Kabbalah, Cabala卡巴拉, Cabala

General Information 一般信息

Kabbalah, the Hebrew word for tradition, originally designated the legal tradition of Judaism, but it was later applied to the Jewish mystical tradition, especially the system of esoteric mystical speculation and practice that developed during the 12th and 13th centuries.卡巴拉,希伯來文詞的傳統,最初指定的法律傳統的猶太教,但後來被應用到猶太神秘的傳統,尤其是系統的深奧神秘的猜測和發達國家的做法,在第12和13世紀。 The speculative aspects of Kabbalah (Kabbalah iyyunit) were stressed in southern European schools; more practical, socioethical, and sometimes magical themes (Kabbalah maasit) were emphasized in northern European circles. Kabbalistic interest, at first confined to a select few, became the preoccupation of large numbers of Jews following their expulsion from Spain (1492) and Portugal (1495).投機方面的卡巴拉(卡巴拉iyyunit )中強調了歐洲南部的學校;更切合實際, socioethical ,有時神奇的主題(卡巴拉maasit )強調了歐洲北部的圈子。 Kabbalistic的興趣,在第一限於少數,成為當務之急大批猶太人之後將他們驅逐出西班牙( 1492年)和葡萄牙( 1495 ) 。 The teachings of Kabbalah, as developed by the visionary Isaac ben Solomon Luria, are credited with giving rise to the Sabbatean movement led by Sabbatai Zevi.教義喀巴拉,作為開發的富有遠見的伊薩克本所羅門群島盧里亞,記入與引起Sabbatean運動由Sabbatai賽維。

Like every other Jewish religious expression, Kabbalah was based on the Old Testament revelation.像所有其他猶太宗教言論,卡巴拉是根據舊約的啟示。 The revealed text was interpreted with the aid of various hermeneutic techniques.顯示文字的解釋與援助的各種詮釋技巧。 Of the many methods available, the Kabbalists most frequently used three forms of letter and number symbolism: gematria, notarikon, and temurah.許多方法可用, Kabbalists最常使用的三種形式的文字和一些象徵意義: gematria , notarikon ,並temurah 。

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The Kabbalists developed distinctive doctrines of creation and of redemption. Their doctrine of creation was built on a theory of emanations and asserted that the world derived from the transcendent and unknowable God (En Soph) through a series of increasingly material manifestations (sephirot). 發達國家的Kabbalists獨特的理論創造和贖回。及其學說的建立是建立在理論emanations和斷言,來自世界各地的超越和不可知的神(恩Soph )通過一系列的材料越來越多地表現( sephirot ) 。 The manifestations were repeated, in some versions of Kabbalah, in four interlocking series or "worlds": emanation (atzilut), creation (beriah), formation (yetzirah), and action or making (assiyah).在表現為反复,在一些版本的卡巴拉,在4個相互關聯的系列或“世界” :氣( atzilut ) ,創造( beriah ) ,形成( yetzirah ) ,並採取行動或決策( assiyah ) 。 By the sin of Adam and the later sins of humankind, the immanent aspect of God, or the Shekhinah (divine presence), was exiled in the final sephirah, malkhut (kingdom).罪惡的亞當和後來的罪孽,為人類的內在方面的上帝,或Shekhinah (神的存在) ,被流放的最後sephirah , malkhut (英國) 。 The sexual imagery of Kabbalah treats Shekhinah (the word is feminine in gender) as the female aspect of divinity; it symbolically expresses the idea of the restoration of harmony (tikkun) as the reunion of the male and female aspects of the divine, that is, as the reunion of divine transcendence and immanence.性圖像的卡巴拉對待Shekhinah (這個詞是女性在兩性) ,作為女性方面的神,它象徵性地表達了想法,恢復和諧( tikkun )作為團聚的男性和女性方面的神聖,這是作為神聖的團聚和內在的超越。

The classic document of the Kabbalistic tradition, the Zohar, was compiled by Moses de Leon about 1290.經典的文件Kabbalistic傳統,佐哈爾,是由摩西德萊昂約1290年。 A more systematic presentation of the basic doctrine is contained in Moses Cordovero's Pardes rimmonim (Garden of Pomegranates, 1548). Kabbalah was a major influence in the development of Hasidism and still has adherents among Hasidic Jews.更有系統介紹了基本教義載於摩西Cordovero的Pardes rimmonim (花園的石榴, 1548 ) 。 卡巴拉是一個重大的影響發展的Hasidism ,仍然哈西德派信徒之間的猶太人。

Joseph L Blau約瑟夫L布勞

Bibliography: 參考書目:
J Abelson, Jewish Mysticism (1981); PS Berg, Kaballah for the Layman (1982); JL Blau, The Christian Interpretation of the Cabala in the Renaissance (1944); J Dan and R Keiner, eds., The Early Kabbalah (1986); P Epstein, Kabbalah (1978); G Scholem, Kabbalah (1974); D Meltzer, ed., The Secret Garden (1976); H Weiner, Nine and One Half Mystics (1969). J埃布爾森,猶太神秘主義( 1981年) ;聚苯乙烯伯格Kaballah的門外漢( 1982年) ;巨浪布勞,基督教解讀Cabala文藝復興時期( 1944年) ; J丹和R Keiner合編。 ,早日卡巴拉( 1986年) ; P愛潑斯坦,卡巴拉( 1978年) ; G肖勒姆,卡巴拉( 1974年) ; D策,編輯。 ,秘密花園( 1976 ) ; H韋納,九,另一半神秘( 1969年) 。


Advanced Information 先進的信息

(Heb. qabal, "to receive, tradition"). (希伯來書qabal , “接收,傳統” ) 。 An esoteric mystic lore of Judaism, passed as secret doctrine to only the chosen few.一個深奧的神秘傳說猶太教,通過秘密學說只選擇少數。 Its origin is lost in antiquity, but one sees traces of ancient Jewish apocalyptic, talmudic, and midrashic literature and non Jewish sources of Gnosticism and Neoplatonism in Kabbalah.其來源是失去了在古代,但人們看到的痕跡古老的猶太世界末日,猶太法典,並midrashic文學和非猶太人的來源和新柏拉圖主義諾斯替主義的卡巴拉。 Its first systematic development occurred among the Babylonian Jewish Gaonim scholars (600 - 1000 AD).第一次系統地發展發生在巴比倫的猶太人Gaonim學者( 600 -公元1 000年) 。 As the Babylonian center waned, other areas became prominent, Italy, Spain, southern France, and Germany, and the development continued in the 1100s and 1200s.隨著巴比倫中心減弱,其他地區成為著名的,意大利,西班牙,法國南部和德國,繼續發展中的葉和哈康松。 The most prominent book of Kabbalah is the Zohar, which appeared in 1300 under Moses de Leon.最突出的書卡巴拉是佐哈爾,出現在1300年根據摩西德萊昂。 Once this material was recorded, everyone was able to study it.一旦這種物質的記錄,每個人都可以對它進行研究。 Further development occurred in the sixteenth century in Safed, Israel, under Isaac Luria, who initiated a distinctive emphasis of redemption and messianism. Rabbis at times denounced this form of study as so much speculation that would only lead Jewish people away from mainline Judaism's three great emphases: repentance, prayer, and good deeds to man and God.進一步發展發生在16世紀中薩,以色列,根據艾薩克盧里亞,是誰發起獨特的重點,贖回和彌賽亞。拉比有時譴責這種形式的研究,這麼多猜測,只會導致猶太人民遠離主猶太教的三個偉大重點:懺悔,祈禱,和良好的事蹟,人與神。

Christians in the Middle Ages also became interested in Kabbalah, eg, Lully, Pico della Mirandela, and John Reuchlin.基督徒在中世紀也成為卡巴拉感興趣,例如,呂裡,微微廣場Mirandela ,約翰Reuchlin 。 As with Jewish people, there was also a reaction among some Christians against sterile belief, and it was thought that Kabbalah was a valid corrective.同猶太人民,也有一個反應,一些基督教信仰對不育,並認為卡巴拉是一個有效的糾正。 Christians also studied this material to find verification of their mystical beliefs.基督徒也研究這種材料找到核查其神秘的信仰。

Kabbalah pictures God as being above all existence; through a series of ten emanations the world was created. The system is somewhat pantheistic since everything that exists has its place in God. Through good deeds a pious Jew supposedly affects the various emanations, ultimately affecting God on behalf of mankind. 卡巴拉上帝的圖片作為最重要的存在;通過一系列的10 emanations世界上已建立。該系統是有點pantheistic因為一切都存在有其發生的上帝。通過善行一個虔誠的猶太人理應影響的各種emanations ,最終影響到神代表全人類。

Kabbalah includes reincarnation. The pure soul, once the body dies, will be present among the emanations who control the world. An impure soul must be reborn in another body, and the process continues until it has been made pure. 卡巴拉包括轉世。純的靈魂,一旦人體模具,將出席在emanations誰控制世界。一個不純的靈魂必須得到重生的另一個機構,並繼續這一進程,直到它已經取得了純潔。 Evil is only the negation of good, and in the Jewish setting evil is overcome through the three great emphases, along with strict adherence to the law.邪惡只有良好的否定,並在猶太人設置邪惡是克服三大重點,同時嚴格遵守法律。

What is most distinctive is the hermeneutical principle of finding hidden meanings in the texts of Scriptures. Human language in Scripture is examined not only allegorically and analogically, but also through the interpretation of words and letters according to their numerical equivalents, and by interchanging numerical equivalents new letters and words could be created, thereby allowing for new interpretations. 什麼是最獨特的詮釋原則,找到隱藏的含義的文本聖經。人類語言的聖經審查不僅allegorically和analogically ,而且還通過解釋詞和字母根據其數值當量,並交換數值等同新的字母和字可以建立,從而使新的解釋。

Kabbalah influenced Jewish messianic movements, principally Hasidism, which developed a joyful religious expression that avoided sterile legalism.卡巴拉猶太救世主影響運動,主要是Hasidism ,其中制定了一個歡樂的宗教言論,以避免不育法制。

L Goldberg L戈德堡
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (規矩福音字典)

Bibliography 目錄
J Abelson, Jewish Mysticism; DC Ginsburg, "The Kabbalah," in The Essenes; EJ, II; AE Waite, Holy Kabbalah; M Waxman, "The Kabbalah," in A History of Jewish Literature, II. J埃布爾森,猶太神秘主義;直流金斯伯格說: “卡巴拉” ,在愛色尼;伯克利分校,二曝光偉,羅馬卡巴拉; M克斯曼說: “卡巴拉” ,在歷史的猶太文學,二。

Additional Information 附加信息

What is Cabbalism? Cabbalism是什麼?

Cabbala, Kaballah, Quabalah, and Qabal are all reference of what is commonly referred to as "Jewish (Gnostic) Mysticism." Cabbala , Kaballah , Quabalah ,並Qabal都提到什麼是通常被稱為“猶太人(諾斯底)的神秘主義。 ” Jews believe that the Hebrew Moseretic Version of the Torah was written by God [Tetragrammaton] himself, prior to the creation.猶太人相信, Moseretic希伯來文版的聖經,作者是上帝[ Tetragrammaton ]本人,事先建立。 They believe that when Moses went to the top of Mt. Sinai, God gave Him the written Torah as well as oral instructions for Cabbalism.他們認為,當摩西到山頂。西奈半島,上帝給他的書面聖經以及口頭指示Cabbalism 。 The primary written document concerning Cabbalism is the Zohar, which is contained in the Jewish Talmud.主要書面文件關於Cabbalism是佐哈爾,載於猶太塔木德。 Kaballah texts are only written in their original Hebrew, so non-Jews hopefully cannot read them. Kaballah文本只寫在他們原來的希伯來文,因此非猶太人能不能讀到它們。

Jews believe that King Solomon was the first great Cabbalist who developed rituals for controlling Demonic and angelic forces.猶太人相信,所羅門王是第一個偉大的Cabbalist誰開發禮儀控制惡魔和天使般的力量。 Jewish Cabbalists believe that there are 33 (Masonic) steps to attaining spiritual perfection.猶太Cabbalists認為,有33條(共濟會)的步驟,實現精神上的完善。 Through disciplined study of Cabbalism, Jews believe that they may eventually see God and become his intellectual equal.通過紀律嚴明的研究Cabbalism ,猶太人相信他們最終會看到上帝,並成為他的智慧平等的。 In the Jewish Talmud, a famous Cabbalistic Rabbi debates God, where God admits the Rabbi has beaten Him (YHWH, God)! Jews also believe that through Cabbalism, they can perform the miracles of Jesus Christ.在猶太塔木德,著名Cabbalistic拉比辯論上帝,而上帝承認拉比在過去曾經打敗過(耶和華,上帝) !猶太人還認為,通過Cabbalism ,他們可以執行的奇蹟耶穌基督。 In this fashion, they can themselves become individual Christs (their own Messiah) through spiritual "perfection?"在這種方式,他們可以自己成為個別基督(他們自己的彌賽亞)通過精神“圓滿? ”

R Novosel R諾沃塞爾


Catholic Information 天主教新聞

The term is now used as a technical name for the system of esoteric theosophy which for many generations played an important part, chiefly among the Jews, after the beginning of the tenth century of our era.這個詞現在是作為一個技術的名稱系統的深奧而神智學的幾代人發揮了重要作用,主要是猶太人,開始後的10世紀我們的時代。 It primarily signifies reception, and, secondarily, a doctrine received by oral tradition.它主要標誌的接待,並其次,理論收到的口頭傳統。 Its application has greatly varied in the course of time, and it is only since the eleventh or twelfth century that the term Kabbala has become the exclusive appellation for the system of Jewish religious philosophy which claims to have been uninterruptedly transmitted by the mouths of the patriarchs, prophets, elders, etc., ever since the creation of the first man.它的應用已大大不同過程中的時間,這只是因為第十一屆或12世紀的長期Kabbala已成為專有稱謂制度的猶太宗教哲學,聲稱已不間斷轉發河口始祖,先知,長老等,都成立以來的第一人。

The two works which the advocates of this system treat as the authoritative exposition of its doctrines are the Book of Creation and the Zohar.這兩個工程的倡導者這一制度視為權威的論述,其理論是圖書的創作和祖海爾。


The Book of Creation is a short treatise consisting of six chapters subdivided into thirty-three very brief sections.書的創作是一種短論文組成的六個章節分為33非常簡短的章節。 It is written in Mishnic Hebrew, and is made up of oracular sentences.這是寫在Mishnic希伯來文,並取得了oracular判決。 It professes to be a monologue of the patriarch Abraham, who enumerates the thirty-two ways of wisdom by which God produced the universe, and who shows, by the analogy which is assumed to exist between the visible things and the letters which are the signs of thought, the manner in which all has emanated from God and is inferior to Him.它自稱是一個獨白的族長亞伯拉罕,誰列舉了32的方式智慧的上帝產生了宇宙,誰表明,由類比這是假設之間存在明顯的東西,信這是跡象思想,以何種方式都有來自上帝,不如給他。


The Zohar, or second expository work of the Kabbala, has justly been called the "Bible" of the Kabbalists.該佐哈爾,或第二個解釋工作的Kabbala ,已理所當然被稱為“聖經”的Kabbalists 。 It is written in Aramaic, and its main portion is the form of a commentary on the Pentateuch according to the latter's division into fifty-two weekly lessons.這是亞拉姆語寫的,其主要部分是形式的評注五根據後者的劃分為52週的經驗教訓。 Its title Zohar (light, splendour) is derived from the words of Genesis 1:3 ("Let there be light") with the exposition of which it begins.標題佐哈爾(光,輝煌)來自的話成因1:3 ( “讓我們有輕” )的論斷,它開始了。 It is a compilatory work, wherein several fragments of ancient treatises can still be noticed.這是一個compilatory工作,其中的幾個片段古代論文仍然可以看到。 The following is a brief account of the chief contents -- doctrinal, hermeneutical, and theurgical -- of the Zohar.以下是簡要說明主要內容-理論,詮釋,並t heurgical-的佐哈爾。

Doctrinal content of the Zohar理論內容的佐哈爾

The First World第一屆世界

Considered in Himself, the Supreme Being is the En-Soph (Endless, Infinite) and, in a certain sense, the En (Non-existent) since existence is in human conception a limitation which as such should not be predicated of Him.考慮自己,作為最高法院的恩Soph (無盡,無限) ,並在某種意義上說,恩(不存在)的存在是因為人類觀念的限制而這種不應該取決於他。 We can conceive and speak of God only in so far as He manifests and, as it were, actualizes Himself in or through the Sephiroth.我們可以設想,並說只有上帝在迄今為止的表現和他,因為它是, actualizes自己或通過Sephiroth 。

His first manifestation was by way of concentration in a point called the first Sephira -- "the Crown", as it is called -- which is hardly distinguishable from the En-Soph from Whom it emanates, and which is expressed in the Bible by the Ehieyeh (I am).他的第一個表現是經由集中在一點所謂的第一Sephira -“官方” ,因為它是所謂的-這是很難區分的恩S o ph從人產生,並表示這是在聖經中的在Ehieyeh (我) 。 From the first Sephira proceeded a masculine or active potency called wisdom, represented in the Bible by Yah, and an opposite, ie a feminine or passive potency, called intelligence, and represented by Yahweh.從第一Sephira接著一男性或積極力量所謂的智慧,代表在聖經中的嚴,而且相反的,即女性或被動效力,所謂的情報,並出席了耶和華。 These two opposite potencies are coupled together by the "Crown", and thus yields the first trinity of the Sephiroth. From the junction of the foregoing opposite tendencies emanated the masculine potency called love, the fourth Sephira, represented by the Biblical El, and the feminine one justice, the fifth Sephira, represented by the Divine name Elohah.這兩個相反的效力是耦合在一起的“官方” ,因此,產量第一的三位一體的Sephiroth 。交界處從上述情況相反的傾向男性產生效力所謂愛情,第四Sephira ,代表的聖經薩爾瓦多,以及女性之一正義,第五Sephira ,代表的神聖名稱Elohah 。 From them again emanated the uniting potency, beauty, the sixth Sephira, represented in the Bible by Elohim.再次從他們的團結產生力量,美容,第六屆Sephira代表在聖經中的瑩。 And thus is constituted the second trinity of the Sephiroth.從而構成第二三位一體的Sephiroth 。

In its turn, beauty beamed forth the seventh Sephira, the masculine potency, firmness, corresponding to Yahweh Sabaoth, and this again produced the feminine potency splendour, represented by Elohe Sabaoth.反過來,美麗微笑等等第七屆Sephira ,男性潛能,堅定性,相應的耶和華千萬軍馬,而這又產生了女性的潛能輝煌,代表Elohe千萬軍馬。 From splendour emanated the ninth Sephira, foundation, which answers the Divine name El-Hai and closes the third trinity of the Sephiroth.從輝煌產生第九屆Sephira基礎,其中的答案神聖的名字薩爾瓦多海和關閉的第三三位一體的Sephiroth 。

Lastly, splendour sends forth kingdom, the tenth Sephira, which encircles all the others and is represented by Adonai.最後,發出了輝煌的王國,第十屆Sephira ,它環繞的所有其他的代表阿多乃。

These ten Sephiroth are emanations from the En-Soph, forming among themselves and with Him a strict unity, in the same way as the rays which proceed from the light are simply manifestations of one and the same light.這十個Sephiroth是emanations從恩Soph ,形成相互之間以及與他嚴格的團結,以同樣的方式作為光這從根本輕的表現同一個輕。 They are infinite and perfect when the En-Soph imparts His fullness to them, and finite and imperfect when that fullness is withdrawn from them (Ginsburg).他們是無限和完善時,恩Soph imparts他豐滿給他們,和有限的和不完善的豐滿時,是從他們(金斯伯格) 。 In their totality, they represent and are called the archetypal man, without whom the production of permanent worlds was impossible.在他們的整體,它們代表和被稱為典型的人,沒有他們的生產常任理事國的世界是不可能的。 In fact, they constitute the first world, or world of emanations, which is perfect and immutable because of its direct procession from the Deity.事實上,它們構成了第一世界,或世界emanations ,這是完美的和不可改變的,因為它直接遊行的神。

