Jewish Genesis - (Bereshit)猶太成因-( B ereshit)

(Editor's Note: There are a number of subtle differences from Christian versions. This seems interesting, since they are both based on the exact same original source texts. The variations are therefore because of the differing perspectives of the scholars in the two religions who translated the texts. A reader might also want to look at a Literal Translation of the Christian Genesis, to see the original word sequences, as understood from the Christian perspective.) (編者注:有一些細微的差別從基督教的版本。這似乎有趣,因為它們都是基於相同的原始來源的案文。差異,因此由於不同觀點的學者在兩個宗教誰翻譯文。讀者也可以看直譯的基督教起源,看到原來的詞序列的理解從基督教的觀點。 )

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Bereshit (Genesis) 1 Bereshit (創) 1

1. 1 。 When God began to create the heaven and the earth -當上帝開始創造天堂和地球-

2. 2 。 the earth being unformed and void, with darkness over the surface of the deep and a wind from God sweeping over the water -地球正在未成形的和無效的,與黑暗的表面深和神風席捲的水-

3. 3 。 God said, "Let there be light"; and there was light.上帝說, “讓我們有輕” ,並有輕。

4. 4 。 God saw that the light was good, and God separated the light from the darkness.上帝看到,光線好,上帝分開考慮從黑暗。

5. 5 。 God called the light Day, and the darkness He called Night.上帝稱為輕日,黑暗中他呼籲夜晚。 And there was evening and there was morning, a first day.有晚上和今天上午有一個第一天。

6. 6 。 God said, "Let there be an expanse in the midst of the water, that it may separate water from water."上帝說, “讓我們有一個廣闊的中間的水,它可以單獨的水從水。 ”

7. 7 。 God made the expanse, and it separated the water which was below the expanse from the water which was above the expanse.上帝創造了廣闊,並分離水低於遼闊的水是廣袤以上。 And it was so.它是如此。

8. 8 。 God called the expanse Sky.所謂上帝的廣闊天空。 And there was evening and there was morning, a second day.有晚上有早晨,連續第二個交易日。

9. 9 。 God said, "Let the water below the sky be gathered into one area, that the dry land may appear."上帝說, “讓下面的水天上收集到一個地區,該幹的土地可能會出現。 ” And it was so.它是如此。

10. 10 。 God called the dry land Earth, and the gathering of waters He called Seas.上帝稱為地球的陸地和水域收集他呼籲海洋。 And God saw that this was good.上帝看見,這是很好的。

11. 11 。 And God said, "Let the earth sprout vegetation; seed - bearing plants, fruit trees of every kind on earth that bear fruit with the seed in it."上帝說: “讓地球萌芽植被;種子-軸承廠,果樹的每一種地球上的開花結果的種子在裡面” 。 And it was so.它是如此。

12. 12 。 The earth brought forth vegetation: seed - bearing plants of every kind, and trees of every kind bearing fruit with the seed in it.地球上提出了植被:種子-軸承廠的每一種,和樹木的每一種結出果實的種子中。 And God saw that this was good.上帝看見,這是很好的。

13. 13 。 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day.有晚上有早晨,連續第三個交易日。

14. 14 。 God said, "Let there be lights in the expanse of the sky to separate day from night; they shall serve as signs for the set times - the days and the years;上帝說, “讓我們有燈光在遼闊的天空分開每天晚上,他們將充當標誌設置時間-的天,年;

15. 15 。 and they shall serve as light in the expanse of the sky to shine upon the earth." And it was so.他們應擔任輕在廣闊的天空映照地球。 “正是如此。

16. 16 。 God made the two great lights, the greater light to dominate the day and the lesser to dominate the night, and the stars.上帝創造了兩個偉大的燈光,更大的光稱霸天和較低主宰晚上,和星星。

17. 17 。 And God set them in the expanse of the sky to shine upon the earth,上帝使他們在廣闊的天空映照大地,

18. 18 。 to dominate the day and the night, and to separate light from darkness.主宰一天的晚上,和單獨的光從黑暗。 And God saw that this was good.上帝看見,這是很好的。

19. 19 。 And there was evening and there was morning, a fourth day.有晚上有早晨,第四天。

20. 20 。 God said, "Let the waters bring forth swarms of living creatures, and birds that fly above the earth across the expanse of the sky."上帝說, “讓水域帶來大批生物,和鳥類的飛行在地球上空跨越廣闊的天空。 ”

21. 21 。 God created the great sea monsters, and all the living creatures of every kind that creep, which the waters brought forth in swarms; and all the winged birds of every kind.上帝創造了偉大的海上怪物,和所有生物的每一種認為蠕變,其中水域提出了在群;和所有鳥類翅膀的每一種。 And God saw that this was good.上帝看見,這是很好的。

22. 22 。 God blessed them saying, "Be fertile and increase, fill the waters in the seas, and let the birds increase on the earth.上帝保佑他們說, “要肥沃的土壤和提高,填補水域的海洋,讓鳥類增加地球上。

23. 23 。 And there was evening and there was morning, a fifth day.有晚上有早晨,第五天。

24. 24 。 God said, "Let the earth bring forth every kind of living creature: cattle, creeping things, and wild beasts of every kind." And it was so.上帝說, “讓地球帶來的每一種生物:牛,蠕動的東西,野獸的每一種。 ”正是如此。

25. 25 。 God made wild beasts of every kind and cattle of every kind, and all kinds of creeping things of the earth.上帝創造了野獸的每一種和牛的每一種,各種事情逐漸在地球上。 And God saw that this was good.上帝看見,這是很好的。

26. 26 。 And God said, "Let us make man in our image, after our likeness. They shall rule the fish of the sea, the birds of the sky, the cattle, the whole earth, and all the creeping things.上帝說: “讓我們使男子在我們的圖片後,我們的肖像。他們應規則魚的海洋,鳥的天空,牛,整個地球,所有的蠕動的東西。


1. 1 。 Rashi said that that the text would have been written slightly differently if its primary purpose had been to teach the order in which creation took place. Rashi說,該文本將被寫入略有不同,如果其主要目的是教的順序,建立發生。 Later authors used the translation "In the beginning" as proof that God created out of nothing (ex nihilo), but it is not likely that the biblical author was concerned with this problem.後來作者用翻譯“一開始”作為證明,上帝創造了什麼(無中生有) ,但很可能不會認為聖經的作者關注的是這個問題。

2. 2 。 (The deep) echoes the Mesopotamian creation story where it is told that heaven and earth were formed from the carcass of the sea dragon, Tiamat. (wind from God) (ruach) can mean both wind and spirit. (深)呼應了美索不達米亞創造故事的地方是說,天地形成的胴體的海龍, Tiamat 。 (神風) ( ruach )可以指風和精神。 Wind provides a closer parallel to Babylonian texts than the traditional "spirit of God."風提供了一個更接近平行的巴比倫文比傳統的“精神的上帝。 ”

More Footnotes更多腳註

6.(an expanse) (rakia) suggests a firm vault or dome over the earth. 6 。 (一大片) ( rakia )表明了堅實跳馬或圓頂的地球。

21. 21 。 (the great sea monsters) As elsewhere in the Bible, enemy forces against God in the sea. (偉大的海上怪物)正如其他地方的聖經,敵軍對上帝的大海。 Variously named Nahar, Yam, Leviathan, Rahab.命名為阿拉伯文,任關佩英,利維坦,拉哈伯。

26. 26 。 (Let us make man) Either a majestic plural or spoken to an angelic court. (讓我們的人)或是雄壯的複數形式或口頭向天使般的法院。 (Christian theology takes this to indicate the triune nature of God.) (基督教神學藉此表明三位一體性質的上帝。 )

Book of Genesis or Bereshit創世記或Bereshit

Jewish Viewpoint Information猶太觀資料

§ 1. § 1 。 -Biblical Data:聖經數據:

The first book of the Torah, and therefore of the whole Bible, is called by the Jews "Bereshit," after the initial word; by the Septuagint and by Philo it is called Γύνεσις (κόσμου) = "origin" (of the world), after the contents, and hence "Genesis" has become the usual non-Hebrew designation for it.第一本書的聖經,因此,整個聖經,是所謂的猶太人“ Bereshit , ”在最初詞;的七十和斐羅它被稱為Γύνεσις ( κόσμου ) = “起源” (世界)之後的內容,因此, “創世紀”已成為通常的非希伯來指定的。 According to the Masorah, it is divided into ninety-one sections ("parashiyyot"), forty-three of which have open or broken lines ("petuḥot"), and forty-eight closed lines ("setumot"); or into forty-three chapters ("sedarim") and twenty-nine sections ("pisḳot"); for reading on the Sabbath, into twelve lessons; according to the division adopted from the Vulgate, into fifty chapters with 1,543 verses.據Masorah ,它分為91節( “ parashiyyot ” ) , 43其中有公開或損壞線路( “ petuḥot ” )和48封閉線( “ setumot ” ) ;或第四十二第三章( “ sedarim ” )和29節( “ pisḳot ” ) ;閱讀的安息日,到12教訓;按照分工通過從武加大,到50章1543年的詩句。

§ 2. Nature and Plan. § 2 。性質和計劃。

Genesis is a historical work.起源是一個歷史的工作。 Beginning with the creation of the world, it recounts the primal history of humanity and the early history of the people of Israel as exemplified in the lives of its patriarchs, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and their families.從創造的世界,它敘述了原始人類歷史和早期的歷史,以色列人民中所體現的生命始祖亞伯拉罕,以撒和雅各,和他們的家人。 It contains the historical presupposition and basis of the national religious ideas and institutions of Israel, and serves as an introduction to its history and legislation.它包含的歷史前提和基礎的國家宗教思想和體制的以色列,並擔任引入到其歷史和法律。 It is a well-planned and well-executed composition of a single writer, who has recounted the traditions of his people with masterly skill, combining them into a uniform work, without contradictions or useless repetitions, but preserving the textual and formal peculiarities incident to their difference in origin and mode of transmission.這是一個精心策劃和執行的組成一個單一的作家,誰也敘述傳統的人,他的硬功夫,結合成一個統一的工作,沒有矛盾或無用的重複,而是維護和正式文本的特性事件其差異起源和傳播方式。

§ 3. The author has treated the story as a series of ten "generations" ("toledot"); namely, (1) of heaven and earth, ch. § 3 。作者的故事處理的一系列十“後代” ( “ toledot ” ) ; ,即( 1 )天地,膽固醇。 ii.二。 4-iv.; (2) of Adam, v.-vi. 4四。 ; ( 2 )亞當v.-vi. 8; (3) of Noah, vi. 8 ; ( 3 )諾亞,六。 9-ix.; (4) of Noah's sons, x.-xi. 9; (5) of Shem, xi. 9九。 ; ( 4 )諾亞的兒子, x.-xi. 9 ; ( 5 )閃,喜。 10-26; (6) of Terah, xi. 10月26日; ( 6 ) Terah ,喜。 27-xxv. 27 - 25 。 11; (7) of Ishmael, xxv. 11 ; ( 7 )伊斯梅爾, 25 。 12-18; (8) of Isaac, xxv. 12-18 ; ( 8 )以撒, 25 。 19-xxxv.; (9) of Esau, xxxvi.; (10) of Jacob, xxxvii.-1. 19三十五。 ; ( 9 )以掃,三十六。 ; ( 10 )雅各布xxxvii. - 1 。

§ 4. § 4 。 Contents.目錄。

In the beginning God created heaven and earth (i. 1), and set them in order in six days.一開始上帝創造天地(島1 ) ,並規定,以便在6天。 He spoke, and on the first day there appeared the light; on the second, the firmament of heaven; on the third, the separation between water and land, with vegetation upon the latter; on the fourth, sun, moon, and stars; on the fifth, the marine animals and birds; on the sixth, the land animals; and, finally, God created man in His image, man and woman together, blessing them and giving them dominion over all beings.他說,在第一天出現的光;第二,蒼穹的天堂;的第三,區分水和土地,植被對後者;第四,太陽,月亮和星星;第五,海洋動物和鳥類;第六,土地動物;最後,上帝創造的人他的形象,男人和女人在一起,祝福他們,讓他們統治眾生。 On the seventh day God rested, and blessed and sanctified the day (i. 2-ii. 3).在上帝的第七天休息,並祝福和神聖的一天(島2 - 2 。 3 ) 。 As regards the creation and subsequent story of man (Adam), God forms him out of earth ("adama"), and breathes into him the breath of life.至於建立和隨後的男子的故事(亞當) ,他的上帝形式的地球( “阿達馬” ) ,並呼吸到他的呼吸的生活。 Then He sets him in a pleasure-garden (Eden), to cultivate and watch over it.然後他列出他在高興花園(伊甸園) ,培養和觀看權。 Adam is allowed to eat of all the fruit therein except that of the "tree of the knowledge of good and evil."亞當可以吃的所有水果,但其中的“樹的知識,善和惡。 ” God then brings all the animals to Adam, to serve as company for and to receive names from him.然後上帝把所有的動物亞當,擔任公司的,並得到他的名字。 When Adam can find no being like himself among all these creatures, God puts him into a deep sleep, takes a rib from his side, and forms a woman (called later "Eve"), to be a companion to him.當亞當找不到像自己在所有這些動物,上帝把他變成了一個深度睡眠,需要從他的肋骨一邊,形成了一個女人(後來稱為“夏娃” ) ,是一個同伴給他。 The woman is seduced by the artful serpent to eat of the forbidden fruit, and the man also partakes of the same.該女子引誘的巧妙蛇吃的禁果,而該男子也partakes相同的。 As punishment they are driven out of Eden (ii. 4-iii.).作為懲罰他們趕出伊甸園(白介素4 - 3 。 ) 。 Adam and Eve have two sons, Cain and Abel.亞當和夏娃有兩個兒子,該隱和亞伯。 Cain grows envious of the favor found by his brother before God, and slays him; he then wanders over the earth as a fugitive, and finally settles in the land of Nod.該隱增長羨慕的青睞發現了他的弟弟在上帝面前,他和slays ;他又到處流浪的地球作為一個逃犯,終於解決了在土地的節點。 Enoch, one of his sons, builds the first city, and Lamech takes two wives, whose sons are the first dwellers in tents and owners of herds and the earliest inventors of musical instruments and workers in brass and iron.伊諾克,他的一個兒子,建立了第一座城市,並拉麥需要兩個妻子,他的兒子是第一批居民在帳篷和業主群和最早發明的樂器和工人的黃銅和鐵。 Cain's descendants know nothing about God (iv.).該隱的後裔一無所知神( iv. ) 。 Another son, Seth, has in the meantime been born to Adam and Eve in place of the slain Abel.另一個兒子,塞思,在此期間出生的,以亞當和夏娃在被殺害的阿貝爾。 Seth's descendants never lose thought of God.塞思的子孫永遠不會失去思想的上帝。 The tenth in regular descent is the pious Noah (v.).第十次定期後裔是虔誠的諾亞(訴) 。

§ 5. As mankind has become wicked, indulging in cruelties and excesses, God determines to destroy it entirely. § 5 。人類已經成為邪惡的,沉迷於殘酷和過分,上帝決定毀滅它完全。 Noah only, on account of his piety, will escape the general ruin; and God commands him to build a large ark, since the work of destruction is to be accomplished by means of a great flood.諾亞只是考慮到他的虔誠,將逃跑的一般破產;和上帝命令他建造一個大方舟,因為工作的破壞是指完成了大洪水。 Noah obeys the command, entering the ark together with his wife, his three sons, Shem, Ham, and Japheth, their wives, and, by God's instructions, with one couple of each kind of animal on the earth.諾亞服從命令,進入方舟連同他的妻子,他的三個兒子,閃,火腿,和雅弗,他們的妻子,並以上帝的指示,提倡一對夫婦生育的每一種動物在地球上。 Then the flood comes, destroying all living beings save those in the ark.然後,洪水來了,摧毀一切眾生拯救那些在方舟。 When it has subsided, the latter leave the ark, and God enters into a covenant with Noah and his descendants.當它已經消退,後者離開方舟,上帝訂立契約與諾亞和他的後裔。 Noah begins to cultivate the field that has been cursed during Adam's lifetime (iii. 17-19; v. 29), and plants a vineyard (ix. 20).諾亞開始培養領域,已在詛咒亞當的一生( iii. 17日至19日;訴29 ) ,和植物葡萄園( ix. 20 ) 。 When, in a fit of intoxication, Noah is shamelessly treated by his son Ham, he curses the latter in the person of Ham's son Canaan, while the reverential Shem and Japheth are blessed (ix. 21-27).當在一個合適的中毒,諾亞是無恥地對待他的兒子聯隊,他咒罵,後者在西漢姆人的兒子迦南,而恭敬閃和雅弗的祝福( ix. 21-27 ) 。 Ch.膽固醇。 x. contains a review of the peoples that are descended fromJapheth, Ham, and Shem (down to the chief branch of the last-named), and are living dispersed over the whole earth.審查了人民的後裔fromJapheth ,火腿,和閃(到首席分行去年命名) ,以及居住分散到整個地球。 The dispersion was due to the "confusion of tongues," which God brought about when men attempted to build a tower that should reach up to heaven (xi. 1-9).分散的原因是“混亂的舌頭, ”上帝帶來了當男人試圖建立一個塔,應達到天堂( xi. 1-9 ) 。 A genealogy is given of Shem's descendants in regular line, the tenth generation of whom is represented by Terah (xi. 10-25).阿家譜的是閃的後裔常線,十代人的代表Terah ( xi. 10-25 ) 。

