was allowed to take the angel's hand" (Dhahabi, "Mizan al-I'tidal," ii. 232, 275).先知需要,使他的浴室前他被允許採取天使的手“ ( Dhahabi , ”米贊基地, I'tidal , “二。 232 , 275頁) 。 These and similar sayings, however, were repudiated by the Mohammedan ḥadithcritics themselves as false and spurious.這些以及類似的說法,但被否定了伊斯蘭教ḥadithcritics自己是虛假和虛偽的。 They betray the fanatical spirit of the circle in which they originated.他們狂熱的背叛精神的圈子,他們在起源。 Official Islam has even tried to turn away from Jews and Christians the point of whatever malicious maxims have been handed down from ancient times.正式伊斯蘭教甚至企圖背離猶太人和基督徒點什麼惡意的格言已傳世。 An old saying in regard to infidels reads: "If ye meet them in the way, speak not to them and crowd them to the wall."俗話說方面的異教徒寫道: “如果你們他們見面的方式,說話不給他們和人群他們在牆上。 ” When Suhail, who relates this saying of the prophet, was asked whether Jews and Christians were intended, he answered that this command referred to the heathen ("mushrikin"; "Musnad Aḥmad," ii. 262). Under the dominion of the Ommiads the followers of other religious faiths were little disturbed, since it was not in keeping with the worldly policy of those rulers to favor the tendencies of fanatical zealots.當Suhail ,誰涉及這句話的先知,被詢問是否猶太人和基督徒的用意,他回答說,這個命令交給異教徒( “ mushrikin ” ; “ Musnad艾哈邁德, ”二。 262 ) 。統治下的Ommiads追隨者的其他宗教信仰的人很少感到不安,因為這是不符合世俗的政策,這些統治者的趨勢有利於狂熱痴迷者。 Omar II.奧馬爾二。 (717-720) was the only one of this worldly-wise dynasty who trenched upon the equal privileges of unbelievers; and he was under the pietistic influence. ( 717-720 )是唯一一本世故王朝誰trenched的平等特權不信教,他是根據pietistic影響。 Intolerance of infidels and a limitation of their freedom were first made a part of the law during the rule of the Abbassids (see Abbassid Califs), who, to bring about the ruin of their predecessors, had supported theocratic views and granted great influence to the representatives of intolerant creeds (comp. "ZDMG" xxxviii. 679; "REJ" xxx. 6).容忍異教徒和限制他們的自由是首次提出的一部分,在法律規則的拔(見Abbassid Califs ) ,誰,帶來毀滅的前任,曾支持神的意見和給予重大影響的代表容忍信條( comp. “ ZDMG ”三十八。 679 ; “ REJ的” XXX 。 6 ) 。 Under them also the law was introduced compelling Jews to be distinguished by their clothing ("ghiyar"; Abu Yusuf, "Kitab alKharaj," pp. 72-73, Bulak, 1302).根據他們的法律還介紹了令人信服的猶太人加以區分他們的衣服( “ ghiyar ” ;阿布優素福, “基塔alKharaj , ”頁。 72-73 ,布拉克, 1302 ) 。 At a later period such distinguishing marks became frequent in the Mohammedan kingdoms, especially in North Africa, where the badge was known as "shaklah" (Fagnan, "Chroniques des Almohades et des Hafçidcs Attribué à Zerkechi," p., 19, Constantine, 1895).在後一時期這種識別標誌變得頻繁的伊斯蘭教王國,尤其是在北非,那裡的徽章被稱為“ shaklah ” ( Fagnan , “紀事之Almohades等沙漠Hafçidcs Attribué à Zerkechi ” ,山口, 19日,康斯坦丁1895年) 。

Influence of Judaism on Islam.影響猶太教伊斯蘭教。

The debt of Islam to Judaism is not limited to the laws, institutions, doctrines, and traditions which Mohammed himself borrowed from the Jews and incorporated in his revelations (see Koran).債務的伊斯蘭教猶太教並不限於法律,制度,理論,和傳統穆罕默德本人借猶太人,並納入他的啟示(見古蘭經) 。 For its later development, also, Islam made use of much material presented to its teachers through direct association with Jews, through the influence of converted Jews, and through contact with the surrounding Jewish life.其後來的發展,同時,伊斯蘭教使用的大部分材料提交給教師通過直接與猶太人,通過轉換影響的猶太人,並通過與周圍的猶太人的生活。 Many a Jewish tradition has thus crept into Islam and taken an important place there.許多猶太人的傳統就此悄悄進入伊斯蘭教和採取的一個重要的地方有。 It is related that 'Ayisha, the wife of the prophet, owned to having received the idea of the torments of the grave ("'adhab al-ḳabr" = Hebr. "ḥibbuṭ ha-ḳeber") from Jewish women, and that Mohammed incorporated it in his teaching.這是有關這一' Ayisha ,妻子的先知,擁有以收到的想法折磨的嚴重( “ adhab基地, ḳabr ” = Hebr 。 “ ḥibbuṭ公頃,凱伯爾” )由猶太人婦女,穆罕默德把它在他的教學。 Other eschatological details of Judaism served to embellish the original material, much of which goes back to Parsee sources (eg, the leviathan and "shor ha-bar" as food = preserved wine as a drink in paradise; the "luz"="'ujb" out of which men's bodies will be reconstructed at the resurrection, etc.; see Eschatology).其他末世論的細節猶太教起到美化的原始材料,其中大部分可以追溯到帕西來源(例如,龐大的和“短公頃酒吧”糧食=保存葡萄酒作為飲料的天堂;的“盧斯” = “ ' ujb “而進行的男子團體將重建的復活,等等;見末世論) 。 From the very beginning Jews versed in the Scriptures ("ḥabr" [plural, "aḥbar"] =Hebr. "ḥaber") became of great importance in providing such details; and it was from the information thus supplied that the meager skeleton of the teachings of the Koran was built up and clothed.從一開始猶太人精通聖經( “哈卜爾” [複數, “ aḥbar ” ] = Hebr 。 “哈勃” )成為非常重要的提供等細節,它是從這樣的信息提供的微薄的骨架教義古蘭經是建立和衣物。

These aḥbar hold an important position also as sources for information concerning Islam.這些aḥbar舉行一次重要的位置也作為信息來源的關於伊斯蘭教。 It will be sufficient here to refer to the many teachings in the first two centuries of Islam which are recorded under the names Ka'b al-Aḥbar (d. 654) and Wahb ibn Munabbih (d. circa 731).這將足以在這裡提到的許多教義中的前兩個世紀的伊斯蘭教這是記錄下的名字Ka'b基地, Aḥbar (草654 )和Wahb本Munabbih (草大約731 ) 。 In the first place, Islam owes to this source its elaborations of Biblical legends; many of these elaborations are incorporated in the canonical ḥadith works, and still more in the historical books (eg, Ṭabari, vol. i.); and they early developed into an important special literature, a compilation of which is found in a work by Tha'labi (d. 1036) dealing exhaustively with these subjects and entitled "'Ara'is al-Majalis" (frequently printed in Cairo).首先,伊斯蘭教欠這個來源及其闡述聖經的傳說;許多這些闡述納入規範聖訓作品,更在歷史的書籍(例如,塔巴里,第二卷。島) ;和他們早期開發進入一個重要的特殊文獻,彙編,這是中發現的工作Tha'labi (草1036 )詳盡地處理這些問題,題為“ '基地Ara'is - Majalis ” (通常印在開羅) 。 Here belong the many tales current in Islamic legendary literature under the name "Isra-'iliyyat" (= "Jewish narratives"; comp. "REJ" xliv. 63 et seq.).這裡屬於許多故事目前在伊斯蘭傳奇文學的名義“伊斯拉- 'iliyyat ” ( = “猶太人的說明” ;補償。 “ REJ ”四十四。 63起。 ) 。 According to the researches of F. Perles and Victor Chauvin, a large number of the tales in the "Thousand and One Nights" go back to such Jewish sources (see Arabian Nights).據研究樓珍珠和Victor肖,大量的故事,在“一千零一夜”回去等消息猶太人(見一千零一夜) 。

The system of genealogy, so important among the Arabs, connecting early Arabian history with that of the Biblical patriarchs, also goes back to Jewish sources.該系統的家譜,所以重要的阿拉伯人,阿拉伯連接早期歷史與聖經的始祖,也可以追溯到猶太來源。 In particular a Jewish scholar of Palmyra is mentioned who adapted the genealogical tables of the Bible to the demands of Arabic genealogy (comp. references in Goldziher, "Muhammedanische Studien," i. 178, note 2).特別是一個猶太學者巴爾米拉提到誰適應的家譜表聖經的要求阿拉伯文家譜( comp.提到Goldziher , “ Muhammedanische Studien , ”島178 ,注2 ) 。 It was likewise such Jewish converts who offered the material for certain theories hostile to Judaism; for example, the view, not generally accepted by Mohammedans (ib. i. 145), but which is nevertheless very widely spread, that it was Ishmael, not Isaac, who was consecrated as a sacrifice ("dhabiḥ") to God, originates from the teaching of a crafty convert who wished to ingratiate himself with his new associates (Ṭabari, i. 299).同樣,有人這樣猶太人皈依誰提供的材料的某些理論敵視猶太教,例如認為,一般不接受伊斯蘭教( ib.島145 ) ,但仍然是非常廣泛的傳播,這是伊斯梅爾,而不是艾薩克,誰是神聖的犧牲( “ dhabiḥ ” )上帝,來自教學的狡猾的轉換誰想討好他的新助手(塔巴里島299 ) 。

Influence of Jewish on Mohammedan Law.猶太人的影響對伊斯蘭教法。

Islam in the course of its development borrowed also a large number of legal precepts from the Jewish Halakah.伊斯蘭教在其發展還借來了大量的法律概念從猶太人Halakah 。 The importance attached to the "niyyah" (= "intentio") in the practise of law is at first glance reminiscent of the rabbinical teaching concerning "kawwanah," even though all the details do not coincide.重視對“ niyyah ” ( = “意向” )在執業的法律是乍看之下令人想起猶太教學關於“ kawwanah , ”即使所有的細節並不一致。 The Mohammedan regulations appertaining to slaughtering, those relating to the personal qualifications of the "shoḥeṭ" (Arabic, "dhabiḥ") as well as those in regard to the details of slaughtering, show plainly the influence of the Jewish Halakah, as a glance into the codes themselves will prove.伊斯蘭教法規的屠宰附屬物,是有關個人素質的“ shoḥeṭ ” (阿拉伯語, “ dhabiḥ ” ) ,以及這些方面的細節,屠宰,顯示明顯的影響,猶太人Halakah ,作為一個一眼納入守則將證明自己。 These are easily accessible, in the original as well as in European translations (Nawawi, "Minhag al-Ṭalibin," ed. Van den Berg, iii. 297, Batavia,1882-84; "Fatḥ al-Ḳarib," edited by the same, pp. 631 et seq., Leyden, 1894; Tornaw, "Das Muslimische Recht," p. 228, Leipsic, 1855).這些都是容易,在原來的以及在歐洲的翻譯( Nawawi , “ Minhag基地, Ṭalibin , ”版。范登貝爾赫,三。 297 ,巴達維亞,1882 - 84 ; “法特赫基地, Ḳarib , ”編輯同一頁。 631起。 ,萊頓, 1894年; Tornaw , “達斯Muslimische法” ,第228頁, Leipsic , 1855 ) 。 For example, the Mohammedan law in regard to slaughtering ordains expressly that the "ḥulḳum" (Hebr. "ḳaneh") and the "mari'" (Hebr. "wesheṭ") must be severed, and forbids killing in any other manner.例如,伊斯蘭教法方面的屠宰ordains明確指出, “ ḥulḳum ” ( Hebr. “ ḳaneh ” )和“馬里” ( Hebr. “ wesheṭ ” )必須切斷,並禁止殺害任何其他方式。 On the other hand, the law, peculiar to Islam, that the slaughterer in the performance of his duty must turn the animal toward the "ḳiblah," has given material for halakic reflections on the part of Jews (Solomon ben Adret, Responsa, No. 345; "Bet Yosef," on Ṭur Yoreh De'ah iv., end).另一方面,法律,特有的伊斯蘭教,該劊子手在履行他的職責必須把動物對“ ḳiblah , ”給材料的halakic思考的一部分猶太人(所羅門群島本Adret , Responsa ,無。 345 ; “博彩沙龍” ,就圖爾Yoreh De'ah四。 ,結束) 。 The rule that God's name be mentioned before slaughtering is probably a reflection of the Jewish benediction, as are also in general the eulogies ordained by Islamic tradition at the appearance of certain natural phenomena (Nawawi, "Adhkar," p. 79, Cairo, 1312), which may be traced back to the influence of Jewish customs.該規則,上帝的名字被提到過屠宰也許是反映了猶太祝福,也作為一般的悼詞祝由伊斯蘭傳統的外觀上的某些自然現象( Nawawi , “ Adhkar ” ,第79頁,開羅, 1312 ) ,可追溯到影響力的猶太習俗。 Mohammedan law has adopted literally the provision "ka-makḥol ba-she-poperet" in the case of the precept concerning adultery, and it betrays its source through this characteristic form of speech ("REJ" xxviii. 79), which is not the only one that teachers of Islam have taken over from rabbinical linguistic usage (ib. xliii. 5).穆罕默德法已通過字面的規定“卡makḥol巴她, poperet ”的情況戒律關於通姦,並暴露其來源通過這種形式的特點講話( “ REJ ”二十八。 79 ) ,這是不是只有一個教師的伊斯蘭教接管從猶太教語言使用( ib.四十三。 5 ) 。