The Second, Third and Fourth Worlds第二次,第三次和第四次世界

Emanating immediately from this first world is the world of creation, the ten Sephiroth of which are of a more limited potency, and the substances of which are of the purest nature.產生立即從這個世界上是第一次在世界上創造的10 Sephiroth的是一個較為有限的力量和物質是純淨的性質。 From the world of creation proceeds the world of formation, with its less refined ten Sephiroth, although its substances are still without matter.從世界的創造收益世界的形成,其不到10 Sephiroth完善,但其物質仍然沒有問題。 Finally, from this third world proceeds the world of action or of matter, the ten Sephiroth of which are made of the grosser elements of the other works.最後,從這個第三世界收益世界的行動或事項, 10個Sephiroth的是所作的大要素的其他作品。

The Angels天使

Of these worlds, the second, that of creation, is inhabited by the angel Metatron, who governs the visible world, and is the captain of the hosts of good angels who in ten ranks people the third world, that of formation.這些世界第二,是創造,是居住的天使Metatron ,誰管理的有形世界,是隊長的東道主良好的天使誰在10人的隊伍第三世界的形成。 The demons or bad angels inhabit the fourth world, that of action, the lowest regions of which constitute the seven infernal halls wherein the demons torture the poor mortals whom they betrayed into sin in this life.惡魔還是壞天使居住在第四屆世界,即採取行動,最低的地區構成了七個展廳,其中地獄的惡魔酷刑窮人凡人他們背叛到在這個罪惡的生活。 The prince of the demons is Samael (the "angel of poison or of death"); he has a wife called the Harlot; but both are treated as one person, and are called "the Beast".王子的惡魔是薩麥爾( “天使的毒藥或死亡” ) ;他的妻子稱為妓女,但都被當作一個人,和被稱為“美女與野獸” 。


Man was directly created not by En-Soph, but by the Sephiroth, and is the counterpart of the archetypal man.男子直接創造而不是由恩Soph ,而是由Sephiroth ,是對應的原型的人。 His body is merely a garment of his soul. Like God, he has a unity and a trinity, the latter being made up of the spirit representing the intellectual world, the soul representing the sensuous world, and the life representing the material world.他的身體只是一個服裝的他的靈魂。如同上帝,他有一個團結,三位一體,後者是由精神代表智力的世界裡,靈魂代表了感官的世界,代表生命的物質世界。 Souls are pre-existent destined to dwell in human bodies, and subjected to transmigration till at last they return to God.靈魂是預先存在注定要住在人權機構,並受到輪迴直到最後他們返回的上帝。

Destiny of the World命運的世界

The world also including Samael himself, will return ultimately--viz.世界還包括薩麥爾自己,最終將返回-即。 at the advent of the Messias born at the end of days--to the bosom of the Infinite Source.在來臨的弭賽亞出生在年底天-在胸前的無限來源。 Then Hell shall disappear and endless bliss begin.然後地獄應消失和無休止的幸福開始。

Hermeneutical content of the Zohar闡釋的內容佐哈爾

All these esoteric doctrines of the Kabbala are supposed to be contained in the Hebrew Scriptures, in which, however they can be perceived only by those initiated into certain hermeneutical methods.所有這些深奧的理論Kabbala理應是在希伯來聖經中,但它們可以被認為只有那些開始到某些詮釋方法。 The following are the three principal methods of discovering the heavenly mysteries hidden under the letters and words of the Sacred Text:以下是三個主要方法,發現了隱藏的奧秘天上下的字母和字的神聖文字:

The Temurah (change) by means of which each letter of the Hebrew alphabet is interchanged with another, according to some definite process, as when Aleph, the first letter, becomes Lamed by interchange with the twelfth, the second, Beth, becomes, Mem, the thirteenth, etc.; or as, when the last letter takes place of the first, the last but one takes the place of the second, etc.; the Gematriah (Gr. gemetria), which consists in the use of the numerical values of the letters of a word for purposes comparison with other words, which give the same or similar combinations of numbers: thus in Genesis 49:10, "Shiloh come" is equivalent to 358, which is also the numerical value of Mashiah, whence it is inferred that Shiloh is identical with Messias; the Notarikon (Latin notarius), or process of reconstructing a word by using the initials of many, or a sentence by using all the letters of a single word as so many initials of other words; for instance, the word Agla is formed from the initials of the Hebrew sentence: "Thou (art) (a) Mighty (God) forever."該Temurah (更改)的方式,每個字母的希伯來文字母表是與另一互換,根據一些明確的過程中,當麻原彰晃的第一個字母,成為Lamed的交流與第十二屆第二,貝斯,變成記憶,第十三等;或作為,當最後一封信舉行的第一次,最後只有一個取代第二,等等;的Gematriah ( Gr. gemetria ) ,其中包括在使用數值價值觀的信一個字的目的比較換句話說,使相同或相似的組合的號碼:因此,在創世記49:10 , “希洛來”等於358 ,這也是數值Mashiah ,何處這是推斷,希洛是相同的弭賽亞;的Notarikon (拉丁文notarius ) ,或重建過程中的一個字的開頭字母使用了許多,或一個句子使用的所有信一個字為如此眾多的縮寫換句話說;舉例來說,這個詞是Agla的開頭字母組成的希伯來文的句子: “你(藝術) ( a )條堅強的(上帝)永遠。 ”

Theurgical content of the Zohar Theurgical內容佐哈爾

The theurgical, or last chief element of the Zohar, needs no long description here.該theurgical ,或過去主要內容的佐哈爾,需要長期沒有說明這裡。 It forms part of what has been called the "practical" Kabbala, and supplies formulas by means of which the adept can enter into direct communication with invisible powers and thereby exercise authority over demons, nature, diseases, etc. To a large extent it is the natural outcome of the extraordinary hidden meaning ascribed by the Kabbala to the words of the Sacred Text, and in particular to the Divine names.它的組成部分,所謂的“實際” Kabbala和用品公式的方式而善於可以進入直接溝通與無形的權力,從而行使權力的惡魔,性質,疾病等,在很大程度上是自然成果的意義非常隱蔽的原因Kabbala的話,神聖的文字,特別是對神聖的名字。


Of course, the Book of Creation does not go back to Abraham, as has been claimed by many Kabbalists.當然,圖書的創作不回去亞伯拉罕,已經許多人Kabbalists 。 Its ascription by others to Rabbi Akiba (d. AD 120) is also a matter of controversy.其歸屬由他人向拉比秋葉( D.特設120 )也是一個有爭議的問題。 With regard to the Zohar, its compilation is justly referred to a Spanish Jew, Moses of Leon (d. 1305), while some of its elements seem to be of a much greater antiquity.關於佐哈爾,其彙編公正指的是西班牙猶太人,摩西的萊昂(草1305 ) ,而其中的一些內容似乎是一個更大的古物。 Several of its doctrines recall to mind those of Pythagoras, Plato, Aristotle, the neo-Platonists of Alexandria, the Oriental or Egyptian Pantheists, and the Gnostics of the earliest Christian ages.它的幾個理論召回銘記那些畢達哥拉斯,柏拉圖,亞里士多德,新Platonists亞歷山大,東方或埃及Pantheists ,並Gnostics最早的基督教年齡。 Its speculations concerning God's nature and relation to the universe differ materially from the teachings of Revelation.關於它的猜測上帝的性質和有關宇宙大不相同的教誨啟示。

Finally, it has decidedly no right to be considered as an excellent means to induce the Jews to receive Christianity, although this has been maintained by such Christian scholars as R. Lully, Pico della Mirandola, Reuchlin, Knorr von Rosenroth, etc., and although such prominent Jewish Kabbalists as Riccio, Conrad, Otto, Rittangel, Jacob Franck, etc., have embraced the Christian Faith, and proclaimed in their works the great affinity of some doctrines of the Kabbala with those of Christianity.最後,果斷沒有權利視為一個極好手段,促使猶太人接受基督教,雖然這一直保持這種基督教學者河呂裡,微微意大利米蘭多拉, Reuchlin ,克諾爾馮Rosenroth等,並雖然這樣的著名猶太Kabbalists為奇,康拉德,奧托, Rittangel ,雅各布弗蘭克等,已經接受了基督教信仰,並宣布在其作品的偉大親和力的一些理論Kabbala與基督教。

Publication information Written by Francis E. Gigot.出版信息寫弗朗西斯體育羊腿。 Transcribed by Joseph P. Thomas. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VIII.轉錄由約瑟夫托馬斯。天主教百科全書,音量八。 Published 1910. 1910年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1910. Nihil Obstat ,十月一日,一九一零年。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor. Imprimatur.雷米Lafort ,性病,檢查員。認可。 +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰法利樞機主教,大主教紐約


Jewish Viewpoint Information猶太觀資料

Name and Origin名稱和原產地

(Hebrew form Ḳabbalah [, from = "to receive"; literally, "the received or traditional lore"]): (希伯來文的形式卡巴拉[ ,來自= “接收” ;字面上看, “收到的或傳統知識” ] ) :

The specific term for the esoteric or mystic doctrine concerning God and the universe, asserted to have come down as a revelation to elect saints from a remote past, and preserved only by a privileged few.具體的任期為深奧的或神秘主義關於上帝和宇宙,聲稱有下降的一個啟示,選出聖人從遠端過去,和維護只能由少數特權。 At first consisting only of empirical lore, it assumed, under the influence of Neoplatonic and Neopythagorean philosophy, a speculative character.首先由唯一的經驗知識,它承擔的影響下, Neoplatonic和Neopythagorean哲學,投機性質。 In the geonic period it is connected with a Mishnah-like text-book, the "Sefer Yeẓirah," and forms the object of the systematic study of the elect, called "meḳubbalim" or "ba'ale ha-ḳabbalah" (possessors of, or adepts in, the Cabala).在geonic期間,與一米示拿文本圖書中, “ Yeẓirah之書”和各種形式的對象系統研究的選舉,所謂的“ meḳubbalim ”或“ ba'ale公頃,卡巴拉” (擁有或adepts時, Cabala ) 。 These receive afterward the name of "maskilim" (the wise), after Dan.之後,這些接受“的名義maskilim ” (明智的) ,在丹。 xii. 10; and because the Cabala is called ("ḥokmah nistarah" = the hidden wisdom), the initials of which are , they receive also the name of ("adepts in grace") (Eccl. ix. 11, Hebr.).十二。 10 ; ,因為Cabala被稱為( “ ḥokmah nistarah ” =隱藏的智慧) ,縮寫是,他們還收到的名稱( “ adepts在寬限期” ) ( Eccl.九。 11 Hebr 。 ) 。 From the thirteenth century onward the Cabala branched out into an extensive literature, alongside of and in opposition to the Talmud.從13世紀起, Cabala支到了廣泛的文獻,同時和反對猶太法典。 It was written in a peculiar Aramaic dialect, and was grouped as commentaries on the Torah, around the Zohar as its holy book, which suddenly made its appearance.這是寫在一個特殊的阿拉姆語方言,並歸類為評注聖經,圍繞佐哈爾作為其神聖的書籍,其中突然出現。

The Cabala is divided into a theosophical or theoretical system, Ḳabbalah 'Iyyunit () and a theurgic or practical Cabala, .該Cabala分為theosophical或理論體系,卡巴拉' Iyyunit ( )和theurgic或實際Cabala , 。 In view of the fact that the name "Cabala" does not occur in literature before the eleventh century (see Landauer, "Orient. Lit." vi. 206; compare Zunz, "GV" p. 415), and because of the pseudepigraphic character of the Zohar and of almost all the cabalistic writings, most modern scholars, among whom are Zunz, Grätz, Luzzatto, Jost, Steinschneider, and Munk (see bibliography below), have treated the Cabala with a certain bias and from a rationalistic rather than from a psychologico-historical point of view; applying the name of "Cabala" only to the speculative systems which appeared since the thirteenth century, under pretentious titles and with fictitious claims, but not to the mystic lore of the geonic and Talmudic times. Such distinction and partiality, however, prevent a deeper understanding of the nature and progress of the Cabala, which, on closer observation, shows a continuous line of development from the same roots and elements.鑑於這一事實,即命名為“ Cabala ”不會出現在文學之前, 11世紀(見道, “東方。里拉。 ”六。 206 ;比較Zunz , “顆粒”第415頁) ,而且由於pseudepigraphic性質佐哈爾和幾乎所有的cabalistic著作,最現代化的學者,其中有Zunz ,格拉茨, Luzzatto ,喬斯特, Steinschneider ,和芒克(見參考書目下文) ,已處理的Cabala具有一定的偏見和從一個理性而比psychologico從歷史的角度來看;申請的名稱“ Cabala ”只對投機性系統出現自十三世紀以來,根據自命不凡的冠軍,並與虛構的索賠要求,但不神秘傳說的geonic和塔木德時間。這種區分和偏袒然而,防止更深入的了解的性質和所取得的進展Cabala ,這對密切觀察,顯示出持續發展的線從同一根源和內容。

Meaning of the Word "Cabala."一詞的含義“ Cabala 。 ”

Cabala comprised originally the entire traditional lore, in contradistinction to the written law (Torah), and therefore included the prophetic and hagiographic books of the Bible, which were supposed to have been "received" by the power of the Holy Spirit rather than as writings from God's hand (see Ta'an. ii. 1; RH 7a, 19a, and elsewhere in the Talmud; compare Zunz, "GV" 2d ed., pp. 46, 366, 415, and Taylor, "Early Sayings of the Jewish Fathers," 1899, pp. 106 et seq., 175 et seq.).原來Cabala組成的整個傳統知識,對比的書面法(聖經) ,因此,包括先知和hagiographic書籍聖經,這是假定已經“收到”的力量聖靈,而不是作為著作來自上帝的手(見Ta'an 。二。 1 ;濕度7A條,第19A條,和其他地方的猶太法典;比較Zunz , “顆粒” 2版。頁。 46 , 366 , 415 ,和泰勒, “早期的熟語猶太父親“ , 1899年,頁。 106起。 , 175及以下。 ) 。 Each "received" doctrine was claimed as tradition from the Fathers-"masoret me-Abotenu" (Josephus, "Ant." xiii. 10, § 6; 16, § 2; Meg. 10b; Sheḳ. vi. 1)-to be traced back to the Prophets or to Moses on Sinai (compare "meḳubbalani" in Peah ii. 6; 'Eduy. viii. 7).每個“收到”理論是屬於傳統的父親, “ masoret我的Abotenu ” (約瑟夫, “螞蟻。 ”十三。 10日,第6條; 16條第2款;梅格。 10B條;石。六。 1 )以追溯到先知摩西,或在西奈半島(比較“ meḳubbalani ”在Peah二。 6 ; ' Eduy 。八。 7 ) 。 So the Masorah, "the fence to the Torah" (Ab. iii. 13) is, as Taylor (lcp 55) correctly states, "a correlation to Cabala."因此, Masorah , “圍牆的聖經” ( Ab.三。 13 )是,泰勒( LCP的55 )正確地指出, “一個相關Cabala 。 ” The chief characteristic of the Cabala is that, unlike the Scriptures, it was entrusted only to the few elect ones; wherefore, according to IV Esdras xiv.主要特點Cabala的是,不同的是聖經,但只交給少數當選的;何故,根據四埃斯德拉斯十四。 5, 6, Moses, on Mount Sinai, when receiving both the Law and the knowledge of wondrous things, was told by the Lord: "These words shalt thou declare, and these shalt thou hide." 5日, 6日,摩西,在西奈山時,接受了法律和知識的奇妙的事情,被告知上帝: “這些話你shalt宣布,這些shalt你隱瞞的。 ” Accordingly the rule laid down for the transmission of the cabalistic lore in the ancient Mishnah (Ḥag. ii. 1) was "not to expound the Chapter of Creation ("Ma'aseh Bereshit," Gen. i.) before more than one hearer; nor that of the Heavenly Chariot ("Merkabah," Ezek. i.; compare I Chron. xxviii. 18 and Ecclus. [Sirach] xlix. 8) to any but a man of wisdom and profound understanding"; that is to say, cosmogony and theosophy were regarded as esoteric studies (Ḥag. 13a).因此,規則規定了傳輸的cabalistic傳說中的古代米示拿( Ḥag.二。 1 ) “沒有闡述章創作( ” Ma'aseh Bereshit , “將軍島)在超過一個聽者也不是天上的戰車( “ Merkabah , ” Ezek 。島;比較我專欄。二十八。 18 Ecclus 。 [ Sirach ] xlix 。 8 ) ,但任何一個人的智慧和深刻的理解“ ;這就是說,宇宙進化論和神智學被視為深奧的研究( Ḥag. 13A條) 。 Such was the "Masoret ha-Ḥokmah" (the tradition of wisdom, handed over by Moses to Joshua (Tan., Wa'etḥanan, ed. Buber, 13); and likewise the twofold philosophyof the Essenes, "the contemplation of God's being and the origin of the universe," specified by Philo ("Quod Omnis Probus Liber," xii.). Besides these there was the eschatology-that is, the secrets of the place and time of the retribution and the future redemption (Sifre, Wezot ha-Berakah, 357); "the secret chambers of the behemoth and leviathan" (Cant. R. i. 4); the secret of the calendar ("Sod ha-'Ibbur")-that is, the mode of calculating the years with a view to the Messianic kingdom (Ket. 111a-112a; Yer. RH ii. 58b); and, finally, the knowledge and use of the Ineffable Name, also "to be transmitted only to the saintly and discreet ones" (Ẓenu'im or Essenes; Ḳid. 71a; Yer. Yoma iii. 40d; Eccl. R. iii. 11), and of the angels (Josephus, "BJ" ii. 8, § 7). All these formed the sum and substance of the Mysteries of the Torah, "Sitre or Raze Torah" (Pes. 119a; Meg. 3a; Ab. vi. 1), "the things spoken only in a whisper" (Ḥag. 14a).這種是“ Masoret公頃, Ḥokmah ” (傳統的智慧,交給摩西約書亞( Tan. , Wa'etḥanan ,編輯。布伯, 13 ) ;同樣的雙重哲學的愛色尼“的沉思上帝的正和宇宙的起源“ ,指定的斐羅( ”獄卒Omnis普羅布斯書, “十二。 ) 。除了這些存在的末世論,這就是秘密的地點和時間的報復和未來的贖回( Sifre , Wezot公頃, Berakah , 357 ) ; “的秘密商會的龐然大物和龐然大物” ( Cant.河島4 ) ;的秘密日曆( “草公頃, 'Ibbur ” ) ,即計算模式這些年來,以救世主的英國( Ket. 111a - 112a ;層。濕度二。 58b ) ; ,以及最後的知識和使用無法形容的名稱,也“將轉交只有聖潔和謹慎的” ( Ẓenu'im或愛色尼;孩子。 71a ;層。山脈三。 40d ;傳道書。河三。 11人) ,和天使(約瑟夫, “北京”二。 8日,第7條) 。所有這些形成的總和和實質之謎的聖經“ , Sitre或夷平聖經” ( Pes. 119A條;梅格。 3A條;抗體。六。 1 ) “ ,講的東西只有在耳語” ( Ḥag. 14A條) 。