§ 6. Terah, who lives at Ur of the Chaldees, has three sons, Abram, Nahor, and Haran. § 6 。 Terah ,誰住在烏爾的查爾德斯,有三個兒子,亞伯蘭, Nahor ,並哈蘭。 Haran's son is Lot.哈蘭的兒子是地段。 Nahor is married to Milcah, and Abram to Sarai, who has no children (xi. 26-32). Nahor是結婚Milcah和艾布拉姆以薩萊,誰沒有子女( xi. 26-32 ) 。 God directs Abram to leave his home and kindred because He intends to bless him. Abram obeys, emigrating with his entire household and Lot, his brother's son, to the land of Canaan.上帝指示亞伯蘭離開他的家庭和親屬,因為他打算保佑他。艾布拉姆服從,移民與他的整個家庭和地段,他的弟弟的兒子,對土地的迦南。 Here God appears to him and promises that the land shall become the property of his descendants. Abram is forced by a famine to leave the country and go to Egypt. The King of Egypt takes possession of the beautiful Sarai (whom Abram has represented as his sister), but, smitten by God, is compelled to restore her (xii.).在這裡似乎上帝給他和承諾,即應成為土地的財產,他的後代。艾布拉姆是被迫的飢荒離開本國,前往埃及。國王的埃及擁有美麗的薩萊(其中艾布拉姆已經派他的妹妹) ,但一見鍾情的上帝,是迫使她恢復( xii. ) 。 Abram returns to Canaan, and separates from Lot in order to put an end to disputes about pasturage, leaving to Lot the beautiful country in the valley of the Jordan near Sodom.艾布拉姆返回迦南,並分離地段,以制止糾紛的牧草,離開了美麗的地段國家在河谷附近的約旦所多瑪。 God thereupon again appears to Abram, and again promises him the whole country (xiii.).上帝隨即又似乎艾布拉姆,並再次承諾,他的整個國家( xiii. ) 。 Lot is taken prisoner during a war between Amraphel, King of Shinar, and Bera, King of Sodom, with their respective allies, whereupon Abram pursues the victors with his armed servants, liberates Lot, and seizes the booty, refusing his share of the same (xiv.).地段是被俘期間Amraphel之間的戰爭,國王的示拿,並貝拉國王所多瑪,按照各自的盟友,在這種情況下艾布拉姆奉行勝利者與他的武裝人員,解放地段,並檢獲的戰利品,拒絕他的份額相同( xiv. ) 。 After this exploit God again appears to Abram and promises him protection, a rich reward, and, in spite of the fact that Abram still has no children, a numerous progeny.在此再次利用上帝似乎艾布拉姆,並承諾他的保護,豐富的獎勵,儘管這一事實,即艾布拉姆至今還沒有孩子,無數後代。 These descendants must pass four hundred years in servitude in a strange land; but after God has judged their oppressors they, in the possession of great wealth, shall leave the land of their affliction, and the fourth generation shall return to the same land (xv.).這些後代必須經過四百年的奴役在一個陌生的土地;但在上帝評判他們的壓迫者,他們所擁有的巨大財富,應離開土地的痛苦,以及第四代應返回相同的土地(十五。 ) 。

Sarai being still childless, Abram gets a son, Ishmael, by her Egyptian handmaid, Hagar (xvi.).賴正仍然子女,艾布拉姆得到一個兒子,以實瑪利,她的埃及侍女,黑格( xvi. ) 。 God again appears to Abram, and enters into a personal covenant with him securing Abram's future: God promises him a numerous progeny, changes his name to "Abraham" and that of Sarai to "Sarah," and institutes the circumcision of all males as an eternal sign of the covenant.上帝再次看來艾布拉姆,並進入個人與他盟約確保艾布拉姆的未來:上帝許諾他的許多後代,他的名字更改為“亞伯拉罕”和薩萊的“莎拉” ,和研究所的割禮的所有男性作為永恆的簽署該公約。 Abraham, together with his whole house, immediately fulfils the rite (xvii.).亞伯拉罕,連同他的整個房子,立即滿足了成年禮( xvii. ) 。 God once more appears to Abraham in the person of three messengers, whom Abraham receives hospitably, and who announce to him that he will have a son within a year, although he and his wife are already very old. Abraham also hears that God's messengers intend to execute judgment upon the wicked inhabitants of Sodom and Gomorrah, whereupon he intercedes for the sinners, and endeavors to have their fate set aside (xviii.).上帝再次看來亞伯拉罕的人的三個信使,其中亞伯拉罕得到hospitably ,誰向他宣布,他將有一個兒子在一年之內,但他和他的妻子已經很老。亞伯拉罕還聽到上帝的使者打算執行判決的邪惡居民所多瑪和蛾摩拉,在這種情況下,他干預的罪人,並力圖將其命運擱置( xviii. ) 。 Two of the messengers go to Sodom, where they are hospitably received by Lot.兩個使者去索多瑪,他們在那裡所收到hospitably地段。 The men of the city wish to lay shameless hands upon them, and, having thus shown that they have deserved their fate, Sodom and Gomorrah are destroyed by fire and brimstone, only Lot and his two daughters being saved.該男子的城市要奠定無恥的雙手給他們,並因此而表現出他們應有自己的命運,所多瑪和蛾摩拉被燒毀和硫磺,只有地段和他的兩個女兒被保存。 The circumstances of the birth of Ammon and Moab are set forth (xix.). Abraham journeys to Gerar, the country of Abimelech.這種情況下誕生的阿蒙和莫阿布規定( xix. ) 。亞伯拉罕旅程Gerar ,該國的Abimelech 。 Here also he represents Sarah as his sister, and Abimelech plans to gain possession of her, but desists on being warned by God (xx.). At last the long-expected son is born, and receives the name of "Isaac."在這裡,他還代表莎拉作為他的妹妹,和Abimelech計劃獲得擁有她,但desists被警告的神( xx. ) 。最後,期待已久的兒子出生,並收到名為“艾薩克。 ” At the instance of Sarah, the boy Ishmael, together with his mother, Hagar, is driven out of the house, but they also have a great future promised to them.在莎拉的實例,該男童以實瑪利,連同他的母親,黑格,是趕出了房子,但他們也有偉大的未來許諾給他們。 Abraham, during the banquet that he gives in honor of Isaac's birth, enters into a covenant with Abimelech, who confirms his right to the well Beer-sheba (xxi.). Now that Abraham seems to have all his desires fulfilled, having even provided for the future of his son, God subjects him to the greatest trial of his faith by demanding Isaac as a sacrifice. Abraham obeys; but, as he is about to lay the knife upon his son, God restrains him, promising him numberless descendants.亞伯拉罕,在晚宴上說,他的榮譽給以撒的出生,訂立契約與Abimelech ,誰證實了他的權利,以及啤酒巴( xxi. ) 。現在,亞伯拉罕似乎都滿足他的慾望,甚至還提供了未來的他的兒子,上帝科目他最大的審判自己的信仰,要求艾薩克作為犧牲。亞伯拉罕服從;但是,因為他是奠定了刀後他的兒子,上帝限制他,希望他無數的後裔。 On the death of Sarah Abraham acquires Machpelah for a family tomb (xxiii.).在死亡的莎拉亞伯拉罕獲得Machpelah家庭墓( xxiii. ) 。 Then he sends his servant to Mesopotamia, Nahor's home, to find among his relations a wife for Isaac; and Rebekah, Nahor's granddaughter, is chosen (xxiv.).然後,他將他的僕人,以美索不達米亞, Nahor的家中,找到他的妻子關係的艾薩克;和Rebekah , Nahor的孫女,是選擇( xxiv. ) 。 Other children are born to Abraham by another wife, Keturah, among whose descendants are the Midianites; and he dies in a prosperous old age (xxv. 1-18).其他兒童出生亞伯拉罕另一個妻子, Keturah ,其後代之間的米甸人,他死在一個繁榮的老年( xxv. 1-18 ) 。

§ 7. After being married for twenty years Rebekah has twins by Isaac: Esau, who becomes a hunter, and Jacob, who becomes a herdsman. § 7 。後結婚二十多年了雙胞胎Rebekah艾薩:以掃,誰當選的獵人,和Jacob ,誰當選牧民。 Jacob persuades Esau to sell him his birthright, for which the latter does not care (xxv. 19-34); notwithstanding this bargain, God appears to Isaac and repeats the promises given to Abraham.雅各布說服以掃出售他與生俱來的,而後者並不關心( xxv. 19-34 ) ;儘管這一協議,上帝似乎伊薩克和重複的承諾給亞伯拉罕。 His wife, whom he represents as his sister, is endangered in the country of the Philistines, but King Abimelech himself averts disaster.他的妻子,他代表他的妹妹,是瀕危的國家的非利士人,但國王Abimelech自己避免災難。 In spite of the hostility of Abimelech's people, Isaac is fortunate in all his undertakings in that country, especially in digging wells.儘管Abimelech敵意的人,伊薩克幸運的是在他的所有承諾在該國,尤其是在打井。 God appears to him at Beer-sheba, encourages him, and promises him blessings and numerous descendants; and Abimelech enters into a covenant with him at the same place.上帝似乎他在啤酒巴,鼓勵他,並許諾他的祝福和眾多的後裔;和Abimelech訂立契約與他在同一地點。 Esau marries Canaanite women, to the regret of his parents (xxvi.).以掃娶迦南婦女,遺憾的他的父母( xxvi. ) 。 Rebekah persuades Jacob to dress himself as Esau, and thus obtain from his senile father the blessing intended for Esau (xxvii.). Rebekah說服雅各布打扮自己以掃,從而獲得他的老年父親的祝福打算以掃( xxvii. ) 。 To escape his brother's vengeance, Jacob is sent to relations in Haran, being charged by Isaac to find a wife there.為了逃避他哥哥的復仇,雅各布發送到關係的哈蘭,被控告的艾薩克找到一個妻子那裡。 On the way God appears to him at night, promising protection and aid for himself and the land for his numerous descendants (xxviii.).在路上上帝他覺得在夜間,有前途的保護和援助,並為自己的土地,他無數的後裔( xxviii. ) 。 Arrived at Haran, Jacob hires himself to Laban, his mother's brother, on condition that, after having served for seven years as herdsman, he shall have for wife the younger daughter, Rachel, with whom he is in love.到達哈蘭,雅各布僱用自己的班,他的母親的哥哥,但條件是,後擔任過七年的牧民,他應為年輕的妻子女兒,雷切爾,同他是在愛。 At the end of this period Laban gives him the elder daughter, Leah; Jacob therefore serves another seven years for Rachel, and after that six years more for cattle.在這一時期結束時拉班給他的大女兒,莉婭;因此,雅各布另一個7年的雷切爾,經過六年多的牛。 In the meantime Leah bears him Reuben, Simeon, Levi, and Judah; by Rachel's maid Bilhah he has Dan and Naphtali; by Zilpah, Leah's maid, Gad and Asher; then, by Leah again, Issachar, Zebulun, and Dinah; and finally, by Rachel, Joseph. He also acquires much wealth in flocks (xxix.-xxx.).在此期間他承擔莉婭魯本,西門,列維和猶太;的雷切爾的侍女Bilhah他已經丹和拿弗;的Zilpah ,莉婭的侍女,蓋德和舍,然後再由莉婭,薩迦, Zebulun ,並黛娜,最後由瑞秋,約瑟夫。他還獲得多少財富在雞群( xxix. - xxx域名。 ) 。

In fear of Laban, Jacob flees with his family and all his possessions, but becomes reconciled with Laban, who overtakes him (xxxi.).在恐懼中的班,雅各逃離與他的家人和他的所有財產,而是成為和解的班,誰超越他( xxxi. ) 。 On approaching his home he is in fear of Esau, to whom he sends presents; and with the worst apprehensions he turns at night to God in prayer.在接近他的家,他擔心以掃,向他發出了;和最差的憂慮,他輪流在夜間向上帝祈禱。 An angel of God appears to Jacob, is vanquished in wrestling, and announces to him that he shall bear the name "Israel," ie, "the combatant of God" (xxxii.).天使的上帝似乎雅各布,是戰敗國在摔跤,並宣布對他說,他應承擔的名稱是“以色列” ,即“的戰鬥上帝” ( xxxii. ) 。 The meeting with Esau proves a friendly one, and the brothers separate reconciled. Jacob settles at Shalem (xxxiii.).這次會議與以掃證明友好和兄弟單獨和解。雅各布解決在Shalem ( xxxiii. ) 。 His sons Simeon and Levi take bloody vengeance on the city of Shechem, whose prince has dishonored their sister Dinah (xxxiv.).他的兒子西蒙和Levi採取血腥報復市Shechem ,其王子拒付其妹妹黛娜( xxxiv. ) 。 Jacob moves to Beth-el, where God bestows upon him the promised name of "Israel," and repeats His other promises.雅各布行動貝絲,埃及,在那裡上帝賦予他所許諾的名字“以色列” ,並重申他的其他承諾。 On the road from Beth-el Rachel gives birth to a son, Benjamin, and dies (xxxv.).在道路上從貝絲,報雷切爾生下一個兒子,本傑明,以及模具( xxxv. ) 。 A genealogy of Esau and the inhabitants and rulers of his country, Edom, is given in ch.阿家譜的以掃和居民和統治者,他的國家,以東,是在CH 。 xxxvi.三十六。

§ 8. Joseph, Jacob's favorite, is hated by his brothers on account of his dreams prognosticating his future dominion, and on the advice of Judah is secretly sold to a caravan of Ishmaelitic merchants going to Egypt. § 8 。約瑟夫雅各布最喜歡的,是恨他的兄弟們考慮到他的夢想prognosticating他未來的統治,以及所提供的意見猶太秘密出售給了大篷車的Ishmaelitic商人前往埃及。 His brothers tell their father that a wild animal has devoured Joseph (xxxvii.).他的兄弟告訴他們的父親,一個野生動物吃掉了約瑟夫( xxxvii. ) 。 Joseph, carried to Egypt, is there sold as a slave to Potiphar, one of Pharaoh's officials.約瑟夫,對埃及進行的,是有出售作為一個奴隸Potiphar之一,法老的官員。 He gains his master's confidence; but when the latter's wife, unable to seduce him, accuses him falsely, he is cast into prison (xxxix.).他獲得他主人的信任;但是當後者的妻子,無法誘惑他,指控他虛報,他是演員關進監獄( xxxix. ) 。 Here he correctly interprets the dreams of two of his fellow prisoners, the king's butler and baker (xl.).在這裡,他解釋正確的夢想他的兩個同胞囚犯,國王的管家和貝克( xl. ) 。 When Pharaoh is troubled by dreams that no one is able to interpret, the butler draws attention to Joseph.當法老是不安的夢想,沒有人能夠解釋,管家提請注意約瑟夫。 The latter is thereupon brought before Pharaoh, whose dreams he interprets to mean that seven years of abundance will be followed by seven years of famine.後者隨即提交法老,他的夢想,他解釋為意味著長達七年的豐富後,將7年的飢荒。 He advises the king to make provision accordingly, and is empowered to take the necessary steps, being appointed second in the kingdom.他建議國王作出相應規定,並有權採取必要的步驟,第二次被任命為在沙特。 Joseph marries Asenath, the daughter of the priest Poti-pherah, by whom he has two sons, Manasseh and Ephraim (xli.).約瑟夫結婚Asenath的女兒牧師波季, pherah ,是誰,他有兩個兒子,以法蓮和瑪( xli. ) 。