The attempt has been made by Alfred von Kremer ("Culturgesch. des Orients Unter den Chalifen," i. 525, 535) to show by many examples that the codifiers, of Mohammedan civil law were influenced by Talmudic-rabbinical law.嘗試已取得了阿爾弗雷德馮克雷默( “ Culturgesch 。沙漠方向菩提樹下大街Chalifen , ”島525 , 535 )展示的許多例子,編碼,民間的伊斯蘭教法的影響,塔木德,猶太法律。 There is, however, legitimate doubt in the case of many of such coincidences whether Roman law, the influence of which on the development of Mohammedan law is beyond question, should not be considered as the direct source from which Islamic teachers borrowed.然而,正當懷疑的情況很多,例如巧合是否羅馬法的影響,這對發展伊斯蘭教法是毫無疑問的,不應被視為直接來源伊斯蘭教師借來的。 Such a question must arise from a consideration of the legal principle of the "istiṣḥab" (= "præsumptio"), the meaning and application of which coincide fully with that of the rabbinical principle of the ("Wiener Zeitschrift für die Kunde des Morgenlandes," i. 239).這樣一個問題必須引起審議的法律原則的“ istiṣḥab ” ( = “ præsumptio ” )的含義和適用的配合完全與猶太教原則( “維納雜誌死於Kunde萬Morgenlandes , “島239 ) 。 Likewise the rules and , and the fundamental principle of the ("istiṣlaḥ") are found literally among the cardinal juridical principles of Islamic law (ib. p. 229; "Muhammedanische Studien," ii. 82, No. 6).同樣的規則,並和基本原則( “ istiṣlaḥ ” )被發現在字面上的基本法律原則的伊斯蘭法( ib.第229頁; “ Muhammedanische Studien , ”二。 82 ,第6號) 。 In spite of the fact that it is a principle of Islamic tradition to avoid all imitation of the usages and customs of the ahl al-Kitab and that the disapproval of many usages of religious as well as of secular life is specifically ascribed to such a cause ("REJ" xxviii. 77), still many religious practises of Judaism have been incorporated into Islam; for example, many details in the ceremony of burying the dead, as "ṭaḥarah" (washing the dead), holy texts being recited during the washing of the various parts of the body (Al-'Abdari, "Madkhal," iii. 12, Alexandria, 1293).儘管事實上,這是一個原則的伊斯蘭傳統,以避免所有仿製的慣例和習俗的教派基地,基塔,而且不贊成許多慣例的宗教以及世俗生活的具體歸因於這樣一個事業( “ REJ ”二十八。 77 ) ,仍然有許多宗教習俗的猶太教已被納入伊斯蘭教;舉例來說,許多細節的儀式埋葬死者,因為“ ṭaḥarah ” (洗衣機死亡) ,神聖的文本在朗誦洗衣機的各個部分機構(基地'Abdari , “ Madkhal , ”三。 12日,亞歷山大, 1293 ) 。 Such intrusive customs are not seldom censured by the purists of Islam as being "bid'a" (unorthodox innovations), in opposition to the "Sunnah" (old orthodox usage). Those elements of Mohammedan religious literature which correspond to the Jewish Haggadah offer a large field for derivation; in this connection See Ḥadith.這種侵入性的海關並不很少譴責的純粹的伊斯蘭為“ bid'a ” (非正統的創新) ,在反對“松納” (舊正統的使用) 。這些因素的伊斯蘭教宗教文獻對應的猶太人提供哈加達大場的推導;在這方面見錄。

Islam is regarded by Mohammedans, as may be easily conceived, not only as the final stage of the divine revelation, but also as being quantitatively richer than either Judaism or Christianity.伊斯蘭教看作是伊斯蘭教,可輕鬆的構想,不僅是最後階段的神聖啟示,也為豐富的定量比猶太教或基督教。 More ethical demands are made by it than by the older religions.更多的道德要求是由它比舊宗教。 This idea found expression in an old ḥadith which even at a very early period was misinterpreted to read: "Judaism has 71, Christianity 72, and Islam 73 sects."這種想法體現在一個老聖訓,甚至在一個非常早期階段是曲解為: “已經71猶太教,基督教72歲,和伊斯蘭教的73個節。 ” The word which was taken to mean "sects" denotes literally "branches," and should be interpreted "religious demands," "the highest of which is the acknowledgment of God and Mohammed, and the lowest the removal of offense from the way" (on the original meaning of this saying see Goldziher, "Le Dénombrement des Sectes Mohametanes," in "Revue de l'Histoire des Religions," xxvi. 129-137).這個詞是指“教派”實際上是指“分支” ,並應解釋“宗教的要求” , “最高的是承認上帝和穆罕默德,最低取消進攻的方式” (在原始的意義這句話見Goldziher , “萬Dénombrement樂Sectes Mohametanes , ”在“雜誌宗教史” , 26 。 129-137 ) 。


The theological relation of Islam to Judaism is presented in an extensive polemical literature on the part of Mohammedan scholars. The subject-matter of this literature is closely related to the attacks and accusations already directed against Judaism by the Koran and the ḥadith.神學關係的伊斯蘭教猶太教提出了廣泛的爭論文學的一部分,伊斯蘭教學者。標的物的文學是密切相關的攻擊和指責已經針對猶太教的古蘭經和聖訓。 In the Koran (ix. 30) the Jews are charged with worshiping Ezra ("'Uzair") as the son of God-a malevolent metaphor for the great respect which was paid by the Jews to the memory of Ezra as the restorer of the Law, and from which the Ezra legends of apocryphal literature (II Esd. xxxiv. 37-49) originated (as to how they developed in Mohammedan legends see Damiri, "Ḥayat al-Ḥayawan," i. 304-305).在蘭( ix. 30 )猶太人被控犯有崇拜以斯拉( “ Uzair ” )的兒子上帝惡意的隱喻非常尊重這是支付的猶太人的記憶以斯拉作為恢復的法,並從其中以斯拉傳說未經文學(二公共服務電子化。三十四。 37-49 )起源(它們如何制定穆罕默德的傳說見達米裡, “生活報- Ḥayawan , ”島304-305 ) 。 It is hard to bring into harmony with this the fact, related by Jacob Saphir ("Eben Sappir," i. 99), that the Jews of South Arabia have a pronounced aversion for the memory of Ezra, and even exclude his name from their category of proper names. More clearly still does this literature bring forward an accusation, founded on suras ii.人們很難把這個和睦的事實,相關的Saphir雅各( “埃本Sappir , ”島99 ) ,猶太人南非沙特阿拉伯有一個明顯的厭惡的記憶以斯拉,甚至排斥他的名字從他們的類的專有名詞。更清楚這仍然沒有文獻提出的指控,成立於suras二。 70, v. 15, that the Jews had falsified certain portions of the Holy Scriptures and concealed others (iii. 64, vi. 91). 70 ,訴15日,即猶太人偽造的某些部分聖經和隱蔽他人( iii. 64 ,六。 91 ) 。 Even in Mohammed's time the rabbis were said to have misrepresented to the prophet the law in regard to adulterers ("REJ" xxviii. 79).即使是在穆罕默德的時間拉比據說歪曲的先知法律方面的adulterers ( “ REJ ”二十八。 79 ) 。 In later times the details as to these falsifications were continually augmented.後來倍的細節,這些弄虛作假行為不斷增加。 It was said, for example, that in order to rob the Arabs of an honor done to their ancestors the Jews wrongly inserted in the Pentateuch the choice of Isaac as the child whose sacrifice God demanded of Abraham and which the paṭriarch was willing to make, whereas in reality it was Ishmael (comp. "Muhammedanische Studien," i. 145, note 5).有人說,例如,為了搶劫的阿拉伯人的榮譽努力,他們的祖先的猶太人中插入錯誤的選擇五以撒作為孩子的犧牲上帝要求亞伯拉罕和該宗願意作出,而在現實中是伊斯梅爾( comp. “ Muhammedanische Studien , ”島145個,注5 ) 。 But the accusation of misrepresentation and concealment is most emphatic in connection with those passages of the Pentateuch, the Prophets, and the Psalms in which the adherents of Islam claim that Mohammed's name and attributes, his future appearance as "seal of the prophets," and his mission to all mankind were predicted.但是,指責歪曲和隱瞞是最有力的與這些通道的五,先知和詩篇,其中信奉伊斯蘭教聲稱,穆罕默德的名稱和屬性,他的未來出現的“印章的先知” ,並他的任務對全人類進行了預測。

Mohammedan, theologians divide these charges into two classes: they hold (1) that in some cases the original text itself has been falsified, while (2) in others it is the interpretation of a genuine text that has been wilfully perverted.穆罕默德,神學鴻溝這些費用分為兩類:他們舉行( 1 )在某些情況下,原始文字本身已是偽造的,而( 2 )在其他的解釋是真正的文字,一直故意歪曲。 Whereas in the earlier period of the controversy these accusations were made against the "aḥbar" as a class, who were represented as leading the Jewish people astray, lateron the personal nature of the charge was accentuated, and the fault ascribed to Ezra "the writer" ("al-warraḳ"), who in his restoration of the forgotten writings was said to have falsified them ("ZDMG" xxxii. 370).而在同期的爭論這些指控提出了對“ aḥbar ”作為一個階級,誰派代表作為領先的猶太人民引入歧途, lateron個人性質的收費加劇,以及過錯歸咎於以斯拉“作家“ ( ”基地warraḳ “ ) ,誰在他的恢復被遺忘的著作據說,偽造他們( ” ZDMG “三十二。 370 ) 。 Abraham ibn Daud ("Emunah Ramah," p. 79) combats this accusation.亞伯拉罕本達烏德( “ Emunah Ramah ” ,第79頁)打擊這一指控。 According to tradition, Ibn Ḳutaiba (d. 276 AH = 889 CE) was the first to bring together the Biblical passages supposed to refer to the sending of Mohammed.按照傳統,本Ḳutaiba (草276的AH = 889 CE認證)是第一個把聖經段落要提及派遣穆罕默德。 His enumeration of them has been preserved in a work by Ibn al-Jauzi (12th cent.), from which it has been published in the Arabic text by Brockelmann ("Beiträge für Semitische Wortforschung," iii. 46-55; comp. Stade's "Zeitschrift," 1894, pp. 138-142).他列舉了他們一直保存在工作的伊本Jauzi (第12次以上。 ) ,它從已出版的阿拉伯文文本Brockelmann ( “ Beiträge獻給Semitische Wortforschung , ”三。 46-55 ;補償。體育場的“雜誌” , 1894年,頁。 138-142 ) 。 These passages recur with more or less completeness in the works of all Moslem apologists and controversialists (comp. the enumeration of the Biblical names of the prophet and the Biblical verses relating to him in "ZDMG" xxxii. 374-379), and are usually combined with similar New Testament prophecies supposed to refer to him (Παράκλητος, confused with Περικλυτός, is taken to mean Mohammed). Of the Biblical names supposed to allude to Mohammed, Jewish apologists have been compelled most often to refute the identification of with the name of the prophet of Islam.這些通道發生或多或少完整的作品辯護士所有穆斯林和controversialists ( comp.所列舉的聖經名字先知和聖經經文有關他的“ ZDMG ”三十二。 374-379 ) ,而且通常加上類似的新約預言要提到他( Παράκλητος ,混淆Περικλυτός ,是指穆罕默德) 。聖經的名字理應提到穆罕默德,猶太人辯護士已迫使最常駁斥確定的名稱在伊斯蘭教先知。