Antiquity of the Cabala.古代的Cabala 。

How old the Cabala is, may be inferred from the fact that as early a writer as Ben Sira warns against it in his saying: = "Thou shalt have no business with secret things" (Ecclus. [Sirach] iii. 22; compare Ḥag. 13a; Gen. R. viii.).如何歲的Cabala是可以推斷的事實是,早一個作家作為本西拉警告不要在他的話說: = “你應該沒有任何商業秘密的事情” ( Ecclus. [ Sirach ]三。 22 ;比較女巫。 13A條;將軍河八。 ) 。 In fact, the apocalyptic literature belonging to the second and first pre-Christian centuries contained the chief elements of the Cabala; and as, according to Josephus (lc), such writings were in the possession of the Essenes, and were jealously guarded by them against disclosure, for which they claimed a hoary antiquity (see Philo, "De Vita Contemplativa," iii., and Hippolytus, "Refutation of all Heresies," ix. 27), the Essenes have with sufficient reason been assumed by Jellinek ("BH" ii., iii., Introductions and elsewhere), by Plessner ("Dat Mosheh wi-Yehudit," pp. iv. 47 et seq.), by Hilgenfeld ("Die Jüdische Apokalyptik," 1857, p. 257), by Eichhorn ("Einleitung in die Apoc. Schriften des Alten Testaments," 1795, pp. 434 et seq.), by Gaster ("The Sword of Moses," 1896, Introduction), by Kohler ("Test. Job," in Kohut Memorial Volume, pp. 266, 288 et seq.), and by others to be the originators of the Cabala. That many such books containing secret lore were kept hidden away by the "wise" is clearly stated in IV Esdras xiv.事實上,世界末日文學屬於第二和第一前基督教百年的首席所載內容的Cabala ;並根據約瑟夫(立法會) ,如著作中佔有的愛色尼,並珍惜他們所守衛對披露,這是他們聲稱遙遠的過去(見斐洛, “德簡歷Contemplativa , ”三。 ,並西波呂, “駁所有異端, ”九。二十七日)愛色尼有足夠的理由已承擔的耶利內克( “波黑“二。 ,三。 ,推廣和其他地方) ,由普勒斯納( ”門Mosheh的Wi - Yehudit , “頁。四。 47起。 )由Hilgenfeld ( ”模具Jüdische Apokalyptik “ , 1857年,第257頁) ,由艾希霍恩( “導論在模具載脂蛋白C 。著作之老聖經” , 1795年,頁。 434起。 )的法莫替丁( “劍摩西” , 1896年,導言) ,由科勒( “測試。工作, ”在胡特紀念卷,頁。 266 , 288及以下。 )和由他人是原創的Cabala 。 ,許多此類書籍包含秘密傳說保持藏起來的“明智”中明確規定四埃斯德拉斯十四。 45-46, where Pseudo-Ezra is told to publish the twenty-four books of the canon openly that the worthy and the unworthy may alike read, but to keep the seventy other books hidden in order to "deliver them only to such as be wise" (compare Dan. xii. 10); for in them are the spring of understanding, the fountain of wisdom, and the stream of knowledge (compare Soṭah xv. 3). 45-46 ,在偽以斯拉告訴出版24本書的公開佳能的值得和不值得可能都讀,但保持70其他書籍隱藏在以“提供他們只,如將明智的“ (比較丹。十二。 10 ) ;的是春天的理解,噴泉的智慧和知識流(比較Soṭah十五。 3 ) 。 A study of the few still existing apocryphal books discloses the fact, ignored by most modern writers on the Cabala and Essenism, that "the mystic lore" occasionally alluded to in the Talmudic or Midrashic literature (compare Zunz, "GV" 2d ed., pp. 172 et seq.; Joël, "Religionsphilosophie des Sohar," pp. 45-54) is not only much more systematically presented in these older writings, but gives ample evidence of a continuous cabalistic tradition; inasmuch as the mystic literature of the geonic period is only a fragmentary reproduction of the ancient apocalyptic writings, and the saints and sages of the tannaic period take in the former the place occupied by the Biblical protoplasts, patriarchs, and scribes in the latter.研究的少數幾個仍然存在未經披露的書籍的事實,忽視了最現代作家的Cabala和Essenism ,即“神秘傳說”偶爾提到的猶太法典或Midrashic文學(比較Zunz , “顆粒” 2版。 ,頁。 172起。 ;喬爾, “ Religionsphilosophie萬蘇哈爾”頁。 45-54 )不僅是更系統地提出了在這些老年人的著作,但充分證明連續cabalistic傳統;因為神秘的文學geonic期間只是一個殘缺不全的複製古代世界末日的著作,以及聖人和先哲的tannaic期間採取前的位置佔領了聖經的原生質體,始祖,並文士在後者。

Cabalistic Elements in the Apocrypha. Cabalistic元素的偽經。

So, also, does the older Enoch book, parts of which have been preserved in the geonic mystic literature (see Jellinek, lc, and "ZDMG" 1853, p. 249), by its angelology, demonology, and cosmology, give a fuller insight into the "Merkabah" and "Bereshit" lore of the ancients than the "Hekalot," which present but fragments, while the central figure of the Cabala, Meṭaṭron-Enoch, is seen in ch.所以,也沒有老年人伊諾克書,部分已被保存在geonic神秘的文獻(見耐克,立法會,以及“ ZDMG ” 1853年,第249頁) ,其天使,魔鬼,和宇宙學,給予充分的洞察“ Merkabah ”和“ Bereshit ”傳說古人比“ Hekalot , ”這本,但片段,而核心人物的Cabala , Meṭaṭron -伊諾克,是在CH 。 lxx.-lxxi. lxx. - lxxi 。 in a process of transformation.在轉變過程。 The cosmogony of the Slavonic Enoch, a product of the first pre-Christian century (Charles, "The Book of the Secrets of Enoch," 1896, p. xxv.), showing an advanced stage compared with the older Enoch book, casts a flood of light upon the rabbinical cosmogony by its realistic description of the process of creation (compare ch. xxv.-xxx. and Ḥag. 12a et seq.; Yer. Ḥag. ii. 77a et seq.; Gen. R. i.-x.).在宇宙進化論的斯拉夫伊諾克,產品的第一個前基督教世紀(查爾斯, “這本書的伊諾克的秘密” , 1896年,頁25 。 ) ,顯示出晚期與老年伊諾克書,蒙上了洪水輕的猶太教宇宙進化論所描述的現實的過程中創造(比較路。 xxv. - xxx域名。和女巫。 12a條及以下。 ;層。女巫。二。 77a及以下。 ;將軍河島- x 。 ) 。 Here are found the primal elements, "the stones of fire" out of which "the Throne of Glory" is made, and from which the angels emanate; "the glassy sea" (), beneath which the seven heavens, formed of fire and water (), are stretched out, and the founding of the world upon the abyss (); the preexistence of human souls (Plato, "Timæus," 36; Yeb. 63b; Nid. 30b), and the formation of man by the Creative Wisdom out of seven substances (see Charles, note to ch. xxvi. 5 and xxx. 8, who refers to Philo and the Stoics for analogies); the ten classes of angels (ch. xx.); and, in ch.這裡是發現了原始的內容, “石頭的火” ,其中“王位的榮耀”了,並從其中產生的天使“玻璃海” ( ) ,下面這7個天堂,形成火災和水( ) ,是伸出,並成立了世界各國的深淵( ) ;的前世的人類靈魂(柏拉圖, “提瑪友斯, ” 36 ; Yeb 。 63b ;安居。 30B條) ,並成立由男子創新智慧的七個物質(見查爾斯,說明膽固醇。二十六。 5和xxx域名。 8 ,誰是指斐洛和Stoics的類比) ;的10個類別的天使(章第xx 。 ) ; ,並在通道。 xxii., version A, ten heavens instead of seven, and an advanced chiliastic calendar system (ch. xv.-xvi., xxxii.; see Millennium). 22 。 ,版本A , 10天而不是7個,以及一個先進的chiliastic日曆系統(章xv. - 16 。 ,三十二。見千年) 。 Its cabalistic character is shown by references to the writings of Adam, Seth, Cainan, Mahalalel, and Jared (ch. xxxiii. 10, and elsewhere).其特點是cabalistic表明提到的著作亞當,塞思,彩南, Mahalalel和賈里德(章三十三。 10日,和其他地方) 。

A Continuous Tradition.連續的傳統。

More instructive still for the study of the development of cabalistic lore is the Book of Jubilees written under King John Hyrcanus (see Charles, "The Book of Jubilees," 1902, Introduction, pp. lviii. et seq.)-which also refers to the writings of Jared, Cainan, and Noah, and presents Abraham as the renewer, and Levi as the permanent guardian, of these ancient writings (ch. iv. 18, viii. 3, x. 13; compare Jellinek, "BH" iii. 155, xii. 27, xxi. 10, xlv. 16)-because it offers, as early as a thousand years prior to the supposed date of the "Sefer Yeẓirah," a cosmogony based upon the twenty-two letters of the Hebrew alphabet, and connected with Jewish chronology and Messianology, while at the same time insisting upon the heptad as the holy number rather than upon the decadic system adopted by the later haggadists and the "Sefer Yeẓirah" (ch. ii. 23; compare Midr. Tadshe vi. and Charles's note, vi. 29 et seq.; Epstein, in "Rev. Et. Juives," xxii. 11; and regarding the number seven compare Ethiopic Enoch, lxxvii. 4 et seq. [see Charles's note]; Lev. R. xxix.; Philo, "De Opificios Mundi," 80-43, and Ab. v. 1-3; Ḥag. 12a).還有更多的啟發性的研究開發cabalistic傳說是Jubilees書撰寫的國王約翰Hyrcanus (見查爾斯, “書Jubilees , ” 1902年,導言,頁。 lviii 。及以下。 )也指著作的賈里德,彩南,和諾亞,亞伯拉罕,並提出作為新生,和Levi作為永久監護人,這些古老的著作(章四。 18日,八。 3 ,十13 ;比較耶利內克, “波黑”三。 155 ,十二。 27 , 21 。 10日,第四十五。 16 ) ,因為它提供,早在1000年之前,理應日期“ Yeẓirah之書”的宇宙進化論根據2002年的信希伯來字母,並與猶太人年表和Messianology ,同時堅持了七價作為神聖的數量,而不是根據decadic系統通過後haggadists和“ Yeẓirah之書” (章二。 23 ;比較Midr 。 Tadshe六。查爾斯的說明,六。 29起。 ;愛潑斯坦,在“修訂本中。 Juives , ” 22 。 11 ;和關於一些比較埃塞俄比亞7伊諾克, lxxvii 。 4起。 [見查爾斯的說明] ;列夫。河二十九。 ;斐洛, “德Opificios曼迪, ” 80-43和抗體。訴1-3 ;女巫。 12a條) 。 The Pythagorean idea of the creative powers of numbers and letters, upon which the "Sefer Yeẓirah" is founded, and which was known in tannaitic times-compare Rab's saying:"Bezalel knew how to combine [] the letters by which heaven and earth were created" (Ber. 55a), and the saying of R. Judah b.在畢達哥拉斯思想的創造性權力的數字和字母,在此基礎上“之書Yeẓirah ”成立,這是眾所周知的tannaitic時代比較拉布的話說: “ Bezalel知道如何結合[ ]的信件,其中天地人創建“ ( Ber.第55A ) ,並表示對猶太灣河 Ilai (Men. 29b), quoted, with similar sayings of Rab, in Bacher, "Ag. Bab. Amor." Ilai ( Men. 29B條) ,引用,類似的格言饒,在巴切爾, “銀。巴布。奧馬爾。 ” pp. 18, 19-is here proved to be an old cabalistic conception.頁。 18日, 19日,在這裡被證明是一個老cabalistic的概念。 In fact, the belief in the magic power of the letters of the Tetragrammaton and other names of the Deity (compare Enoch, lxi. 3 et seq.; Prayer of Manasses; Ḳid. 71a; Eccl. R. iii. 11; Yer. Ḥag. ii. 77c) seems to have originated in Chaldea (see Lenormant, "Chaldean Magic," pp. 29, 43).事實上,信仰的神奇力量的來信Tetragrammaton和其他姓名的神(比較伊諾克, lxi 。三起。 ;祈禱的Manasses ;孩子。 71a ;傳道書。河三。 11層。女巫。二。 77c )似乎起源於Chaldea (見Lenormant , “迦勒魔術” ,頁。 29日, 43 ) 。 Whatever, then, the theurgic Cabala was, which, under the name of "Sefer (or "Hilkot" Yeẓirah," induced Babylonian rabbis of the fourth century to "create a calf by magic" (Sanh. 65b, 67b; Zunz, "GV" 2d ed., p. 174, by a false rationalism ignores or fails to account for a simple though strange fact!), an ancient tradition seems to have coupled the name of this theurgic "Sefer Yeẓirah" with the name of Abraham as one accredited with the possession of esoteric wisdom and theurgic powers (see Abraham, Apocalypse of, and Abraham, Testament of; Beer, "Das Leben Abrahams," pp. 207 et seq.; and especially Testament of Abraham, Recension B, vi., xviii.; compare Kohler, in "Jew. Quart. Rev." vii. 584, note). As stated by Jellinek ("Beiträge zur Kabbalah," i. 3), the very fact that Abraham, and not a Talmudical hero like Akiba, is introduced in the "Sefer Yeẓirah," at the close, as possessor of the Wisdom of the Alphabet, indicates an old tradition, if not the antiquity of the book itself.無論那麼, theurgic Cabala是,它的名字“之書(或” Hilkot “ Yeẓirah , ”巴比倫猶太教誘導的第四世紀“創造一個小腿的神奇” ( Sanh. 65B條, 67b ; Zunz “科技GV “ 2版。 ,第174頁,由一個虛假的理性忽略或沒有考慮到一個簡單但奇怪的事實! ) ,一個古老的傳統似乎已經耦合的名字這theurgic ” Yeẓirah之書“的名稱作為亞伯拉罕一個認可與擁有深奧的智慧和theurgic權力(見亞伯拉罕啟示,和亞伯拉罕,全書的;啤酒, “亞伯拉罕之生活” ,頁。 207起。 ; ,尤其是全書的亞伯拉罕, Recension乙,六。 ,十八。 ;比較科勒,在“猶太人。夸脫。牧師”七。 584注) 。如耐克( “ Beiträge楚卡巴拉, ”島3 ) ,這一事實本身亞伯拉罕,而不是一個Talmudical英雄像秋葉,介紹了在“ Yeẓirah之書” ,在結束之際,作為擁有智慧的字母,表明古老的傳統,如果不是古代的書本身。

The "wonders of the Creative Wisdom" can also be traced from the "Sefer Yeẓirah," back to Ben Sira, lc; Enoch, xlii.在“奇蹟的創造智慧”也可以追溯從“ Yeẓirah之書, ”回本西拉,立法會;伊諾克,四十二。 1, xlviii. 1 ,四十八。 1, lxxxii. 1 , lxxxii 。 2, xcii. 2 , xcii 。 1; Slavonic Enoch, xxx. 1 ;斯拉夫伊諾克, xxx域名。 8, xxxiii. 8 ,三十三。 3 (see Charles's note for further parallels); IV Esdras xiv. 3 (見查爾斯的說明為進一步相似之處) ;四埃斯德拉斯十四。 46; Soṭah xv. 46 ; Soṭah十五。 3; and the Merkabah-travels to Test. 3 ;和Merkabah ,前往測試。 Abraham, x.; Test.亞伯拉罕,十;測試。 Job, xi.求職,喜。 (see Kohler, in Kohut Memorial Volume, pp. 282-288); and the Baruch Apocalypse throughout, and even II Macc. (見科勒,在胡特紀念卷,頁。 282-288 ) ;和巴魯克各地的啟示,甚至二排雷協委會。 vii.七。 22, 28, betray cabalistic traditions and terminologies. 22 ,第28 ,背叛與cabalistic傳統的用語。

Gnosticism and Cabala.諾斯替主義和Cabala 。

But especially does Gnosticism testify to the antiquity of the Cabala.但是,尤其是不諾斯替主義證明,古代的Cabala 。 Of Chaldean origin, as suggested by Kessler (see "Mandæans," in Herzog-Hauck, "Real-Encyc.") and definitively shown by Anz ("Die Frage nach dem Ursprung des Gnostizismus," 1879), Gnosticism was Jewish in character long before it became Christian (see Joël, "Blicke in die Religionsgeschichte," etc., 1880, i. 203; Hönig, "Die Ophiten," 1889; Friedländer, "Der Vorchristliche Jüdische Gnostizismus," 1898; idem, "Der Antichrist," 1901).原產地的迦勒的建議,凱斯勒(見“曼德安, ”在赫爾佐格,克, “實時Encyc 。 ” ) ,並明確表明了安茨( “模具Frage班上萬德國馬克Gnostizismus起源” , 1879年) ,諾斯替主義是猶太人在性格早在它成為基督教(見喬爾, “ Blicke在模具Religionsgeschichte ”等, 1880年,島203 ; Hönig , “模具Ophiten , ” 1889年;德蘭德, “明鏡Vorchristliche Jüdische Gnostizismus , ” 1898年;同上, “明鏡反基督“ 1901年) 。 Gnosticism-that is, the cabalistic "Ḥokmah" (wisdom), translated into "Madda' " (Aramaic, "Manda' " = knowledge of things divine)-seems to have been the first attempt on the part of the Jewish sages to give the empirical mystic lore, with the help of Platonic and Pythagorean or Stoic ideas, a speculative turn; hence the danger of heresy from which Akiba and Ben Zoma strove to extricate themselves, and of which the systems of Philo, an adept in Cabala (see "De Cherubim," 14; "De Sacrificiis Abelis et Caini," 15; "De Eo Quod Deterius Potiori Insidiatur," 48; "Quis Rerum Divinarum Heres Sit," 22), and of Paul (see Matter, "History of Gnosticism," ii.), show many pitfalls (see Gnosticism, Minim).諾斯替主義,也就是說, cabalistic “ Ḥokmah ” (智慧) ,翻譯成“ Madda ” (阿拉姆, “曼達” =知識的神聖的東西)似乎是第一次嘗試對部分猶太聖人給實證神秘傳說的幫助下,柏拉圖和畢達哥拉斯或斯多葛思想,投機反過來,因此危險的異端邪說從秋葉忠利和本祖馬力求脫困,以及該系統的哲學,一個善於Cabala (見“德革魯賓, ” 14 “ ;德Sacrificiis Abelis等彩妮, ” 15 ; “德禦寧獄吏Deterius Potiori Insidiatur , ” 48 “ ; Quis事物Divinarum繼承人坐下, ” 22 )和保羅(見物, “歷史的諾斯替主義“二。 ) ,顯示很多陷阱(見諾斯替主義,微量) 。 It was the ancient Cabala which, while allegorizing the Song of Songs, spoke of Adam Ḳadmon, or the God-man, of the "Bride of God," and hence of "the mystery of the union of powers" in God (see Conybeare, "Philo's Contemplative Life," p. 304), before Philo, Paul, the Christian Gnostics, and the medieval Cabala did.這是古代Cabala ,雖然allegorizing宋代的歌曲,以亞當Ḳadmon ,或神人,在“上帝的新娘” ,並因此對“神秘的工會的權力”上帝(見科尼比爾, “哲學的思惟生活” ,第304頁) ,然後斐羅,保羅,基督教Gnostics ,以及中世紀Cabala沒有。 Speculative Cabala of old (IV Esd. iii. 21; Wisdom ii. 24) spoke of "the germ of poison from the serpent transmitted from Adam to all generations" ( ) before Paul and R. Johanan ('Ab. Zarah 22b) referred to it.投機Cabala老(四公共服務電子化。三。 21 ;智慧二。二十四日)說, “細菌中毒的蛇從亞當轉交所有世代” ( )之前,保羅和R. Johanan ( '抗體。 Zarah 22B款)提到它。 And while the Gnostic classification of souls into pneumatic, psychic, and hylic ones can be traced back to Plato (see Joël, lcp 132), Paul was not the first (or only one) to adopt it in his system (see Ḥag. 14b;-Cant. R. i. 3, quoted by Joël, compare Gen. R. xiv., where the five names for the soul are dwelt upon).雖然諾斯底分類的靈魂到氣動,心理和物質的,可以追溯到柏拉圖(見喬爾, LCP的132個) ,保羅並不是第一個(或只有一個)通過在其系統(見魔女。 14B條; - Cant 。河島3 ,引述喬爾,比較將軍河十四。 ,那裡的五個名字的靈魂是住後) 。