When the famine comes it is felt even in Canaan; and Jacob sends his sons to Egypt to buy corn.當飢荒是人們認為即使在迦南;和雅各布發送他的兒子到埃及購買玉米。 The brothers appear before Joseph, who recognizes them, but does not discover himself.兄弟約瑟夫出庭,誰認識他們,但沒有發現自己。 After having proved them on this and on a second journey, and they having shown themselves so fearful and penitent that Judah even offers himself as slave, Joseph reveals his identity, forgives his brothers the wrong they did him, and promises to settle in Egypt both them and his father (xlii.-xlv.).之後事實證明他們就這個問題和第二次的旅程,他們表現出自己如此恐懼和懺悔的猶太甚至提供自己的奴隸,約瑟夫發現了自己的身份,原諒他的兄弟,他們的錯誤沒有他,並許諾解決雙方在埃及他們和他的父親( xlii. ,第四十五。 ) 。 Jacob brings his whole family, numbering 66 persons, to Egypt, this making, inclusive of Joseph and his sons and himself, 70 persons.雅各布把他的整個家庭,人數66人,埃及,這一決策,其中包括約瑟夫和他的兒子和他本人, 70人。 Pharaoh receives them amicably and assigns to them the land of Goshen (xlvi.-xlvii.).法老王收到友好和分配給他們的土地戈申( xlvi. -四十七。 ) 。 When Jacob feels the approach of death he sends for Joseph and his sons, and receives Ephraim and Manasseh among his own sons (xlviii.).當雅各布認為,死刑的做法,他發出的約瑟夫和他的兩個兒子,並得到以法蓮和瑪拿自己的兒子( xlviii. ) 。 Then he calls his sons to his bedside and reveals their future to them (xlix.).然後,他要求他的兒子向他的床邊,揭示其未來向他們( xlix. ) 。 Jacob dies, and is solemnly interred in the family tomb at Machpelah. Joseph lives to see his great-grandchildren, and on his death-bed he exhorts his brethren, if God should remember them and lead them out of the country, to take his bones with them (1.).雅各布去世,並鄭重interred在家庭墓在Machpelah 。約瑟夫生命看到他的曾孫,以及關於他的死亡床,他懇請他的弟兄們,如果上帝應該記住他們,並帶領他們離開該國,並採取了骨頭與他們( 1 。 ) 。

§ 9. Aim of Work. § 9 。目的的工作。

In the choice, connection, and presentation of his material the narrator has followed certain principles incident to the purpose and scope of his work.在選擇方面,介紹他的材料敘述者遵循某些原則,以事件的目的和範圍的工作。 Although he adopts the universal view-point of history, beginning with the Creation and giving a review of the entire human race, he yet intends to deal particularly with Israel, the people subsequently chosen by God, and to give an account of its origin and of its election, which is based on its religious and moral character.雖然他採用的普遍觀點的歷史,開始創作並審查了整個人類,他還打算處理特別是以色列,後來的人所選擇的上帝,並交代其來源和它的選舉,這是基於宗教和道德的性質。 His chief point of view, therefore, is that of narrator of tribal and religious history; and only the details that bear on this history are reported.他的主要觀點,因此,是敘述者的部落和宗教的歷史; ,只有細節,承擔這段歷史的報導。

§ 10. It is his primary intention to show that the people of Israel are descended in a direct line from Adam, the first man created by God, through legitimate marriages in conformity with Israelitish moral ideals, ie, monandric marriages. § 10 。這是他的主要意圖表明,以色列人民都下降了直接從亞當,其中一人由上帝創造出來的,通過合法的婚姻符合Israelitish的道德理想,即monandric的婚姻。 Offshoots branch from this main line at central points represented by Adam, Noah, Shem, Eber, Abraham, and Isaac, though their subsequent legitimacy can not be guaranteed.分支分行從這條主線在中央點為代表的亞當,諾亞,閃,韋伯,亞伯拉罕和以撒,但隨後將其合法性無法得到保障。 Linguistically the descent from the main line is always indicated by the word , vouching for the paternity; while descent in a branch line is indicated by .語言的後裔從主線始終是所顯示的文字,金幣為父親,而後裔的一個分支線所指出的。 This is the explanation of the interchange of these two words, a phenomenon which has never yet been correctly interpreted.這是解釋交換這兩個詞,這種現象從來沒有被正確的解釋。 The line branching off at any one central point is always fully treated before the next member of the main line is mentioned.該生產線分支在任何一個中心點是始終充分治療前的未來成員的主線是提及。 Only such matters are related in regard to the branch lines as are important for the history of humanity or that of Israel.只有這樣有關事項方面的分支線是重要的人類歷史上,或以色列。 No fact is ever introduced merely on account of its historical or antiquarian value.事實是沒有了以往任何時候都只是考慮到它的歷史或文物價值。 In the main line the interest is concentrated upon the promised, long-expected generations of Isaac-Jacob, his sons and grandsons-who safely pass through all dangers and tribulations, emphasis being laid on their religious and moral character.在這一主線的興趣集中的承諾,期待已久的後代以撒,雅各,他的兒子和孫子是誰的安全通過所有的危險和磨難,重點放在他們的宗教和道德品質。

§ 11. The events are related in definite chronological order, the chief dates being as follows: § 11 。事件有關的確切順序,首席日期如下:

see table見表

The year of the Creation is the year 3949 before the common era. The ten generations before the Flood attain to ages varying between 777 years (Lamech) and 969 years (Methuselah), with the exception of Enoch (365 years).今年的創新是3949年之前,共同的時代。幾代人的10個前達到防洪不同年齡之間七七七年(拉麥)和九百六十九年(瑪土撒拉) ,除伊諾克( 365年) 。 Those of the ten generations after the Flood vary between 600 years (Shem) and 148 (Nahor).這些在10代後,防洪之間600年(閃)和148 ( Nahor ) 。 All the reasons for the details of this chronology have not yet been discovered.所有的原因細節年表尚未被發現。 Oppert has declared (in "REJ" 1895, and in Chronology) that the figures are connected with ancient Babylonian chronological systems. Oppert已宣布(在“ REJ ” 1895年,在年表)這一數字是與古巴比倫的時間系統。 The variations found in the Septuagint and in the Samaritan Pentateuch were introduced for certain purposes (see Jacob in "JQR" xii. 434 et seq.).變化中發現七十和撒瑪利亞五介紹了為某些目的(見雅各布在“ JQR ”十二。 434起。 ) 。 The correctness of the Masoretic figures, however, is evident from the context.的正確性馬所拉的數字,但是,很明顯從上下文。

§ 12. Anachronisms such as various critics allege are found in Genesis do not in reality exist; and their assumption is based on a misunderstanding of the historiographic principles of the book. § 12 。過時,如各種批評聲稱發現成因並不在現實中存在;和他們的假設是基於誤解的史學原則,這本書。 Thus the history of a generation no longer of importance is closed and the death of its last member noted, although it may not be contemporaneous with the next succeeding generation, to which the attention is then exclusively directed.因此,歷史上的一代不再是封閉的重要性和死亡的最後成員指出,雖然它可能不是同時代的下一代,其中的注意,然後專門的指導。 This view explains the apparent contradictions between xi.這種觀點解釋之間顯而易見的矛盾,十一。 32 and xi. 32和喜。 26, xii. 26日,十二。 4; also between xxv. 4 ;之間25 。 7 and xxv. 7和25 。 26; xxi. 26 ; 21 。 5 and xxv. 5和25 。 20; xxxv. 20 ;三十五。 28 (Jacob was at that time 120 years old) and xlvii. 28 (雅各布在這個時間120歲)和四十七。 9; xxxvii. 9 ;三十七。 2, xli. 2 ,四十一。 46; etc. In ch. 46 ;等在CH 。 xxxiv.三十四。 Dinah is not six to seven years old, nor Simeon and Levi eleven and ten respectively, but (xxxv. 27, xxxvii. 1 et seq., xxxiii. 17) each is ten years older.黛娜是6至7歲,也不西蒙和Levi 11和10分別,但( xxxv. 27日,三十七。一日起。 ,三十三。 17 )每個為10歲。 The events in ch.事件的膽固醇。 xxxviii.三十八。 do not cover twenty-three years-from the sale of Joseph in his seventeenth year to the arrival of Judah's grandsons in Egypt (xlvi. 12) in Joseph's fortieth year-but thirty-three years, as the words (elsewhere only in xxi. 22 and I Kings xi. 29) refer back in this case to xxxiii.不包括二三年,由銷售約瑟夫在他的第十七一年的到來,猶大的孫子在埃及( xlvi. 12 )在約瑟夫的第四十個年頭,但三十三年,作為字(其他地方只在21 。 22日,我國王喜。 29 )重提在這種情況下,以三十三。 17. 17 。 The story is introduced at this point to provide a pause after ch.故事介紹在這一點上提供一個暫停後,膽固醇。 xxxvii.三十七。

§ 13. Nor are there any repetitions or unnecessary doublets. § 13 。也沒有重複或不必要的聯。 If ch.如果膽固醇。 ii. were an account of the Creation differing from that found in ch.二。是考慮到不同的創作從發現膽固醇。 i., nearly all the events would have been omitted; it is, however, the story in detail of the creation of man, introduced by a summary of what preceded.島,幾乎所有的事件會被忽略,這是然而,故事中詳細的創建人,介紹了總結了前面。 Neither are there two accounts of the Flood in ch. vi.-ix., in which no detail is superfluous.無論有兩個帳戶的洪水通道。 vi.-ix. ,其中沒有詳細說明是多餘的。 The three accounts of the danger of Sarah and Rebekah, ch.這三個賬戶的危險莎拉和Rebekah ,膽固醇。 xii., xx., and xxvi., are not repetitions, as the circumstances are different in each case; and ch.十二。 ,第xx 。 ,和26 。 ,不重複,因為情況不同在每一種情況下;和膽固醇。 xxvi. 26 。 refers expressly to ch.指明確路。 xx.第xx 。 The account in xix.該帳戶在十九。 29 of the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah and the rescue of Lot, is but a summary introducing the story that follows, which would not be comprehensible without xix. 29日銷毀所多瑪和蛾摩拉和救援地段,只是簡要介紹如下故事,這將不理解,不十九。 14, 23, 28. 14日, 23日, 28日。 Repeated references to the same place (Beth-el, xxviii. 19, xxxv. 15), or renewed attempts to explain the same name (Beer-sheba, xxi. 31, xxvi. 33; comp. xxx. 20 et seq.), or several names for the same person (xxvi. 34, xxvii. 46-xxxvi. 2 for Esau's wives) are not contradictions.一再提到同一個地方(貝絲,埃及,二十八。 19日,三十五。 15 ) ,或延長企圖解釋相同的名稱(啤酒巴, 21 。 31 , 26 。 33 ;補償。 xxx域名。 20起。 ) ,或幾個名稱為同一人( xxvi. 34歲,二十七。 46三十六。 2 ,以掃的妻子)不矛盾。 The change of Jacob's name into that of "Israel" is not narrated twice; for xxxii. 29 contains only the announcement by the messenger of God.的變化雅各布的名稱,將是“以色列”不是敘述的兩倍;為三十二。只含有29日宣布了上帝的使者。

Apparently no exegete has noted that is a parenthesis often found in prophetic speeches ("Not Jacob-thus it will be said [ie, in xxxv. 10]-shall be thy name"); is an impossible construction in Hebrew; xxxii.顯然沒有exegete已經注意到這是一個括號中時常發現先知的講話( “不雅各布,因此這將是說, [即,在三十五。 10 ] ,應你的名字” ) ;是不可能建設的希伯來文;三十二。 4 et seq.第4起。 and xxxiii.和三十三。 1 et seq. 1款及以下。 do not prove, contrary to xxxvi.沒有證明,違反三十六。 6-7, that Esau was living at Seir before Jacob's return. 6-7 ,即以掃是生活在雅各布之前Seir的回報。 The account of the sale of Joseph as found in xxxvii.該帳戶買賣約瑟夫作為中發現三十七。 1-25, 28, 29-36; xl. 1月25日, 28歲, 29-36 ;坐標。 1 et seq. 1款及以下。 does not contradict xxxvii.並不矛盾三十七。 25-27, 28; xxxix. 25日至27日, 28日;三十九。 ; forthe Midianites were the middlemen between the brothers and the Ishmaelites, on the one hand, and between the latter and Potiphar, on the other. ; forthe米甸人的中間人之間的兄弟和Ishmaelites ,一方面之間,以及後者與Potiphar的問題。 Potiphar is a different person from the overseer of the prison; and Joseph could very well say that he had been stolen, ie, that he had been put out of the way (xl. 15). Potiphar是一個不同的人從監督員的監獄;和約瑟夫很可能會說,他曾被盜,也就是說,他已被撲滅的方式( xl. 15 ) 。

§ 14. It is the purpose of the book, on its religious as well as its historic side, to portray the relation of God to humanity and the behavior of the latter toward Him; His gracious guidance of the history of the Patriarchs, and the promises given to them; their faith in Him in spite of all dangers, tribulations, and temptations; and, finally, the religious and moral contrasts with Hamitic (Egyptian and Canaanite) behavior. § 14 。它的目的是這本書,就其宗教以及歷史方面,描繪的關係上帝對人類的行為,後者對他;他殷勤地指導了歷史上的始祖,並承諾給他們;他們的信念,他不顧一切危險,磨難和誘惑;最後,宗教和道德的對比與含米特(埃及和迦南)的行為。

§ 15. Religion of Genesis. § 15 。宗教的起源。

Being a historical narrative, no formal explanations of its religious views are found in Genesis; but the stories it contains are founded on such views, and the author furthermore looks upon history as a means of teaching religion.作為一個歷史敘述,沒有正式的解釋其宗教的意見中找到成因;的故事,但它包含的基礎是這樣的觀點,作者還視歷史,教學手段的宗教。 He is a historian only in virtue of being a theologian.他是一個歷史學家只能在憑藉一個神學家。 He inculcates religious doctrines in the form of stories.他灌輸宗教教義形式的故事。 Instead of propounding a system he describes the religious life. propounding而是一個系統,他介紹了宗教生活。 The book therefore contains an inexhaustible fund of ideas.因此,這本書包含了取之不盡,用之不竭基金的想法。 The most important among these, regarding God, the Creation, humanity, and Israel's Patriarchs, may be mentioned here.其中最重要的,其中關於上帝創造人類,以色列的始祖,可在這裡提及。

§ 16. There is only one God, who has created heaven and earth (that is, the world), and has called all objects and living beings into existence by His word. § 16 。只有一個上帝,誰創造了天地(即世界) ,並呼籲所有的物體和生靈存在的諾言。 The most important point of the theology of Genesis, after this fundamental fact, is the intentional variation in the name of God.最重要的一點神學的起源,在這一基本事實,是故意的變異以真主的名義。 It is the most striking point of the book that the same God is now called "Elohim" and now "Yhwh."這是最突出的一點的圖書,同樣的上帝是現在所謂的“瑩” ,現在“耶和華。 ” In this variation is found the key to the whole book and even to the whole Pentateuch.在這個變化是發現的關鍵,整本書,甚至整個五。 It is not accidental; nor are the names used indifferently by the author, though the principle he follows can not be reduced to a simple formula, nor the special intention in each case be made evident.這是不是偶然的,也不是用的名字漠然作者,但他如下原則不能被減少到一個簡單的公式,也沒有特別打算在每一種情況下是顯而易見的。

§ 17. "Yhwh" is the proper name of God (= "the Almighty"; see Ex. iii. 12 et seq., vi. 2), used wherever the personality of God is to be emphasized. § 17 。 “耶和華”是適當的名稱,神( = “萬能的” ,見惠。三。十二日起。 ,六。 2 ) ,用於地方的個性上帝是加以強調。 Hence only such expressions are used in connection with "Yhwh" as convey the impression of personality, ie, anthropomorphisms.因此,只有這樣的表達式是用於與“耶和華”作為傳達的印象是個性,即anthropomorphisms 。 Eyes, ears, nose, mouth, face, hand, heart are ascribed only to "Yhwh," never to "Elohim."眼睛,耳朵,鼻子,嘴巴,臉,手,心是只屬於“耶和華” ,決不“瑩” 。 These anthropomorphisms are used merely to suggest the personal life and activity of God, and are not literal personifications, as is conclusively proved by the fact that phrases which would be actual anthropomorphisms-eg, "God sees with His eyes"; "He hears with His ears"; "one sees God's face" ("head," "body," etc.)-never occur.這些anthropomorphisms使用僅僅是為了表明,個人生活和活動的上帝,而不是字面personifications ,這是最後證明了一個事實,即詞組將實際anthropomorphisms ,例如, “上帝將與他的眼睛” , “聽到他與他的耳朵“ , ”一看到上帝的臉“ ( ”頭“ , ”身體“ ,等等) ,永遠不會發生。 The expression "Yhwh's eyes" indicates divine knowledge of what may be seen through personal apperception; "Yhwh's ears," what may be heard; = "God's anger" indicates the reaction of God's moral nature against evil; "Yhwh's mouth" indicates the utterances of the God who speaks personally; "Yhwh's face" indicates immediate personal intercourse with the God who is felt to be present; "Yhwh's hand" indicates His sensible manifestations of power; "Yhwh's heart" indicates His thoughts and designs.表達“耶和華的眼睛”表示神聖的知識,可以看出通過個人領悟; “耶和華的耳朵, ”什麼可聽到; = “上帝的憤怒”的反應表明上帝的道義上的打擊邪惡的性質; “耶和華的嘴”的言論表明上帝親自誰說話; “耶和華的臉”表明當前的個人交往與上帝誰是認為是本; “耶和華的手”表明他的理智的表現力; “耶和華的心”表明他的思想和設計。 The phrase "Yhwh, a personal God," characterizes fully the use of this name.短語“耶和華,個人上帝”的特點充分使用這一名稱。 A person or a nation can have personal relations with the personal Yhwh only; and only He can plan and guide the fate of either with a personal interest.一個人或一個國家可以有個人關係的個人耶和華只,只有他可以計劃和指導的命運也與個人的利益。 Yhwh is the God of history and of the education of the human race.耶和華是上帝的歷史和教育的人類。 Only Yhwh can exact a positive attitude toward Himself, and make demands upon man that are adequate, ie, moral: Yhwh is the God of positive morality.只有耶和華可以確切的積極態度本人,並要求這名男子是足夠的,即道德:耶和華是上帝積極的道德觀。 A personal, inner life longing for expression can be organized into definite form and find response only if Yhwh be a personal, living God.個人,內心渴望表達可以組織成一定的形式和尋找對策,只有耶和華是個人生活的上帝。 Yhwh is the God of ritual, worship, aspiration, and love.耶和華是上帝的儀式,信仰,理想,和愛。