With this portion of the polemic directed against the Bible is often connected an exposition of the contradictions and incongruities in the Biblical narrative.隨著這部分論戰針對聖經往往是相連的論述的矛盾和不協調的聖經敘事。 The first to enter this field was the Spaniard Abu Mohammed ibn Ḥazm, a contemporary of Samuel ha-Nagid, with whom he was personally acquainted (see Bibliography below).最早進入這個領域是西班牙人阿布穆罕默德伊本Ḥazm ,當代的塞繆爾公頃, Nagid ,同他本人熟悉(見書目下文) 。 He was the first important systematizer of this literature; and his attacks upon Judaism and its Scriptures are discussed by Solomon ben Adret in his "Ma'amar 'al Yishmael" (Schreiner, in "ZDMG" xlviii. 39).他是第一個重要的systematizer本文學;和他的攻擊猶太教和聖經是討論本Adret所羅門在他的“ Ma'amar '基地Yishmael ” (興農,在“ ZDMG ”四十八。 39 ) 。

Restriction of Recognition of Islam.限制承認伊斯蘭教。

One of the earliest points of controversy was the contention of the Jews that, although Mohammed was to be regarded as a national prophet, his mission was to the Arabs only or in general to peoples who had had as yet no revealed Scriptures ("ummiyin"; Kobak's "Jeschurun," ix. 24).最早的一個爭議點是爭論的猶太人,雖然穆罕默德將被視為一個國家的先知,他的任務是阿拉伯人唯一或一般人民誰了,還沒有發現聖經( “ ummiyin ” ; Kobak的“ Jeschurun , ”九。 24 ) 。 In opposition to this, Mohammedan theologians and controversialists declared that Mohammed's divine mission was universal, hence intended for the Jews also.在反對這一點,伊斯蘭教神學家和controversialists宣布,穆罕默德的神聖使命是普遍的,因此打算還的猶太人。 Abu 'Isa Obadiah al-Iṣfahani, founder of the 'Isawites (middle of the 8th cent.), admitted that Mohammedanism as well as Christianity was entitled to recognize its founder as a prophet, whose mission was intended for "its people"; he thus recognized the relative truth of Islam in so far as its followers were concerned (Ḳirḳisani, ed. Harkavy, § 11). The turning-point in this controversy was the question of abrogation of the divine laws, inasmuch as a general acceptance of Islam presupposed the abolition of the earlier divine revelations.阿布'伊薩俄巴底亞人, Iṣfahani的創始人' Isawites (中間第8次以上。 )承認, Mohammedanism以及基督教有權承認其創始人是先知,其使命是為了“人民” ;他因此,承認相對真理的伊斯蘭只要其追隨者關注( Ḳirḳisani ,編輯。 Harkavy , § 11 ) 。的轉折點在這個爭議的問題是廢除神聖的法律,因為作為一個普遍接受伊斯蘭教預先的裁撤較早神的啟示。

Otherwise the abolition of the Sabbath law (see "Kaufmann Gedenkbuch," p. 100), of the dietary laws, and of other Biblical precepts and regulations given by God would lose all claim to validity.否則,廢除安息日法(見“考夫曼Gedenkbuch ” ,第100頁) ,膳食的法律,和其他聖經戒律和規章賦予上帝將失去所有索賠的有效性。 Consequently the Mohammedans, while maintaining the authority of the ancient prophets, had to demonstrate the provisional and temporary nature of such of the earlier divine laws abrogated by Mohammed as they did not claim to be out-and-out inventions.因此,伊斯蘭教,同時還保持了權威的古代先知,證明了臨時和暫時性質,例如早先的神聖法律所廢止,穆罕默德,因為它們不聲稱自己是地地道道的發明。 So much the more vigorously, therefore, did the Jewish dogmatists (Saadia, "Emunot we-De'ot," book iii.; Abraham ibn Daud, "Emunah Ramah," pp. 75 et seq.) oppose from a philosophical standpoint this view, which attacked the essential principles of the Jewish religion.那就更有力,因此,沒有猶太人dogmatists ( Saadia , “我們Emunot - De'ot , ”三本書。 ;亞伯拉罕本達烏德, “ Emunah Ramah , ”頁。 75起。 )反對從哲學的角度來看這看來,這些攻擊的基本原則的猶太宗教。

The anti-Jewish controversialists of Islam assumed as an established fact that the Jews were required to hold an anthropomorphic, corporeal conception of God ("tajsim," "tashbih").在反猶太人的controversialists伊斯蘭教承擔作為一個既定事實,即猶太人都必須持有擬人化,有形的概念,上帝( “ tajsim ” , “ tashbih ” ) 。 Judaism is even held responsible for the anthropomorphic conceptions found in other confessions (see "Kaufmann Gedenkbuch," p. 100, note 1).猶太教甚至追究責任的擬人化的概念在其他的供詞(見“考夫曼Gedenkbuch ” ,第100頁,注1 ) 。 The Biblical passages brought forward as proof (among the earliest of them is Gen. i. 26-27) are counted with those which it is claimed were falsified by the Jews.聖經段落提出的證據(其中最早的是將軍島26日至27日)是與那些指望它聲稱偽造的猶太人。 Besides the Biblical passages, references from the Talmud in which extremely anthropomorphic statements are made concerning God ("God prays, mourns," etc.) are also brought forward to support these charges.除了聖經的段落,提到從塔木德中極為擬人化報表的有關神( “上帝祈禱,哀悼” ,等等)也提出了支持這些指控。 The material for the last-named class of attacks was probably furnished by the Karaites, who are treated respectfully by the Mohammedan controversialists, are characterized as standing closer to Islam, and in general are exalted at the expense of the Rabbinites.這些材料在過去的命名類的攻擊可能是所提供的卡拉派信徒,誰的待遇恭敬地由穆罕默德controversialists ,被定為常設接近伊斯蘭教,一般崇高的犧牲Rabbinites 。

Ibn Ḥazm extends the attack against the Jews to the rabbinical amplifications of the laws, to the "bonds and chains" with which the Jews have, with unjustifiable arbitrariness on the part of the Rabbis, been bound.本Ḥazm延伸攻擊猶太人猶太教擴增的法律,為“債券和連鎖店”與猶太人有與沒有道理的獨斷專行的一部分,拉比,被約束。 Since the time of the Jewish, apostate Samuel. b.由於時間上的猶太人,叛教塞繆爾。灣 Yaḥya, the polemic has taken the form of satire, directed most often against the minutiæ of the precepts on slaughtering and on the order of procedure in connection with the "bedikat ha-re'ah."葉海亞的爭論所採取的形式諷刺,導演往往是對細節上的戒律屠宰和秩序的過程中與“ bedikat公頃, re'ah 。 ” The same controversialist also began to criticize the text of certain prayers (which he cites in Hebrew) and to hold up the conduct of the Rabbis to ridicule.同樣的controversialist也開始批評文本的某些祈禱(其中他引用希伯來文) ,並舉行了行為的拉比嘲笑。 Later Islamic controversialists have copied extensively from this convert from Judaism.後來伊斯蘭controversialists複製廣泛從這個轉換從猶太教。

Kaufmann Kohler, Ignatz Goldziher考夫曼科勒,納茲Goldziher
Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.猶太百科全書出版01年至1906年之間。