Cabalistic Dualism. Cabalistic二元。

The whole dualistic system of good and of evil powers, which goes back to Zoroastrianism and ultimately to old Chaldea, can be traced through Gnosticism; having influenced the cosmology of the ancient Cabala before it reached the medieval one.整個二元體系和良好的邪惡力量,它可以追溯到拜火教,並最終歲Chaldea ,可以追溯到通過諾斯替主義;具有影響宇宙的古老Cabala達成之前的中世紀之一。 So is the conception underlying the cabalistic tree, of the right side being the source of light and purity, and the left the source of darkness and impurity ("siṭra yemina we siṭra aḥara), found among the Gnostics (see Irenæus, "Adversus Hæreses," i. 5, § 1; 11, § 2; ii. 24, § 6; Epiphanius, "Hæres," xxxii. 1, 2; "Clementine Homilies," vii. 3; compare Cant. R. i. 9; Matt. xxv. 33; Plutarch, "De Isiḳe," 48; Anz, lc 111). The fact also that the "Ḳelippot" (the scalings of impurity), which are so prominent in the medieval Cabala, are found in the old Babylonian incantations (see Sayce, "Hibbert Lectures," 1887, p. 472; Delitzsch, "Assyrisches Wörterbuch," sv ), is evidence in favor of the antiquity of most of the cabalistic material.因此,概念是根本cabalistic樹,右側是光源和純潔性,左邊的來源黑夜和雜質( “希特拉yemina我們希特拉aḥara ) ,發現各Gnostics (見依, ” Adversus Hæreses “島5條第1款; 11條第2款;二。 24日,第6條;埃皮法尼烏斯, ” Hæres , “三十二。 1 , 2 , ”克萊門汀講道詞, “七。 3 ;比較公會。河島9日;馬特。二十五。 33 ;普魯塔克, “德Isiḳe , ”第48條;安茨,信用證111號) 。事實上也認為, “ Ḳelippot ” (即scalings雜質) ,這是如此突出的中世紀Cabala ,被發現的老巴比倫咒語(見Sayce , “希伯特講座” , 1887年,第472頁;德里, “ Assyrisches Wörterbuch , ”希沃特) ,證明有利於文物的大部分cabalistic材料。

It stands to reason that the secrets of the theurgic Cabala are not lightly divulged; and yet the Testament of Solomon recently brought to light the whole system of conjuration of angels and demons, by which the evil spirits were exorcised; even the magic sign or seal of King Solomon, known to the medieval Jew as the Magen Dawid, has been resurrected (see Conybeare, in "Jew. Quart. Rev." xi. 1-45; also Exorcism).它合乎情理的秘密theurgic Cabala是不能輕易洩露;然而,全書所羅門群島最近揭示了整個系統的咒語的天使和惡魔,其中有辟邪exorcised ;甚至是神奇的簽署或蓋章國王所羅門,眾所周知,中世紀的猶太人的兩座大衛,已復活(見科尼比爾,在“猶太人。夸脫。牧師”十一。 1-45 ;也驅魔) 。

To the same class belongs the "Sefer Refu'ot" (The Book of Healing), containing the prescriptions against all the diseases inflicted by demons, which Noah wrote according to the instructions given by the angel Raphael and handed over to his son Shem (Book of Jubilees, x. 1-14; Jellinek, "BH" iii. 155-160; Introduction, p. xxx.).如果屬於同一類的“ Refu'ot之書” (書癒合) ,其中的處方對所有的疾病所帶來的惡魔,其中寫道諾亞根據所發出的指示的天使拉斐爾,並移交給他的兒子閃(圖書Jubilees ,十1-14 ;耶利內克, “波黑”三。 155-160 ;介紹,第xxx域名。 ) 。 It was identified with the "Sefer Refu'ot" in possession of King Solomon and hidden afterward by King Hezekiah (see Pes. iv. 9, 56a; "BH" lcp 160; Josephus, "Ant." viii. 2, § 5; compare idem, "BJ" ii. 8, § 6, and the extensive literature in Schürer, "Gesch. des Volkes Israel," 3d ed., iii. 2, 99 et seq.), whereas the secret of the black art, or of healing by demonic powers, was transmitted to heathen tribes, to "the sons of Keṭurah" (Sanh. 91a) or the Amorites (compare Enoch, x. 7).So striking is the resemblance between the Shi'ur Ḳomah and the anthropomorphic description of the Deity by the Gnostics (see Irenæus, lci 14, § 3) and the letters of the alphabet laid across the body in Atbash (), or Alpha and Omega order, forming the limbs of the Macrocosmos, that the one casts light upon the other, as Gaster (in "Monatsschrift," 1893, p. 221) has shown.這是確定的“ Refu'ot之書”擁有所羅門王和隱藏後由國王Hezekiah (見瘟。四。 9 , 56a ; “波黑”液晶160 ;約瑟夫, “螞蟻” 。八。 2 ,第5條;比較同上, “北京”二。 8日,第6條,以及大量文獻中Schürer , “ Gesch 。沙漠Volkes以色列, ”三維版。 ,三。 2 , 99及以下。 ) ,而秘密的黑人藝術,或癒合惡魔的權力,轉交給異教徒的部落,到“兒子Keṭurah ” ( Sanh. 91a )或亞摩利人(比較伊諾克,十7 ) 。所以引人注目的是之間的相似性的和Shi'ur Ḳomah在擬人化描述神的Gnostics (見依,國際獅子總會14日,第3條)和信用證的規定字母的整個身體在Atbash ( ) ,或亞爾發和奧米加秩序,形成了肢體的Macrocosmos ,即一鑑於人們對其他,如法莫替丁(在“月刊” , 1893年,第221頁)已經表明。 But so have "the garments of light," "the male and the female nature," "the double face," the eye, hair, arm, head, and crown of "the King of Glory," taken from the Song of Solomon, I Chron.但是,有“服裝的光” , “男性和女性的性質” , “雙臉”的眼睛,頭髮,手臂,頭,冠“國王的榮耀” ,取自雅歌我專欄。 xxix.二十九。 11; Ps. 11 ;物質。 lxviii. lxviii 。 18, and other familiar texts, even "the endless" (En-Sof = ' Agr;πέραντος), their parallels in ancient Gnostic writings (see Schmidt, "Gnostische Schriften in Koptischer Sprache," 1892, pp. 278, 293, 310, and elsewhere). 18日,和其他熟悉的文字,甚至是“沒完沒了” (李恩軟= '農業; πέραντος ) ,其相似之處諾斯底在古代著作(見施密特, “ Gnostische文集Koptischer語言中, ” 1892年,頁。 278 , 293 , 310和其他地方) 。 On the other hand, both the mystic Cross ("Staurus" = X = the letter tav of old; see Jewish Encyclopedia, i. 612b; Irenæus, lci 2, § 3; Justin, "Apology," i. 40; and Joël, lcp 147) and the enigmatic primal "Ḳav laḳav," or "Ḳavḳkav," taken from Isa.另一方面,無論是神秘的交叉( “ Staurus ” = X =番茄不孕病毒的信舊的;見猶太百科全書島612b ;依,次年2 ,第3條;賈斯汀, “道歉” ,島40 ;和Joel , LCP的147 )和神秘的原始“ Ḳav laḳav ”或“ Ḳavḳkav , ”從伊薩。 xxviii.二十八。 10, receive strange light from the ancient cabalistic cosmogony, which, based upon Job xxxviii. 10日,收到奇怪的光從古代cabalistic宇宙進化論,其中,根據項目三十八。 4 et seq., spoke of "the measuring-line"-Ḳav, the (Isa. xxxiv. 11; compare , Gen. R. i. after Ezek. xl. 3)-drawn "crosswise"- (see Midr. ha-Gadol, ed. Schechter, 11; compare , Ḥag. xii. 1, and Joël, lc), and consequently applied also the term (Ḳav le-ḳav), taken from Isa.第4及以下。中談到“測線” Ḳav的(以賽亞書三十四。 11 ;比較,將軍河島後Ezek 。坐標。 3 )制定“橫向” -(見M idr。公頃-加多,編輯。謝克特, 11人;比較,女巫。十二。 1 ,喬爾,立法會) ,因此也適用於任期( Ḳav勒ḳav ) ,採取由伊薩。 xxviii.二十八。 10, to the prime motive power of creation (see Irenæus, lci 24, §§ 5, 6; Schmidt, lcp 215; compare Matter, "Gnosticism," ii. 58; Joël, lcp 141). 10日,以總理動力創造(見依,國際獅子總會24日,第5 ,第6 ;施密特, LCP的215 ;比較此事, “諾斯替主義, ”二。 58 ;喬爾, LCP的141 ) 。 This was to express the divine power that measured matter while setting it in motion; whereas the idea of God setting to the created world its boundary was found expressed in the name ("the Almighty"), who says to the world "(This sufficeth").這是對神聖的權力,衡量的問題,而設置在運動;的想法,而上帝的設置,創造世界的邊界表示被發現的名稱( “萬能” ) ,說誰的世界“ (這sufficeth “ ) 。

With the scanty materials at the disposal of the student of Gnosticism, it seems premature and hazardous at present to assert with certainty the close relationship existing between it and the ancient Cabala, as Matter, in his "History of Gnosticism," 1828 (German translation, 1833 and 1844), and Gfroerer, in his voluminous and painstaking work, "Gesch. des Urchristenthums," 1838, i.由於缺乏材料,處理學生的諾斯替主義,似乎過早和危險,目前斷言肯定的密切關係之間存在著它與古代Cabala ,作為物質,在他的“諾斯替主義的歷史, ” 1828年(德語翻譯, 1833年和1844年) ,並Gfroerer ,在他的大量細緻的工作, “ Gesch 。沙漠Urchristenthums ” , 1838年,島 and ii., have done.和二。 ,有工作要做。 Nevertheless it may be stated without hesitation that the investigations of Grätz ("Gnosticism und Judenthum," 1846), of Joël ("Religionsphilosophie des Sohar," 1849), and of other writers on the subject must be resumed on a new basis.儘管如此,它可能會毫不遲疑地指出,調查的格拉茨( “諾斯替主義與Judenthum ” , 1846年) ,約珥( “ Religionsphilosophie萬蘇哈爾” , 1849年) ,和其他作家的主題必須恢復在新的基礎上。 It is also certain that the similarities, pointed out by Siegfried ("Philo von Alexandria," pp. 289-299), between the doctrines of Philo and those of the Zohar and the Cabala in general, are due to intrinsic relation rather than to mere copying.這也是肯定的相似性,指出了齊格弗里德( “斐洛馮亞歷山德里亞, ”頁。 289-299 )之間的理論和哲學的佐哈爾和Cabala一般來說,是由於內在聯繫,而不是僅僅是複製。

As a rule, all that is empiric rather than speculative, and that strikes one as grossly anthropomorphic and mythological in the Cabala or Haggadah, such as the descriptions of the Deity as contained in the "Sifra de Zeni'uta" and "Iddra Zuṭṭa" of the Zohar, and similar passages in "Sefer Aẓilut" and "Raziel," belongs to a prerationalistic period, when no Simon ben Yoḥai lived to curse the teacher who represented the sons of God as having sexual organs and committing fornication (see Gen. R. xxvi.; compare Vita Adæ et Evæ, iii. 4, with Enoch, vii. 1 et seq.; also compare Test. Patr., Reuben, 5; Book of Jubilees, v. 1, and particularly xv. 27).作為一項規則,所有的經驗,而不是投機,而且罷工一個擬人化的粗暴和神話中的Cabala或哈加達,如說明神載於“密碼的Zeni'uta ”和“ Iddra Zuṭṭa ”在佐哈爾,類似的段落“之書Aẓilut ”和“ Raziel ” ,屬於prerationalistic期間,如果沒有西蒙本Yoḥai生活罵人的老師誰代表上帝的兒子有性器官和實施姦淫(見將軍河26 。 ;比較簡歷Adæ等Evæ ,三。 4 ,伊諾克,七。一日起。 ;還比較試驗。 Patr 。 ,魯本, 5 ;書Jubilees ,訴1 ,特別是十五。 27 ) 。 Such matter may with a high degree of probability be claimed as ancient lore or Cabala (= "old tradition").這些問題可能會以高度的概率是屬於古老的傳說或Cabala ( = “老傳統” ) 。

And as to speculative Cabala, it was not Persia with her tenth-century Sufism, but Alexandria of the first century or earlier, with her strange commingling of Egyptian, Chaldean, Judean, and Greek culture, that furnished the soil and the seeds for that mystic philosophy which knew how to blend the wisdom and the folly of the ages and to lend to every superstitious belief or practise a profound meaning.作為投機Cabala ,這不是她的波斯十世紀蘇菲派,但亞歷山大的第一個世紀或更早,她奇怪的混合,埃及,迦勒,朱迪亞和希臘文化,這提供了土壤和種子的神秘主義哲學,知道如何結合的智慧和愚蠢的年齡和借錢給每一個迷信或執業深刻的意義。 There sprang up that magic literature which showed the name of the Jewish God () and of the Patriarchs placed alongside of pagan deities and demons, and the Hermes books ( , as copyists wrote for -not "Homeros"-see Kohler, "Jew. Quart. Rev." v. 415, note), which, claiming an equal rank with the Biblical writings, enticed also Jewish thinkers.有興起神奇文獻顯示的名稱猶太神( )和始祖放在旁邊的異教神和魔鬼,以及愛馬仕書籍(作為copyists寫的,而不是“ Homeros ”見科勒, “猶太人。夸脫。牧師“訴415注) ,其中,聲稱一個同等級別的聖經著作,誘惑也猶太思想家。 But above all it was Neoplatonism which produced that state of enthusiasm and entrancement that made people "fly in the air" by "the wagon of the soul" () and achieve all kinds of miracles by way of hallucinations and visions.但最重要的是這是新柏拉圖主義產生這種狀況的熱情和entrancement ,使人民“飛在空中”以“車的靈魂” ( ) ,並實現各種奇蹟的方式幻覺和遠見。 It gave rise to those Gnostic songs (; Ḥag. 15b; Grätz, lcp 16) which flooded also Syria and Palestine (see Gruppe, "Die Griechischen Culte und Mysterien," i. 1886, pp. 329, 443, 494, 497, 659; Von Harless, "Das Buch von den Ægyptischen Mysterien," 1858, pp. 13-20, 53-66, 75, and Dieterich, "Abraxas," 1891).該報告引起了那些諾斯底首歌曲( ;女巫。 15B條;格拉茨, LCP的16個) ,其中還充斥敘利亞和巴勒斯坦(見集團, “模具Griechischen Culte與Mysterien , ”島1886年,頁。 329 , 443 , 494 , 497 , 659 ;馮Harless , “達斯書馮登Ægyptischen Mysterien ” , 1858年,頁。 13-20 , 53-66 , 75 ,和迪特里希, “衛矛尺” , 1891年) 。 The whole principle of emanation, with its idea of evil inherent in matter as the dross () is found there (see Von Harless, lcp 20), and the entire theurgic Cabala () is in all its detail developed there; even the spirit-rapping and table-turning done in the seventeenth century by German cabalists by means of "shemot" (magic incantations; for the literature see Von Harless, lc pp. 130-132) have there their prototypes (Von Harless, lcp 107).整個原則的氣,其邪惡思想中固有的問題作為糟粕( )是發現(見馮Harless , LCP的20歲) ,以及整個theurgic Cabala ( )是在其所有發達國家有詳細說明;甚至精神說唱,表,把工作在十七世紀由德國cabalists的方式“ shemot ” (神奇的咒語;的文學見馮Harless ,液相色譜頁。 130-132 ) ,有他們的原型(馮Harless , LCP的107 ) 。

-History and System:歷史和體系:

This remarkable product of Jewish intellectual activity can not be satisfactorily estimated as a whole unless the religioethical side of the Cabala is more strongly emphasized than has been the case heretofore.這非凡的產品猶太人智力活動不能得到令人滿意的估計作為一個整體religioethical除非一方的Cabala更有力地強調多已在此之前的情況。 It constantly falls back upon Scripture for its origin and authenticity, and for its speculative-pantheistic and anthropomorphic-prophetic tendencies.它不斷地後退後經其來源和真實性,以及它投機性pantheistic和擬人化,先知的傾向。 While mysticism in general is the expression of the intensest religious feeling, where reason lies dormant, Jewish mysticism is essentially an attempt to harmonize universal reason with the Scriptures; and the allegorical interpretation of the Biblical writings by the Alexandrians as well as by the Palestinians (see Allegorical Interpretation) may justly be regarded as its starting-point.雖然神秘主義的一般是表達intensest宗教感情,而原因在於休眠狀態,猶太神秘主義基本上是一個企圖統一普遍的原因與聖經;和寓言解釋聖經的著作由Alexandrians以及巴勒斯坦人(見寓言解讀)可能公正地被視為它的起點。 These interpretations had their origin in the conviction that the truths of Greek philosophy were already contained in Scripture, although it was given only to the select few to lift the veil and to discern them beneath the letter of the Bible.這些解釋了其來源的信念,即真理的古希臘哲學已載於聖經,但它是唯一的選擇少數解除的面紗,並辨別它們底下的信聖經。

Mystic Doctrines in Talmudic Times.神秘主義在塔木德時間。

In Talmudic times the terms "Ma'aseh Bereshit" (History of Creation) and "Ma'aseh Merkabah"(History of the Divine Throne = Chariot; Ḥag. ii. 1; Tosef., ib.) clearly indicate the Midrashic nature of these speculations; they are really based upon Gen. i.在塔木德時間的規定“ Ma'aseh Bereshit ” (史創作)和“ Ma'aseh Merkabah ” (史神聖的王座=戰車;女巫。二。 1 ; Tosef 。 , 123 。 )清楚地表明Midrashic性質這些猜測,他們是真正根據將軍島 and Ezek.和Ezek 。 i.字母i. 4-28; while the names "Sitre Torah" (Ḥag. 13a) and "Raze Torah" (Ab. vi. 1) indicate their character as secret lore. 4月28日;的名字,而“ Sitre聖經” ( Ḥag. 13A條)和“夷平聖經” ( Ab.六。 1 )表明其性質的秘密知識。 In contrast to the explicit statement of Scripture that God created not only the world, but also the matter out of which it was made, the opinion is expressed in very early times that God created the world from matter He found ready at hand-an opinion probably due to the influence of the Platonic-Stoic cosmogony (compare Philo, "De Opificiis Mundi," ii., who states this as a doctrine of Moses; see Siegfried, "Philo von Alexandria," p. 230).與此相反的明確聲明的聖經,上帝不僅創造了世界,而且此事,其中有人提出,有人認為是在非常早期倍,上帝創造了世界上發現的問題,他準備在手的意見可能是由於的影響,柏拉圖,斯多葛宇宙進化論(比較斐洛, “德Opificiis曼迪, ”二。 ,誰規定這是一個理論的摩西;見齊格弗里德, “亞歷山大馮斐羅” ,第230頁) 。 Eminent Palestinian teachers hold the doctrine of the preexistence of matter (Gen. R. i. 5, iv. 6), in spite of the protest of Gamaliel II.巴勒斯坦知名人士舉行教師理論前世的事項(將軍河島5日,四。 6 ) ,儘管抗議加馬利亞二。 (ib. i. 9). ( ib.島9 ) 。