§ 18. "Elohim" is an appellative, and the general name for the divinity, the superhuman, extramundane being, whose existence is felt by all men-a being that possesses intelligence and will, exists in the world and beyond human power, and is the final cause of all that exists and happens. § 18 。 “瑩”是一個通稱,一般名稱為神,超人, extramundane目前,它的存在是覺得所有的人一被,擁有智慧和意願,存在於世界和超越人類的權力,最後是所有事業的存在和發生。 "Yhwh" is concrete; "Elohim" is abstract. “耶和華”是具體的; “瑩”是抽象的。 "Yhwh" is the special," Elohim" the general, God. “耶和華”是特殊的, “瑩”一般,上帝。 "Yhwh" is personal; "Elohim." “耶和華”是個人的; “瑩” 。 impersonal.非人格化。 Yet there is no other Elohim but Yhwh, who is "ha-Elohim" (the Elohim).然而,沒有任何其他瑩,但耶和華,誰是“公頃瑩” (即瑩) 。

The following points may be observed in particular:以下幾點可以看到,特別是:

(a) "Elohim," as genitive of a person, indicates that the latter has superhuman relations (xxiii. 6; similarly of an object, xxviii. 17, 22). (一) “瑩”的所有格一個人,這表明後者超人的關係( xxiii. 6 ;同樣的對象,二十八。 17日, 22日) 。

(b) It also indicates ideal humanity (xxxiii. 10; comp. xxxii. 29). ( b )它也表明人類的理想( xxxiii. 10 ;補償。三十二。 29 ) 。

(c) "Elohim" expresses the fate imposed by a higher power. (三) “瑩”的命運表示實行更高的權力。 The statement "A person is prosperous" is paraphrased by "Elohim is with him," which is distinctly different from "Yhwh is with him."該聲明“一個人的繁榮”是轉述的“耶洛因是他, ”這是明顯不同於“耶和華是他。 ” While the former indicates objectively a person's prosperity with regard to a single event, the latter expresses the higher intentions and consecutive plans of the personal God in regard to the person in question.雖然前者客觀上表明一個人的繁榮方面的一個單一事件,後者表示較高意向和連續計劃的個人上帝的關於人的問題。 Abimelech says to Abraham, "Elohim is with thee in all that thou doest" (xxi. 22), while he says to Isaac, "Yhwh is with thee," and "thou art now the blessed of Yhwh" (xxvi. 28, 29). Abimelech亞伯拉罕說, “瑩是你在所有你doest ” ( xxi. 22 ) ,同時他說,以艾薩克, “耶和華是你”和“祢現在的得天獨厚的耶和華” ( xxvi. 28 29 ) 。 For Abimelech had at first tried in vain to injure Isaac; but later he convinced himself () that evidently () it was the Yhwh worshiped by Isaac that designedly protected and blessed the latter.對於Abimelech最初妄圖傷害艾薩克; ,但後來他自己確信( ) ,顯然( ) ,這是敬拜耶和華艾薩認為故意保護和祝福了後者。 Again, in xxi.同樣,在二十一。 20: "And Elohim was with the lad"; for Ishmael did not belong to the chosen line, concerning which God had special plans. 20日: “和瑩是與孩子” ;的伊斯梅爾不屬於所選擇的路線,關於上帝有特殊計劃。 Yhwh, however, is always with Israel and its heroes (xxvi. 3, 28; xxviii. 15 [xxxii. 10, 13]; xlvi. 4; Ex. iii. 12; Num. xxiii. 21; Deut. ii. 7; xx. 1; xxxi. 8, 23; Josh. i. 5, 9, 17; iii. 7; Judges ii. 18; vi. 12, 16; I Sam. iii. 19; xvi. 18; xviii. 12, 14; xx. 13; II Sam. vii. 3, v. 10; I Kings i. 37; II Kings xviii. 7).耶和華然而,始終是與以色列和它的英雄( xxvi. 3 , 28 ;二十八。 15 [三十二。 10 , 13 ] ;四十六。 4 ;惠。三。 12 ;數。二十三。 21 ; Deut 。二。七日;第xx 。 1 ;三十一。 8日, 23日;喬希。島5日, 9日, 17日;三。 7 ;法官二。 18 ;六。 12日, 16日,我山姆。三。 19 ;十六。 18 ;十八。十二日, 14 ;第xx 。 13 ;二山姆。七。 3 ,訴10個,我國王島37 ;二世國王十八。 7 ) 。 Particularly instructive is Jacob's vow, xxviii.特別是啟發是雅各布立誓,二十八。 20 et seq., "If Elohim will be with me . . . then shall Yhwh be my Elohim." 20及以下。 , “如果耶洛將與我。 。 。然後應耶和華是我的瑩。 ” Adverse fate especially is, out of fear, euphemistically ascribed to the general Elohim, the impersonal God, rather than to Yhwh xlii.尤其是不良的命運是出於恐懼,委婉地歸因於一般瑩,上帝的人格,而不是耶和華四十二。 28). 28 ) 。

(d) As "Elohim" designates the universal ruler of the world, that term is used in ch. ( d )作為“瑩”指定普遍統治者的世界,這是長期使用的路。 i.字母i. in the story of the Creation; but in order to designate this Elohim as the true God the word "Yhwh" is always addedin the following chapters (ii., iii.).在故事的創作,而是為了這個耶洛指定為真正的上帝改為“耶和華”始終是addedin以下章節(白介素, ㈢ 。 ) 。 (e) In so far as man feels himself dependent upon Elohim, whom he needs, the latter becomes his Elohim. (五)就覺得自己的人依賴瑩,他的需求,後者成為他的耶洛。 As the term "Elohim" includes the idea of beneficent power, this relation becomes, on the part of God, that of the omnipotent patron, and, on the part of man, that of the protégé, the one who needs protection and offers respect and obedience (xvii. 7, xxviii. 22).由於“瑩”包括的想法善行權力,這種關係成為對上帝的一部分,即萬能的贊助,並在部分人,即門徒,誰需要提供保護和尊重服從( xvii. 7日,二十八。 22 ) 。 The same interpretation applies to "Elohim" followed by the genitive of a person.同樣的解釋適用於“瑩” ,接著所有格一個人。 (f) Elohim is the religious meeting-ground between the believer in Yhwh and persons of a different faith (xiv. 22; xx. 13; xxi. 23; xxxix. 9; xli. 16, 25, 28, 32, 38). ( F )的耶洛因是宗教上地面之間的信奉耶和華和個人不同的信仰( xiv. 22 ;第xx 。 13 ; 21 。 23 ;三十九。 9 ;四十一。 16 , 25 , 28 , 32 , 38 ) 。 (g) "Elohim" is the appellation of God used in connection with the person who is inclined toward Yhwh, but whose faith is not yet fully developed; for the one who is on the way to religion, as Melchizedek (ch. xiv.) and Abraham's servant (ch. xxiv.; comp. Jethro in Exodus and Balaam in Numbers; see §§ 28, 31). ( g )項“瑩”是上帝的稱謂用來連接的人誰是傾向於耶和華,但他們的信仰是尚未充分發展;為一個誰是道路上的宗教,麥基洗德(章十四。 )和亞伯拉罕的僕人(章二十四。 ;補償。 Jethro在流亡和巴蘭在數;見§ § 28 , 31 ) 。

(h) "Elohim" represents God for those whose moral perception has been blunted by sin (iii. 3, 5); from the mouths of the serpent and the woman instead of "Jahweh" is heard "Elohim"; they desire to change the idea of a living God, who says, "Thou shalt," into a blurred concept of an impersonal and indefinite God. (主) “瑩”代表上帝,那些其道義上的看法已經減弱的罪孽( iii. 3日, 5日) ;從口蛇和女人不是“ Jahweh ”是聽到“瑩” ,他們希望改變的想法生活的上帝,誰說, “你應該”成為一個模糊的概念,客觀和無限期的上帝。 But the God who pronounces judgment is Yhwh (ch. ii., iii.; on Cain, ch. iv.; in connection with the Flood, vi. 3-8; the tower of Babel, xi. 5 et seq.; Sodom and Gomorrah, xviii. 19; Er and Onan, xxxviii. 7, 10). (i) Although the personality of Elohim is indistinct, he yet is felt to be a moral power making moral demands.但是,上帝誰宣布的判斷是耶和華(章二。 ,三。 ;的凱恩,膽固醇。四。 ;與防洪,六。 3-8 ;的通天塔,喜。五日起。 ;索多瑪和蛾摩拉,十八。 19 ;爾和Onan ,三十八。第7 ,第10 ) 。 ( i )雖然人格瑩是模糊的,他還覺得是一種道義上的權力決策的道德要求。 The moral obligation toward him is the negative virtue of the "fear of God," the fear of murder (xx. 11), unchastity (xxxix. 9), injustice (xlii. 18), and renunciation (xxii. 12).在道義上有義務對他的負面憑藉“上帝的恐懼” ,害怕謀殺( xx. 11人) ,貞( xxxix. 9 ) ,不公正( xlii. 18 ) ,和放棄( xxii. 12 ) 。 (k) "Elohim" also means the appearance of the Deity, and hence may be synonymous with "mal'ak." (金) “瑩”也意味著出現了神,因此可能是同義詞, “ mal'ak 。 ” It may also designate an object of the ritual representing or symbolizing the Deity (xxxv. 2).它也可能指定一個對象的儀式代表或象徵著神( xxxv. 2 ) 。

§ 19. "Elohim" is more explicitly defined by the article; "ha-Elohim," ie, "the Elohim" or "of the Elohim," is sometimes used to identify an "Elohim" previously mentioned (xvii. 18; comp. verse 17; xx. 6, 17; comp. verse 3). § 19 。 “瑩”是更明確地界定的文章“ ;公頃瑩” ,即“在瑩”或“的耶洛” ,有時是用來確定一個“瑩”前面提到的( xvii. 18 ;比較。詩句17 ;第xx 。 6日, 17日;補償。詩句3 ) 。 The single, definite, previously mentioned appearance of an Elohim is called "ha-Elohim," being as such synonymous with "Mal'ak Yhwh" (xxii. 1, 3, 9, 11, 15), both speaking for Yhwh (verse 16; comp. xlviii. 15).單一,明確,出現前面提到的耶洛因被稱為“哈瑩, ”正因為這種等同於“ Mal'ak耶和華” ( xxii. 1 , 3 , 9 , 11 , 15 ) ,都講的耶和華(詩16 ;補償。四十八。 15 ) 。 "Ha-Elohim," when derived from "Elohim," is a preparation for "Yhwh"; when derived from "Yhwh" it is a weakening of the idea of God (see §§ 31 et seq.). “哈瑩, ”當來自“瑩” ,是為籌備“耶和華” ;當源自“耶和華”這是一個削弱的想法上帝(見§ § 31起。 ) 。 Although these examples do not exhaust the different uses of these two names, they are sufficient to show the author's intentions.雖然這些例子並不用盡不同用途的這兩個名字,它們是足以說明作者的意圖。

§ 20. A rare term for "God" is "El Shaddai" (xvii. 1, xxviii. 3, xxxv. 11, xliii. 13, xlviii. 13; "Shaddai" in xlix. 25). § 20 。一種罕見的長期的“上帝”是“厄爾尼諾代” ( xvii. 1 ,二十八。 3 ,三十五。 11日,四十三。 13日,四十八。 13 ; “代”在xlix 。 25 ) 。 The usual translation and interpretation, "Almighty," is entirely unsupported.通常的筆譯和口譯, “萬能的” ,完全是不受支持。 The term, when closely examined, means "the God of faith," ie, the God who faithfully fulfils His promises.一詞時,仔細審查,意思是“上帝的信仰” ,即上帝誰忠實履行他的諾言。 Perhaps it also means a God of love who is inclined to show abundant love.也許這也意味著上帝的愛誰是傾向於表現出豐富的愛。

§ 21. God as a personal being is not only referred to in anthropomorphistic and anthropopathic terms, but He also appears to man and speaks with him. § 21 。上帝作為個人被不僅是中提到的anthropomorphistic和擬人的條件,但他似乎還男子和他說話。 Thus He speaks with Adam and Eve, Cain, Noah, Abraham, Hagar, Abimelech, Isaac, Jacob, and Laban.因此,他講的亞當和夏娃,該隱,諾亞,亞伯拉罕,黑格, Abimelech ,以撒,雅各,和拉班。 But He appears only from the time of Abraham, and in different ways.但他似乎只從亞伯拉罕的時間,並以不同的方式。 An Elohim "appears" to Abimelech and Laban in a dream at night (xx. 3, xxxi. 24); a mal'ak Yhwh appears to Hagar (xvi. 7 et seq.), being called in verse 13 simply "Yhwh."一個瑩“似乎” ,以Abimelech和拉班的一個夢在夜間( xx. 3 ,三十一。 24 ) ; 1 mal'ak耶和華似乎黑格( xvi. 7日起。 ) ,被稱為詩13日在簡單的“耶和華。 “ Yhwh appears to Abram (xii. 7, xv. 1); in a vision (xii. 1, 7) apparently accompanied by darkness, a pillar of smoke, and fire; in xvii.耶和華似乎艾布拉姆( xii. 7日,十五。 1 ) ;在遠景( xii. 1日, 7日)顯然是伴隨著黑暗,一個支柱煙霧,火災;在十七。 Yhwh, who is subsequently called "Elohim" (verses 9, 15, 19), appears, and then ascends (verse 22); in xviii.耶和華,誰是後來所謂的“瑩” (詩句9日, 15日, 19日) ,似乎,然後升天(詩22 ) ;在十八。 Yhwh appears in the form of three men who visit Abraham, but these speak as one Yhwh in verses 13, 17, 20, 26, and 33, who then leaves, while the two messengers go to Sodom.耶和華出現在形式的三名男子,誰曾經訪問過亞伯拉罕,但這些說話作為一個耶和華的詩句13 , 17 , 20 , 26 , 33 ,然後離開誰,而這兩個使者去索多瑪。 Yhwh appears to Isaac on a certain day (xxvi. 2), and again that night (verse 24). Jacob is addressed in a dream by Yhwh (xxviii. 12 et seq.).耶和華似乎伊薩克某一天( xxvi. 2 ) ,並再次那天晚上(詩24 ) 。雅各布是解決一個夢想的耶和華( xxviii. 12日起。 ) 。 In xxxi. 3 Yhwh speaks to Jacob; Jacob says (verse 11) that a mal'ak of Elohim appeared to him in a dream.在三十一。三耶和華談到雅各布;雅各布說, (詩11 ) ,一個mal'ak的耶洛似乎給他的一個夢想。 In xxxv.在三十五。 9 Elohim again appears to him, in reference to the nocturnal encounter with a "man" (xxxii. 14 et seq.), and ascends (xxxv. 13). 9日再次耶洛他覺得,在提到夜間遇到一個“人” ( xxxii. 14起。 )和升天( xxxv. 13 ) 。 In xlvi.在四十六。 2 Elohim speaks to him in a vision of the night.第2瑩說給他的遠見的夜晚。

Hence, the appearance of God means either a dream-vision, or the appearance of a messenger sent by God, who speaks in His name, and may therefore himself be called "Elohim of Yhwh."因此,出現了上帝是指一個夢想,遠見,或外觀的使者上帝派來的,誰講的,他的名字,並可能因此他被稱為“耶洛的耶和華。 ”