Bibliography: 參考書目:
M. Lidzbarski, De Propheticis, Quæ Dicuntur, Legendis Arabicis, Leipsic, 1893; G. Lidzbarski先生,德Propheticis , Quæ Dicuntur , Legendis Arabicis , Leipsic , 1893年;灣 Weil, Biblische, Legenden der Muselmänner, Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1845; V.韋伊, Biblische , Legenden之Muselmänner ,法蘭克福上的主, 1845年;五 Chauvin, La Recension Egyptienne des Mille et Une Nuits, in Bibliothèque de la Facultéde Philos.肖萬,香格里拉Recension Egyptienne千里之夜等新英格蘭大學,在圖書館德拉魯阿Facultéde哲學。 et Lettres de Liège, Brussels, 1899. Dozy, Het Islamisme, Haarlem.及文學的列日,布魯塞爾, 1899年。想睡,黑Islamisme ,哈萊姆。 1863 (French transl. by Chauvin, entitled Essai sur l'Histoire de l'Islamisme, Paris, 1879); A. 1863年(法文譯。由肖,題為Essai要件史Islamisme法國,巴黎, 1879年)的A. von Kremer, Gesch.馮克雷默, Gesch 。 der Herrschenden Ideen des Islams, Leipsic, 1868; idem, Culturgeschichtliche Streifzüge auf dem Gebiete des Islams, ib.德國Herrschenden伊斯蘭之觀念, Leipsic , 1868年;同上, Culturgeschichtliche Streifzüge奧夫萬德國馬克伊斯蘭Gebiete ,興業。 1873; idem, Culturgesch. 1873年;同上, Culturgesch 。 des Orients Unter den Chalifen, Vienna, 1875-77; Hughes, A Dictionary of Islam, London, 1885; Sell, The Faith of Islam, Madras, 1886; I.沙漠方向Chalifen菩提樹下大街,維也納, 1875年至1877年;休斯,字典的伊斯蘭教,倫敦, 1885年;銷售,信仰伊斯蘭教,馬德拉斯, 1886年;一 Goldziher, Die âhiriten, Ihr Lehrsystem und Ihre Gesch.: Beitrag zur Gesch. Goldziher ,模具âhiriten ,國際衛生條例Lehrsystem與Ihre Gesch 。 : Beitrag楚Gesch 。 der Muhammedanischen Theologie, Leipsic, 1884; idem, Muhammedanische Studien, Halle, 1889-90; C.德國Muhammedanischen神學, Leipsic , 1884 ;同上, Muhammedanische Studien ,哈雷, 1889年至1890年;角 Snouck Hurgronje, De Islam, in De Gids, 1886; Nöldeke, Der Islam, in Orientalische Skizzen, pp. Snouck Hurgronje ,德伊斯蘭教,在導報, 1886年; Nöldeke ,德國伊斯蘭教,在東方Skizzen ,頁。 63-110, Berlin, 1892; Grimme, Mohammed, part ii., Münster, 1894; E. 63-110 ,柏林, 1892年,格力莫,穆罕默德,第二部分。 ,明斯特, 1894年;體育 Moutet, La Propagande Chrétienne et Ses Adversaires Musulmanes, Paris, 1890; TW Arnold, The Preaching of Islam, London, 1896; Rüling, Beiträge zur Eschatologie des Islams, Leipsic, 1895; H. Moutet ,香格里拉等基督教Propagande例Adversaires Musulmanes ,巴黎, 1890年;荃灣阿諾德,在伊斯蘭宣教,倫敦, 1896年;裁決, Beiträge楚Eschatologie伊斯蘭萬, Leipsic , 1895年閣下; Preserved Smith, The Bible and Islam, or the Influence of the Old and New Testament on, the Religion of Mohammed (Ely Lectures), London, 1898; Pautz, Muhammeds Lehre von der Offenbarung, Leipsic, 1898; M.果脯史密斯,聖經和伊斯蘭教,或影響的老和新約的,宗教的穆罕默德(伊利講座) ,倫敦, 1898年; Pautz , Muhammeds教馮德Offenbarung , Leipsic , 1898 ;先生 Steinschneider, Polemische und Apologetische Literatur in Arabischer Sprache Zwischen Muslimen, Christen, und Juden, in Abhandlungen für die Kunde des Morgenlandes, vi., No. 3, ib. Steinschneider , Polemische與Apologetische在Arabischer文學語言Zwischen Muslimen ,克里斯坦,與猶太人,在Abhandlungen獻給死去Kunde萬Morgenlandes ,六。 ,第3期, 123 。 1877; I. 1877年;一 Goldziher, Ueber Muhammedanische Polemik Gegen Ahl al-Kitab, in ZDMG xxxii. Goldziher ,論Muhammedanische Polemik教派葛根基地,基塔,在ZDMG三十二。 341-387; M. 341-387 ;先生 Schreiner, Zur Gesch.興農,論Gesch 。 der Polemik Zwischen Juden, und Muhammedanern, ib.德國猶太人Polemik Zwischen ,與Muhammedanern ,興業。 xlii.四十二。 591-675. Abdallah b. 591-675 。阿卜杜拉灣 Isma'il al-Hashimi, a polemic against Christianityand its refutation by 'Abd al-Masiḥ b. Isma'il哈希米的論戰對Christianityand其反駁的'阿卜德西赫灣 Isḥaḳ al-Kindi (commencement of 9th cent.), London.依金迪(開始第9次以上。 ) ,倫敦。 1880; comp. 1880年;補償。 Al-Kindi: The Apology Written at the Court of Al-Mamun in Defense of Christianity Against Islam, with an, Essay on its Age and Authorship, London Soc.金迪:書面道歉在法院的Al -馬蒙在國防部的基督教反對伊斯蘭教的,論其時代與作者,倫敦學會。 for Promoting Christian Knowledge, 1887 (comp. Steinschneider in ZDMG xlix. 248, note 2); Ibn Ḳutaiba (d. 276 AH = 889 CE), ed.促進基督教知識, 1887年( comp. Steinschneider在ZDMG xlix 。 248 ,注2 ) ;本Ḳutaiba (草276的AH = 889行政長官) ,版。 Brockelmann; Al-Mawardi (d. 450 = 1058). Brockelmann ;基地Mawardi (草450 = 1058 ) 。 ed.版。 Schreiner, in Kohut Memorial Volume, pp.興農,在胡特紀念卷,頁。 502-513; Ibn Ḥazm (d. 456 = 1064), Kitab al-Milal wal-Niḥal, Cairo, 1319 = 1901; Samau'al b.Yaḥya al-Maghribi (Jewish apostate, wrote 1169), Ifḥam al-Jahud (extracts therefrom revised and published by M. Schreiner in Monatsschrift, xlii. 123-133, 170-180, 214-223, 253-261, 407-418, 457-465); Mohammed ibn Ẓufr (a Sicilian; d. 565=1169), Khair al-Bishar bi-Khair al-Bashar, Cairo, 1280=1863; Aḥmad b. 502-513 ;本Ḥazm (草456 = 1064 ) ,基塔基地, Milal沃爾瑪尼哈爾,開羅, 1319年= 1901年; Samau'al b.Yaḥya基地, Maghribi (猶太叛教者,寫1169 ) , Ifḥam基地, Jahud (摘錄修訂和出版由M.興農的月刊,四十二。 123-133 , 170-180 , 214-223 , 253-261 , 407-418 , 457-465 ) ;穆罕默德伊本Ẓufr (西西里; d. 565 = 1169 ) , Khair基地, Bishar雙向Khair基地,巴沙爾,開羅, 1280年= 1863年;艾哈邁德灣 Idris al-ḥimhaji al-Ḳarafl (d. 684= 1285), Al-Ajwibat al-Fakhirah 'an al-As'ilat al-Fajirah, ib.伊德里斯基地, ḥimhaji基地, Ḳarafl (草684 = 1285 ) ,基地Ajwibat基地, Fakhirah '一個基地, As'ilat基地, Fajirah ,興業。 1320=1902; Sa'id b. 1320 = 1902年;塞伊德灣 Ḥasan of Alexandria (Jewish apostate; wrote 720=1320), Masalik al-Naẓar (excerpts published by I. Goldziher in REJ xxx. 1-23); Mohammed ibn Ḳayyim al-Jauziya (d. 751=1351), Irshad al-Ḥajara min al-Yahud wal-Naṣara, Cairo, 1320=1902 (for different title see Steinschneider, lcp 108, No. 87); Abdallah al-Tarjumani (Christian apostate, wrote 823=1420), Tuḥfat al-Arib fi al-Radd 'Ala Ahl-al-Ṣalib, Cairo, 1895 (transl. by Jean Spiro in Revue de l'Histoire des Religions, xii. 68-89, 179-201, 278-301, under the title Le Présent de l'Homme Lettré pour Refuter les Partisans de la Croix; Turkish transl. by Mohammed Dhini, Constantinople, 1291=1874); Abu al-Faḍl al-Maliki al-Su'udi (wrote 942=1535), Disputatio pro Religione Mohammedanorum Adversus Christianos, ed.哈桑的亞歷山大(猶太叛教者;寫720 = 1320年) , Masalik基地,納扎爾(摘錄出版的一Goldziher在REJ xxx域名。 1-23 ) ;穆罕默德伊本Ḳayyim基地, Jauziya (草751 = 1351 ) ,伊爾沙德基地Ḥajara民基地, Yahud沃爾瑪Naṣara ,開羅, 1320 = 1902年(為不同的標題見Steinschneider , LCP的108 ,第87號) ;阿卜杜拉Tarjumani (基督教叛教者,寫823 = 14時20 ) , Tuḥfat基地, Arib科幻基地Radd '阿拉教派鋁Ṣalib ,開羅, 1895年( transl.讓斯皮羅在雜誌宗教史,十二。 68-89 , 179-201 , 278-301 ,標題樂現狀法國男裝爭取Refuter信萊游擊隊員德拉魯阿克羅伊;土耳其譯。由穆罕默德Dhini ,君士坦丁堡, 1291 = 1874年) ;阿布,費德勒馬利基基地, Su'udi (發表文章942 = 1535 ) , Disputatio親宗教Mohammedanorum Adversus Christianos ,編輯。 FT van den Ham, Leyden, 1890; Sayyid 'Ali Mohammed (a Shiite), Zad Ḳalil (Indian lithograph, 1290=1873; the Biblical references are inserted in the Arabic text with Hebraic letters and Arabic transcription); Proof of the Prophet Mohamet from the Bible, No. 23 of the publications of the Mohammedan Tract and Book Depot, Lahore, is wholly modern; Al-Kanz al-Maurud fi-ma Baḳiya 'Alaina min Naḳs Shari'at al-Yahud (a Druse polemic against the Pentateuch; extracts from it have been published by I. Goldziher in Geiger's Jüd. Zeit. xi. 68-79); I.金融時報范登貝火腿,萊頓, 1890 ;賽義德阿里穆罕默德(什葉派) , Zad Ḳalil (印度光刻, 1290 = 1873年;聖經提到插入的阿拉伯文與希伯來文和阿拉伯文字母轉錄) ;證明先知Mohamet從聖經,第23號出版物的穆罕默德道和圖書站,拉合爾,完全是現代的;基地Kanz基地, Maurud纖維瘤Baḳiya ' Alaina民Naḳs Shari'at基地, Yahud (一德魯西對爭論五;提取它已經出版了一Goldziher在蓋的珠德。時代。喜。 68-79 ) ;一 Goldziher, Proben Muhammedanischer Polemik Gegen den Talmud: i. (Ibn Haẓm) in Kobak's Jeschurun, viii. Goldziher , Proben Muhammedanischer Polemik葛根大街塔木德:島(本Haẓm )在Kobak的Jeschurun ,八。 76-104; ii. 76-104 ;二。 (Ibn. Ḳayyim al-Jawziya), ib. ( Ibn. Ḳayyim基地, Jawziya ) , 123 。 ix.九。 18-47 (Arabic text with German transl.)-an especial anti-Talmudic polemic. 18-47 (阿拉伯文文字與德國譯。 )一個特殊的反塔木德論戰。

Muhammad (or as Jews spell it, Mohammed)穆罕默德(或猶太人的拼寫它,穆罕默德)

Jewish Viewpoint Information 猶太觀資料

Early Years.初年。

Early Years.初年。

Founder of Islam and of the Mohammedan empire; born at Mecca between 569 and 571 of the common era; died June, 632, at Medina.方正伊斯蘭教和穆罕默德帝國;出生在麥加之間的569和571的共同時代; 6月死亡, 632 ,在梅迪納。 Mohammed was a posthumous child and lost his mother when he was six years old.穆罕默德是一個追授兒童和失去母親時,他是6歲。 He then came under the guardianship of his grandfather 'Abd al-Muṭṭalib, who at his death, two years later, left the boy to the care of his son Abu Ṭalib, Mohammed's uncle.然後,他受到的監護他的祖父'阿卜德Muṭṭalib ,誰在他死後,兩年後,離開了男孩照顧他的兒子阿布立,穆罕默德的叔叔。 The early years of Mohammed's life were spent among the Banu Sa'd, Bedouins of the desert, it being the custom at Mecca to send a child away from home to be nursed.最初幾年的穆罕默德的生活中度過的巴努Sa'd ,貝都因人的沙漠,它是在麥加自訂送一個孩子離家出走的看護。 From the stories told of these early years it would appear that even then he showed symptoms of epilepsy which greatly alarmed his nurse.從故事告訴這些早年看來,即使在那時他的癲癇症狀大大震驚他的護士。 It has been stated that the boy was once taken on a caravan journey to Syria, and that he there came in contact with Jews and Christians.據指出,這名男孩曾經採取了大篷車前往敘利亞,並說,他是有接觸的猶太人和基督徒。 But he could very easily have become acquainted with both at Mecca; hence this theory is not necessary to explain his knowledge of Jewish and Christian beliefs.但他很可能很容易地熟悉在麥加,因此這一理論是沒有必要解釋他的知識,猶太教和基督教的信仰。 When Mohammed was twenty-five years old Abu Ṭalib obtained for him an opportunity to travel with a caravan in the service of Ḥadijah, a wealthy widow of the Ḳuraish, who offered Mohammed her hand on his return from the expedition.當穆罕默德二十五年歲的阿布立獲取他有機會前往一個大篷車服務的Ḥadijah ,一個富裕的遺孀Ḳuraish ,誰提供穆罕默德她的手在他返回的遠征。 Six children were the fruit of this union, the four daughters surviving their father. 6個孩子的果實,在這個聯盟的四個女兒的父親倖存。 Ḥadijah, although fifteen years his senior, was, as long as she lived, Mohammed's faithful friend and sympathizer.GMWM Ḥadijah ,儘管15年來他的高級,是的,只要她住,穆罕默德的忠實的朋友和sympathizer.GMWM

South-Arabian Visionaries.東南亞阿拉伯幻想。

Mohammed's religious activity began with the fortieth year of his life.穆罕默德的宗教活動始於40年的生命。 The Islamic tradition assigns as the beginning of this new career a sudden marvelous illumination through God.伊斯蘭傳統賦予的開始這一新的職業生涯突然神奇通過神照度。 The Koran, however, the most authentic document of Islam, whose beginnings are probably contemporaneous with Mohammed's first sermons, speaks of this revelation on the "fateful night" rather vaguely in a passage of the later Meccan period, while the earlier passages give the impression that Mohammed himself had somewhat hazy ideas on the first stages of the revelation which culminated in his occasional intercourse with God, through the mediation of various spiritual beings.可蘭經,然而,最真實的文件伊斯蘭教,其起源可能與穆罕默德同時代的第一說教,講這個啟示的“命運之夜”相當含糊的通過後Meccan時期,而以前的段落給人的印象穆罕默德本人也有些模糊的想法在第一階段的啟示,最終在他偶爾與上帝交往,通過調解各種精神存在。 Small wonder that his pagan countrymen took him to be a "kahin," ie, one of those Arab soothsayers who, claiming higher inspiration, uttered rimed oracles similar to those found in the earliest suras.怪不得,他的異教徒們把他是一個“卡欣” ,也就是說,其中的一個阿拉伯soothsayers誰,聲稱更高的靈感, rimed神諭說出類似的發現的最早的suras 。 Historical investigations, however, show that Mohammed must not be classed with those pagan seers, but with a sect of monotheistic visionaries of whose probable existence in southern Arabia, on the borderland between Judaism and Christianity, some notice has come down in the fragment of an inscription recently published in "WZKM" (1896, pp. 285 et seq.).歷史的調查,然而,穆罕默德表明,絕不能歸入這些異教徒預言家,但有節的一神教幻想的存在,其可能在南部阿拉伯,對邊疆之間的猶太教和基督教,有些已經通知中的一個片段最近出版的題詞在“ WZKM ” ( 1896年,頁。 285起。 ) 。 This fragment ascribes to God the attribute of vouchsafing "revelation" (?) and "glad tidings" ("bashr," ie, "gospel" or "gift of preaching"), meaning probably the occasional visionary illumination of the believer.這片段上帝賦予的屬性vouchsafing “啟示” ( ? )和“喜訊” ( “ bashr ” ,即“福音”或“禮物鼓吹” ) ,這意味著可能偶爾有遠見的照明的信徒。 As the same inscription contains other religious concepts and expressions which parallel those in the Koran, Mohammed may well be associated with this religious tendency.由於同樣的題詞包含其他宗教的概念和表述這些平行的古蘭經,穆罕默德很可能與此相關的宗教傾向。 The name of this South-Arabian sect is not known; but the "Ḥanifs" of the Islamic tradition belonged probably to them, being a body of monotheistic ascetics who lived according to the "religion of Abraham" and who bitterly inveighed against the immoral practises of paganism.的名稱這個東南亞阿拉伯節不知道,但“ Ḥanifs ”伊斯蘭的傳統可能屬於他們,作為一個機構的一神教誰住修行按照“亞伯拉罕宗教” ,誰痛苦inveighed對不道德的做法的異教。