The Six Elements.六要素。

A Palestinian Midrash of the fourth century (see Epstein, in "Rev. Etudes Juives," xxix. 77) asserts that three of the elements-namely, water, air, and fire-existed before the creation of the world; that water then produced the darkness, fire produced light, and air produced wisdom ( = "air" = "wisdom"), and the whole world thereupon was made by the combination of these six elements (Ex. R. xv. 22). The gradual condensation of a primal substance into visible matter, a fundamental doctrine of the Cabala, is already to be found in Yer. Ḥag.一名巴勒斯坦米德拉士4世紀(見愛潑斯坦,在“修訂研究Juives , ”二十九。 77 )聲稱, 3個要素,即水,空氣,和防火以前存在的創造的世界; ,水然後產生了黑暗,火災產生光,和空氣產生的智慧( = “空氣” = “智慧” ) ,和整個世界就此發了言相結合的這6個要素(出河十五。 22 ) 。逐步凝聚一個原始物質進入有形的問題,一個基本原則, Cabala ,已經找到在也門里亞爾。女巫。 ii.二。 77a, where it is said that the first water which existed was condensed into snow; and out of this the earth was made. 77a ,它是說,第一次水存在是濃縮到大雪;和擺脫這種地球上發了言。 This is the ancient Semitic conception of the "primal ocean," known to the Babylonians as "Apsu" (compare Jastrow, "Religion of Babylonia"), and called by the Gnostics βύθος = (Anz, "Die Frage nach dem Ursprung des Gnostizismus," p. 98).這是古代閃族的概念的“原始海洋, ”已知的巴比倫人的“ Apsu ” (比較賈斯特羅, “宗教的巴比倫” ) ,並要求由Gnostics βύθος = (安茨, “模具Frage班上串聯起源之Gnostizismus “第98頁) 。 Rab's enumeration of the ten objects created on the first day-namely, heaven, earth, tohu, bohu, light, darkness, wind, water, day, and night (Ḥag. 12a) [the Book of Jubilees (ii. 2) has seven.-K.]-shows the conception of "primal substances" held by the rabbis of the third century.饒的列舉的10個物體上創建的第一天,即天,地, tohu ,博湖,光,黑暗,風,水,一天,昨晚( Ḥag. 12A號) [書Jubilees (白介素2 ) seven. - K表。 ]顯示的概念, “原始物質”舉行了猶太教的第三個世紀。 It was an attempt to Judaize the un-Jewish conception of primal substances by representing them also as having been created.這是一個猶太化的企圖,聯合國猶太人的概念原始物質的代表他們也已建立。 Compare the teaching: "God created worlds after worlds, and destroyed them, until He finally made one of which He could say, 'This one pleases Me, but the others did not please Me' " (Gen. R. ix. 2).比較教學: “上帝創造世界後的世界,並摧毀他們,直到最後,他取得其中之一,他可能會說, '這是我高興,但其他人並沒有請我' ” (將軍河九。 2 ) 。 See also "Agadat Shir ha-Shirim," ed.又見“ Agadat什爾公頃, Shirim , ”版。 Schechter, p.謝克特,第 6, line 58. 6 ,行58 。

So, also, was the doctrine of the origin of light made a matter of mystical speculation, as instanced by a haggadist of the third century, who communicated to his friend "in a whisper" the doctrine that "God wrapped Himself in a garment of light, with which He illuminates the earth from one end to the other" (Gen. R. iii. 4; see Abraham, Apocalypse of; compare Ex. R. xv. 22: "After He had clothed Himself in light, He created the world").所以,也被學說的起源輕了問題神秘的猜測,作為一個實例haggadist第三世紀,誰傳達給他的朋友在“耳語”的原則,即“上帝自己包裹在一個服裝的輕,與他照亮地球的一端向其他“ (將軍河三。 4 ;見亞伯拉罕啟示;比較惠。河十五。 22 : ”經過他穿著自己輕,他成立世界“ ) 。 Closely related to this view is the statement made by R. Meïr, "that the infinite God limited or contracted Himself [] in order to reveal Himself" (Gen. R. iv. 4; Ex. R. xxxiv. 1).與此密切相關的觀點是發言河梅爾說, “上帝的無限有限或自己承包[ ] ,以顯示自己” (將軍河四。 4 ;惠。河三十四。 1 ) 。 This is the germ of the Cabala doctrine of the "Ẓimẓum," in idea as well as in terminology.這是細菌戰的Cabala學說的“ Ẓimẓum , ”在思想以及術語。

God in the Theosophy of the Talmud.上帝在神智學的猶太法典。

In dwelling upon the nature of God and the universe, the mystics of the Talmudic period asserted, in contrast to Biblical transcendentalism, that "God is the dwelling-place of the universe; but the universe is not the dwelling-place of God" (Gen. R. lxviii. 9; Midr. Teh. xc.; Ex. xxiv. 11, LXX.) Possibly the designation ("place") for God, so frequently found in Talmudic-Midrashic literature, is due to this conception, just as Philo, in commenting on Gen. xxviii.在住宅的性質和上帝的宇宙,神秘的塔木德期間斷言相反,聖經的先驗論,即“上帝是居住地點的宇宙,但宇宙是不是居住地的上帝” (將軍河lxviii 。 9 ; Midr 。的。坐標。 ;惠。 24 。 11 LXX 。 )可能指定( “地方” )上帝,所以經常發現在塔木德, Midrashic文學,是因為這個概念,正如哲學,在評論將軍二十八。 11 (compare Gen. R. lc) says, "God is called 'ha maḳom' [place] because He encloses the universe, but is Himself not enclosed by anything" ("De Somniis," i. 11). 11 (比較將軍河立法會)說, “上帝是所謂的'公頃maḳom ' [地點]包圍,因為他的宇宙,但不是封閉自己的東西” ( “德Somniis , ”島11 ) 。 Spinoza may have had this passage in mind when he said that the ancient Jews did not separate God from the world.斯賓諾莎可能有這一段考慮到他當時說,古老的猶太人沒有單獨的上帝的世界。 This conception of God is not only pantheistic, but also highly mystical, since it postulates the union of man with God (compare Creseas, "Or Adonai," i.); and both these ideas were further developed in the later Cabala.這上帝的概念不僅是pantheistic ,而且還高度神秘的,因為它假設工會的人與神(比較Creseas “ ,或阿多乃, ”島) ,以及這些思想都得到了進一步發展,後來Cabala 。 Even in very early times Palestinian as well as Alexandrian theology recognized the two attributes of God, "middat hadin," the attribute of justice, and "middat ha-raḥamim," the attribute of mercy (Sifre, Deut. 27; Philo, "De Opificiis Mundi," 60); and so is the contrast between justice and mercy a fundamental doctrine of the Cabala.即使是在非常早期時代的巴勒斯坦以及亞歷山大神學承認這兩個屬性的上帝, “ middat哈定, ”屬性的正義,和“ middat公頃, raḥamim , ”屬性的憐憫( Sifre , Deut 。 27 ;斐洛, “德Opificiis曼迪“ , 60 ) ; ,因此對比正義和仁慈的基本理論Cabala 。 Even the hypostasization of these attributes is ancient, as may be seen in the remark of a tanna of the beginning of the second century CE (Ḥag. 14a).即使hypostasization的這些屬性是古老的,可看到的是一個tanna開始的第二個世紀的行政長官( Ḥag. 14A條) 。 Other hypostasizations are represented by the ten agencies through which God created the world; namely, wisdom, insight, cognition, strength, power, inexorableness, justice, right, love, and mercy (Ḥag. 12a; Ab. RN xxxvii. counts only seven, while Ab. RN, version B, ed. Schechter, xliii., counts ten, not entirely identical with those of the Talmud).其他hypostasizations是由10個機構通過上帝創造了世界,即智慧,洞察力,認知,力量,權力, inexorableness ,正義,權利,愛情和憐憫( Ḥag. 12a條;抗體。護理人員三十七。罪狀只有7個,而抗體。護理人員,版本B ,編輯。 Schechter已,四十三。 ,數十年,不完全等同於那些塔木德) 。 While the Sefirot are based on these ten creative potentialities, it is especially the personification of wisdom () which, in Philo, represents the totality of these primal ideas; and the Targ.雖然Sefirot是根據這10個創造性的潛力,尤其是它的人格化的智慧( ) ,在斐羅,代表所有這些原始想法;和Targ 。 Yer.層。 i., agreeing with him, translates the first verse of the Bible as follows: "By wisdom God created the heaven and the earth."一,同意他翻譯的第一詩句聖經如下: “智慧上帝創造了天堂和地球。 ” So, also, the figure of Meṭaṭron passed into the Cabala from the Talmud, where it played the rôle of the demiurgos (see Gnosticism), being expressly mentioned as God (Sanh. 38b; compare Antinomianism, note 1).所以,也,這個數字的Meṭaṭron傳遞到Cabala從塔木德,在那裡發揮作用的demiurgos (見諾斯替主義) ,被明確提到的神( Sanh. 38b ;比較Antinomianism ,注1 ) 。 Mention may also be made of the seven preexisting things enumerated in an old Baraita; namely, the Torah (="Ḥokmah"), repentance (= mercy), paradise and hell (= justice), the throne of God, the (heavenly) Temple, and the name of the Messiah (Pes. 54a).提到也可製作的七個存在的事物中所列舉的老Baraita ; ,即聖經( = “ Ḥokmah ” ) ,懺悔( =擺佈) ,天堂與地獄( =正義) ,王位的上帝, (天)廟的名稱和彌賽亞( Pes. 54A條) 。 Although the origin of this doctrine must be sought probably in certain mythological ideas, the Platonic doctrine of preexistence has modified the older, simpler conception, and the preexistence of the seven must therefore be understood as an "ideal" preexistence (see Ginzberg, "Die Haggada bei den Kirchenvätern," etc., pp. 2-10), a conception that was later more fully developed in the Cabala.雖然起源的這一學說必須尋求可能在某些神話思想,柏拉圖學說的前世已經修改了老年人,更簡單的概念,和前世的七個因此,必須理解為一個“理想的”前世(見金茲伯格, “模具Haggada北大街Kirchenvätern “等,頁。 2-10 ) ,一個觀念,後來更充分地開發的Cabala 。

The attempts of the mystics to bridge the gulfbetween God and the world are especially evident in the doctrine of the preexistence of the soul [compare Slavonic Enoch, xxiii.企圖的神秘主義者以彌補gulfbetween上帝和世界上特別是體現在理論前世的靈魂[比較斯拉夫伊諾克,二十三。 5, and Charles's note.-K.] and of its close relation to God before it enters the human body-a doctrine taught by the Hellenistic sages (Wisdom viii. 19) as well as by the Palestinian rabbis (Ḥag. 12b; 'Ab. Zarah 5a, etc.). 5 ,和查爾斯的note.-K. ]和其密切的關係之前,向上帝進入人體的一個理論學習的希臘先賢(智慧八。 19 ) ,以及巴勒斯坦的拉比( Ḥag. 12B條; '抗體。 Zarah 5A型等) 。

The Pious.的虔誠。

Closely connected herewith is the doctrine that the pious are enabled to ascend toward God even in this life, if they know how to free themselves from the trammels that bind the soul to the body (see Ascension).在此密切相關的是理論的虔誠能夠登上走向上帝即使在這種生活,如果他們知道如何擺脫束縛的靈魂綁定的機構(見阿森松島) 。 Thus were the first mystics enabled to disclose the mysteries of the world beyond.因此,首先神秘啟用披露的奧秘以外的世界。 According to Anz, lc, and Bousset, "Die Himmelreise der Seele," in "Archiv für Religionswissenschaft," iv.據安茨,立法會,並Bousset , “模具Himmelreise之靈魂” ,在“檔案獻給Religionswissenschaft , ”四。 136 et seq., the central doctrine of Gnosticism-a movement closely connected with Jewish mysticism-was nothing else than the attempt to liberate the soul and unite it with God. 136及以下。 ,中央理論的諾斯替主義,運動緊密聯繫在一起猶太神秘主義的,是不是沒有別的企圖解放的靈魂,團結與上帝。 This conception explains the great prominence of angels and spirits in both the earlier and the later Jewish mysticism.這個概念解釋了巨大的突出的天使和精神都早,後來猶太神秘主義。 Through the employment of mysteries, incantations, names of angels, etc., the mystic assures for himself the passage to God, and learns the holy words and formulas with which he overpowers the evil spirits that try to thwart and destroy him.通過就業的奧秘,咒語,天使的名字等,神秘的保證自己的通行上帝,學習神聖的單詞和公式,使他的overpowers辟邪試圖阻撓和破壞他。 Gaining thereby the mastery over them, he naturally wishes to exercise it even while still on earth, and tries to make the spirits serviceable to him.獲得從而掌握了他們,他當然希望能夠行使,甚至仍然在地球上,並試圖使酒精給他維修。 So, too, were the Essenes familiar with the idea of the journey to heaven (see Bousset, lcp 143, explaining Josephus, "Ant." xviii. 1, § 5); and they were also masters of angelology.因此,也有熟悉的愛色尼的想法的旅程天堂(見Bousset , LCP的143個,解釋約瑟夫, “螞蟻。 ”十八。 1 ,第5條) ;和他們還主人天使。 The practise of magic and incantation, the angelology and demonology, were borrowed from Babylonia, Persia, and Egypt; but these foreign elements were Judaized in the process, and took the form of the mystical adoration of the name of God and of speculations regarding the mysterious power of the Hebrew alphabet (see Ber. 55a; compare Pesiḳ. R. 21 [ed. Friedmann, p. 109a], "the name of God creates and destroys worlds"), to become, finally, foundations of the philosophy of the "Sefer Yeẓirah."在實踐魔法和咒語的天使和魔鬼,是借東風,波斯,埃及,但這些外國要素Judaized在這個過程中,並採取了形式的神秘崇拜的以上帝的名義和猜測就神秘的力量,希伯來文字母表(見蘇貝等。第55A ;比較Pesiḳ 。河21 [版。弗里德曼,第109a ] , “以上帝的名義創建和破壞世界” ) ,成為最後,基金會的哲學在“ Yeẓirah之書。 ”

The Syzygies. Syzygies的。

Another pagan conception which, in refined form, passed into the Cabala through the Talmud, was the so-called ("the mystery of sex").另一種異教的概念,在完善形式,通過到Cabala通過塔木德,是所謂的( “的性別之謎” ) 。 [Compare Eph. [對比厄。 v. 33, and Bride, and Joel, lc, pp.五, 33歲,和新娘,和Joel ,立法會,頁。 158 et seq.-K.] Possibly this old conception underlies the Talmudical passages referring to the mystery of marriage, such as "the Shekinah dwells between man and woman" (Soṭah 17a). 158等seq.-K. ]也許這個舊觀念的基礎Talmudical通道指的是神秘的婚姻,如“ Shekinah談到男人和女人” ( Soṭah 17A條) 。 An old Semitic view (see Ba'al) regards the upper waters compare Slavonic Book of Enoch, iii.; Test.一個老猶太人(見Ba'al )關於上層水域比較斯拉夫以諾書,三。 ;測試。 Patr., Levi, 2; Abraham, Testament of) as masculine, and the lower waters as feminine, their union fructifying the earth (Gen. R. xiii.; Wertheimer, "Batte Midrashot," i. 6. Compare the passage, "Everything that exists has a mate []: Israel is the mate of the Sabbath; while the other days pair among themselves," Gen. R. xi. 8). Patr 。 ,列維, 2 ;亞伯拉罕,聖經的)為男性,以及較低的水域為女性,他們的工會fructifying地球(將軍河十三。 ;韋特海默, “ Batte Midrashot , ”島6 。比較通行, “一切都存在有一個隊友[ ] :以色列是隊友的安息日;而其他幾天對彼此間, ”將軍河喜。 8 ) 。 Thus the Gnostic theory of syzygies (pairs) was adopted by the Talmud, and later was developed into a system by the Cabala. The doctrine of emanation, also, common to both Gnosticism and the Cabala, is represented by a tanna of the middle of the second century CE (Gen. R. iv. 4; R. Meïr, "Parable of the Spring").因此,諾斯底理論syzygies (雙)通過了塔木德,以及後來發展成一個系統的Cabala 。學說氣,也是共同的諾斯替主義和Cabala ,是由tanna的中間第二個世紀的行政長官(將軍河四。 4 ;河果, “寓言的春天” ) 。 The idea that "the pious actions of the just increase the heavenly power" (Pesiḳ., ed. Buber, xxvi. 166b); that "the impious rely on their gods," but that "the just are the support of God" (Gen. R. lxix. 3), gave rise to the later cabalistic doctrine of man's influence on the course of nature, inasmuch as the good and the evil actions of man reenforce respectively the good or the evil powers of life.這個想法說, “虔誠的行動,只是增加了天上的力量” ( Pesiḳ. ,編輯。布伯, 26 。 166b ) ;說: “ impious依賴於他們的神” ,但“正義的支持是上帝” (將軍河lxix 。 3 ) ,引起了後來cabalistic學說的人的影響的過程中性質,因為良好的罪惡行動,分別為男子reenforce好或邪惡力量的生活。

The heterogeneous elements of this Talmudic mysticism are as yet unfused; the Platonic-Alexandrian, Oriental-theosophic, and Judæo-allegorical ingredients being still easily recognizable and not yet elaborated into the system of the Cabala.異質要素的這一神秘塔木德是尚未unfused ;的柏拉圖,亞歷山大,東方theosophic ,並Judæo ,寓言成分仍然很容易被辨認和尚未制訂該系統的Cabala 。 Jewish monotheism was still transcendentalism.猶太一神教仍然超越。 But as mysticism attempted to solve the problems of creation and world government by introducing sundry intermediary personages, creative potentialities such as Meṭaṭron, Shekinah, and so on, the more necessary it became to exalt God in order to prevent His reduction to a mere shadow; this exaltation being rendered possible by the introduction of the pantheistic doctrine of emanation, which taught that in reality nothing existed outside of God.但是,隨著神秘試圖解決這一問題的建立和世界政府通過引入中介人士雜貨,創造性的潛力,如Meṭaṭron , Shekinah ,等等,越要發揚成為上帝,以防止他的減少只是一種陰影;這個被提升提供盡可能採用pantheistic氣學說,它告訴人們,在現實中沒有存在之外的上帝。 Yet, if God is "the place of the world" and everything exists in Him, it must be the chief task of life to feel in union with God-a condition which the Merkabah-travelers, or, as the Talmud calls them, "the frequenters of paradise," strove to attain.然而,如果上帝是“地點的世界” ,一切都在他的存在,它必須的首要任務感到生活在工會與上帝的一個條件的Merkabah ,旅行者,或在塔木德呼籲他們, “在frequenters天堂“ ,力求實現。 Here is the point where speculation gives place to imagination.這是投機的地步,以使想像力。 The visions which these mystics beheld in their ecstasies were considered as real, giving rise within the pale of Judaism to an anthropomorphic mysticism, which took its place beside that of the pantheists.該設想,這些神秘主義者看見他們ecstasies被視為真正的,引起的面色蒼白猶太教的擬人化的神秘主義,這在自己的位置,旁邊是pantheists 。 Although Talmudic-Midrashic literature has left few traces of this movement (compare, eg, Ber. 7a, Sanh. 95b), the Rabbis opposing such extravagances, yet the writings of the church fathers bear evidence of many Judaizing Gnostics who were disciples of anthropomorphism (Origen, "De Principiis," i.; compare Clementina, Elcesaites, Minim).雖然塔木德, Midrashic文學留下一些痕跡,這一運動(比較,如小蘗鹼。 7A款, Sanh 。 95b )中,拉比反對這種extravagances ,但著作教堂父親承擔了許多證據猶太化Gnostics誰是弟子的擬人化(俄利根, “德Principiis , ”島;比較克萊門, Elcesaites ,微量) 。

Different Groups of Mystic Literature.不同群體的神秘的文學。

The mystical literature of the geonic period forms the link between the mystic speculations of the Talmud and the system of the Cabala; originating in the one and reaching completion in the other.在神秘的文學形式geonic時期之間的聯繫,神秘的猜測的塔木德和系統的Cabala ;原產於達成一個完成的。 It is extremely difficult to summarize the contents and object of this literature, which has been handed down in more or less fragmentary form.這是極其困難的要總結的內容和對象的文學,一直流傳在或多或少零碎的形式。 It may perhaps be most conveniently divided into three groups: (1) theosophic; (2) cosmogenetic; (3) theurgic.這或許是最方便分為三組: ( 1 ) theosophic ; ( 2 ) cosmogenetic ; ( 3 ) theurgic 。 In regard to its literary form, the Midrashic-haggadic style may be distinguished from the liturgic-poetic style, both occurring contemporaneously. The theosophical speculations deal chiefly with the person of Meṭaṭron-Enoch, the son of Jared turned into a fiery angel, a minor Yhwh-a conception with which, as mentioned before, many mystics of the Talmudic age were occupied.關於它的文學形式, Midrashic - haggadic風格可區別於禮拜式的,詩意的風格,都發生contemporaneously 。 theosophical投機的交易主要是與人的Meṭaṭron -伊諾克的兒子,賈里德變成了火熱的天使,一個小耶和華,概念與,如前面提到,許多神秘的塔木德年齡被佔領。 Probably a large number of these Enoch books, claiming to contain the visions of Enoch, existed, of which, however, only fragments remain (see "Monatsschrift," viii. 68 et seq., and Enoch, Book of).可能是大量的這些伊諾克書,聲稱含有的願景伊諾克存在,其中,然而,只有碎片留(見“月刊, ”八。 68起。 ,並伊諾克,圖書) 。