§ 22. "Mal'ak of God" signifies, in the first place, the fortunate disposition of circumstances (xxiv. 7, 40; comp. xlviii. 16), in which case it is parallel to "ha-Elohim," the divine guidance of human life; more often, however, it denotes the "angels" ("mal'akim"), messengers of God in human shape who carry His behests to men and who seem to enter and leave heaven through a gate (xxviii. 11); eg, "Yhwh's messenger" (xvi. 7, 11; xxii. 11, 15); "Elohim's messenger" (xxi. 17; in the plural, xix. 1, 15; xxviii. 12; xxxii. 2); or "ha-Elohim's messenger" (xxxi. 11). § 22 。 “ Mal'ak上帝”意味著,擺在首位,幸運的處置情況( xxiv. 7日, 40 ;補償。四十八。 16 ) ,在這種情況下,它是平行的“公頃瑩”的神聖的指導人的生命;更頻繁,但是,它是指“天使” ( “ mal'akim ” ) ,上帝的使者在人類形狀誰背著他的遺志男子,誰似乎進入和離開天堂通過一個門(二十八。 11 ) ;例如, “耶和華的使者” ( xvi. 7日, 11日; 22 。 11 , 15 ) ; “耶洛的使者” ( xxi. 17 ;複數,十九。 1日, 15日;二十八。 12 ;三十二。第2 ) ;或“公頃,瑩的使者” ( xxxi. 11 ) 。 The "man" who wrestled with Jacob likewise seems to have been a mal'ak (xxxii. 25, 29, 31), and the men whom Abraham entertained and who saved Lot were also mal'akim (xviii., xix.).在“人”誰按倒與雅各布也似乎一直是mal'ak ( xxxii. 25日, 29日, 31歲) ,以及其中的男子亞伯拉罕受理,誰保存的地段也mal'akim ( xviii. , 19 。 ) 。 According to the popular belief, it is disastrous to meet them (xvi. 13, xxxii. 31).據普遍認為,這是災難性的,以滿足他們( xvi. 13日,三十二。月31日) 。 On this point, more than on any other, the author seems to have followed popular ideas.在這一點上,超過任何其他的作者似乎已其次受歡迎的想法。

§ 23. It appears from the foregoing that the conception of God found in Genesis is throughout a practical, religious one. § 23 。似乎從上述的概念中發現上帝成因是整個實際,宗教之一。 God is treated exclusively with reference to His dealings with the world and with man, and to the interest that He takes in man's fate and behavior. He guides, educates, and punishes.上帝是治療完全參照他的交往與世界和人,和興趣,他需要在人的命運和行為。他指導,教育和處罰。 He assigns to the first of mankind a habitation in Eden, sets them a task, and commands them not to do a certain thing.指派給他的第一個人類居住的伊甸園,集他們的任務,並命令他們不要做某些事情。 When they break this command He punishes them; but even after that He cares for them.當他們打破這一命令他懲罰他們;但即使之後,他關心他們。 Although punishing the murderer Cain, He affords him protection; the cruelties and unnatural sins of the generation of the Flood arouse His sorrow and anger; He humiliates the pride of the men who are planning to build a tower that shall reach to heaven; He utterly destroys with fire and brimstone the sinful generation of Sodom and Gomorrah.雖然懲治兇手該隱,他讓他的保護;的殘酷行為和不正常的罪孽的一代洪水引起他的悲痛和憤怒;他侮辱的驕傲男子誰正計劃建立一個塔,應達到天堂;他完全破壞防火和硫磺的罪孽深重的一代所多瑪和蛾摩拉。 The punishments are either the natural consequences of sin-the first of mankind haverobbed the earth, which had willingly offered the fruit of its trees, hence it is cursed and paralyzed, and can no longer give its fruit freely, so long as Adam is living; Eve has succumbed to desire, hence she has become the slave of desire; Cain has defiled the earth by murder, hence he has deprived it of its strength-or they correspond exactly to the sins; eg, men build a tower in order to remain united, hence they are dispersed; Jacob wishes to rule his brother, therefore he must humiliate himself before that brother; he deceives, and is deceived in return; he dresses up in a goatskin in order to obtain a blessing fraudulently, therefore he is terribly deceived and plunged in sorrow through a goatskin; Judah advises the sale of Joseph as a slave, therefore he himself is forced to offer himself as a slave.本次處罰或者自然後果的罪孽,第一haverobbed人類的地球,它願意提供水果的樹木,因此,它被詛咒和癱瘓,並且不再給其果實自由,只要亞當生活;除夕已屈服於慾望,因此她已經成為奴隸的慾望;該隱玷污了地球的謀殺,因此他已失去了它的力量,或者他們完全一致的罪孽;例如,男性建立一個塔,以保持團結,因此他們是分散;雅各布希望統治他的弟弟,因此他必須羞辱自己的弟弟在此之前,他欺騙,是欺騙,以換取他打扮的羊皮,以便獲得祝福欺詐,因此他是可怕的欺騙,陷入悲痛通過羊皮;猶太建議出售約瑟夫作為一個奴隸,因此,他本人被迫提供本人作為一個奴隸。

God, on the other hand, is pleased with the pious, with Enoch and Noah, and especially with Abraham's unshakable faith (xv. 6); his righteousness and justice, which he recommends to his children and household (xviii. 19); his implicit obedience, which is ready to make the supreme sacrifice (xxii. 12, 16).上帝,另一方面,感到高興的是虔誠的,與伊諾克和諾亞,特別是與亞伯拉罕的不可動搖的信念( xv. 6 ) ;他的正氣和正義,他建議他的孩子和家庭( xviii. 19 ) ;他隱式的服從,這是準備作出最大犧牲( xxii. 12日, 16日) 。 For Abraham's sake God saves Lot (xix. 19); blesses Abraham's son Isaac (xxvi. 5), his children, and his children's children; protects them through all dangers; prevents others from doing evil to them (xii. 17, xiv., xv., xx. 3, xxvi., xxxi. 24); and leads them in a marvelous manner. He gives commands to men, and binds them to Himself by covenants and promises.對於亞伯拉罕的上帝為了節省地段( xix. 19 ) ;祝福亞伯拉罕的兒子以撒( xxvi. 5人) ,他的孩子,他的孩子的孩子;保護他們通過各種危險;阻止他人作惡他們( xii. 17日,十四。 ,十五。 ,第xx 。 3 , 26 。 ,三十一。 24 ) ; ,並且導致他們在一個奇妙的方式進行。他給命令的人,他們結合自己的盟約和諾言。 They are the objects of His designs, as they are His work.他們的對象,他設計的,因為他們是他的工作。

§ 24. The Creation. § 24 。創作。

The entire universe is the work of God; this proposition is the necessary consequence of the idea of God as found in Genesis and the Pentateuch and in the whole Bible generally.整個宇宙是上帝的工作;這一主張是必要的後果是上帝的思想中發現的成因和五和整個聖經一般。 From this arises doubtless the author's belief that God created the world out of nothing.從這個無疑產生的作者認為,上帝創造了世界無中生有。 He does not say how this primal act of creation was accomplished.他沒有說明這一原始的行為創造成就。 In the beginning the earth was a desolate watery chaos ("tohu wa bohu"), over which the spirit of God brooded, and which God divided into heaven and earth and arranged and peopled in six days.一開始地球是一個荒涼的水瀉混亂( “ tohuは博湖” ) ,對其中的精神上帝brooded ,其中神分為天地,並安排和,這裡的6天。 The living beings are created in an orderly sequence, proceeding from the inorganic to the organic, from the incomplete to the complete, man being the crown.人們的生活創造一個有序的序列,從無機到有機,從不完整的,男子冠軍。 In the beginning God creates light together with time and the day.一開始上帝創造了光與時間和日期。 The outer firmament separates the waters above and below it; then when the lower waters recede the land appears; the earth produces grass and trees; and plants and animals are created, each "after its kind," and endowed with the faculty of propagating within their kind in their respective elements.外蒼穹隔開的水域上面和下面它;然後在較低的水退去的土地出現;地球產生青草和樹木;和植物和動物的創建,每個“後的那種” ,並賦予與傳播學院內他們那種在各自的要素。 Every organic being, therefore, is endowed with a nature of its own, which the Creator intends it to keep by pairing only with its own kind.每一個有機的,因此,被賦予的性質與它自己的,這造物主它打算保持的配對只與自己的實物。 The lights that God has fixed in the firmament serve to separate the day from the night; they shall be for "signs, periods, seasons, and years," and shall give light to the earth.燈光,上帝已經固定在蒼穹服務分開的一天晚上,他們應為“標誌,時間,季節,年” ,並應根據地球。 The sun is the greater light, that rules the day; the moon is the lesser light, that rules the night.太陽是更大的光,這一天的規則;月亮是較小的輕,這條深夜。

§ 25. The Creation is, in the judgment of God, good in particular, and very good in general, ie, fit for life, commensurate to its purpose, salutary, harmonic, and pleasing. § 25 。創新是,在上帝的判決,特別是良好的,而且非常好一般,即適合生活,相稱的目的,有益的,諧波,並愉快。 The book expresses an optimistic satisfaction and pleasure in the world, a lively veneration for God's arrangements and the peculiar dignity of each being as determined by God.這本書表示了樂觀的滿意和高興地在世界上,一個活潑的崇拜為上帝的安排,以及獨特的尊嚴,每個所確定的上帝。 The simplicity, sublimity, depth, and moral grandeur of this story of the Creation and its superiority to every other story dealing with the subject are universally recognized.簡單,崇高,深度和道德宏偉這個故事的創作和優勢,其他的故事都處理的主題是普遍公認的。

§ 26. Humanity. § 26 。人性。

Man, the crown of Creation, as a pair including man and woman, has been made in God's image.滿冠的創作,作為一個對包括男人和女人,已經取得了上帝的形象。 God forms the first man, Adam, out of earth ("adamah").上帝形式的第一人,亞當,在地球( “ adamah ” ) 。 This indicates his relation to it in a manner that is fundamental for many later laws.這表明他與它的方式是根本的許多後來的法律。 Man is a child of the earth, from which he has been taken, and to which he shall return.人是一個孩子的泥土,而他已採取和他應返回。 It possesses for him a certain moral grandeur: he serves it; it does not serve him.它擁有對他有一定的道德宏偉:他服務,而是它不符合他。 He must include God's creatures in the respect that it demands in general, by not exploiting them for his own selfish uses.他必須包括上帝的動物在這方面的要求一般,沒有利用它們為自己的自私的用途。 Unlawful robbery of its gifts (as in paradise), murder, and unchastity anger it, paralyze its power and delight in producing, and defile it.非法搶劫的禮物(在天堂) ,謀殺,憤怒和不貞它,癱瘓其權力和喜悅在生產和褻瀆它。 God breathed the breath of life into the nostrils of man, whom He formed out of earth.上帝呼吸呼吸的生命投入到人的鼻孔,他形成了地球。 Therefore that part of him that is contrasted with his corporeal nature or supplements it-his life, soul, spirit, and reason-is not, as with the animals, of earthly origin, existing in consequence of the body, but is of divine, heavenly origin.因此,他的一部分,這是對比他肉體的性質或補充它,他的生命,靈魂,精神和理由不一樣,動物,原產地的人間,因此現有的機構,而是神,天上的原產地。 Man is "toledot" (ii. 4) of heaven and earth. The creation of man also is good, in the judgment of God; the book, therefore, is cognizant of nothing that is naturally evil, within man or outside of him.人是“ toledot ” (白介素4 )的天地。創造男子也是好的,在上帝的判決;這本書,因此,沒有認識到這自然是邪惡的,在外面的人或他的。 After God has created man, He says: "It is not good that the man should be alone; I will make him an help meet for him" (ii. 18).在上帝創造了人,他說: “這是不是好,該名男子應單獨;我將使他成為幫助滿足他” (白介素18 ) 。 In order that man may convince himself that there is no being similar to him among all the creatures that have been made, God brings all the animals unto Adam, that he may name them, ie, make clear to himself their different characteristics.為了那個男人可以說服自己,沒有受到類似的對他的所有的動物已經取得,上帝把所有的動物祂亞當說,他可能他們的名字,即明確自己的不同特點。 Hence man, looking for a being like unto himself among the animals, finds language.因此,人,尋找一個像你們自己之間的動物,認定的語言。 God thereupon creates woman out of the rib of man, who gladly recognizes her as bone of his bone and flesh of his flesh. "Therefore shall a man leave his father and his mother, and shall cleave unto his wife: and they shall be one flesh"; meaning that the mature man may and shall leave the paternal house, where he has been merely a dependent member of the family, and, urged by the longing for a sympathetic being that will supplement him, shall live with the woman of his choice, and found with her a family of his own, where the two shall be combined in an actual and a spiritual unity. In this passage the relation between man and woman is expressed, and also the nature of marriage, which is a life partnership in which one helps and supplements the other.於是上帝創造的女人的肋骨的人,誰願意承認她是他的骨骨和肉的肉。 “因此,人要離開他的父親和他的母親,並應忠於祂他的妻子:他們將一肉“ ;也就是說,成熟的男子可能,並應離開父親的房子,在那裡他一直只是依賴的家庭成員,並敦促渴望同情的是,他將補充,將生活與他的女人選擇,並發現她的家庭自己的,那裡的兩個應結合實際和精神文明的統一。在這段關係的男人和女人的表達,也是婚姻的性質,這是一個生活的夥伴關係其中一個幫助和補充的。 Procreation is not its purpose, but its consequence.生育不是其目的,但它的後果。 God has given to man, as to all living beings, the faculty of multiplying.上帝給了人類,所有活生生的人,教師的成倍增加。

§ 27. God gives to man dominion over the earth and over all living beings. The food of the first man consists solely of the fruits of the field, that of the animals being grass (i. 29). § 27 。上帝給人類統治地球和所有的眾生。食品的第一人純粹成果的領域,即基層動物(島29 ) 。 His occupation is to cultivate and watch over the Garden of Eden (ii. 15), the only restriction placed upon its enjoymentbeing that he shall not eat of the fruit of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil.他的職業是培養和觀看的伊甸園(白介素15 ) ,唯一的限制放在其enjoymentbeing ,他不得吃水果樹的知識善惡。 In the Garden of Eden men go naked and know no shame; this feeling is aroused only after they have broken God's command, and then He makes them garments of skins to cover their nakedness.在伊甸園男人們赤裸裸的和不知道羞恥;這種感覺不僅是引起爆發後上帝的命令,然後他使它們的毛皮服裝,以支付他們的裸體。

§ 28. All men on earth are descended from the first pair, Adam and Eve, and are therefore also of the image of God. § 28 。所有的人都是地球上的後裔第一次配對,亞當和夏娃,因此,也形象的上帝。 This statement expresses the unity of the whole human race.這項聲明表示,統一全人類。 Man is a created being, made in the image of God, and all men are related: these doctrines are among the most fundamental and weighty of the whole Bible.人是一個正在建立,在上帝的形象,以及所有有關的男子:這些理論是最根本,最重大的整個聖經。

The branch descended from Cain, the fratricide, the eldest son of the first pair, is the founder of civic and nomadic culture.該分行該隱後裔的自相殘殺的長子第一次配對,是公民的創始人和游牧文化。 The branch descended from Seth develops along religious lines: from Elohim (Seth, in iv. 25) through ha-Elohim (Enoch, in v. 22) to Yhwh (Noah, in vi. 8).該分行的後裔塞思開發沿線宗教界線:從耶洛(塞思,在四。二十五日)通過公頃瑩(伊諾克,在訴22 ) ,以耶和華(諾亞,在六。 8 ) 。 But punishment has been made necessary on account of Adam's sin; the human race must be destroyed on account of its cruelties and excesses.但是,懲罰已經取得了必要的帳戶亞當的罪孽;人類必須銷毀考慮到它的殘酷行為和過激行為。 A new race begins with Noah and his sons, and God promises that He will neither curse the earth again, nor destroy all living beings, but that, on the contrary, "seed-time and harvest, and cold and heat, and summer and winter, and day and night shall not cease" (viii. 22).一種新的比賽開始,諾亞和他的兒子,上帝的承諾,他不會詛咒再次地球,也沒有銷毀所有的活生生的人,但是,與此相反, “種子時間和收穫,並嚴寒及酷暑,夏季和冬天,晝夜不得停止“ ( viii. 22 ) 。 He blesses Noah and his family, that they may multiply and fill the earth and be spiritually above the animals.他祝福諾亞和他的家人,他們可能會成倍並填寫地球和精神上以上的動物。 He permits men to eat meat, but forbids them to eat blood, or meat with the blood thereof.他允許男子吃肉,但禁止他們吃血,肉與血人。 God will demand the blood (life) of every man or animal that spills it.上帝會需求的血液(生活)每個人或動物,它洩漏。 "Whoso sheddeth man's blood, by man shall his blood be shed" (ix. 6). “ Whoso sheddeth男子的血液,不得人為他的血液是跌” ( ix. 6 ) 。 God enters into a covenant with Noah and his descendants, promising them that He will not again send a general flood upon the earth, and instituting the rainbow as a token thereof (ch. ix.).上帝訂立契約與諾亞和他的後裔,希望他們,他將不會再發送洪水一般的地球,並建立了彩虹,以示人(第九章。 ) 。 The God whom all the Noachidæ worship is Elohim (ix. 1, 7, 8, 12, 16, 17), Yhwh being worshiped by Shem and his descendants.上帝所有的人Noachidæ禮拜瑩( ix. 1 , 7 , 8 , 12 , 16 , 17 ) ,正在敬拜耶和華的閃和他的後裔。 All the peoples dispersed over the earth are grouped as descendants of Shem, Ham, and Japheth.全體人民分散在地球上是歸類為後代閃,火腿,和雅弗。 The genealogy of these peoples which the author draws up in ch.該家譜對這些國家人民的作者借鑒了路。 x. according to the ethnographic knowledge of his time, finds no parallel in its universality, which includes all men in one bond of brotherhood.根據人種學知識的時間,沒有發現在其平行的普遍性,其中包括所有的人在一個債券的兄弟情誼。 In this way have originated the peoples that shall be blessed in Abraham.通過這種方式起源的人民應在亞伯拉罕祝福。