The First Moslems.第一個穆斯林。

Islam in its earliest form certainly did not go far beyond the tenets of these men.伊斯蘭教在其最早的形式肯定沒有遠遠超出了這些原則的男人。 Mohammed condemns idolatry by emphasizing the existence of a single powerful God, who has created and who maintains heaven and earth: but he condemns still more emphatically the vices born of idolatry, namely, covetousness, greed, and injustice to one's neighbor; and he recommends prayer and the giving of alms as a means of purifying the spirit and of being justified at the divine judgment.穆罕默德譴責偶像崇拜,強調存在一個單一的強大的上帝,誰創造,誰堅持天地:譴責,但他更強調的惡習出生的偶像崇拜,即貪婪,貪婪,和不公正自己的鄰居,他建議祈禱和給予施捨,作為一種手段淨化的精神和正在理由神聖的判決。 This gospel includes nothing that was not contained in Judaism or in Christianity, nor anything of what constituted the fundamental difference between the two.這福音包括什麼是不包含在猶太教或基督教,也沒有什麼什麼構成的基本兩者之間的差額。 Islam, however, did not undertake to bridge the gulf between them.伊斯蘭教,但沒有進行彌合他們之間的鴻溝。

Mohammed's teaching, on the contrary, was at first expressly directed against the Arab pagans only; and even in the later Meccan period it refers to its consonance with the doctrines of the "men of the revelation," ie, Jews and Christians.穆罕默德的教學,恰恰相反,是在第一次明確針對阿拉伯異教徒只; ,甚至在後來Meccan期是指其符合理論的“男人的啟示” ,即猶太人和基督徒。 Nothing is more erroneous than to assume that the watchword of the later Islam, "There is no God but Allah, and Mohammed is His prophet," was characteristic of the very beginning of the religious movement inaugurated by Mohammed: not the belief in dogmas, but the recognition of ethical obligations, was the object of his mission to his countrymen.沒有比這更錯誤的,而不是假定的口號以後伊斯蘭教, “有沒有真主,阿拉和穆罕默德是他的先知” ,特點是一開始的宗教運動開幕穆罕默德:不是教條的信念,但承認道德義務,對象是他的使命他的同胞。 That meant that the Arab prophet strove to gain in every believer an ally to help him to wage war upon the corruptions of the day.這意味著阿拉伯先知竭力爭取在每一個信徒的盟友,幫助他發動戰爭的腐敗的一天。 Mohammed's political astuteness, which was a signal characteristic of his Medina period, is apparent even in the organization of the first community.穆罕默德的政治敏銳,這是一個信號特徵的梅迪納期間,很明顯即使是在該組織的第一次社會。 Its members were mostly poor but intellectually eminent Ḳuraish like Ali, Abu Bakr, Zubair, 'Abd al-Raḥman ibn 'Auf, Sa'd ibn Abi Waḳḳaṣ, Othman, and others.其成員大部分是窮人,但智力知名人士Ḳuraish像阿里,阿布貝克,祖拜爾,阿卜杜勒拉赫曼本'奧夫Sa'd本阿比Waḳḳaṣ ,奧斯曼等。 They, being in the execution of their religious duties under Mohammed's personal supervision, soon grew to be so dependent upon him that their tribal consciousness-the strongest instinct in the social life of the ancient Arabs-was gradually superseded by the consciousness of being Moslems, the community thus developing into a small state with Mohammed as its chief.他們,是在執行自己的宗教義務,穆罕默德的個人監督,盡快成長是如此依賴他,他們的部落意識強烈的本能在社會生活的古代阿拉伯人,逐漸取代了意識穆斯林,因此,社區發展成一個小國與穆罕默德為首席。 Hence in time sharp conflicts arose between the powerful Meccans, the sheiks of the leading families, and Mohammed.因此,在當時產生的尖銳矛盾之間的強大Meccans的族長領先的家庭,和穆罕默德。 For years they had suffered him as a harmless dreamer, a soothsayer, a magician, and even as one possessed of demons; then, when his prediction in regard to the imminent judgment of God remained unfulfilled, they had mocked him; but when the community grew-eveneminent personages like Ḥamzah swearing by Islam-they grew hostile and began to persecute him and his adherents, their action culminating in the ostracism of Mohammed's family, the Banu Hashim.多年來,他們已經遭受他是一個無害的夢想家,一個預言家,魔術師,甚至作為一個擁有惡魔;然後,當他的預測考慮到即將上帝的判決仍未履行,他們嘲笑他,但是當社會增長, eveneminent人士哈姆扎宣誓一樣伊斯蘭教,他們長大敵意,並開始迫害他和他的追隨者,他們的行動終於在排斥穆罕默德的家庭,巴努哈希姆。

Restricted in his missionary activity, and separated from a large part of the faithful who had sought refuge in Christian Abyssinia, the prophet lost heart.限制在他的傳教活動,並脫離的很大一部分忠實誰避難基督教阿比西尼亞,先知失去了心。 His preaching, in so far as its nature can be gathered from the Koran, was filled with references to the persecutions to which the earlier messengers of God had been subjected, and to their final rescue by Him; and it emphasized "raḥmah"-ie, mercy shown to the good, and long-suffering to the wicked-as being God's chief attribute.他鼓吹,只要其性質可從可蘭經,充滿了提到的迫害而同期上帝的使者受到了,並最終拯救了他,並強調“ raḥmah ” ,即,仁慈的表現良好,長期遭受苦難的邪惡,是上帝的首席屬性。 Various dogmatic-theosophic discussions were added, among them being the first protests against the Christian doctrine of the son of God.各種教條主義, theosophic討論補充,其中包括第一次抗議基督教教義的上帝的兒子。 The teachings of Islam, which at first had been merely a body of precepts, developed more and more into a regular system which reflected in its chief tenets the later Judaism.伊斯蘭教教義,這首先已經不僅僅是一個身體的戒律,發達國家越來越多地成為一個經常性的系統,反映在其主要原理後來猶太教。

The Hegira (622).該Hegira ( 622 ) 。

When the leading families of Mecca revoked the ban pronounced against the Banu Hashim, which had been maintained for nearly three years, they might well have believed that Mohammed's political importance at Mecca was destroyed.當領先的家庭麥加撤銷禁令明顯的巴努哈希姆,它一直保持了近三年,他們很可能認為,穆罕默德的政治上的重要性在麥加被摧毀。 The prophet himself perceived, especially after the death of his protector Abu Ṭalib and of his (Mohammed's) wife Ḥadijah, that his native city was not the proper place in which to carry out his communal ideas; and he cast about for a locality better adapted to his purposes.先知本人察覺,特別是去世後,他的保護者阿布Talib和他(穆罕默德)的妻子Ḥadijah ,他的故鄉不是適當的位置,以履行其社區的想法,他想方設法為更好地適應地方他的目的。 After various unsuccessful attempts to find a following among neighboring tribes, he happened to meet, during the annual festival of the temple at Mecca, six people from Yathrib (Medina); the Arab inhabitants of this city had come into close contact with monotheistic ideas through their long sojourn among the Jewish tribes which had been the original masters of the city, as well as with several Christian families.經過各種嘗試失敗之後找到一個鄰國之間的部落,他正好滿足,在每年的節日廟會在麥加,有6人來自Yathrib (麥) ;阿拉伯居民的這個城市已經有密切接觸的想法通過一神教他們長期居留的猶太部落已原來的主人,城市,以及一些基督教家庭。 These men, being related to Mohammed on his mother's side, took up the cause of the prophet, and were so active in its behalf among their people that after two years seventy-five believers of Medina went to Mecca during the festival and proclaimed in the so-called "'aḳabah," or war assembly, the official reception of Mohammed and his adherents at Mecca into the community of Yathrib. The consequence was that within a short time all the Moslems removed to Medina; and the prophet himself, as the last one, closed the first period of Islam by his hasty departure, as in flight ("Hegira"; Sept., 622).這些人,被有關穆罕默德對他母親的身邊,拿起事業的先知,並積極參與,使代表他們的人,兩年後75梅迪納的信徒前往麥加節日期間,並宣布在所謂“ aḳabah ” ,或戰爭集會,正式接待穆罕默德和他的信徒在麥加融入社會的Yathrib 。的後果是很短的時間內所有的穆斯林轉移到麥地和自己的先知,如最後一個,關閉了第一期伊斯蘭教,他匆忙離開,因為在飛行中( “ Hegira ” ; 9月, 622 ) 。

Mohammed's entry into Medina marks the beginning of an almost continuous external development of Islam, which as a religion, it is true, lost in depth and moral content, and crystallized into dogmatic formulas, but as a political entity achieved increasing success through the eminent political ability of the prophet himself.穆罕默德進入梅迪納標誌著幾乎不斷發展的外部伊斯蘭教,這作為一種宗教,這是真的,失去了深度和道義上的內容,並體現到教條式的公式,但作為一個政治實體實現增加成功的最重要的政治能力的先知本人。 The Arab inhabitants of Medina, the tribes of Aus and Khazraj, all joined the religion of the prophet within two years from the Hegira.阿拉伯居民的麥地,各部落的澳大利亞和Khazraj ,所有加入的宗教先知兩年內從Hegira 。 Political differences, however, arose between them, especially after Mohammed had reserved for himself exclusively the office of judge; and these differences led to the formation of a moderate party of opposition, the Munafij, or weak believers, who often, and without detriment to his cause, restrained the prophet's impetuosity.政治分歧,但是,他們之間產生,特別是在穆罕默德保留了自己專門的辦公室法官;和這些分歧導致形成一個溫和黨的反對, Munafij ,或弱信徒,往往誰,不損害他的事業,限制先知的急躁情緒。 But the propaganda came to a halt among the numerous Jews living in the city and the surrounding country, who were partly under the protection of the ruling Arab tribes, the Banu 'Auf, Al-Ḥarith, Al-Najjar, Sa'idah, Jusham, Al-Aus, Tha'labah, and partly belonged to such large and powerful Jewish tribes as the Banu Ḳuraiẓa, Al-Naḍir, Ḳainuḳa'.但是,宣傳停下來之間的許多猶太人居住在城市和周邊國家,誰被部分的保護下,執政的阿拉伯部落,在巴努'奧夫,基地哈里斯,基地納賈爾, Sa'idah , Jusham ,基地澳大利亞, Tha'labah ,部分屬於這種大國和強國猶太部落的巴努Ḳuraiẓa ,基地低潮, Ḳainuḳa ' 。 In the first year of the Hegira Mohammed was apparently on friendly terms with them, not yet recognizing their religion to be different from his; indeed, they were included in a treaty which he made with the inhabitants of Medina shortly after his arrival among them.在第一年的Hegira穆罕默德顯然是友好與他們尚未認識到他們的宗教是不同的從他的;事實上,它們被列入條約,他與居民的梅迪納後不久,他抵達其中之一。 The prophet and his adherents borrowed from these Jews many ritual customs, as, for instance, the regularity and formality of public prayers, fasting-which later on, following the Christian example, was extended to a whole month-the more important of the dietary laws, and the "ḳiblah" (direction in which one turns during prayer) toward Jerusalem, which was subsequently changed to the ḳiblah toward Mecca.先知和他的追隨者從這些借來的猶太人許多禮儀習俗,如,舉例來說,規律和形式的公共祈禱,齋戒,後來上後,基督教例如,延長到整整一個月,更重要的飲食法律,以及“ ḳiblah ” (方向,其中一輪流在祈禱)對耶路撒冷,後來改為ḳiblah對麥加。 But the longer Mohammed studied the Jews the more clearly he perceived that there were irreconcilable differences between their religion and his, especially when the belief in his prophetic mission became the criterion of a true Moslem.但是,從長遠穆罕默德研究了猶太人的更清楚,他認為,有不可調和的分歧之間的宗教和他的,尤其是當他的信仰先知使命,成為標準的一個真正的回教。