"Meṭaṭron-Enoch." “ Meṭaṭron -伊諾克。 ”

Curiously enough, the anthropomorphic description of God (see Shi'ur Ḳomah) was brought into connection with Meṭaṭron-Enoch in the geonic mysticism.奇怪的是,擬人化的描述上帝(見Shi'ur Ḳomah )被帶到與Meṭaṭron -伊諾克在geonic神秘。 This vexatious piece of Jewish theosophy, which afforded to Christians as well as to Karaites (compare Agobard; Solomon b. Jeroham) a welcome opportunity for an attack upon rabbinical Judaism, existed as a separate work at the time of the Geonim. Judging from the fragments of "Shi'ur Ḳomah" (in Jellinek, "BH" iii. 91; ii. 41; in Wertheimer, "Hekalot," ch. xi.), it represented God as a being of gigantic dimensions, with limbs, arms, hands, feet, etc. The "Shi'ur Ḳomah" must have been held in high regard by the Jews, since Saadia tried to explain it allegorically-though he doubted that the tanna Ishmael could have been the author of the work (as quoted by Judah b. Barzilai in his commentary on "Sefer Yeẓirah," pp. 20-21)-and Hai Gaon, in spite of his emphatic repudiation of all anthropomorphism, defended it ("Teshubot ha-Geonim," Lick, p. 12a).這無理取鬧一塊猶太神智學,其中給予基督徒以及卡拉派信徒(比較Agobard ;索羅門灣Jeroham )一個值得歡迎的機會,攻擊猶太教猶太教,存在著作為一個單獨的工作的時候, Geonim 。從片段“ Shi'ur Ḳomah ” (在耶利內克, “波黑”三。 91 ;二。 41 ;在韋特海默, “ Hekalot , ”膽固醇。喜。 ) ,它代表上帝作為一個龐大的福利方面,與四肢,武器,手,腳等“ Shi'ur Ḳomah ”必須有被關押在高度方面的猶太人,因為Saadia試圖解釋它allegorically ,雖然他懷疑tanna伊斯梅爾本來作品的作者(如引述猶太灣Barzilai在他的評注“之書Yeẓirah , ”頁。 20-21日)和海Gaon ,儘管他斷然否定所有擬人化,維護它( “ Teshubot公頃, Geonim , ”舔,第12a條) 。 The book probably originated at a time when the anthropomorphic conception of God was current-that is, in the age of Gnosticism, receiving its literary form only in the time of the Geonim.這本書很可能起源於當時擬人化的概念是上帝的電流,即時代的諾斯替主義,接受它的文學形式不僅在時間上的Geonim 。 The Clementine writings, also, expressly teach that God is a body, with members of gigantic proportions; and so did Marcion.在克萊門汀的著作,還明確告訴我們,上帝是一個機構,成員龐大的比例; ,因此沒有馬吉安。 Adam Ḳadmon, the "primal man" of the Elcesaites, was also, according to the conception of these Jewish Gnostics, of huge dimensions; viz., ninety-six miles in height and ninety-four miles in breadth; being originally androgynous, and then cleft in two, the masculine part becoming the Messiah, and the feminine part the Holy Ghost (Epiphanius, "Hæres." xxx. 4, 16, 17; liii. 1).亞當Ḳadmon的“原始人類”的Elcesaites ,還根據這些概念的猶太人Gnostics ,巨大的層面;即。 , 96英里在身高和九十四英里廣度;正在原來雌雄同體,並然後裂兩部分,一部分男性成為救世主,和女性的部分聖靈(埃皮法尼烏斯, “ Hæres 。 ” xxx域名。 4 , 16 , 17 ; liii 。 1 ) 。

"Shi'ur Ḳomah." “ Shi'ur Ḳomah 。 ”

According to Marcion, God Himself is beyond bodily measurements and limitations, and as a spirit can not even be conceived; but in order to hold intercourse with man, He created a being with form and dimensions, who ranks above the highest angels.據馬吉安,上帝是超越身體測量和限制,作為一個精神甚至不能設想,但為了舉行關係的男子,他創造了一個正在與形式和層面,誰排名最高的上述天使。 It was, presumably, this being whose shape and stature were represented in the "Shi'ur Ḳomah," which even the strict followers of Rabbinism might accept, as may be learned from the "Kerub ha-Meyuḥad" in the German Cabala, which will be discussed later in this article.有人推測,這是其形狀和地位的代表在“ Shi'ur Ḳomah , ”即使是嚴格的追隨者Rabbinism可以接受,因為可能是吸取“ Kerub公頃, Meyuḥad ”在德國Cabala ,這將討論在本文稍後。

The Heavenly Halls.天上會堂。

The descriptions of the heavenly halls ("Hekalot") in treatises held in high esteem at the time of the Geonim, and which have come down in rather incomplete and obscure fragments, originated, according to Hai Gaon, with those mystagogues of the Merkabah (), "who brought themselves into a state of entranced vision by fasting, asceticism, and prayer, and who imagined that they saw the seven halls and all that is therein with their own eyes, while passing from one hall into another (compare Ascension, and for a similar description of the Montanist ecstasy, Tertullian, "De Exhortatione Castitatis," x.). Although these Hekalot visions were to some extent productive of a kind of religious ecstasy, and were certainly of great service in the development of the liturgical poetry as shown in the Ḳedushah piyyuṭim, they contributed little to the development of speculative mysticism. This element became effective only in combination with the figure of Meṭaṭron or Meṭaṭron-Enoch, the leader of the Merkabah-travelers on their celestial journeys, who were initiated by him into the secrets of heaven, of the stars, of the winds, of the water, and of the earth, [see Meṭaṭron, and compare Mithras as driver of the Heavenly Chariot in "Dio Chrysostomus," ii. 60, ed. Dindorf; Windischmann, "Zoroastrische Studien," 1863, pp. 309-312; and Kohler, "Test.說明天上會堂( “ Hekalot ” )的論文高度重視的時候, Geonim ,並開始下降,而在不完整的和模糊的碎片,起源,根據海Gaon ,與那些mystagogues的Merkabah ( ) , “誰使自己成為一個國家的進遠見的齋戒,禁慾主義,並祈禱,誰想到,他們看到了大廳和所有是有其自己的眼睛,而從一個廳到另一個(比較阿森松島,和類似的描述Montanist搖頭丸,良, “德Exhortatione Castitatis , ”十) 。雖然這些Hekalot願景都在一定程度上生產了一種忘我的宗教,並具有一定的服務發展中的禮儀詩歌所顯示的Ḳedushah piyyuṭim ,他們的貢獻小的發展,投機性的神秘主義。這一要素成為唯一有效結合的數字Meṭaṭron或Meṭaṭron -伊諾克,領導人Merkabah ,旅客對他們的天體旅程,誰發起他所到的秘密天堂,明星,對風,水,和地球, [見Meṭaṭron ,比較Mithras作為驅動的戰車在天上“肥胖Chrysostomus , ”二。 60版。 Dindorf ; Windischmann , “ Zoroastrische Studien , ” 1863年,頁。 309-312 ;和科勒, “試驗。 of Job," p. 292.-K.]. Hence, many cosmological doctrines originally contained in the books of Enoch were appropriated, and the transition from theosophy to pure cosmology was made possible. Thus, in the Midr. Konen (Jellinek, "BH" ii. 23, 27), which is closely related to the "Seder Rabba di-Bereshit" (in Wertheimer, "Botte Midrashot," i. 18), the Torah, identical with the "Wisdom" of the Alexandrians, is represented as primeval and as the creative principle of the world, which produced the three primal elements, water, fire, and light, and these, in their turn, when commingled, produced the universe.的工作, “山口292.-K. ] 。因此,許多原先的宇宙理論中所載的伊諾克書籍撥款,並過渡到神智學純粹的宇宙是可能的。因此,在Midr 。 Konen (耐克, “波黑”二。 23日, 27日) ,這是密切相關的“ Seder Rabba二Bereshit ” (在韋特海默, “ Botte Midrashot , ”島18 ) ,聖經,相同的“智慧”的Alexandrians ,代表作為原始和創造性原則的世界,產生了三個原始內容,水,火,光,而這些,在輪到他們時,混合,產生了宇宙。

Cosmological Theories.宇宙的理論。

In the description of the "six days of creation," in the Midrash in question, the important statement is made that the water disobeyed God's command-an old mythological doctrine of God's contest with matter (here represented by water), which in the later Cabala serves to account for the presence of evil in the world.在描述了“六天的創造, ”在米德拉士問題,最重要的說明是,水不服從上帝的命令老神話學說上帝的競賽與問題(在這裡代表水) ,這在稍後Cabala服務考慮到存在的邪惡世界。 In "Seder Rabba di-Bereshit," however, the contest is between the masculine and feminine waters which strove to unite themselves, but which God separated in order to prevent the destruction of the world by water; placing the masculine waters in the heavens, and the feminine waters on the earth (lcp 6).在“ Seder Rabba二Bereshit , ”但是,競賽之間的男性和女性水域致力於團結起來,但上帝分開,以防止破壞世界水;把男性水域的天堂,和水域的女性在地球上(液晶6 ) 。 Independently of the creation, the "Baraita de-Middot ha-'Olam" and the "Ma'aseh Bereshit" describe the regions of the world with paradise in the east and the nether world in the west.獨立的創造,在“ Baraita去Middot公頃, 'Olam ”和“ Ma'aseh Bereshit ”描述了世界各區域的天堂在東部和陰間在西部地區。 All these descriptions-some of them found as early as the second pre-Christian century, in the Test.所有這些說明,其中一些人發現,早在第二次前基督教的世紀,在試驗。 of Abraham and in Enoch; and, later on, in the Christian apocalyptic literature-are obviously remnants of ancient Essene cosmology.亞伯拉罕和以諾,以及後來在基督教世界末日的文學顯然是古代遺留厄色尼宇宙學。

Theurgic Cabala. Theurgic Cabala 。

The mysticism of this time had a practical as well as a theoretical side.在神秘主義的這個時候了實際和理論方面。 Any one knowing the names and functions of the angels could control all nature and all its powers (compare, for example, Lam. R. ii. 8; and Hananeel in Rabbinical Literature).任何一個知道的名稱和職能的天使可以控制所有的性質和其所有的權力(比較,例如,藍田。河二。 8 ;和Hananeel在猶太教文獻) 。 Probably entrusted formerly only to oral tradition, the ancient names were written down by the mystics of the geonic period; and so Hai Gaon (in Eliezer Ashkenazi's collection, "Ta'am Zeḳenim," p. 56b) mentions a large number of such works as existing in his time: the "Sefer ha-Yashar," "Ḥarba de-Mosheh," "Raza Rabbah," "Sod Torah," "Hekalot Rabbati," "Hekalot Zuṭrati."也許以前只委託的口頭傳統,古老的名字被寫下來的神秘主義的geonic期;和海Gaon (在埃利澤肯納茲的收集, “ Ta'am Zeḳenim , ”第56b )提到一大批這樣的工程現有在他的時間: “之書公頃,亞沙爾” , “哈爾巴去Mosheh ” , “拉扎安曼” , “草皮聖經” , “ Hekalot Rabbati ” , “ Hekalot Zuṭrati 。 ” Of all these works, aside from the Hekalot, only the "Ḥarba de-Mosheh" has recently been published by Gaster ("The Sword of Moses," in "Jour. Royal Asiatic Soc." 1896; also printed separately).所有這些作品,除了Hekalot ,只有“哈爾巴去Mosheh ”經已出版法莫替丁( “劍的摩西, ”在“季刊。皇家亞洲學會。 ” 1896年;還印製另發) 。 This book consists almost entirely of mystical names by means of which man may guard himself against sickness,enemies, and other ills, and may subjugate nature.這本書組成,幾乎完全是神秘的名字通過這一手段的人可能對看守自己生病,敵人,和其他疾病,並可能征服性質的。 These and other works later on formed the basis of the theurgic Cabala.這些和其他工程後形成的基礎theurgic Cabala 。 The amplifications upon paradise and hell, with their divisions, occupy a totally independent and somewhat peculiar position in the geonic mysticism. They are ascribed for the greater part to the amora Joshua b.擴增後的天堂與地獄,他們的分歧,佔據一個完全獨立的和有些特殊地位的geonic神秘。歸咎於他們的較大部分的阿莫拉約書亞灣 Levi; but, in addition to this hero of the Haggadah, Moses himself is alleged to have been the author of the work "Ma'ayan Ḥokmah" (compare Soṭah ix. 15, which gives an account of heaven and the angels).列維;但是,除了這個英雄哈加達,摩西本人被指控作品的作者“馬阿延Ḥokmah ” (比較Soṭah九。 15 ,這使一個帳戶的天堂和天使) 。

Mystical Literature in Geonic Times.神秘的文學Geonic時代。

Aside from the "Sefer Yeẓirah," which occupies a position of its own, the following is nearly a complete list of the mystic literature of the time of the Geonim, as far as it is preserved and known to-day: (1) "Alfa Beta de Rabbi Akiba," in two versions (Jellinek, "BH" iii.); (2) "Gan 'Eden," in different versions (Jellinek, lc ii., iii., v.); (3) "[Maseket] Gehinnom" (Jellinek, lci); (4) "Ḥarba de-Mosheh," ed.除了“ Yeẓirah之書” ,其中佔有的地位本身,以下是近一個完整名單,神秘文獻的時間, Geonim ,就因為它是維護和已知天: ( 1 ) “阿爾法貝塔的拉比秋葉“ ,兩個版本(耶利內克, ”波黑“三。 ) ; ( 2 ) ”幹'伊甸園“ ,在不同的版本(耐克,立法會二。 ,三。訴) ; ( 3 ) ” [ Maseket ] Gehinnom “ (耐克,國際獅子總會) ; ( 4 ) ”哈爾巴去Mosheh , “版。 Gaster, 1896, reprinted from "Jour. Royal Asiatic Soc," 1896; (5) "Ḥibbuṭ ha-Ḳeber" (Jellinek, lci); (6) "Hekalot," in several recensions (Jellinek, lc ii., iii.; Wertheimer, "Jerusalem," 1889, the text varying considerably from that of Jellinek: the Book of Enoch is likewise a version of "Hekalot"); (7) "Haggadot Shema' Yisrael" (Jellinek, lcv; also belonging probably to the time of the Geonim); (8) "[Midrash] Konen" (printed several times; also in Jellinek, lci); (9) "Ma'aseh Merkabah" (in Wertheimer, "Botte Midrashot," ii.; a very ancient "Hekalot" version); (10) "Ma'aseh de Rabbi Joshua b. Levi," in different recensions (compare Apocalyptic Literature, Neo-Hebraic, No. 5); (11) "Ma'ayan Ḥokmah" (Jellinek, lci); (12) "Seder Rabba di-Bereshit," in Wertheimer, lci); (13) "Shimmusha Rabba we-Shimmusha Zuṭṭa" (Jellinek, lc vi.). Mystical fragments, have been preserved in Pirḳe R. El., Num.法莫替丁, 1896年,重印從“季刊。皇家亞洲學會” , 1896年; ( 5 ) “ Ḥibbuṭ公頃,凱伯爾” (耐克,國際獅子總會) ; ( 6 ) “ Hekalot , ”在幾個recensions (耐克,立法會二。 ,三。 ;韋特海默, “耶路撒冷” , 1889年,不同的文字相當的耶利內克:在以諾書也同樣版本的“ Hekalot ” ) ; ( 7 ) “ Haggadot射麻'家園” (耐克, lcv ;也可能屬於向當時的Geonim ) ; ( 8 ) “ [米德拉士] Konen ” (印刷數次;也耶利內克,國際獅子總會) ; ( 9 ) “ Ma'aseh Merkabah ” (在韋特海默, “ Botte Midrashot , ”二。一個非常古老的“ Hekalot ”版) ; ( 10 ) “ Ma'aseh拉比德列維約書亞灣” ,在不同的recensions (比較啟示文學,理學希伯來,第5號) ; ( 11 ) “馬阿延Ḥokmah ” (耶利內克,國際獅子總會) ; ( 12 ) “ Seder Rabba二Bereshit , ”在韋特海默,國際獅子總會) ; ( 13 ) “我們Shimmusha Rabba - Shimmusha Zuṭṭa ” (耐克,立法會六。 ) 。神秘的碎片,已保存在Pirḳe R 。薩爾瓦多。 ,數量。 R., and Midr. R. ,和Midr 。 Tadshe; also in the "Book of Raziel," which, though composed by a German cabalist of the thirteenth century, contains important elements of the geonic mysticism. Tadshe ;又在“書Raziel ” ,雖然組成由德國cabalist的13世紀,包含的重要內容geonic神秘。

Origin of the Speculative Cabala.起源投機Cabala 。

Eleazar of Worms' statement that a Babylonian scholar, Aaron b. Samuel by name, brought the mystic doctrine from Babylonia to Italy about the middle of the ninth century, has been found to be actually true.埃萊亞薩蟲'的聲明說,巴比倫學者塞繆爾阿龍灣的名字,把神秘的學說從東風到意大利的中等第九世紀,已被發現其實真的。 Indeed, the doctrines of the "Kerub ha-Meyuḥad," of the mysterious power of the letters of the Hebrew alphabet, and of the great importance of the angels, are all found in the geonic mystic lore.事實上,理論的“ Kerub公頃Meyuḥad ”的神秘力量的來信希伯來文字母表,以及非常重要的天使,都發現了geonic神秘的傳說。 Even those elements that seem later developments may have been transmitted orally, or may have formed parts of the lost works of the old mystics.即使是那些要素,似乎後來的事態發展可能已轉交口頭,或可能已經形成部分失去工作的老神秘主義。 If, now, the German Cabala of the thirteenth century is to be regarded as merely a continuation of geonic mysticism, it follows that the speculative Cabala arising simultaneously in France and Spain must have had a similar genesis. It is the Sefer Yeẓirah which thus forms the link between the Cabala and the geonic mystics.如果,現在,德國Cabala的13世紀被視為僅僅是一個繼續geonic神秘,因此,投機引起Cabala同時在法國和西班牙必須也有類似的起源。這是之書Yeẓirah從而形式之間的聯繫Cabala和geonic神秘主義。 The date as well as the origin of this singular book are still moot points, many scholars even assigning it to the Talmudic period.的日期,以及原產地這一獨特的圖書仍然意義點,許多學者甚至分配給塔木德時期。 It is certain, however, that at the beginning of the ninth century the work enjoyed so great a reputation that no less a man than Saadia wrote a commentary on it. The question of the relation between God and the world is discussed in this book, the oldest philosophical work in the Hebrew language.這是肯定的,但是,在開始的第九屆世紀的工作享有如此巨大的聲譽,沒有少一個人比Saadia寫了評論它。問題之間的關係上帝和世界的討論這本書,最古老的哲學工作的希伯來語。

The "Sefer Yeẓirah."該“ Yeẓirah之書。 ”