§ 29. Israel's Patriarchs. § 29 。以色列的始祖。

Terah, the descendant of Shem and Eber, has three sons, one of whom, Abraham, is destined by God for momentous events. Terah的後裔,閃和韋伯,有三個兒子,其中一人,亞伯拉罕,注定是上帝的重大事件。 He shall leave his home; and God says to him: "I will make of thee a great nation, and I will bless thee and make thy name great; and thou shalt be a blessing: And I will bless them that bless thee, and curse him that curseth thee; and in thee shall all families of the earth be blessed" (xii. 2-3).他將離開他的家;和上帝對他說: “我將在你一個偉大的國家,我會保佑你和你的名字偉大的;和你應該是一個祝福:我會保佑他們,保佑你,和詛咒他, curseth你和你應在所有家庭地球的祝福“ ( xii. 2-3 ) 。 God often repeats the promise that Abraham's descendants shall be as numerous as the stars in heaven and as the sand on the seashore (xv. 5, xxii. 17); that He will make him a father of many nations, and cause him to be exceedingly fruitful; that kings and nations shall be descendants of him and Sarah (xvii. 5, 6, 16); that he shall become a great people; that all nations of the earth shall be blessed in him (xviii. 18, xxii. 18); and that his descendants shall receive the entire land of Canaan as a hereditary possession (xiii. 14 et seq., xv. 7, xvii. 18).上帝常常重複的承諾,亞伯拉罕的後裔應一樣多的明星在天堂和沙子的海邊( xv. 5 , 22 。 17 ) ; ,他將讓他父親的許多國家,並造成他是極其富有成果的;的國王和國家應他的後裔和莎拉( xvii. 5日, 6日, 16 ) ; ,他將成為一個偉大的人,所有國家的地球應祝福他( xviii. 18 , 22 。 18 ) ;和他的後裔應得到整個土地的迦南作為一個遺傳藏( xiii. 14起。 ,十五。 7 ,十七。 18 ) 。 But before all this comes to pass Israel shall be sorely oppressed for four hundred years as servants in a strange land, after which they shall go out with rich possessions, and God shall judge their oppressors (xv. 13 et seq.).但是,在所有這一切是通過以色列應被壓迫的痛苦四百年的公務員在一個陌生的土地,之後他們將走出去與豐富的財產,上帝應判斷其壓迫者( xv. 13起。 ) 。 In confirmation of these promises God enters twice into a covenant with Abraham: the first time (xv. 18 et seq.) as an assurance that his descendants shall possess Canaan; and the second time, before Isaac's birth, as a sign that He will be their God.在確認這些承諾上帝兩次進入到與亞伯拉罕契約:第一次( xv. 18起。 )作為保證,他的後代應具備迦南;和第二次前,艾薩克的誕生,作為一個跡象表明他將是他們的上帝。 In token thereof God changes Abram's and Sarai's names into "Abraham" and "Sarah" (), combining His own name with theirs, and institutes the circumcision of all the men of Abraham's household and their male descendants as an eternal sign of the covenant between Himself and Abraham.在象徵性的變化有上帝艾布拉姆和薩萊的名字變成“ Abraham ”和“莎拉” ( ) ,結合他自己的名字與他們的,和研究所的割禮的所有男子亞伯拉罕的家庭和她們的男性後代作為一個永恆的標誌之間的契約他和亞伯拉罕。 Abraham acknowledges Yhwh (xiv. 22), builds altars to Him (xii. 7, 8; xiii. 18); calls upon His name (xii. 8, xiii. 4, xxi. 33); shows an invincible faith in His promises, whatever present circumstances may be; is ready for the greatest sacrifice; and proves himself, by his human virtues-his helpfulness, unselfishness, hospitality, humanity, uprightness, dignity, and love of peace-worthy of divine guidance.亞伯拉罕承認耶和華( xiv. 22 ) ,建立祭壇給他( xii. 7日, 8日;十三。 18 ) ;呼籲他的名字( xii. 8日,十三。 4 , 21 。 33條) ;顯示,立於不敗之地的信念在他的承諾,不管目前的情況而定;已經準備就緒,最大的犧牲,並證明自己,他的人類美德,他樂於助人,無私,熱情好客,人道,浩然正氣,尊嚴和對和平的熱愛,無愧于神聖的指導。

§ 30. Of Abraham's two sons Ishmael shall be blessed, and become the father of twelve princes and the progenitor of a great people (xvi. 10, xvii. 20, xxi. 18). § 30 。亞伯拉罕的兩個兒子以實瑪利應得天獨厚,成為父親的12個王子和祖一位偉大的人( xvi. 10日,十七。 20 , 21 。 18 ) 。 Ishmael himself becomes an archer, lives in the wilderness, and marries an Egyptian woman (xxi. 20 et seq.).伊斯梅爾自己成為一個射手,住在曠野,和結婚的埃及婦女( xxi. 20起。 ) 。 But the one to inherit the promises and the land is Isaac (xvii. 21, xxi. 12), Sarah's son.但是,一個繼承的承諾和土地是艾薩克( xvii. 21 , 21 。 12 ) ,莎拉的兒子。 Therefore his father chooses for him a wife from among his own relations (ch. xxiv.).因此,他的父親為他選擇的妻子從他自己的關係( 24章。 ) 。 God renews to him the promises given to Abraham (xxvi. 3, 24).上帝再次向他許諾給亞伯拉罕( xxvi. 3 ,第24條) 。 Isaac is truly the son of his great father, though he has a somewhat passive nature.艾薩克是真正的兒子,他的偉大的父親,但他有一個有點被動的性質。 He also builds an altar to Yhwh, and calls upon His name (xxvi. 2).他還建立了一個祭壇耶和華,並呼籲他的名字( xxvi. 2 ) 。

§ 31. Isaac's sons are twins; Esau, the elder, scorns the rights of the first-born, leaving them to Jacob (xxv. 34). § 31 。以撒的兒子是雙胎;以掃,老,藐視權利的第一胎,使他們對雅各布( xxv. 34 ) 。 Esau is a hunter, whose fate it is to live by the sword and be subject to his brother, though in time he will throw off his yoke (xxvii. 40).以掃是一個獵人,他們的命運是生活用劍,並接受他的弟弟,但在時間,他將他甩枷鎖( xxvii. 40 ) 。 He is also called "Edom," and subsequently lives in the land of that name in the mountainous region of Seir.他也是所謂的“以東” ,並隨後住在土地的名稱,在山區Seir 。 He is loved by his father, but Rebekah loves Jacob; and when Esau marries a Canaanite woman, Isaac, deceived by a trick, blesses Jacob, who, before he sets out for Haran, receives from his father Abraham's blessing also (xxviii. 4). Jacobattains to right relations with God only after mistakes, trials, and struggles.他是愛他的父親,但Rebekah愛雅各布;時,以掃結婚的迦南女子,艾薩克,欺騙伎倆,祝福雅各,誰之前,他列出的哈蘭,收到他的父親亞伯拉罕的祝福也( xxviii.第4 ) 。 Jacobattains權與上帝的關係之後才犯錯誤,審判和鬥爭。 He knows Yhwh, whose hand he has seen in his father's life (xxvii. 20); he recognizes Him in the divine appearance (xxviii. 16); but he has not experienced God in his own life.他知道耶和華,他的手他已經看到在他父親的生命( xxvii. 20 ) ;他承認他的神聖露面( xxviii. 16 ) ;但他沒有經歷神自己的生命。 God has not yet become his God; hence he avoids the name of Yhwh so long as he is in a strange country (xxx. 2; xxxi. 7, 9, 42, 53; xxxii. 3); but the narrator does not hesitate to say "Yhwh" (xxix. 31; xxxi. 3; xxxviii. 7, 10), that name being also known to Laban (xxx. 27, 30) and his daughters (xxix. 32 et seq., xxx. 24). Not until a time of dire distress does Jacob find Yhwh, who becomes for him Elohim when the vow turns to a prayer.上帝還沒有成為他的上帝,因此他避免了名字耶和華,只要他是在一個陌生的國家( xxx. 2 ;三十一。 7 , 9 , 42 , 53 ;三十二。 3 ) ;但敘述者不猶豫說“耶和華” ( xxix. 31 ;三十一。 3 ;三十八。第7 ,第10 ) ,這個名字也被稱為向拉( xxx. 27日, 30歲)和他的女兒( xxix. 32起。 , xxx域名。 24 ) 。直到時間的可怕的困境並不雅各布找到耶和華,誰當選,他耶洛當誓言變成了祈禱。 He has overcome Elohim, and himself receives another name after he hasamended his ways (ie, has gained another God), namely, "Israel," ie, "warrior of God."他克服了瑩,和他本人獲得另一個名字後,他hasamended方式(即獲得了另一個上帝) ,即“以色列” ,即“上帝的戰士。 ” God now gives him the same promises that were given to Abraham and Isaac (xxxv. 11 et seq.), and Jacob builds an altar to God ("El"), on which he pours a drink-offering.現在上帝給了他同樣的承諾,給予亞伯拉罕和以撒( xxxv. 11日起。 )和雅各布建立了一個祭壇上帝( “厄爾尼諾” ) ,對他倒一杯飲料,產品。 Similarly he brings offerings to the God of his father when he leaves Canaan to go with his family to Egypt, God promising to accompany him and to lead his descendants back in due time.同樣,他帶來了系列產品,以上帝的父親時,他離開迦南去與家人一起到埃及,上帝答應陪他,並導致他的後代在適當的時候。 Jacob finds the name of Yhwh again only on his death-bed (xlix. 18).雅各布認定的名字再次耶和華不僅對他的死亡床( xlix. 18 ) 。

§ 32. With Jacob and his twelve sons the history of the Patriarchs is closed; for the seventy persons with whom Jacob enters Egypt are the origin of the future people of Israel. § 32 。隨著雅各布和他的12個兒子的歷史,始祖是封閉;為70人雅各布人進入埃及的原產地是未來的以色列人民。 God does not appear to Jacob's sons, nor does he address them.上帝似乎並不雅各布的兩個兒子,也不解決這些問題。 Joseph designedly avoids the appellation "Yhwh"; he uses "Elohim" (xxxix. 9; xl. 8; xli. 16, 51, 53; xlv. 5, 9; xlviii. 9; 1. 25; "ha-Elohim," xli. 25, 28, 32; xlii. 18 [xliv. 16]; xlv. 9; and the Elohim of his father," xliii. 23). The narrator, on the other hand, has no reason for avoiding the word "Yhwh," which he uses intentionally (xxxix. 2, 3, 5). Yhwh takes a secondary place in the consciousness of Israel while in Egypt, but becomes all-important again in the theophany of the burning bush. The book prescribes no regulations for the religious life. The Patriarchs are represented in their family relations. Their history is a family history. The relations between husband and wife, parents and children, brother and sister, are displayed in pictures of typical truthfulness, psychologic delicacy, inimitable grace and loveliness, with an inexhaustible wealth of edifying and instructive scenes.約瑟夫故意迴避了稱呼“耶和華” ,他用“瑩” ( xxxix. 9 ;坐標。 8 ;四十一。 16 , 51 , 53 ;第四十五。 5日, 9日;四十八。 9 ; 1 。 25 “ ;公頃,瑩, “四十一。 25日, 28日,第32條;四十二。 18 [四十四。 16 ] ;第四十五。 9 ;和耶洛因他的父親, ”四十三。 23 ) 。敘述者,另一方面,沒有任何理由,以避免這個詞“耶和華” ,他故意使用( xxxix. 2 , 3 , 5 ) 。耶和華採取了中學發生在以色列的意識,同時在埃及,但成為最重要的又在神的焚燒灌木叢中。書中沒有明條例的宗教生活。的始祖都派代表參加他們的家庭關係。他們的歷史是一個家庭的歷史。之間的關係丈夫和妻子,父母與子女,兄弟姐妹,都顯示在畫面的典型真實性,心理微妙,獨特的寬限期和可愛,有取之不盡的財富的熏陶和啟發性的場面。

§ 33. Scientific Criticism. § 33 。科學批判。

Since the time of Astruc (1753) modern criticism has held that Genesis is not a uniform work by one author, but was combined by successive editors from several sources that are themselves partly composite, and has received its present form only in the course of centuries; its composition from various sources being proved by its repetitions, contradictions, and differences in conception, representation, and language.由於時間阿斯特呂克( 1753 )現代批評,認為起源不是一個統一的工作的一個作者,但歷屆聯合編輯從幾個來源,本身的部分複合材料,並已收到其目前唯一的形式的過程中百年;其組成從各種渠道得到證明了它的重複,矛盾和分歧的概念,代表性,和語言。 According to this view, three chief sources must be distinguished, namely, J, E, and P. (1) J, the Jahvist, is so called because he speaks of God as "Yhwh" In his work (chiefly in the primal history, ch. i.-xi., as has been asserted since Budde) several strata must be distinguished, J1, J2, J3, etc. (2) E, the Elohist, is so named because down to Ex.根據這一觀點,三個主要來源必須是傑出的,即,強, E和體育( 1 ) J以來, Jahvist ,是所謂的,因為他講的上帝是“耶和華”在他的工作(主要是在原始的歷史,膽固醇。 i.-xi. ,因為一直以來布德主張)幾項階層必須區分,日語1 , j2環球通信, J3等( 2 )電子商務的Elohist ,如此命名是因為到惠。 iii.三。 he calls God "Elohim."他呼籲上帝“瑩” 。 A redactor (RJE) at an early date combined and fused J and E, so that these two sources can not always be definitely separated; and the critics therefore differ greatly in regard to the details of this question.阿redactor (傑)早日合併和融合J和英文,因此,這兩個來源不能總是絕對分開;和評論家因此,在很大的不同方面的細節,這一問題。 (3) P, or the Priestly Codex, is so called on account of the priestly manner and tendencies of the author, who also calls God "Elohim." ( 3 ) P或法典的祭司,是所謂的帳戶祭司的方式和傾向的作者,誰也呼籲上帝“瑩” 。 Here again several strata must be distinguished, P1, P2, P3, etc., though only P2 is found in Genesis. After another redactor, D, had combined Deuteronomy with JE, the work so composed was united with P by a final redactor, who then enlarged the whole (the sequence J, E, D, P is, however, not generally accepted).在這裡再次幾個階層必須區分, P1的的P2 , P3號,等等,雖然是唯一的P2中發現成因。 redactor後另一個,天,合併申命記與流行性乙型腦炎,這樣的工作是統一的組成與P的最後redactor ,誰再擴大了整個( J序列中,英,日, P的,但一般不接受) 。 Hence the present Book of Genesis is the work of this last redactor, and was compiled more than one hundred years after Ezra.因此,本書的成因是工作的最後redactor ,並彙編成以上一百年後以斯拉。 The works of J, E, and P furnished material for the entire Pentateuch (and later books), on whose origin, scope, time, and place of composition see Pentateuch.該工程的J ,電子,家具和P物質對整個五(後來的書籍) ,在其原產地,範圍,時間和地點的組成見五。

As it would take too much space to give an account of all the attempts made to separate the sources, the analysis of only the last commentator, namely, of Holzinger, who has made a special study of this question, will be noted.因為它會耗費太多的空間給一個帳戶的所有企圖獨立的來源,分析的只有最後的評論員,即對Holzinger ,誰作出了專門研究這一問題,將予註明。 In his "Einleitung zum Hexateuch" he has given a full account of the labors of his predecessors, presenting in the "Tabellen" to his work the separation into sources laid down by Dillmann, Wellhausen, Kuenen, Budde, and Cornill.他在“導論zum Hexateuch ”他給予了充分考慮到勞動者他的前任,提出在“ Tabellen ” ,以他的工作中分離到來源所規定Dillmann ,威爾, Kuenen ,布德和Cornill 。 The commentary by Gunkel (1901) is not original as regards the sources.評注的貢克爾( 1901 )不是原來的關於來源。