Relation to Jews.猶太人的關係。

The Jews, on their side, could not let pass unchallenged the way in which the Koran appropriated Biblical accounts and personages; for instance, its making Abraham an Arab and the founder of the Ka'bah at Mecca.猶太人,他們的一方,不能錯過挑戰的方式,可蘭經批准聖經賬戶和人士,例如,它使亞伯拉罕一個阿拉伯和的創始人Ka'bah在麥加。 The prophet, who looked upon every evident correction of his gospel as an attack upon his own reputation, brooked no contradiction, and unhesitatingly threw down the gauntlet to the Jews.先知,誰看後都明顯糾正他的福音作為攻擊自己的聲譽, brooked沒有任何矛盾,並毫不猶豫地扔了挑戰的猶太人。 Numerous passages in the Koran show how he gradually went from slight thrusts to malicious vituperations and brutal attacks on the customs and beliefs of the Jews.許多段落古蘭經表明他如何逐步從輕微重點惡意vituperations和野蠻襲擊的風俗和信仰的猶太人。 When they justified themselves by referring to the Bible, Mohammed, who had taken nothing therefrom at first hand, accused them of intentionally concealing its true meaning or of entirely misunderstanding it, and taunted them with being "asses who carry books" (sura lxii. 5).當他們自身道理提到聖經,穆罕默德,誰採取了什麼由此第一手,指控他們故意掩蓋其真正的意義,或完全誤解,並辱罵他們是“誰進行評估書” (蘇拉lxii 。 5 ) 。 The increasing bitterness of this vituperation, which was similarly directed against the less numerous Christians of Medina, indicated that in time Mohammed would not hesitate to proceed to actual hostilities. The outbreak of the latter was deferred by the fact that the hatred of the prophet was turned more forcibly in another direction, namely, against the people of Mecca, whose earlier refusal of Islam and whose attitude toward the community appeared to him at Medina as a personal insult which constituted a sufficient cause for war.越來越苦澀的壞話,這是同樣針對少許多基督徒梅迪納指出,在穆罕默德將毫不猶豫地著手進行實際的行動。爆發後者被推遲的事實是,仇恨是先知變得更加強行在另一個方向,即對人民的麥加,其早些時候拒絕伊斯蘭教和他們的態度似乎社會對他在梅迪納作為個人侮辱構成了充分的理由的戰爭。 The Koran, in order to lead its adherents to the belief that side by side with the humane precepts of religion were others commanding religious war ("jihad"), even to the extent of destroying human life, had to incorporate a number of passages enjoining with increasing emphasis the faithful to take up the sword for their faith.可蘭經,以導致其信徒相信,並肩與人道的宗教戒律被別人指揮的宗教戰爭( “聖戰” ) ,甚至程度的破壞人的生命,不得不把一些段落責令與日益重視忠實地拿起劍為他們的信仰。 The earlier of these passages enunciated only the right of defensive action, but later ones emphasized the duty of taking the offensiveagainst unbelievers-ie, in the first place, the people of Mecca-until they should accept the new faith or be annihilated.早先的這些通道不僅闡明的權利的防衛行動,但後來的強調責任採取offensiveagainst信教,即,擺在首位,人民的麥加,直到他們應該接受新的信仰或將全軍覆沒。 The prophet's policy, steadily pursuing one object, and hesitating at no means to achieve it, soon actualized this new doctrine.GHG先知的政策,穩步推行一個對象,並不惜任何手段來實現它,不久這一新的現實doctrine.GHG

First Raids.第一次空襲。

Mohammed's first attacks upon the Meccans were of a predatory nature, made upon the caravans, which, as all classes had a financial interest in them, were the very life of the city.穆罕默德的第一次襲擊後Meccans是一種掠奪性的性質,取得的住房,因為所有類別的金融興趣,是非常生活的城市。 The early expeditions were of comparatively little importance; and the battle of Badr in the second year of the Hegira was the first encounter of really great moment.早期的探險者相對較少的重要性;和戰役的巴德爾在第二年的Hegira是第一次遇到的真正偉大的時刻。 In this battle the Moslems were successful and killed nearly fifty of the Ḳuraish, besides taking prisoners.在這場鬥爭中的穆斯林取得了成功,並造成近50的Ḳuraish ,除了犯人。 This battle was of supreme importance in the history of Islam.這場戰鬥是最高意義的歷史,伊斯蘭教。 The prophet had preached the doctrine that war against the unbelievers was a religious duty; and now he could claim that God was on his side.先知曾鼓吹戰爭的理論,對信教是一種宗教義務,現在他可以宣稱,上帝是在他身邊。 His power was consolidated; the faith of the wavering was strengthened; and his opponents were terrified.他的權力得到了鞏固;的信念的動搖是加強;和他的對手是嚇壞了。 The die was cast; Islam was to be a religion of conquest with the sword. After the battle of Badr, Mohammed dared to manifest his hostility to the Jews openly.模具是鑄造;伊斯蘭教是一種宗教的征服與劍。後巴德爾戰役,穆罕默德敢於表現他的敵視猶太人公開。 A Jewess, named Asma, who had written satirical verses on the battle of Badr, was assassinated, by command of Mohammed, as she lay in bed with her child at the breast.阿Jewess ,命名阿斯瑪賈,誰寫了諷刺詩對的巴達爾戰鬥,被暗殺,由穆罕默德的指揮,因為她躺在床上與她的孩子在胸前。 The murderer was publicly commended the next day by the prophet.兇手公開讚揚了第二天的先知。 A few weeks later Abu 'Afak, a Jewish poet whose verses had similarly offended, was likewise murdered.幾週後阿布'阿法克,一個猶太詩人的詩句也得罪了,也同樣被殺害。 It is said that Mohammed had expressed a desire to be rid of him.有人說,穆罕默德曾表示希望擺脫他。 These were single instances. The prophet soon found a pretext for attacking in a body the Banu Ḳainuḳa', one of the three influential Jewish tribes at Medina.這些都是單一的情況。先知很快找到了藉口攻擊於一體的巴努Ḳainuḳa ' ,一個有影響力的三個猶太部落在梅迪納。 They were besieged in their stronghold for fifteen days, and finally surrendered.他們被圍困在他們的大本營15天,終於繳械投降。 Mohammed was prevented from putting them all to death only by the insistent pleading in their behalf of Abdallah b.穆罕默德是無法把所有這些死亡只有堅持懇求其代表阿卜杜拉灣 Ubai, the influential leader of the opposition whom Mohammed did not dare offend. Ubai ,有影響力的反對派領袖穆罕默德誰也不敢得罪。 Instead, the whole tribe was banished, and its goods were confiscated.相反,整個部落被放逐,其貨物被沒收。 The prophet was thus enabled to give material benefits to his followers.先知,因此能夠給予的物質利益,以他的追隨者。

Death to Jewish Poets.死亡猶太詩人。

Medina now enjoyed a few months of comparative quiet, disturbed only by a few unimportant marauding expeditions.梅迪納現在享有幾個月的相對平靜,不安只有少數幾個不重要的劫掠探險。 The third year of the Hegira was marked by the assassination of a third Jewish poet, Ka'b b.第三年的Hegira的特點是暗殺的第三猶太詩人, Ka'b灣 al-Ashraf, who by his verses had stirred up the Ḳuraish at Mecca against Mohammed.鋁阿什拉,誰他的詩句已挑起了在麥加Ḳuraish對穆罕默德。 The prophet prayed to be delivered from him; and there was no lack of men eager to execute his wishes.先知是禱告交付他並沒有缺乏男子急於執行他的願望。 The circumstances attending the murder were particularly revolting.出席的情況下被謀殺尤其令人作嘔。 At about the same time a Jewish merchant, Abu Sanina by name, was murdered, and the Jews complained to Mohammed of such treacherous dealing.大約在同一時間一個猶太商人,阿布Sanina的名字,被殺害,和猶太人抱怨穆罕默德這種背信棄義的處理。 A new treaty was concluded with them, which, however, did not greatly allay their fears.一項新的條約是與他們的結論,但這些並沒有大大減輕他們的恐懼。 Some months after these events (Jan., 625) occurred the battle of Uḥud, in which the Meccans took revenge for their defeat at Badr.幾個月後,這些事件( 1 , 625 )發生的戰鬥,侯德,其中Meccans了報復他們的失敗在巴德爾。 Seventy-four Moslems were killed in the fight; Mohammed himself was badly wounded; and the prophet's prestige was seriously affected. 74名穆斯林被殺害的鬥爭中;穆罕默德本人身受重傷;和先知的威信受到嚴重影響。 The Jews were especially jubilant, declaring that if he had claimed Badr to be a mark of divine favor, Uḥud, by the same process of reasoning, must be a proof of disfavor. Various answers to these doubts and arguments may be found in the Koran, sura iii.猶太人特別歡欣鼓舞,宣稱如果他聲稱巴德爾是一個神聖的標誌贊成,侯德,由同一進程的推理,必須是一個不利的證據。各種回答這些疑問和爭論中可以找到可蘭經,蘇拉三。

Attacks the Banu al-Nadir.攻擊巴努基地,納迪爾。

Mohammed now needed some opportunity to recover his prestige and to make up for the disappointment of Uḥud.穆罕默德現在需要一些機會,恢復他的威望和彌補的失望侯德。 He found it the next year in an attack upon the Banu al-Naḍir, another of the influential Jewish tribes in the vicinity of Medina.他認為明年在攻擊時巴努基地,低潮,另一個有影響力的猶太部落附近的麥地。 A pretext was easily invented. Mohammed had visited the settlement of the tribe to discuss the amount of blood-money to be paid for the murder of two men by an ally of the Jews, when he suddenly left the gathering and went home. He is said by some to have declared that the angel Gabriel had revealed to him a plot of the Banu al-Naḍir to kill him as he sat among them.藉口很容易發明。穆罕默德訪問了該解決的部落,討論的數額血錢支付謀殺了兩名男子的盟友,猶太人,當他突然離開的收集和回家。他是說,一些人已經宣布,天使加布里埃爾透露他的陰謀的巴努基地,納迪爾要殺死他,他坐在其中之一。 The latter were immediately informed that they must leave the vicinity.後者立即告知,他們必須離開附近。 They refused to obey; and Mohammed attacked their stronghold.他們拒絕服從;和穆罕默德攻擊他們的據點。 After a siege lasting more than a fortnight, and after their date-trees had been cut down-contrary to Arabian ethics of war-the Jewish tribe surrendered and was allowed to emigrate with all its possessions, on condition of leaving its arms behind (Sprenger, "Das Leben des Moḥammad," iii. 162; "Allg. Zeit. des Jud." pp. 58, 92).經過持久圍困一個多星期後,他們的日期樹已經降低,違反職業道德的阿拉伯戰爭的猶太部落投降,被允許移居其所有的財產,但條件離開其武器落後( Sprenger “達斯萬穆罕默德的生活, ”三。 162 ; “ Allg 。時代。沙漠珠德。 ”頁。現年58歲, 92 ) 。 The rich lands thus left vacant were distributed among the refugees who had fled with Mohammed from Mecca and who had hitherto been more or less of a burden on the hospitality of the people of Medina.豐富的土地因此留下的空缺被分配給難民逃離誰與穆罕默德由麥加,誰迄今或多或少的負擔,好客的人民的梅迪納。 The prophet was thus able both to satisfy his hatred against the Jews and materially to strengthen his position.先知因此能夠同時滿足他仇視猶太人和物質來加強他的立場。