The basic doctrines of the "Sefer Yeẓirah" are as follows: The fundamentals of all existence are the ten Sefirot.基本理論“之書Yeẓirah ”如下:基本面存在的所有的10個Sefirot 。 These are the ten principles that mediate between God and the universe.這是這十項原則之間進行調解上帝和宇宙。 They include the three primal emanations proceeding from the Spirit of God: (1) (literally, "air" or "spirit," probably to be rendered "spiritual air"), which produced (2) "primal water," which, in turn, was condensed into (3) "fire."它們包括三個原始emanations從上帝的精神: ( 1 ) (字面上看, “空氣”或“精神” ,可能將作出“精神空氣” ) ,生產( 2 ) “原水” ,在反過來,被濃縮成( 3 ) “火災” 。 Six others are the three dimensions in both directions (left and right); these nine, together with the Spirit of God, form the ten Sefirot.六是在三個層面兩個方向(左,右) ;這九個,加上精神的上帝,形成了10個Sefirot 。 They are eternal, since in them is revealed the dominion of God.他們是永恆的,因為他們是揭示了上帝的統治。 The first three preexisted ideally as the prototypes of creation proper, which became possible when infinite space, represented by the six other Sefirot, was produced. The Spirit of God, however, is not only the begining but is also the end of the universe; for the Sefirot are closely connected with one another, "and their end is in their origin, as the flame is in the coal."前三preexisted理想的原型,創造適當的,這成為可能時,無限的空間,為代表的其他6個Sefirot ,製作。精神的上帝,然而,不僅是開始也是結束的宇宙;為Sefirot是緊密聯繫在一起互相“ ,並結束在其原籍,因為火焰是煤炭。 ”

While the three primal elements constitute the substance of things, the twenty-two letters of the Hebrew alphabet constitute the form. The letters hover, as it were, on the boundary-line between the spiritual and the physical world; for the real existence of things is cognizable only by means of language, ie, the human capacity for conceiving thought.雖然原始的三個構成要素的實質內容外, 22字母的希伯來字母構成的形式。懸停的信件,因為它是關於邊界線之間的精神和物質世界;真正的存在事物的認知只有通過語言,即人力資源能力的構思想法。 As the letters resolve the contrast between the substance and the form of things, they represent the solvent activity of God; for everything that is exists by means of contrasts, which find their solution in God, as, for instance, among the three primal elements, the contrasts of fire and water are resolved into ("air" or "spirit").至於解決的字母之間的對比的內容和形式的東西,它們所代表的溶劑活動的上帝;的一切是存在的方式對比,其中找到自己的解決方案上帝,因為,例如,在原始的三個要素,對比的消防和水分解( “空氣”或“精神” ) 。

Mysticism of Jewish Heretics.猶太神秘主義的異端。

The importance of this book for the later Cabala, overestimated formerly, has been underestimated in modern times.的重要性,這本書的後Cabala ,過高的前身,被低估了的現代倍。 The emanations here are not the same as those posited by the cabalists; for no graduated scale of distance from the primal emanations is assumed, nor are the Sefirot here identical with those enumerated in the later Cabala.該emanations這裡有不一樣的是假定的cabalists ;沒有畢業的規模,距離原始emanations假設,也不是這裡的Sefirot相同中所列後Cabala 。 But the agreement in essential points between the later Cabala and the "Sefer Yeẓirah" must not be overlooked.但該協議的基本點之間的後來Cabala和“ Yeẓirah之書”也不容忽視。 Both posit mediate beings in place of immediate creation out of nothing; and these mediate beings were not created, like those posited in the various cosmogonies, but are emanations.這兩個假定調停人代替立即設立了從無到有;和調解這些人並沒有創造一樣,假定在各個cosmogonies ,但emanations 。 The three primal elements in the "Sefer Yeẓirah," which at first existed only ideally and then became manifest in form, are essentially identical with the worlds of Aẓilut and Beriah of the later Cabala.這三個原始內容的“ Yeẓirah之書” ,其中第一只存在理想,然後成為體現在形式,基本上是相同的與世界的Aẓilut和Beriah的後Cabala 。 In connection with the "Sefer Yeẓirah" the mystical speculations of certain Jewish sects must be mentioned, which, toward the year 800, began to spread doctrines that for centuries had been known only to a few initiated ones.關於“ Yeẓirah之書”的神秘猜測的某些猶太宗派必須提到,這一年對800 ,開始蔓延理論,幾百年來一直只知道幾個發起的。 Thus the Maghariyites taught that God, who is too exalted to have any attributes ascribed to Him in Scripture, created an angel to be the real ruler of the world [compare the and Meṭaṭron in the Talmud.-K.]; and to this angel everything must be referred that Scripture recounts of God (Ḳirḳisani, extracts from his manuscript quoted by Harkavy in Rabbinowicz's Hebrew translation of Grätz's "Gesch. der Juden," iii. 496; separately under the title "Le-Ḳorot ha-Kittot be-Yisrael").因此, Maghariyites告訴我們,上帝,誰是太崇高的任何屬性歸因於他的經文,創造了一個天使是真正的統治者的世界[比較和Meṭaṭron在Talmud. - K表。 ] ;並為此天使必須盡一切提到的聖經記載的上帝( Ḳirḳisani ,摘錄他的手稿引述Harkavy在Rabbinowicz的希伯來文翻譯的格拉茨的“ Gesch 。德國猶太人, ”三。 496 ;分開,題目是“樂Ḳorot公頃, Kittot是,以色列“ ) 。 This Jewish form of the Gnostic Demiurge, which was also known to the Samaritans (Baneth, "Marquah, on the twenty two Letters of the Alphabet," pp. 52-54), was accepted with slight modifications by the Karaites (Judah Hadassi, "Eshkol ha-Kofer," 25c, 26b) as well as by the German cabalists, as will be shown further on.這猶太人形式的諾斯底造物主,這也是眾所周知的撒瑪利亞( Baneth , “ Marquah ,在22字母的字母表, ”頁。 52-54 ) ,接受了稍作修改的卡拉派信徒(猶太Hadassi , “ Eshkol公頃Kofer ” , 25c , 26B條) ,以及由德國cabalists ,如將進一步顯示。 Benjamin Nahawendi seems to have known of other emanations in addition to this Demiurge (see Harkavy, lcv 16). These, of course, were not new theories originating at this time, but an awakening of Jewish Gnosticism, that had been suppressed for centuries by the increasing preponderance of Rabbinism, and now reappeared not by chance, at a time when Sadduceeism, the old enemy of Rabbinism, also reappeared, under the name of Karaism.本傑明Nahawendi似乎已經知道其他emanations除了這個造物主(見Harkavy , lcv 16 ) 。當然,這些並非新的理論源於在這個時候,而是一個覺醒的猶太諾斯替主義,已經壓制了幾百年越來越多的Rabbinism優勢,現在又出現不是偶然的,當時Sadduceeism ,舊的敵人Rabbinism ,也重新出現,根據名稱Karaism 。 But while the latter, as appealing to the masses, was energetically and even bitterly attacked by the representatives of Rabbinism, they made allowance for a revival of Gnosticism.但是,儘管後者,因為呼籲群眾,是積極,甚至強烈攻擊的代表Rabbinism ,他們津貼恢復諾斯替主義。 For, although the cabalistic treatises ascribed to certain geonim were probably fabricated in later times, it is certain that numbers of the geonim, even many who were closely connected with the academies, were ardent disciples of mystic lore.因為,雖然cabalistic論文歸因於某些geonim很可能在以後的製作時間,可以確定的是,號碼geonim ,甚至許多誰是緊密聯繫在一起的院校,有熱心的弟子傳說的神秘。 The father of the German Cabala was, as is now known, a Babylonian (see Aaron b. Samuel ha-Nasi), who emigrated to Italy in the first half of the ninth century, whence the Kalonymides later carried their teachings to Germany, where in the thirteenth century an esoteric doctrine, essentially identical with that which prevailed in Babylon about 800, is accordingly found.的父親是德國Cabala ,因為現在已經知道,一個巴比倫(見阿龍灣塞繆爾公頃,納西) ,誰移民到意大利上半年的第九世紀,何處的Kalonymides後來他們進行教誨,以德國,在13世紀的一個深奧的理論,基本上是相同的盛行在巴比倫約800名,因此找到。

Influence of Greco-Arabic Philosophy.影響希臘哲學阿拉伯語。

While the branch of the Cabala transplanted to Italy remained untouched by foreign influences, the reaction of Greco-Arabic philosoph yon Jewish mysticism became apparent in the Arabic-speaking countries.雖然分行Cabala移植到意大利仍然無動於衷外國的影響,反應古典式阿拉伯文哲學馮猶太神秘主義很明顯在講阿拉伯語的國家。 The following doctrines of Arab philosophy especially influenced and modified Jewish mysticism, on account of the close relationship between the two.以下理論的哲學特別是阿拉伯國家的影響和修改猶太神秘主義,就到了接近兩者之間的關係。 The "Faithful Brothers of Basra," as well as the Neoplatonic Aristotelians of the ninth century, have left their marks on the Cabala.的“忠實巴士拉兄弟” ,以及Neoplatonic Aristotelians第九世紀,離開了他們的商標上Cabala 。 The brotherhood taught, similarly to early Gnosticism, that God, the highest Being, exalted above all differences and contrasts, also surpassed everything corporeal and spiritual; hence, the world could only be explained by means of emanations.教的兄弟情誼,也對早期諾斯替主義,上帝,最高的存在,崇高的上述一切分歧和反差,也超過了一切物質的和精神的,因此,世界上只能被解釋為手段emanations 。 The graduated scale of emanations was as follows: (1) the creating spirit (νοῦς); (2) the directing spirit, or the world-soul; (3) primal matter; (4) active nature, a power proceeding from the world-soul; (5) the abstract body, also called secondary matter; (6) the world of the spheres; (7) the elements of the sublunary world; and (8) the world of minerals, plants, and animals composed of these elements.在畢業的規模emanations如下: ( 1 )創造精神( νοῦς ) ; ( 2 )指導精神,或世界的靈魂; ( 3 )原始物質; ( 4 )積極性,程序的權力來自世界靈魂; ( 5 )抽象的身體,也稱為次要問題; ( 6 )在世界的領域; ( 7 )的組成部分sublunary世界( 8 )世界上的礦物,植物和動物組成的這些內容。 These eight form, together with God, the absolute One, who is in and with everything, the scale of the nine primal substances, corresponding to the nine primary numbers and the nine spheres.這八個表格連同上帝,絕對第一,誰是與一切,規模的9個原始物質,相應的9所小學號碼和九個領域。 These nine numbers of the "Faithful Brothers" (compare De Boer, "Gesch. der Philosophie im Islam," p. 84; Dieterici, "Die Sogenannte Theologie des Aristoteles," p. 38; idem, "Weltseele," p. 15) have been changed by a Jewish philosopher of the middle of the eleventh century into ten, by counting the four elements not as a unit, but as two ("Torat ha-Nefesh," ed. Isaac Broydé, pp. 70, 75; compare, also, Guttmann, in "Monatsschrift," xlii. 450).這9個號碼的“忠誠的兄弟” (比較德波爾, “ Gesch 。哲學免疫伊斯蘭教” ,第84頁; Dieterici , “模具Sogenannte神學萬亞里士多德” ,第38頁;同上, “ Weltseele ” ,第15頁)已經改變了一個猶太哲學家中間的11世紀到10個,通過計數的四個要素不是作為一個單位,但作為兩個( “ Torat公頃,訴願, ”版。艾薩克Broydé ,頁。 70 , 75 ;比較,此外,古特曼,在“月刊, ”四十二。 450 ) 。

Gabirol's, Influence upon the Cabala. Gabirol的,影響了Cabala 。

Solomon ibn Gabirol's doctrines influenced the development of the Cabala more than any other philosophical system; and his views on the will of God and on the intermediate beings between God and the creation were especially weighty.所羅門群島本Gabirol的理論影響了發展的Cabala超過了其他任何哲學體系;和他的看法上帝的意志和人之間的中間上帝創造特別重大。 Gabirol considers God as an absolute unity, in whom form and substance are identical; hence, no attributes can be ascribed to God, and man can comprehend God only by means of the beings emanating from Him. Gabirol認為上帝是絕對的統一,人在形式和內容是相同的,因此,沒有屬性可以歸因於上帝,人可以理解的上帝只有通過的人來自他。 Since God is the beginning of all things, and composite substance the last of all created things, there must be intermediate links between God and the universe; for there is necessarily a distance between the beginning and the end, which otherwise would be identical.自從上帝是開始的所有事情,複合物質上創造的一切事物,必須有中間環節之間的上帝和宇宙的存在必然是一個之間的距離開始和結束,否則將是相同的。

The first intermediate link is the will of God, the hypostasis of all things created; Gabirol meaning by will the creative power of God manifested at a certain point of time, and then proceeding in conformity with the laws of the emanations.第一中間環節是上帝的意志,在本質萬物創造; Gabirol意義的創造性將上帝的力量表現在某一點的時間,然後程序符合法律emanations 。 As this will unites two contrasts-namely, God, the actor, and substance, the thing acted upon-it must necessarily partake of the nature of both, being factor and factum at the same time.因為這將團結兩個反差,即上帝,演員,和實質內容,採取行動的事情,它必須參與的性質都被因子和事實同一時間舉行。 The will of God is immanent in everything; and from it have proceeded the two forms of being, "materia universalis" (ὕλη) and "forma universalis."上帝的意志是內在的一切; ,從它已經開始了兩種形式的福利, “本草綱目泛” ( ὕλη )和“泛形式。 ” But only God is "creator ex nihilo": all intermediary beings create by means of the graduated emanation of what is contained in them potentially.但是,只有上帝是“創造無中生有” :所有的中介所創建的手段畢業於氣什麼是載於它們具有潛在的。 Hence, Gabirol assumes five intermediary beings () between God and matter; namely: (1) will; (2) matter in general and form; (3) the universal spirit (); (4) the three souls, namely, vegetative, animal, and thinking soul; and (5) the nature, the motive power, of bodies. Gabirol (quoted by Ibn Ezra, commentary on Isa. xliii. 7) also mentions the three cabalistic worlds, Beriah, Yeẓirah, and 'Asiyah; while he considers Aẓilut to be identical with the will.因此,假設五Gabirol中介人( )之間的上帝和問題;即: ( 1 )將( 2 )問題的一般形式; ( 3 )普遍的精神( ) ; ( 4 )三個靈魂,即營養,動物,和思想靈魂;和( 5 )的性質,動力,遇難者的屍體。 Gabirol (引述伊本以斯拉,評伊薩。四十三。七日)還提到三個cabalistic世界, Beriah , Yeẓirah ,和' Asiyah ;同時他認為Aẓilut以相同的意願。 The theory of the concentration of God, by which the Cabala tries to explain the creation of the finite out of the infinite, is found in mystical form in Gabirol also (see Munk, "Mélanges," pp. 284, 285).理論濃度的上帝,其中Cabala試圖解釋建立有限出無限的,是在神秘的形式也Gabirol (見芒克, “混雜” ,頁。 284 , 285 ) 。

Still, however great the influence which Gabirol exercised on the development of the Cabala, it would be incorrect to say that the latter is derived chiefly from him.儘管如此,但是大的影響力Gabirol行使的發展Cabala ,這將是不正確地說,後者是根據主要來自他。 The fact is that when Jewish mystic lore came in contact with Arabic-Jewish philosophy, it appropriated those elements that appealed to it; this being especially the case with Gabirol's philosophy on account of its mystical character.事實是,當猶太神秘的傳說來接觸阿拉伯語的猶太哲學,它撥出這些內容,呼籲它;這是特別的情況Gabirol的哲學考慮到其神秘的性質。 But other philosophical systems, from Saadia to Maimonides, were also laid under contribution.但其他哲學體系,從Saadia以邁蒙尼德,也奠定下的貢獻。 Thus the important German cabalist Eleazar of Worms was strongly influenced by Saadia; while Ibn Ezra's views found acceptance among the Germanas well as the Spanish cabalists.因此,重要的德國cabalist埃萊亞薩蟲產生了重大影響Saadia ;而本以斯拉的看法,發現接受Germanas之間以及西班牙cabalists 。 Possibly even Maimonides, the greatest representative of rationalism among the Jews of the Middle Ages, contributed to the cabalistic doctrine of the "En-Sof" by his teaching that no attributes could be ascribed to God [unless it be of Pythagorean origin (see Bloch, in Winter and Wünsche, "Jüdische Literatur," iii. 241, note 3).-.甚至有可能邁蒙尼德,最大的理性代表之間的猶太人中世紀,有助於cabalistic學說的“恩特種部隊”他的教學,沒有屬性可以歸因於上帝[除非它是畢達哥拉斯起源(見布洛赫在冬季和Wünsche , “ Jüdische文學, ”三。 241 ,注3 ) .-.

The German Cabala.德國Cabala 。

The esoteric doctrines of the Talmud, the mysticism of the period of the Geonim, and Arabic Neo-platonic philosophy are thus the three chief constituents of the Cabala proper as it is found in the thirteenth century.在深奧的理論塔木德,在神秘主義的時間Geonim和阿拉伯語的新柏拉圖哲學,因此這三個主要成分的Cabala適當的,因為它是在13世紀。 These heterogeneous elements also explain the strange fact that the Cabala appeared at the same time in two different centers of culture, under different social and political conditions, each form being entirely different in character from the other.這些不同的內容也解釋了奇怪的事實,即Cabala似乎在同一時間在兩個不同文化的中心,根據不同的社會和政治條件下,每種形式完全不同的性質從其他。 The German Cabala is a direct continuation of geonic mysticism.德國Cabala是直接繼續geonic神秘。 Its first representative is Judah the Pious (died 1217), whose pupil, Eleazar of Worms, is its most important literary exponent.它的第一次代表猶太的虔誠(死於1217年)的學生,以利亞撒的蠕蟲,是其最重要的文學指數。 Abraham Abulafia was its last representative, half a century later.亞伯拉罕Abulafia是其最後的代表,半個世紀後。 The correctness of Eleazar's statement (in Del Medigo's "Maẓref la-Ḥokmah," ed. 1890, pp. 64, 65), to the effect that the Kalonymides carried the esoteric doctrines with them from Italy to Germany about 917, has been satisfactorily established. Till the time of Eleazar these doctrines were in a certain sense the private property of the Kalonymides, and were kept secret until Judah the Pious, himself a member of this family, commissioned his pupil Eleazar to introduce the oral and written esoteric doctrine into a larger circle.的正確性利亞撒的說明(在德爾Medigo的“ Maẓref拉Ḥokmah , ”版。 1890年,頁。 64歲, 65歲) ,其大意是Kalonymides進行的深奧理論與他們從意大利到德國的約917 ,已得到令人滿意的設立。蒂爾的時間埃萊亞薩這些理論在一定意義上的私人財產Kalonymides ,並秘而不宣,直到猶太的虔誠,對於自己的成員的家庭,委託他的瞳孔埃萊亞薩介紹的口頭和書面深奧的理論變成大循環。