§ 34. see Analysis of the Sources. § 34 。見分析來源。 "a" and "b" denote respectively the first and second half of the verse; α, β, γ, etc., the smaller parts; * ="worked over"; "s" added to a letter means that the matter contains elements belonging to R or J or E or to the latter two ; "f" = " and the following verse " or "verses." “ A ”和“ B ”分別指上半年和下半年的詩句; α , β , γ等,小零件; * = “工作的” ; “的”添加到信的手段,這一問題包含內容屬於R或J或E或後兩個;的“ F ” = “和下面的詩句”或“的詩句。 ”

§ 35. Objections. § 35 。反對。

Serious objection may be brought to this analysis of sources on the following grounds: (1) It is unsupported by any external proof whatever; there is no authentic information showing that the Pentateuch, or Genesis in particular, was compiled from various sources, much less have any such sources been preserved in their original form.嚴重反對可能使這一分析的來源理由如下: ( 1 )它是不受任何外來證明什麼,但沒有真實的信息表明,五,或Genesis特別是彙編從各種來源,更不用說有任何這類資料保存在其原始的形式。 (2) Hence the critics must rely solely upon so-called internal evidence. ( 2 )因此,批評必須完全依靠對所謂的內部證據。 But the subjective state of mind with which the final decision rests is unstable and deceptive.但是,主觀的心理狀態與最後的決定在於是不穩定的和欺騙性。 It is hazardous to apply modern criteria and rules of composition and style to such anancient and peculiar work, whose origin is entirely unknown.這是有害於運用現代標準和規則的組成和作風等anancient和特殊的工作,其原產地是完全不明。 (3) Even if it be demonstrated that Genesis has been compiled from various sources, yet the attempt to trace the origin of each verse and of each part of a verse will never meet with success; the critics themselves confess that the process of combination was a most complicated one. ( 3 )即使證明,成因已編制從各種來源,但企圖跟踪的原產地和每一個詩的每一部分的詩永遠不會取得成功;批評自己承認的過程中組合一個最複雜的。 (4) If the contradictions and repetitions said to be found in the book really existed, this would not necessarily prove that there had been more than one author; for the literatures of the world furnish numerous similar examples. ( 4 )如果矛盾和重複說,要找到這本書確實存在,這並不一定會證明,有一個以上的作者;的文獻世界提供了許多類似的例子。 The existence of such repetitions and contradictions, however, has never been demonstrated.存在這種重複和矛盾,但是,從來沒有表現出來。

(5) The theory of sources is at best a hypothesis that is not even necessary; for it is based on a total misconception of the dominant ideas, tendencies, and plan of the book. ( 5 )理論的來源是最好的一個假設是沒有必要的,因為它是基於一個錯誤的總數佔主導地位的思想,傾向和計劃書。 Its upholders have totally misconceived the theology of Genesis; transforming the interchange of the name of God, which is the soul of the book, into an external criterion for distinguishing the different authors.其upholders完全錯誤的神學成因;改造交匯處以上帝的名義,這是靈魂的這本書,到一個外部的標準區分不同的作者。 They have not understood the reason for the variation in the use of and , which in itself is a proof of uniform composition; and they have, therefore, missed a second fundamental idea, namely, that implied in the genealogies and their intimate relation to the Israelitic concept of the family.他們不理解的原因變化的使用和,這本身就是一個證明,統一組成;他們,因此,錯過了第二次基本思想,即隱含在族譜和親密的關係Israelitic家庭觀念。 In criticizing the unequal treatment of the various portions of the material, the theory misconceives the different degrees of their importance for the author.在批評的不平等待遇的各個部分材料,理論misconceives的不同程度的重要性的作者。 Difference in treatment is proof, not of different authors, but of different subjects and of the different points of view in one author.區別對待,這證明,而不是不同的作者,但不同的主題和不同觀點的作者之一。 (6) This would also explain the variations in the language of different passages. ( 6 )這也解釋了不同的語言,不同的通道。 But criticism on this point runs in a circle, diversity of sources being proved by differences of language, and vice versa.但是,批評在這一點上運行在一個圓圈,來源多樣性正證明了不同的語言,反之亦然。 (7) The separation into sources in particular is based on numberless exegetic errors, often of the most obvious kind, showing not only a misconception of the scope and spirit of the book, and of its mode of narration, but even of the laws of language; and this separation is in itself the greatest barrier to a correct insight into the book, in that it encourages the student to analyze difficult passages into their sources instead of endeavoring to discover their meaning. ( 7 )分離成源,尤其是基於無數exegetic錯誤,往往是最明顯的實物,展示不僅是一個誤解的範圍和精神的書,它的敘事模式,但即使在法律語言;和分離,這本身就是最大的障礙,一個正確的了解這本書,因為它鼓勵學生分析困難通道納入其來源而不是努力地發現其意義。

§ 36. Notwithstanding all these objections, however, it can not be denied that various portions of Genesis palpably convey the impression of difference in origin and a corresponding difference in conception; but as the impression that the work gives of having been uniformly planned in every detail is still stronger, the explanation given in § 2 is here repeated; namely, Genesis has not been compiled from several sources by one redactor or by several redactors, but is the work of one author, who has recorded the traditions of his people with due reverence but independently and according to a uniform plan. § 36 。儘管所有這些反對意見,但不能否認,各個部分的成因明顯的印象中的不同來源和相應的觀念差異,但作為一個印象,即工作給予了統一的計劃已在每一個細節仍是強大,給出的解釋中第2條是在這裡重複;即成因尚未編制從幾個來源之一redactor或由幾個編纂,但工作的一位作者,誰記錄了傳統的與他的人民由於崇敬,但是獨立並按照統一的計劃。 Genesis was not compiled from various books.起源不是彙編的各種書籍。

§ 37. Historical Criticism. § 37 。歷史批判。

The historicity of the Book of Genesis is more or less denied, except by the representatives of a strict inspiration theory. Genesis recounts myths and legends.在歷史性的創世記或多或少否認,但代表了嚴格的激勵理論。成因敘述神話和傳說。 It is generally admitted that the primal story is not historical (ch. i.-xi.); but critics vary in ascribing to the stories of the Patriarchs more or less of a historical foundation.人們普遍承認,原始的故事並非歷史(章i.-xi. ) ;但批評者賦予不同的故事始祖或多或少的歷史基礎。 For details see the articles under their respective names; here only a summary can be given:細節見文章根據各自的名稱;這裡只是一個簡要可以考慮:

(a) The story of the Creation can not be historically true, for the reasons (一)的故事創作不能真實歷史的原因,

(1) that there can be no human traditions of these events; ( 1 )就不可能有人類傳統的這些活動;

(2) its assumption of a creation in six days, with the sequence of events as recounted, contradicts the theories of modern science regarding the formation of the heavenly bodies during vast periods of time, especially that of the earth, its organisms, and its position in the universe. ( 2 )假設成立6天,與事件的順序為敘述,違背了理論,現代科學方面形成的天體在絕大多數的時間內,特別是地球,它的有機體,其位置在宇宙中。 The popular view of Genesis can not be reconciled with modern science.流行的看法成因無法調和與現代科學。 The story is a religio-scientific speculation on the origin of the world, analogous to the creation-myths found among many peoples.這個故事是一個宗教科學猜測的起源世界,類似的創造,神話中發現許多國家的人民。 The similarities to the Babylonian creation-myth are most numerous and most striking.相似的巴比倫創造神話的最大量和最突出的。 The extent of its dependence on other myths, the mode of transmission, and the age and history of the tradition and its adaptation are still matters of dispute.的程度依賴於其他神話的傳播方式,以及年齡和歷史傳統和適應仍然事項的爭端。

(b) The story of the Garden of Eden (ch. ii., iii.) is a myth, invented in order to answer certain questions of religion, philosophy, and cultural history. ( b )在故事的伊甸園(章二。 ,三。 )是一個神話,發明了以回答某些問題的宗教,哲學,歷史和文化。 Its origin can not be ascertained, as no parallel to it has so far been found.其來源無法確定,因為沒有平行它迄今被發現。

(c) The stories of Cain and Abel and the genealogies of the Cainites and Sethites are reminiscences of legends, the historical basis for which can no longer be ascertained. (三)故事該隱和亞伯和族譜的Cainites和Sethites是回憶的傳說,歷史基礎,它再也不能確定。 Their historical truth is excluded by the great age assigned to the Sethites, which contradicts all human experience.其歷史真相是排除的偉大時代賦予Sethites ,這違背了所有人類的經驗。 A parallel is found in the ten antediluvian primal kings of Babylonian chronology, where the figures are considerably greater.並行的是發現了10個過時的原始巴比倫國王的年代,那裡的數字是相當大的。

(d) The story of the Flood is a legend that is found among many peoples. It is traced back to a Babylonian prototype, still extant. ( d )在故事的防洪是一個傳奇,這是中發現許多國家的人民。這是追溯到巴比倫的原型,但現存的。 It is perhaps founded on reminiscences of a great seismic-cyclonic event that actually occurred, but could have been only partial, as a general flood of the whole earth, covering even the highest mountains, is not conceivable.這也許是建立在回憶一個偉大地震氣旋活動實際發生的,但本來只是部分,作為一般洪水的整個地球,甚至包括最高的山,不可以想像的。

(e) The genealogy of peoples is a learned attempt to determine genealogically the relation of peoples known to the author, but by no means including the entire human race; this point of view was current in antiquity, although it does not correspond to the actual facts. ( e )在家譜的人民是一個教訓試圖確定genealogically的關係人民眾所周知的作者,但絕不是包括整個人類;這一觀點是目前在古代,儘管它不符合實際事實。

(f) The stories of the Patriarchs are national legends. ( f )在故事的始祖是國家的傳說。 Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob and his sons are idealized personifications of the people, its tribes, and families; and it can not now be ascertained whether or not these are based on more or less obscure reminiscences of real personages.亞伯拉罕,以撒和雅各和他的兒子personifications是理想化的人,其部落,和家庭,它現在不能確定是否這些都是基於或多或少掩蓋真正的回憶人士。 In any case, these legends furnish no historically definite or even valuable information regarding the primal history of the people of Israel.在任何情況下,這些傳說歷史上沒有提供明確的,甚至寶貴的資料對原始歷史的以色列人民。 The whole conception of the descent of one people from one family and one ancestor is unhistorical; for a people originates through the combination of different families.整個概念的後裔一個人從一個家庭和一個祖先是unhistorical ;為人民來源於通過結合不同的家庭。 It has also been maintained that the stories of the Patriarchs are pale reflections of mythology or nature-myths.也有人認為,故事的始祖是蒼白的思考神話或自然的神話。


Commentaries: Calvin, In Librum Geneseos Commentarius, ed.評:加爾文,在Librum Geneseos Commentarius ,編輯。 Hengstenberg, Berlin, 1838; J.亨斯,柏林, 1838 ;學者 Gerhard, Commentarius Super Genesin, Jena, 1637; Von Bohlen, Die Genesis Historisch-Kritisch Erläutert, Königsberg, 1832; Friedrich Tuch, Halle, 1838; 2d ed.總理, Commentarius超級Genesin ,耶拿, 1637 ;馮波倫,模具起源歷史, Kritisch Erläutert ,康尼斯堡, 1832 ;弗里德里希Tuch ,哈雷, 1838 ; 2版。 (Arnold and Merx), 1871; CF Keil, Leipsic, 1878; Franz Delitzsch, Neuer Commentar zur Genesis, 1887; M. (阿諾德和Merx ) , 1871年;參看Keil公司, Leipsic , 1878年;弗蘭茲德里,諾伊爾Commentar楚成因, 1887年;先生 Kalisch, 1858; A. Kalisch , 1858年的A. Knobel, revised by Dillmann 1892; JP Lange, 2d ed., 1877; E.克諾貝爾,修訂Dillmann 1892年;太平紳士蘭格, 2版。 , 1877 ;體育 Reuss, La Bible, pt.羅伊斯,香格里拉聖經角。 iii., 1897; EH Brown, 1871 (Speaker's Commentary); R.三。 , 1897年;高血壓布朗, 1871年(議長的評注) ;河 Payne Smith (Ellicot's Commentary, 1882); GI Spurrell, Notes on the Hebrew Text of the Book of Genesis, 1887; M.佩恩史密斯( Ellicot的評注, 1882年) ;胃腸Spurrell ,說明希伯來文字的圖書的起源, 1887年;先生 Dods, The Book of Genesis, 4th ed., 1890; A. Dods ,這本書的起源,第4版。 , 1890年的A. Tappehorn, Erklärung der Genesis (Roman Catholic), 1888; Strack, in Kurzgefasster Commentar (Strack-Zöckler), 1894; Holzinger, in Kurzer Handcommentar, ed. Tappehorn , Erklärung之成因(羅馬天主教) , 1888年;施特拉克,在Kurzgefasster Commentar (施特拉克- Zöckler ) , 1894年; Holzinger ,在Kurzer Handcommentar ,編輯。 Marti, 1898; H.馬蒂, 1898年閣下; Gunkel, in Handkommentar zum AT ed.貢克爾,在Handkommentar zum美國版。 Nowack, 1901. Criticism: Astruc, Conjectures surles Mémoires Originaux Dontil Paroitque Moyses' Est Servi pour Composer le Livre de la Gènèse, Brussels, 1753; Karl David Ilgen, Die Urkunden des Jerusalemischen Tempelarchivs, etc.: I. Urkunden des Ersten Buches von Moses, Halle, 1798; F. Nowack , 1901年。批評:阿斯特呂克,猜想surles Mémoires Originaux Dontil Paroitque Moyses東部Servi爭取作曲家樂圖書德拉魯阿Gènèse ,布魯塞爾, 1753 ;卡爾大衛Ilgen ,模具Urkunden萬Jerusalemischen Tempelarchivs等:一, Urkunden萬Ersten Buches馮摩西,哈雷, 1798年;樓 Bleek, De Libri Geneseos Origine Atque Indole Historica, Bonn, 1836; Bleek ,德利布里Geneseos起源Atque吲哚Historica ,波恩, 1836年;

I. Stähelin, Kritische Untersuchungen über die Genesis, Basel, 1830; H.一斯斯塔埃林,批判Untersuchungen尤伯杯死亡成因,巴塞爾, 1830年閣下; Hupfeld, Die Quellen der Genesis und die Art Ihrer Zusammensetzung, Berlin, 1853 (this work laid the foundation for the modern theory of sources, ie, the compilation of Genesis from three independent works);霍普菲,模具Quellen起源之死與藝術Ihrer Zusammensetzung ,柏林, 1853年(這項工作奠定了基礎的現代理論的來源,即彙編成因來自3個獨立的工程) ;

E. Böhmer, Liber Geneseos Pentateuchicus, Halle, 1860 (first graphical distinction of the sources by means of different type); idem, Das Erste Buch der Thora, Uebersetzung Seiner Drei Quellenschriften und Redactionszusätze mit Kritischen, Exegetischen, und Historischen Erörterungen, ib.體育博默,書Geneseos Pentateuchicus ,哈雷, 1860年(第一次圖形區別的來源方式不同類型) ;同上,第一次布赫達斯之疫, Uebersetzung Seiner顯Quellenschriften與Redactionszusätze麻省理工學院Kritischen , Exegetischen ,與Historischen Erörterungen ,興業。 1862; T. 1862年;噸 Nöldeke, Untersuchungen zur Kritik des AT Kiel, 1809; J. Nöldeke , Untersuchungen楚之批判在基爾, 1809年;學者 Wellhausen, Die Composition des Hexateuchs, in Jahrbücher für Deutsche Theologie, xxi., xxii., reprinted 1885, 1889, 1893; Karl Budde, Die Biblische Urgeschichte, Giessen 1883; Kautzsch and Socin, Die Genesis mit Aeusserer Unterscheidung der Quellen, Freiburg-in-Breisgau, 1888, 1891; DW Bacon, Pentateuchical Analysis, in Hebraica, iv.威爾模具之Hexateuchs組成,在年鑑獻給德意志神學, 21 。 , 22 。重印1885年, 1889年, 1893年;卡爾布德,模具Biblische Urgeschichte ,吉森1883年; Kautzsch和Socin ,麻省理工學院的模具成因Aeusserer Unterscheidung之Quellen ,弗賴堡,在布賴斯高, 1888年, 1891年;德國之聲培根, Pentateuchical分析,在Hebraica ,四。 216- 243, v. 7-17: The Genesis of Genesis, Hartford, 1892; EC Bissell, Genesis Printed in Colors (transl. from Kautzsch-Socm), Hartford, 1892; EI Fripp, The Composition of the Book of Genesis, 1892; CI Ball, Genesis, 1896 (critical text in colors in SBOT ed. Haupt). 216 -2 43,訴7 -17:起源的成因,哈特福德, 1 892;歐共體比斯爾,成因印刷顏色( t ransl.從K autzsch- S ocm) ,哈特福德, 1 892;酶聯弗里普,組成的創世記, 1892年;氯球,成因, 1896年(關鍵文字顏色SBOT版。豪普特) 。