Destroys the Banu Ḳuraiẓa.摧毀了巴努Ḳuraiẓa 。

In the fifth year of the Hegira the Banu Ḳuraiẓa, the last Jewish tribe remaining in the neighborhood of Medina, were disposed of. Again the direct cause for attack was a matter of policy.在第五個年頭的Hegira的巴努Ḳuraiẓa ,最後剩下的猶太部落在附近的麥地,被棄置。同樣的直接原因的攻擊是一個政策問題。 The Ḳuraish of Mecca, whose caravans were constantly being harassed by the Moslems and by other disaffected tribes including the Jews, had formed the project of uniting their forces against Mohammed.該Ḳuraish麥加,其住房被不斷騷擾,穆斯林和其他心懷不滿的部落,包括猶太人,成立了該項目的聯合部隊對他們的穆罕默德。 The leader of this enterprise was the able and vigorous Abu Sufyan of Mecca.領導這家企業是能夠和有力的阿布揚的麥加。 The allies encamped before Medina and engaged in what is known as "the battle of the trenches," so called from the manner in which Medina was protected from attack.紮營的前盟友梅迪納和從事所謂的“戰鬥的戰壕, ”從所謂的方式,梅迪納保護免受攻擊。 The Moslems succeeded in keeping the Banu Ḳuraiẓa out of the fight by making them and the allies mutually suspicious, and the allies finally withdrew without having accomplished their purpose.穆斯林成功地保持了巴努Ḳuraiẓa的鬥爭,使它們與盟國相互懷疑,並最終退出的盟友,而不必完成它們的目的。 The Moslems also were disappointed in having no plunder, so that Mohammed felt called upon to provide a diversion.穆斯林群眾也失望沒有掠奪,因此,穆罕默德認為呼籲提供一個轉移。 The allies had scarcely departed, the Moslems had not yet laid down their arms, when the prophet claimed to have received a communication from Gabriel bidding him march instantly against the Banu Ḳuraiẓa.盟國幾乎沒有離開,穆斯林尚未放下武器,當先知聲稱已經收到了來自加布里埃爾招標3月他立即對巴努Ḳuraiẓa 。 The last-named, who had no time to prepare for a long siege, retired to their castles, and surrendered after two weeks, trusting to escape as their kinsmen of the Banu Ḳainuẓa' and the Banu al-Naḍir had done.最後命名,誰沒有時間來準備長期圍困,退休的城堡,並交出兩個星期後,相信逃避作為麵團的巴努Ḳainuẓa '和巴努基地,納迪爾做了。 Their fate was left to the decision of Sa'ad b.他們的命運是離開的決定,薩阿德灣 Mu'adh, who, although of the tribe of Aus, the allies of the Ḳuraiẓa, felt bitter toward them on account of their supposed treachery toward the Moslems. Mu'adh ,誰,但該部落的澳大利亞,盟國的Ḳuraiẓa ,認為對他們痛苦的考慮他們的假設背信棄義對穆斯林。 He decided that all the men should be killed, the women and children sold as slaves, and the property divided among the army.他決定,所有的男人應該被殺死,婦女和兒童當作奴隸出售,和財產分配的軍隊。 The carnage began the next morning, and between 600 and 700 victims were beheaded beside the trenches in which they were to be buried.大屠殺開始了第二天早上,和600至700名受害者被斬首旁邊的壕溝,他們在被掩埋。 Mohammed refers to the siege of Medina and the massacre of the Jews in sura xxxiii.穆罕默德是指包圍梅迪納和屠殺的猶太人在蘇拉三十三。

Attacks Jews of Khaibar.襲擊猶太人所造。

There were now no more Jews in the vicinity of Medina, but those at Khaibar continued to annoy the prophet.現在有沒有更多的猶太人在附近的麥地,但這些在所造繼續煩擾先知。 Abu al-Ḥuḳaiḳ of the Banu al-Naḍir, who had settled at Khaibar, was suspected of inciting the Bedouins to plunder the Moslems.阿布- Ḥuḳaiḳ的巴努基地,低潮,誰解決了在所造,涉嫌煽動貝都因人掠奪穆斯林。 Accordingly five men of the Banu Khazraj were sent secretly and murdered him.因此五名男子的巴努Khazraj被秘密殺害他。 Usair, who succeeded him as chief of Khaibar, was likewise assassinated at Mohammed's command.全美,誰接替他擔任的所造,也同樣在穆罕默德遇刺身亡的命令。 In the sixth year of the Hegira Mohammed made a treaty with the Ḳuraish, at Ḥudaibiyah, whither he had proceeded with some of his followers with the intention of making the pilgrimage to Mecca. The Ḳuraish objected to his entering the city, and this treaty was made instead.在第六個年頭的Hegira穆罕默德發了條約的Ḳuraish ,在Ḥudaibiyah ,何處,他已著手與一些他的追隨者的意圖是使麥加朝聖。 Ḳuraish的反對,他進入城市,這一條約是提出代替。 It provided for a cessation of hostilities for ten years.它提供了一個停止敵對行動,為10年。 In the same year Mohammed sent embassies to the rulers of the six surrounding states inviting them to embrace Islam, but the King of Abyssinia was the only one who sent a favorable reply.同年穆罕默德使館發出的統治者的六個周邊國家,邀請他們擁抱伊斯蘭教,但國王的阿比西尼亞是唯一一個誰發出了一個有利的答复。 In the next year the prophet attacked the Jews of Khaibar in order to reward with the rich plunder of that place the followers who had accompanied him to Ḥudaibiyah.在明年的先知攻擊猶太人所造,以獎勵與豐富的掠奪那個地方的信徒誰陪同他Ḥudaibiyah 。 The Jews were conquered after a brave resistance, and their leader, Kinanah, was killed.猶太人被征服後,英勇抵抗,他們的領袖, Kinanah ,被打死。 Mohammed married the chief's young wife on the battle-field; and a very rich booty fell into the hands of the Moslems.穆罕默德結婚的首席年輕的妻子對戰場;和非常豐富的戰利品落入手中的穆斯林。 Some Jews were still left at Khaibar, but merely as tillers of the soil, and on condition of giving up one-half the produce.一些猶太人仍然留在所造,而只是作為分蘗的土壤和條件,放棄一半的生產。 They remained until Omar banished all Jews from the country.他們仍然奧馬爾放逐,直到所有的猶太人撤出該國。 The Jews of the Wadi alḲura, of Fadak, and of Taima were still left; but they surrendered before the end of the year.猶太人的alḲura谷的Fadak ,並Taima仍然留下,但他們投降之前,在今年年底。 An attempt on the life of Mohammed was made at Khaibar by a Jewish woman named Zainab, who, in revenge for the death of her male relatives in battle, put poison in a dish prepared by her for the prophet.企圖謀殺穆罕默德是在所造的一個猶太女子名為Zainab ,誰在報復她死亡的男性親屬在戰場上,把毒藥在一盤由她編寫的先知。 One of Mohammed's followers who par-took of the food died almost immediately afterward; but the prophet, who had eaten more sparingly, escaped.其中穆罕默德的追隨者誰桿了食物幾乎立即死亡之後,但先知,誰吃了更多的節制,逃脫。 He, however, complained of the effects of the poison to the end of his life.但是,他抱怨的影響,毒藥結束他的生命。

His Domestic Life.他的家庭生活。

During the twenty-five years of his union with Ḥadijah Mohammed had no other wife; but scarcely two months had elapsed after her death (619) when he married Sauda, the widow of Sakran, who, with her husband, had become an early convert to Islam and who was one of the emigrants to Abyssinia.在二十五年的工會與Ḥadijah穆罕默德沒有其他的妻子,但幾乎兩個月後已經過去了她去世( 619 )當他結婚Sauda的遺孀Sakran ,誰與她的丈夫,已成為早期轉換伊斯蘭教,誰是一個移民到阿比西尼亞。 At about the same time Mohammed contracted an engagement with 'A'ishah, the six-year-old daughter of Abu Bakr, and married her shortly after his arrival at Medina.大約在同一時間穆罕默德合同約定與' A'ishah , 6歲的女兒阿布貝克,並和她結婚後不久,他在抵達梅迪納。 'A'ishah was the only one of his wives who had not been previously married; and she remained his favorite to the end. ' A'ishah是唯一的一個,他的妻子誰以前沒有結婚,她仍然是他最喜愛的結束。 After his death she exercised great influence over the Moslems.他去世後,她行使重大影響的穆斯林。 In his married life, as well as in his religious life, a change seems to have come over Mohammed after his removal to Medina.在他的婚姻生活,以及在他的宗教生活,改變似乎已經超過穆罕默德後,去除梅迪納。 In the space of ten years he took twelve or thirteen wives and had several concubines: even the faithful were scandalized, and the prophet had to resort to alleged special revelations from God to justify his conduct.在空間的十年,他12或13的妻子和有幾個小妾:即使是忠實的人震驚,並先知不得不求助於所稱特殊的啟示來自上帝來證明自己的行為。 Such was the case when he wished to marry Zainab, the wife of his adopted son Zaid.這種情況時,他想結婚Zainab的妻子,他收養的兒子扎伊德。 Two of his wives were Jewesses: one was the beautiful Riḥanah of the Banu Ḳuraiẓa, whom he married immediately after the massacre of her husband and other relatives; the other was Safya, the wife of Kinanah, whom, as stated above, Mohammed married on the battle-field of Khaibar.他的兩個妻子Jewesses :一個是美麗的Riḥanah的巴努Ḳuraiẓa ,他結婚後立即屠殺她的丈夫和其他親屬,其他是Safya的妻子Kinanah ,其中,如前所述,穆罕默德結婚在戰場的所造。 None of these wives bore him any children.所有這些他的妻子承擔任何兒童。 Mohammed built little huts for his wives adjoining the mosque at Medina, each wife having her own apartment.穆罕默德建造小茅屋為他的妻子毗鄰清真寺梅迪納,每個妻子在自己的公寓。 At his death there were nine of these apartments, corresponding to the number of his wives living at that time.在他去世有九個這些公寓,相應的數目他的妻子住在那個時候。 Mohammed's daughter Faṭimah, by Ḥadijah, married Ali and became the mother of Ḥasan and Ḥusain.穆罕默德的女兒法蒂瑪,由Ḥadijah ,已婚,並成為阿里的母親哈桑和侯賽因。

The last three years of Mohammed's life were marked by a steady increase of power.過去三年來的穆罕默德的生活中出現了穩步增長的力量。 In the eighth year of the Hegira (630) he entered the city of Mecca as a conqueror, showing great forbearance toward his old enemies.在第八個年頭的Hegira ( 630 )他進入麥加城作為一個征服者,表現出極大的克制對他的老敵人。 This event decided his eventual supremacy over the whole of Arabia.這一事件最終決定他的至高無上整個沙特阿拉伯。 Other conquests extended his authority to the Syrian frontier and as far south as Ṭa'if; and in the following years embassies poured in from the different parts of the peninsula bringing the submission of the various tribes.其他征服他的權力擴展到敘利亞邊界南至塔伊夫;並在隨後的幾年中投入大使館從不同地區的半島將提交各部落。 Mohammed's death occurred in the eleventh year of the Hegira, after he had been ill with a fever for over a week.穆罕默德的死亡發生在11年的Hegira後,他一直生病,發燒超過一個星期。 He was buried where he died, in the apartment of 'A'ishah; and the spot is now a place of pilgrimage.他被安葬在他死後,在公寓的' A'ishah ;和現場現在是一個地方的朝聖。

Richard Gottheil, Mary W. Montgomery, Hubert Grimme理查德Gottheil ,瑪麗美國蒙哥馬利,休伯特格力莫
Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.猶太百科全書出版01年至1906年之間。

Bibliography: 參考書目:
Grimme, Mohammed; M. Hartmann, in Allg.格力莫,穆罕默德;哈特曼先生,在Allg 。 Zeit.特。 des Jud. lviii.沙漠珠德。 lviii 。 66-68, 79-80, 89-92, 102-104; Ibn Hisham, Das Leben Mohammeds, ed. 66-68 , 79-80 , 89-92 , 102-104 ;本希沙姆,達斯生活Mohammeds ,編輯。 Wüstenfeld, Göttingen, 1858; W. Wüstenfeld ,哥廷根, 1858 ;總統 Muir, The Life of Mahomet, London, 1877; A.繆爾,生命的穆罕默德,倫敦, 1877年的A. Sprenger, Das Leben und die Lehre des Mohammad, Berlin, 1869. See also Islam; Koran. Sprenger ,達斯生平與模具教萬穆罕默德,柏林, 1869年。又見伊斯蘭教可蘭經。

Additional Information 附加信息

Comments from a Muslim visitor to BELIEVE:評論從一個穆斯林遊客認為:

About "Muhammadanism". 有關“ Muhammadanism ” 。 This term is not just "offensive", it is regarded as inacceptable in Islam. Muhammadanism suggests a religion based on what Muhammad (Peace be upon him) supposedly "said in the Qur'an", but it is not Muhammad (PBUH) who spoke, it was Allah (God), and only He was the One Who sent down the Qur'an (Or Koran). There is one Surah (Chapter) in the Qur'an which emphasises the importance of this. 這個詞不僅是“進攻性” ,它被看作是不能接受伊斯蘭教。 Muhammadanism提出了宗教的基礎上什麼穆罕默德(願他安息)理應說: “在古蘭經” ,但它並不是穆罕默德( PBUH )誰以, 這是真主(上帝) ,而且只有他一個是誰發出了古蘭經(或者古蘭經) 。有一個章節(第三章)在古蘭經其中強調這一點的重要性。

'And say: "All the praises and thanks be to Allah, Who has not begotten a son (nor an offspring), and Who has no partner in (His) Dominion, nor He is low to have a Walî (helper, protector or supporter). And magnify Him with all the magnificence, [Allahu-Akbar (Allah is the Most Great)].' '說: “所有的讚揚和感謝真主是,誰沒有生一個兒子(也不是一個後代) ,以及誰沒有合作夥伴, (他)自治領,也不低,他有一個瓦利(助手,保護者或支持者) 。放大他所有的輝煌, [真主,阿克巴(安拉是最偉大的) ] 。 (Holy Qur'an, Surah 17, Verse 111) (古蘭經, 17個章節,新詩111 )

Replacing "Muhammadanism" with "Islam" is really the best thing to do, because never has there been an Islamic scholar which used this term to describe Islam, it has no valid ground. Moreover, Islam means "Submission to God", and this term is MUCH more appropriate than a term based on a human's name. ( Note; It IS required in Islam to strive to be as Muhammad (PBUH), for he was the personification of the Qur'an! Next to the Qur'an, there is a book called the Sunnah, which contains sayings, acts, and words and acts of approval of the Prophet (PBUH).取代“ Muhammadanism ”與“伊斯蘭教”真的是最好的事情,因為從未有過的伊斯蘭學者使用這個詞來描述伊斯蘭教,它沒有任何正當理由。此外,伊斯蘭教的意思是“向上帝” ,這長期更適當的任期比的基礎上人的名字。 請注意,這是需要在伊斯蘭教力求為穆罕默德( PBUH ) ,因為他的化身古蘭經!下一步古蘭經,有一本書叫做松納,其中包含諺語,行為和言論和行為的批准先知( PBUH ) 。

AR Mulder阿肯色州穆爾德

PS you might ask yourself what value the (Peace be upon Him) means after the name Muhammad (PBUH). It is what Muslims say whenever the Prophet's (PBUH) name is mentioned.聚苯乙烯您可能會問自己什麼價值(願他安息)指的名字後,穆罕默德( PBUH ) 。這是什麼時說,穆斯林先知( PBUH )的名字是提及。 The actual Arabic words, from which this was translated mean; May the mercy and peace of God be upon him.實際的阿拉伯文字樣,而這是翻譯的意思; 5月的擺佈與和平的上帝保佑他。

Additional Information 附加信息

BELIEVE Editor's Comment相信編輯的評論

There are some times when it is just apparently not possible to please anyone!也有一些時候,它只是顯然不可能請人! As a Protestant Christian Church, we think we have made a valid effort at presenting the Islamic Faith as thoroughly and accurately as possible, in around 30 separate subject presentations.作為一個基督教新教,我們認為我們作出了有效的努力,提出了伊斯蘭信仰的徹底和盡可能準確地在各地30個不同的主題發言。 As a result, we get large amounts of vicious e-mail from many Christians, who feel we have "sold out" to Muslims in an unreasonably "nice" presentation.因此,我們獲得了大量的惡性電子郵件從許多基督徒,誰覺得我們已經“售罄” ,以穆斯林不合理的“善舉” ,介紹情況。 After 9/11, we even received several dozen death threats from Christians, for being "terrorist sympathizers!"經過9 / 11 ,我們甚至還收到數十個死亡威脅基督教徒,是“恐怖主義的同情者! ” (There is NOTHING in BELIEVE that remotely condones ANY terrorism, particularly since Jesus Taught PEACE and COMPASSION.) Even when we would respond to such incredibly vicious attacks by mentioning that we are a Christian Protestant Church, and that I am a Pastor, the threats and the swearing continued. (沒有什麼認為,在遠程容忍任何恐怖主義,特別是自耶穌教和平和同情心。 )即便我們將應對這種難以置信的惡性襲擊提的是,我們是一個基督教新教,而且我是一個牧師的威脅宣誓就職,並繼續進行。 (I sort of wonder what Jesus thinks about an alleged Christian attacking a Pastor and a Church like that!) (我那種不知道耶穌認為有關指稱的襲擊基督教牧師和教會一樣! )

At the same time, we get some violently vicious e-mails from alleged Muslims as well:與此同時,我們得到一些暴力的惡性電子郵件指稱穆斯林以及:
No I know why I should hate you... 不,我知道我為什麼要恨你... you people are good only for putting words in order that only will take you all to hell... 你人是好的只有把字,以便只將帶您所有的地獄...

I really wish you see God soon and he will tell you how wrong you are and how much wrong you have spread...我真希望你看到上帝很快,他會告訴你如何你錯了多少錯了你有蔓延...

And after I (calmly) tried to clarify that we have tried to fairly present Islam, and that I am a Man of God, and that his note appeared to be a mild threat, the response was:之後,我和(冷靜地)試圖澄清,我們曾試圖相當本伊斯蘭教,而且我是一個人的上帝,他注意到似乎是一個溫和的威脅,回答是:
Well I'm not making threats... 那麼我不是決策的威脅... If you feel it's a threat fine with me cause you always find Muslims making threats and calling them terrorist while you have right to say anything against our religion and prophet and if we say we didn't like your idea about it you think it's a threat... 如果您覺得這是一個威脅我的罰款造成您總能找到使穆斯林的威脅,並呼籲他們的恐怖,而你有權利說任何話對我們的宗教和預言,如果我們說我們不喜歡你的想法,因為你認為它是一個威脅...

I wish that God punishes you right now...我想,上帝懲罰你現在... Instead of just burning you in hell...而不只是燃燒你在地獄裡... So you feel it...所以,你覺得...

If you think this is a threat threaten me with one too...如果您認為這是一種威脅威脅我,一個太...

Well, in matters like this, we have concluded over the years that if we get attacks from both sides on an issue, then we may have presented the issue somewhere near the middle, which is always our goal.那麼,這樣的問題,我們已經結束多年,如果我們的攻擊,雙方就某個問題,那麼我們可能提出的問題附近的某處中,這始終是我們的目標。 It's really disappointing, though, to present a purely informational site, almost an academic site, and be attacked violently from both sides.這真是令人失望,不過,提出一個純粹的信息網站,幾乎一個學術網站,以及暴力攻擊雙方。 (As a point of order, several dozen e-mails from alleged Christians were FAR more vicious and threatening than this one. We have noticed that Muslims virtually never use swear words while Christians seem not to be able to write a sentence without them! We even contacted the FBI regarding a couple of the death threats [but not this one].) (作為一個點的秩序,數十個電子郵件指稱基督徒更為邪惡和威脅超過這一點。我們注意到,穆斯林幾乎從未使用發誓的話,而基督徒似乎沒有能夠寫一個句子沒有他們!我們甚至FBI聯繫,就一對夫婦的死亡威脅[但不是這1 ] ) 。

Is it any wonder that peace between Muslims and Christians seems so impossible?這是任何疑問,和平的穆斯林和基督教徒看來是不可能? Even though there are many rational, calm and peace-loving people on both sides, there seem to still be plenty of irrational fanatics on both sides who seem to just be looking for an excuse to kill something.儘管有很多合理的,平靜的和愛好和平的兩岸人民的看法,似乎仍然是大量的非理性的狂熱雙方誰似乎只是要尋找一個藉口殺害了。 And, as humans, we consider ourselves "intelligent!??"此外,作為人類,我們認為自己“聰明! ? ”

And, for the record, the 2,000+ articles in the BELIEVE site were each selected for giving balanced presentations of their specific subjects, presenting both the strengths and weaknesses of each position. If a person of ANY Faith is averse to ever hearing a single negative word about one's own Faith, then BELIEVE is not the place to be.此外,根據記錄, 2000 +的訴訟中,相信每一個網站被選定為平衡介紹給他們的具體問題,提出雙方的長處和短處,每個排名位置。如果一個人的任何信仰是不願意聽任何一個單一的負談談自己的信仰,然後認為這是不是地方。

Also, see:此外,見:
Islam, Muhammad 伊斯蘭教,穆罕默德
Koran, Qur'an 古蘭經,古蘭經
Pillars of Faith 信仰支柱
Abraham 亞伯拉罕
Testament of Abraham 全書亞伯拉罕
Allah 安拉
Hadiths 聖訓
Revelation - Hadiths from Book 1 of al-Bukhari 啟示-從圖書的聖訓1布哈里
Belief - Hadiths from Book 2 of al-Bukhari 信仰-從圖書的聖訓2布哈里
Knowledge - Hadiths from Book 3 of al-Bukhari 知識-從圖書的聖訓3布哈里
Times of the Prayers - Hadiths from Book 10 of al-Bukhari 時代的祈禱-從圖書的聖訓1 0布哈里
Shortening the Prayers (At-Taqseer) - Hadiths from Book 20 of al-Bukhari 縮短祈禱(在Taqseer ) -聖訓從圖書2 0布哈里
Pilgrimmage (Hajj) - Hadiths from Book 26 of al-Bukhari 西遊記(朝聖) -聖訓從圖書2 6布哈里
Fighting for the Cause of Allah (Jihad) - Hadiths of Book 52 of al-Bukhari 戰鬥的原因阿拉(傑哈德) -聖訓圖書5 2布哈里
ONENESS, UNIQUENESS OF ALLAH (TAWHEED) - Hadiths of Book 93 of al-Bukhari 統一性,唯一性安拉( TAWHEED ) -聖訓圖書9 3布哈里
Hanafiyyah School Theology (Sunni) Hanafiyyah學校神學(遜尼派)
Malikiyyah School Theology (Sunni) Malikiyyah學校神學(遜尼派)
Shafi'iyyah School Theology (Sunni) Shafi'iyyah學校神學(遜尼派)
Hanbaliyyah School Theology (Sunni) Hanbaliyyah學校神學(遜尼派)
Maturidiyyah Theology (Sunni) Maturidiyyah神學(遜尼派)
Ash'ariyyah Theology (Sunni) Ash'ariyyah神學(遜尼派)
Mutazilah Theology Mutazilah神學
Ja'fari Theology (Shia) Ja'fari神學(什葉派)
Nusayriyyah Theology (Shia) Nusayriyyah神學(什葉派)
Zaydiyyah Theology (Shia) Zaydiyyah神學(什葉派)
Kharijiyyah Kharijiyyah
Imams (Shia) 伊瑪目(什葉派)
Druze 德魯茲
Qarmatiyyah (Shia) Qarmatiyyah (什葉派)
Ahmadiyyah Ahmadiyyah
Ishmael, Ismail 伊斯梅爾,司馬義艾買
Early Islamic History Outline 早期伊斯蘭歷史綱要
Hegira Hegira
Averroes 阿威羅伊
Avicenna 阿維森納
Machpela Machpela
Kaaba, Black Stone 克爾白,黑石頭
Ramadan 齋月
Sunnites, Sunni 遜尼派,遜尼派
Shiites, Shia 什葉派穆斯林,什葉派穆斯林
Mecca 麥加
Medina 麥地那
Sahih, al-Bukhari Sahih ,布哈里
Sufism 蘇菲主義
Wahhabism 瓦哈比主義
Abu Bakr 艾布伯克爾
Abbasids Abbasids
Ayyubids Ayyubids
Umayyads 伍瑪亞德
Fatima 法蒂瑪
Fatimids (Shia) Fatimids (什葉派)
Ismailis (Shia) 伊斯瑪儀派(什葉派)
Mamelukes Mamelukes
Saladin 薩拉丁
Seljuks Seljuks
Aisha 阿伊莎
Ali 阿里
Lilith 莉莉絲
Islamic Calendar 伊斯蘭日曆
Interactive Muslim Calendar 互動穆斯林日曆

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