Compare also the introductions to the Old Testament by Kuenen, Cornill, Strack, Driver, and König, and to the Hexateuch by Holzinger, 1893, and Steuernagel, 1901; A.對比還介紹舊約的Kuenen , Cornill ,施特拉克,驅動器,並柯尼希,以及Hexateuch的Holzinger , 1893年,和Steuernagel , 1901年的A. Westphal, Les Sources du Pentateuque, Paris, 1888, 1892; WE Addis, The Documents of the, Hexateuch Translated and Arranged in Chronological Order, 1893, 1898; IE Carpenter and G. Hartford Battersby, The Hexateuch, 1900. Anti-Criticism: CH Sack, De Usu Nominum, Dei et in Libro Geneseos, Bonn, 1821; H.韋斯特,法國杜Pentateuque來源,巴黎, 1888年, 1892年,我們亞的斯亞貝巴,這些文件的, Hexateuch翻譯和按照時間順序排列, 1893年, 1898年; IE瀏覽器卡彭特和G.哈特福德巴特斯,該Hexateuch , 1900 。反批評:甲烷袋,烏蘇Nominum德,棣等在圖書Geneseos ,波恩, 1821年閣下; Ewald, Die Composition der Genesis Kritisch Untersucht, Brunswick, 1823 (subsequently retracted for the greater part by the author);埃瓦爾德,模具組成之成因Kritisch Untersucht ,不倫瑞克, 1823年(後來收回的較大部分作者) ;

EW Hengstenberg, Die Authentie des Pentateuchs, Berlin, 1836, 1839 (i. 181-414 contains an epoch-making proof of the meaning and intentional use of the names of God); M.電子戰亨斯,模具Authentie萬Pentateuchs ,柏林, 1836年, 1839年(島181-414包含一個具有劃時代意義的證據的含義和故意利用名字上帝) ;先生 Drechsler, Die Einheit und Echtheit der Genesis, 1838 (including Nachweis der Einheit und Planmässigkeit der Genesis); FH Ranke, Untersuchungen über den Pentateuch, Erlangen, 1834-40; IH Kurtz, Die Einheit der Genesis, 1846; C.德雷克斯勒,模具統一性和Echtheit之成因, 1838年(包括Nachweis德國統一和德國Planmässigkeit成因) ;跳頻蘭克, Untersuchungen尤伯杯大街五,埃爾蘭根, 1834年至1840年; 44/198庫爾茨,統一模具之成因, 1846年;角 Keil, Ueber die Gottesnamen im Pentateuch, in Zeitschrift für Lutherische Theologie und Kirche, 1851, pp. Keil公司,論死Gottesnamen免疫五,在雜誌Lutherische神學和教堂, 1851年,頁。 215-280; J. 215-280 ;學者 Halévy, Recherches Bibliques, i.哈萊維,勘探Bibliques島 1895; WH Green, criticism of Harper, in Hebraica, v., vi., vii.; idem, The Unity of Genesis; EC Bissell, The Pentateuch, Its Origin and Structure, pp. 410-475, New York, 1885 (includes a voluminous bibliography on the Pentateuch). 1895年,武漢綠色,批評哈珀,在Hebraica ,訴,六。 ,七。 ;同上,統一成因;歐共體比斯爾,在五,其來源和結構,頁。 410-475 ,紐約, 1885年(包括長篇書目的五) 。 BJ北京

-Critical View:臨界查看:

Genesis forms part of the Hexateuch.創世記組成部分Hexateuch 。 As such it is regarded by the critical schools as a composite work, containing data from P and JE, the latter a history which, itself a combination of two distinct compilations-one, northern or Israelitish, E; the other, southern or Judean, J-tells in detail and in popular style the story of Israel from the beginning of things to the completed conquest of Canaan.因此,它看作是學校的關鍵作為一個綜合的工作,其中載有數據從P和流行性乙型腦炎,後者的歷史的,這本身就是一個組合兩個不同的彙編一,北部或Israelitish ,電子商務;另一方面,南部或朱迪亞,的J -告訴了詳細的流行風格的故事,以色列從一開始就事情的完成征服迦南。 In addition to these elements, some independent material is distinguished from that ascribed to the sources named; and editorial comments (R) and changes have been separated in the critical analysis.除了這些因素,一些獨立的材料是區別於這為其命名的來源;和編輯評論( R )和變更已失散在關鍵的分析。 There is practical unanimity among critics with regard to the character of P and what must be assigned to him. Elements.有切實可行的一致批評方面的特點磷,什麼必須指派給他。要件。

The P elements in Genesis consist of a series of interconnected genealogies, uniform in plan, and always prefaced by the introductory phrase "These are the generations of."該P元素的成因包括一系列相互關聯的族譜,統一計劃,並總是前面的引導語“這是幾代人。 ” Connected with them is a scheme of Chronology around which a few historical glosses are grouped.與他們是一個計劃的年表圍繞著一些歷史掩蓋歸類。 In fuller detail the stories of Abraham's covenant and his purchase of a burialplace at Hebron are elaborated.在全面詳細的故事亞伯拉罕的契約和他的購買burialplace在希伯倫的闡述。 The accounts of Creation (see Cosmogony) and of the Flood are also given fuller treatment.該賬戶的創作(見宇宙進化論)和洪水也給予充分的治療。 It would thus seem that P presupposes acquaintance with and the existence of a history or histories of the Patriarchs and of the times preceding theirs.因此,似乎磷的前提認識和存在的歷史或歷史的始祖和時代的前面他們。 P is thus a work of a student aiming to present certain ideas and emphasizing certain conclusions. P是這樣的工作,一個學生以目前的某些思想,並強調某些結論。 He traces the origin of Israel and his descendants as the one family chosen from among all the children of Adam.他痕跡的起源,以色列和他的後代作為一個家庭選自所有兒童的亞當。 He lays particular stress on the religious institutions; eg, the Sabbath ordained by God Himself at the completion of the week of Creation; the command to abstain from partaking of blood; the covenant of circumcision; and the purity of the Israelitish stock (contrast Esau's marriages with Jacob's).他特別強調的宗教機構;例如,由祝聖安息日上帝在完成一周的創作;的命令,以避免partaking的血液;該公約的割禮;和純潔性Israelitish股票(對比以掃的婚姻與雅各布的) 。

The theory has been advanced that P is based on J, his story of Creation presupposing the use of historical and traditional material collected in J. On the whole, this may be admitted; but it is also plain that for the P account of the Creation and the Flood Babylonian sources and information were drawn upon.該理論已先進的P是基於對J ,他的故事創作預設的使用歷史和傳統的材料收集的學者從總體上看,這可能是承認,但它也清楚地指出的P帳戶創作和巴比倫洪水來源和信息的借鑒。 The theology of P is of a high order.神學的P是一個高秩序。 God is One; He is supramundane.上帝是一個;他是supramundane 。 Creation is a transcendental, free act of the Absolute Creator (hence ).創新是一個超越,自由的行為絕對造物主(因此) 。 In history are revealed a divine plan and purpose.在歷史上是揭示了神聖的計劃和目的。 God communicates His decrees directly without the intervention of angels or dreams, and without recourse to theophanies.上帝傳達他的法令沒有直接干預的天使或夢想,不訴諸theophanies 。 He is Elohim for Noah, El Shaddai for Abraham, and Yhwh for Israel.他是瑩的諾亞,薩爾瓦多代的亞伯拉罕,並耶和華以色列。 Anthropomorphisms are few and inoffensive. Anthropomorphisms很少,無害。 This theology reveals the convictions and reflections of a late epoch in Israel's religious and historical development. JE, after the elimination of P, presents an almost unbroken narrative.這揭示了神學信念和思考後時代在以色列的宗教和歷史的發展。流行性乙型腦炎後,消除磷,提出了一個幾乎完整的敘述。 In the earlier chapters J alone has been incorporated; E begins abruptly in Gen. xx.在前面幾章J僅已被納入電子突然開始在將軍第xx 。 It is a moot point whether E contained originally a primeval history parallel to that now preserved in Genesis from J. That of the latter, as incorporated in the pre-Abrahamic chapters, is not consistent throughout; especially do the account of the Flood, the fragments of a genealogy of Seth, and other portions suggest the use of traditions, probably Babylonian, which did not originally form part of J.這是一個假設是否é載原本是原始的歷史平行的,現在保存在創世記從學者後者,因為納入了前亞伯拉罕的章節,不符合全國各地,尤其是做到了洪水的片段的家譜的塞思,並建議其他部分的使用傳統,可能巴比倫,沒有原來的組成部分學者


JE, as far as Genesis is concerned, must be regarded as compilations of stories which long before their reduction to written form had been current orally among the people.流行性乙型腦炎,就起源而言,必須被視為彙編的故事很久以前他們減少書面形式目前已口頭之間的人。 These stories in part were not of Canaanitish-Hebrew origin.這些故事中的一部分並非Canaanitish ,希伯來文來源。 They represent Semitic and perhaps other cycles of popular and religious tales ("Sagen") which antedate the differentiation of the Semitic family into Hebrews, Arabs, etc., or, migrating from one to the other of the Semitic groups after their separation, came to the Hebrews from non- Semitic peoples; hence the traces of Babylonian, Egyptian, Phenician, Aramaic, and Ishmaelitish influence.他們代表猶太人,也許其他流行的週期和宗教故事( “道說” ) ,其中antedate分化的猶太人家庭納入希伯來人,阿拉伯人等,或從一個遷移到其他的猶太人群體分離後,來到在希伯來人從非猶太人的民族,因此痕跡巴比倫,埃及, Phenician ,阿拉姆,並Ishmaelitish影響。 Some of the narratives preserve ancient local traditions, centered in an ancient religious sanctuary; others reflect the temper and exhibit thecoloring of folk-tales, stories in which the rise and development of civilization and the transition from pastoral to agricultural life are represented as the growth and development of individuals.一些古老的敘述維護當地的傳統,集中在一個古老的宗教聖殿;他人反映的脾氣和展覽thecoloring的民間故事,故事中的崛起和發展的文明和游牧過渡到以農業生活的代表作為增長和個人的發展。 Others, again, personify and typify the great migratory movements of clans and tribes, while still others are the precipitate of great religious changes (eg, human sacrifices are supplanted by animal ones).其他人,再次,人格化和典型的偉大遷徙流動的氏族和部落,而還有一些是倉促的偉大的宗教變化(例如,人類的犧牲所取代動物的) 。 The relations and interrelations of the tribes, septs, and families, based upon racial kinship or geographical position, and sometimes expressive of racial and tribal animosities and antipathies, are also concreted in individual events.的關係和相互關係的部落, septs ,和家庭,基於種族親屬關係或地理位置,有時表現的種族和部落的仇恨和antipathies ,也混凝土在個別事件。 In all this there is not the slightest trace of artificiality.在所有這一切,沒有絲毫人工的痕跡。 This process is the spontaneous assertion of the folk-soul ("Volksseele").這個過程是自發的斷言,民俗的靈魂( “ Volksseele ” ) 。 These traditions are the spontaneous creation of popular interpretation of natural and historical sentiments and recollections of remote happenings.這些傳統的自發創造流行的解釋自然和歷史的情感和回憶的遠程動態。 The historical and theological interpretations of life, law, custom, and religion in its institutions have among all men at one time taken this form. The mythopeic tendency and faculty are universal.歷史和神學的解釋,生活,法律,習俗,宗教在其機構之間的所有男人在同一時間採取這種形式。傾向的mythopeic和教員都具有普遍性。 The explanations of names which exhibit signs of being the result of intentional reflection, are, perhaps, alone artificial.在解釋名稱,展覽的跡象是故意造成的反思,是,或許就有人為的。


Naturally, in the course of oral transmission these traditions were modified in keeping with the altered conditions and religious convictions of the narrators.當然,在這一過程中的口頭傳播這些傳統進行了修改符合條件的改變和宗教信念的敘述者。 Compiled at a time when literary skill had only begun to assert itself, many cycles of patriarchal histories must have been current in written form prior to the collections now distinguished by critics as E and J. Criticism has to a great extent overlooked the character of both of these sources as compilations.編譯時,文學技巧才開始斷言本身,許多週期的重男輕女的歷史必須是當前以書面形式之前,現在收藏尊敬的批評作為E和學者的批評在很大程度上忽略了這兩個特點這些人士的資料彙編。 It has been too free in looking upon them as works of a discriminating litterateur and historian.它也一直在尋找免費對他們的作品的歧視,文學家和史學家。 P may be of this nature, but not J and E. Hence any theory on the literary method and character of either is forced to admit so many exceptions as to vitiate the fundamental assumption. P可能是這種性質的,但不是J和大腸桿菌因此,任何理論對文學的方法和性質要么是被迫承認這麼多的例外,以損害的基本假設。 In E are found traits (elaborations, personal sentiment) ascribed exclusively to J; while J, in turn, is not free from the idiosyncrasies of E.在電子商務發現性狀(闡述,個人情緒)為其專門至J ;而J反過來,不是免費的特點大腸桿菌

Nor did R (the editor, editors, or diaskeuasts) proceed mechanically, though the purely literary dissection on anatomical lines affected by the higher criticism would lead one to believe he did.也沒有住宅(主編,編輯,或diaskeuasts )進行機械,但純粹的文學解剖解剖系受較高的批評會導致一至認為他做到了。 He, too, had a soul.他也有靈魂。 He recast his material in the molds of his own religious convictions.他改寫了材料的模具自己的宗教信念。 The Midrashic method antedates the rabbinical age.該Midrashic方法antedates猶太教年齡。 This injection of life into old traditional material unified the compilation.這種注射液的生命融入傳統的材料統一彙編。 P's method, rightly regarded as under theological intention ("Tendenz"), was also that of R. Hence Genesis, notwithstanding the compilatory character of its sources, the many repetitions and divergent versions of one and the same event, the duplications and digressions, makes on the whole the impression of a coherent work, aiming at the presentation of a well-defined view of history, viz., the selection of the sons of Israel as the representative exponents of Yhwh's relations to the sons of Adam, a selection gradually brought about by the elimination of side lines descended, like Israel, from the common progenitor Adam, the line running from Adam to Noah-to Abraham-to Jacob = Israel. P的方法,正確地視為下的神學意圖( “ Tendenz ” ) ,也即起源河因此,儘管compilatory性質及其來源,許多重複和不同版本的同一事件,重複和digressions ,使得整體上的印象是一個連貫的工作,目的是介紹一個明確界定的歷史觀點,即。 ,選擇的兒子,以色列為代表的耶和華指數的關係的兒子亞當,逐步選擇所帶來的副作用消除線路的後裔,如以色列,從共同的祖先亞當,該行從亞當到諾亞,亞伯拉罕與雅各=以色列。

Later Additions.後來加成。

Chapter xiv.第十四章。 has been held to be a later addition, unhistorical and belonging to none of the sources.一直被關押是一個後來此外, unhistorical ,屬於沒有來源。 Yet the story contains old historical material.然而,這個故事包含古老的歷史材料。 The information must be based on Babylonian accounts (Hommel, "Alt-Israelitische Ueberlieferung," p. 153, speaks of an old Jerusalem tradition, and Dillmann, in his commentary, of a Canaanitish tradition; see Eliezer); the literary style is exact, giving accurate chronological data, as would a professional historian.這些資料的基礎必須是巴比倫帳戶(霍梅爾, “老Israelitische Ueberlieferung ” ,第153頁,講一個老耶路撒冷的傳統, Dillmann在他的評注,一個Canaanitish傳統;見埃利澤) ;文體準確,提供準確的時間數據,將一個專業的歷史學家。 The purpose of the account is to glorify Abraham.的宗旨帳戶美化亞伯拉罕。 Hence it has been argued that this chapter betrays the spirit of the later Judaism. Chapter xlix., the blessing by Jacob, is also an addition; but it dates from the latter half of the period of the Judges (K. Kohler, "Der Segen Jacob's"). The theory that the Patriarchs especially, and the other personages of Genesis, represent old, astral deities, though again advanced in a very learned exposition by Stucken ("Astral Mythen"), has now been generally abandoned.EGH因此,有人認為,這一章背叛的精神,後來猶太教。 xlix章。 ,祝福的雅各,也是一個除了,但它的日期從下半年期間的法官(光科勒, “明鏡Segen雅各布的“ ) 。理論的始祖是,和其他人士的成因,代表歲,星光神,但再先進的一個非常教訓論述Stucken ( ”星光Mythen “ ) ,現在已普遍abandoned.EGH

Benno Jacob, Emil G. Hirsch本諾雅各布,埃米爾赫斯基灣

Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.猶太百科全書出版01年至1906年之間。

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