Christian and Jewish Mysticism.基督教和猶太教的神秘主義。

The essential doctrines of this school are as follows: God is too exalted for mortal mind to comprehend, since not even the angels can form an idea of Him.的基本理論,這所學校如下:上帝是太崇高的凡人到理解,因為即使是天使,可以形成一個想法他。 In order to be visible to angels as well as to men, God created out of divine fire His ("majesty"), also called which has size and shape and sits on a throne in the east, as the actual representative of God.為了能看見天使,以及男人,上帝創造了他的神聖的火( “陛下” ) ,還要求它的大小和形狀與坐在寶座上在東部,實際代表的上帝。 His throne is separated by a curtain () on the east, south, and north from the world of angels; the side on the west being uncovered [compare, however, God's Shekinah dwelling in the east ("Apostolic Constitutions," ii. 57).-K.], so that the light of God, who is in the west, may illuminate it.他的皇位分離了帷幕( )的東,南,北和來自世界的天使;一側西面被發現[比較然而,上帝的Shekinah居住在東部地區( “使徒憲法, ”二。 57 ) .-光] ,以便根據上帝,誰是在西部,可能會照亮它。 All the anthropomorphic statements of Scripture refer to this "majesty" (), not to God Himself, but to His representative.所有的擬人化報表聖經提到這個“陛下” ( ) ,而不是上帝,但他的代表。 Corresponding to the different worlds of the Spanish cabalists, the German cabalists also assume four (sometimes five) worlds; namely: (1) the world of the "glory" () just mentioned; (2) the world of angels; (3) the world of the animal soul; and (4) the world of the intellectual soul.對應不同的世界,西班牙cabalists ,德國cabalists還承擔四個(有時5 )世界;即: ( 1 )世界上的“光榮” ( )剛才提到的; ( 2 )世界上的天使; ( 3 )世界動物靈魂;和第( 4 )世界知識的靈魂。 It is easy to discern that this curious theosophy is not a product of the age in which the German cabalists lived, but is made up of ancient doctrines, which, as stated above, originated in the Talmudic period.人們很容易辨別,這種奇怪的神智學不是一個產品的時代,德國cabalists生活,但是是由古老的學說,其中,如前所述,起源於塔木德時期。 The Germans, lacking in philosophical training, exerted all the greater influence on the practical Cabala as well as on ecstatic mysticism.德國,缺乏哲學的訓練,所有施加更大的影響,實際Cabala以及欣喜若狂的神秘主義。 Just as in Spain about this time the deeply religious mind of the Jews rose in revolt against the cold Aristotelian rationalism that had begun to dominate the Jewish world through the influence of Maimonides, so the German Jews, partly influenced by a similar movement within Christianity, began to rise against the traditional ritualism.正如在西班牙的這一次深刻的宗教銘記猶太人上升反抗亞里士多德理性冷戰已經開始主宰世界各地猶太人的影響邁蒙尼德,所以德國猶太人,部分影響了類似的行動基督教,開始增加對傳統ritualism 。 Judah the Pious (Introduction to "Sefer Ḥasidim") reproaches the Talmudists with "poring too much over the Talmud without reaching any results."在虔誠的猶太(導論“之書Ḥasidim ” )責備的Talmudists與“竟能太多的塔木德沒有達成任何結果。 ” Hence, the German mystics attempted to satisfy their religious needs in their own way; namely, by contemplation and meditation.因此,德國神秘主義者試圖滿足他們的宗教需要用自己的方式,即由關注和沉思。 Like the Christian mystics (Preger, "Gesch. der Deutschen Mystik," p. 91), who symbolized the close connection between the soul and God by the figure of marriage, the Jewish mystics described the highest degree of love of man for God in sensuous forms in terms taken from marital life. While study of the Law was to the Talmudists the very acme of piety, the mystics accorded the first place to prayer, which was considered as a mystical progress toward God, demanding a state of ecstasy.像基督教神秘主義者( Preger , “ Gesch 。 Mystik德國” ,第91頁) ,象徵著誰之間的密切聯繫的靈魂和上帝的人物的婚姻,猶太神秘主義者描述了最高程度的愛的男子,在上帝感性形式方面採取從婚姻生活。雖然研究法的Talmudists非常極致的虔誠,賦予了神秘的第一個地方祈禱,這被認為是神秘的進展上帝,要求一個國家的狂喜。 It was the chief task of the practical Cabala to produce this ecstatic mysticism, already met with among the Merkabah-travelers of the time of the Talmud and the Geonim; hence, this mental state was especially favored and fostered by the Germans.這是首要任務的實際Cabala生產這種欣喜若狂的神秘主義,已經會見了Merkabah之間,旅客的時間,塔木德和Geonim ,因此,這一精神狀態,特別喜歡和培育的德國人。 Alphabetical and numeral mysticism constitutes the greater part of Eleazar's works, and is to be regarded simply as means to an end; namely, to reach a state of ecstasy by the proper employment of the names of God and of angels, "a state in which every wall is removed from the spiritual eye" (Moses of Tachau, in "Oẓar Neḥmad," iii. 84; compare Güdemann, "Gesch. des Erziehungswesens," i. 159 et seq.).按英文字母和數字神秘主義構成了更大的一部分埃萊亞薩的作品,是被視為僅僅作為目的的手段,即達到忘我狀態的適當就業的名字上帝和天使“ ,一個國家在其中每一個牆是從精神眼“ (摩西的Tachau ,在” Oẓar Neḥmad , “三。 84 ;比較Güdemann , ” Gesch 。沙漠Erziehungswesens , “島159起。 ) 。

The point of view represented by the anonymous book "Keter Shem-Ṭob" (ed. Jellinek, 1853), ascribed to Abraham of Cologne and certainly a product of the school of Eleazar of Worms, represents the fusion of this German Cabala with the Provençal-Spanish mysticism.的角度來看,所代表的匿名書“ Keter閃,尖” (編輯耶利內克, 1853年) ,歸因於亞伯拉罕的科隆和肯定的產物學校埃萊亞薩蟲,代表了融合的德國Cabala與Provençal西班牙神秘主義。 According to this work, the act of creation was brought about by a primal power emanating from the simple will of God.根據這項工作,建立行為帶來的是由一個原始動力來自簡單的上帝的意志。 This eternal, unchangeable power transformed the potentially existing universe into the actual world by means of graduated emanations.這永恆的,不可改變的力量改變了宇宙中可能存在的實際世界的手段,畢業於emanations 。 These conceptions, originating in the school of Azriel, are herein combined with Eleazar's theories on the meaning of the Hebrew letters according to their forms and numerical values.這些概念,源於學校Azriel ,此處是結合利亞撒的理論意義上的希伯來字母根據其形式和數值。 The central doctrine of this work refers to the Tetragrammaton; the author assuming that the four letters yod, he, vaw, and he () were chosen by God for His name because they were peculiarly distinguished from all other letters.中央學說這項工作提到Tetragrammaton ;作者假定四個字母yod ,他說,婦女的暴力行為,他( )被選定的上帝,他的名字,因為他們獨有的區別於所有其他信件。 Thus yod, considered graphically, appears as the mathematical point from which objects were developed, and therefore symbolizes the spirituality of God to which nothing can be equal.因此yod ,審議生動,顯示了數學點從物體是發達國家,因此,象徵著上帝的靈性而沒有任何東西可以是平等的。 As its numerical value equals ten, the highest number, so there are ten classes of angels, and correspondingly the seven spheres with the two elements-fire cohering with air, and water with earth, respectively-and the One who directs them all, making together ten powers; and finally the ten Sefirot.正如其數值等於10 ,最高的號碼,因此有十個班級的天使,以及相應的7個領域的兩個要素,消防凝聚與空氣,水與地,分別與一個誰指使他們所有人,使連同10個權力; ,最後的10 Sefirot 。 In this way the four letters of the Tetragrammaton are explained in detail.A generation later a movement in opposition to the tendencies of this book arose in Spain; aiming to supplant speculative Cabala by a prophetic visionary one.這樣,四個字母的Tetragrammaton的解釋detail.A代後,運動的反對傾向,這本書是在西班牙;旨在取代投機Cabala一個有遠見的預言之一。 Abraham Abulafia denied the doctrines of emanations and the Sefirot, and, going back to the German mystics, asserted that the true Cabala consisted in letter and number mysticism, which system, rightly understood, brings man into direct and close relations with the "ratio activa" (), the active intelligence of the universe, thus endowing him with the power of prophecy.亞伯拉罕Abulafia否認理論emanations和Sefirot ,並回到德國神秘主義者,主張真正的Cabala組成的文字和一些神秘主義,它系統,正確地理解,將男子分為直接和密切的關係“比激活“ ( ) ,積極情報的宇宙,從而賦予他的權力的預言。 In a certain sense Joseph b.在一定意義上約瑟夫灣 Abraham Gikatilla, a cabalist eight years younger than Abulafia, may also be included in the German school, since he developed the letter and vowel mysticism, thereby introducing the practical Cabala into many circles.亞伯拉罕Gikatilla ,一個cabalist八年小於Abulafia ,也可包括在德國學校,因為他開發的文字和元音神秘主義,從而引入到實際Cabala許多人士。 Yet Gikatilla, like his contemporary Tobias Abulafia, still hesitates between the abstract speculative Cabala of the Provençal-Spanish Jews and the concrete letter symbolism of the Germans.然而, Gikatilla ,喜歡他的當代托比亞斯Abulafia ,仍然猶豫之間的抽象的投機Cabala的Provençal西班牙猶太人和信的具體象徵的德國人。 These two main movements are finally combined in the Zoharistic books, wherein, as Jellinek rightly says, "the syncretism of the philosophical and cabalistic ideas of the century appears complete and finished."這兩個主要的運動終於結合在Zoharistic的書籍,其中,作為耐克正確地說, “合一的哲學思想和cabalistic本世紀出現完整和完成。 ”

The Cabala in Provence.該Cabala在普羅旺斯。

While the German mystics could refer to authentic traditions, the cabalists of Spain and southern France were obliged to admit that they could trace their doctrines, which they designated as "the tradition" ("Ḳabbalah"; thus an Oriental scholar as early as 1223; compare Harkavy, Hebrew transl. of Grätz's "Gesch. der Juden," v. 47), to authorities no older than the twelfth century.雖然德國神秘主義者可以指真正的傳統, cabalists西班牙和法國南部的人不得不承認,他們就可以追查他們的學說,因為他們指定為“傳統” ( “卡巴拉” ;因此,東方學者早在1223年;比較Harkavy文,希伯來文譯。的格拉茨的“ Gesch 。德國猶太人, ”訴47 ) ,當局沒有以上的12世紀。 The modern historian has greater difficulties in determining the origin of the Cabala in Provence than the cabalists themselves had; for they agreed that the esoteric doctrines had been revealed by the prophet Elijah, in the beginning of the twelfth century, to Jacob ha-Nazir, who initiated Abraham b.現代歷史學家具有更大的困難,在確定的原產地在普羅旺斯Cabala比cabalists自己;因為他們一致認為,深奧的理論揭示了由先知以利亞,在開始的12世紀,以雅各布公頃,納齊爾,是誰發起亞伯拉罕灣 David of Posquières, whose son, Isaac the Blind, transmitted them further.大衛的Posquières ,他的兒子,以撒盲人,他們進一步傳播。 But Isaac the Blind can not possibly be credited with being the originator of the speculative Cabala, for it is far too complicated to be the work of one man, as is evident by the writings of Azriel (born about 1160), the alleged pupil of Isaac.但盲人艾薩克不可能與被記入的發端投機Cabala ,因為它太複雜的工作是一名男子,這是顯而易見的著作Azriel (約1160年出生) ,據稱學生艾薩克。 Azriel, moreover, speaks of the Sefirot, of the En-Sof, and of the cabalists of Spain (in Sachs's "Ha-Paliṭ," p. 45); and it is absolutely impossible that Isaac the Blind, who was not much older than Azriel (his father Abraham b. David died in 1198), could have founded a school so quickly that Spanish scholars would be able to speak of the contrast between cabalists and philosophers as Azriel does. Azriel此外,談到Sefirot ,在恩軟,以及cabalists西班牙(在高盛的“夏同德” ,第45頁) ,它是絕對不可能的艾薩克盲人,誰沒有多少老年人比Azriel (他的父親戴維亞伯拉罕灣死於1198年) ,有可能成立的一所學校如此迅速,西班牙學者將能說話的對比cabalists和哲學家不作為Azriel 。 If there be any truth in this tradition of the cabalists, it can only mean that the relation of Isaac the Blind to the speculative Cabala was the same as that of his contemporary Eleazar of Worms to German mysticism; namely, that just as the latter made the esoteric doctrines-which were for centuries in the possession of one family, or at any rate of a very small circle-common property, so Isaac introduced the doctrines of the speculative Cabala for the first time into larger circles. It may furthermore be assumed that the speculative philosophy of Provence, like German mysticism, originated in Babylon: Neoplatonism, reaching there its highest development in the eighth and ninth centuries, could not but influence Jewish thought. Gabirol, as well as the author of "Torat ha-Nefesh," bears evidence of this influence on Jewish philosophy; while the Cabala took up the mystic elements of Neoplatonism.如果有任何真理在這個傳統的cabalists ,它只能意味著關係的艾薩克盲人的投機Cabala是一樣,他的當代埃萊亞薩蟲德國神秘主義; ,即只是因為後者提出在深奧的理論,這是幾百年來所擁有的一個家庭,或在任何率的一個非常小的圓圈,共同財產,因此艾薩克介紹了理論投機Cabala首次進入大圈子。它可能還假定該思辨哲學的普羅旺斯一樣,德國神秘主義,起源於古巴比倫:新柏拉圖主義,有其深遠的發展中最高的第八和第九世紀,不能不影響猶太思想。 Gabirol ,以及作者的“ Torat公頃,訴願, “有證據證明這一點的影響猶太哲學;而Cabala了神秘的新柏拉圖主義的內容。 The Cabala, however, is not a genuine product of the Provençal Jews; for just those circles in which it is found were averse to the study of philosophy.該Cabala ,但不是一個真正的產品Provençal猶太人;的只是那些圈子中發現了厭惡學習哲學。 The essential portions of the Cabala must, on the contrary, have been carried to Provence from Babylon; being known only to a small circle until Aristotelianism began to prevail, when the adherents of the speculative Cabala were forced to make their doctrine public.基本部分Cabala必須與此相反,已進行到普羅旺斯從巴比倫被稱為唯一的一個小圓圈,直到亞里士多德開始佔上風,當信徒的投機Cabala被迫使他們的理論公眾。

The Treatise on Emanation.在傷寒論發射。

The earliest literary product of the speculative Cabala is the work "Masseket Aẓilut," which contains the doctrine of the four graduated worlds as well as that of the concentration of the Divine Being.最早的文學產品的是Cabala投機性的工作“ Masseket Aẓilut ” ,其中包含理論的四個世界畢業以及濃度的神。 The form in which the rudiments of the Cabala are presented here, as well as the emphasis laid on keeping the doctrine secret and on the compulsory piety of the learners, is evidence of the early date of the work.何種形式的雛形的Cabala在這裡,以及重點放在保持秘密的原則和強制性虔誠的學習者,證明了早日的工作。 At the time when "Masseket Aẓilut" was written the Cabala had not yet become a subject of general study, but was still confined to a few of the elect.時“ Masseket Aẓilut ”寫的Cabala尚未成為一個普遍問題的研究,但仍局限於少數的選舉。 The treatment is on the whole the same as that found in the mystical writings of the time of the Geonim, with which the work has much in common; hence, there is no reason for not regarding it as a product of that time.治療總體上一樣,發現了神秘的著作的時候, Geonim ,與工作有許多共同之處,因此,沒有理由不把它作為一個產品的時間。 The doctrines of Meṭaṭron, and of angelology especially, are identical with those of the Geonim, and the idea of the Sefirot is presented so simply and unphilosophically that one is hardly justified in assuming that it was influenced directly by any philosophical system.該理論Meṭaṭron和天使尤其是相同的那些Geonim和的想法Sefirot是如此簡單和unphilosophically ,一個幾乎合理的假設,這是直接影響的任何哲學體系。

"Bahir." “巴赫達爾。 ”

Just as in the "Masseket Aẓilut" the doctrine of the ten Sefirot is based on the "Sefer Yeẓirah" (ed. Jellinek, p. 6, below), so the book Bahir, which, according to some scholars, was composed by Isaac the Blind, and which in any case originated in his school, starts from the doctrines of the "Sefer Yeẓirah," which it explains and enlarges.正如在“ Masseket Aẓilut ”的理論, 10 Sefirot是基於“之書Yeẓirah ” (編輯耶利內克,第6頁,下文) ,所以這本書巴赫達爾,而根據一些學者,組成由艾薩克盲人輔導會,並在任何情況下,起源於他的學校,從理論的“ Yeẓirah之書, ”它解釋和擴大。 This book was of fundamental importance in more than one way for the development of the speculative Cabala.這本書是具有根本的重要性在一個以上的發展路向的投機Cabala 。 The Sefirot are here divided into the three chief ones-primal light, wisdom, and reason-and the seven secondary ones that have different names.該Sefirot在這裡分為三個主要的,原始的輕,智慧和理智和7個二級那些具有不同的名稱。 This division of the Sefirot, which goes through the entire Cabala, is found as early as Pirḳe R. Eliezer III., from which the "Bahir" largely borrowed; but here for the first time the doctrine of the emanation of the Sefirot is clearly enunciated.這種分工的Sefirot ,其中經歷了整個Cabala ,發現早在Pirḳe河埃利澤三。 ,其中的“算術珍本”主要是借來的,但第一次來這裡的學說的氣的Sefirot顯然是闡述。 They are conceived as the intelligible primal principles of the universe, the primary emanations of the Divine Being, that together constitute the (τὸ πᾶν = "the universe").他們被認為是原始的可理解的原則,對宇宙的,主要emanations的神,這一起構成了( τὸ πᾶν = “宇宙” ) 。 The emanation is regarded, not as having taken place once, but as continuous and permanent; and the author has such an imperfect conception of the import of this idea that he regards the emanation as taking place all at once, and not in graduated series.該氣被視為,而不是採取了舉行一次,但持續和永久的;和作者有這樣一個不完善構思進口這種想法,他認為,氣如發生一次,而不是在畢業系列。 But this assumption annihilates the whole theory of emanation, which attempts to explain the gradual transitionfrom the infinite to the finite, comprehensible only in the form of a graduated series.但這一假設annihilates整個理論的氣,試圖解釋逐步transitionfrom無限到有限的,只有在理解的形式,畢業系列。

Opposition to Aristotelianism.反對亞里士多德。

On the whole, the contents of the book-which seems to be a compilation of loosely connected thoughts-justify the assumption that it is not the work of one man or the product of one school, but the first serious attempt to collect the esoteric doctrines that for centuries had circulated orally in certain circles of Provence, and to present them to a larger audience.從總體上看,內容的書籍,這似乎是一個鬆散的彙編連接的想法,理由假定這不是工作的一人或產品的一所學校,但第一次認真的嘗試收集深奧的理論這幾百年來口頭分發在某些圈子普羅旺斯,並提交給一個更大的受眾。 The work is important because it gave to those scholars who would have nothing to do with the philosophy then current-namely, Aristotelianism-the first incentive to a thorough study of metaphysics.這項工作很重要,因為它給這些學者誰應無關的哲學然後電流,即亞里士多德,第一次獎勵的深入研究形而上學。 The first attempt to place the cabalistic doctrine of the Sefirot on a dialectic basis could have been made only by a Spanish Jew, as the Provençal Jews were not sufficiently familiar with philosophy, and the few among them that devoted themselves to this science were pronounced Aristotelians who looked with contempt upon the speculations of the cabalists.第一次嘗試把cabalistic理論Sefirot一個辯證的基礎上本來只能由一名西班牙猶太人,因為猶太人Provençal不夠熟悉哲學,以及它們之間很少的投身這一科學宣判Aristotelians誰藐視期待的猜測的cabalists 。

Azriel. Azriel 。

It was Azriel (1160-1238), a Spaniard with philosophical training, who undertook to explain the doctrines of the Cabala to philosophers and to make it acceptable to them.這是Azriel ( 1160年至1238年) ,西班牙與哲學訓練,誰進行了解釋理論Cabala以哲學家,並使其接受他們。 It should be noted particularly that Azriel (in Sachs, "Ha-Paliṭ," p. 45) expressly says that philosophical dialectics is for him only the means for explaining the doctrines of Jewish mysticism, in order that "those also who do not believe, but ask to have everything proved, may convince themselves of the truth of the Cabala."應當指出尤其是Azriel (在高盛, “哈,同德, ”第45頁)明確指出,哲學的辯證法是他唯一的手段解釋理論的猶太神秘主義,使“那些還誰不相信,但要求將證明一切,可說服自己的真相Cabala 。 “ True disciples of the Cabala were satisfied with its doctrines as they were, and without philosophical additions.真門徒的Cabala滿意,它的理論因為他們,沒有哲學的補充。 Hence the actual form of the Cabala as presented by Azriel must not be regarded as absolutely identical with its original one.因此,實際的形式Cabala提出Azriel絕不能被視為完全一致,其原有之一。 Starting from the doctrine of the merely negative attributes of God, as taught by the Jewish philosophy of the time (see Attributes), Azriel calls God the "En-Sof" (), the absolutely Infinite, that can be comprehended only as the negation of all negation.從理論只是消極屬性的上帝,因為所教的猶太哲學的時間(見屬性) , Azriel呼籲上帝“恩軟” ( ) ,絕對是無限的,可以理解只能作為否定所有否定。 From this definition of the En-Sof, Azriel deduces the potential eternity of the world-the world with all its manifold manifestations was potentially contained within the En-Sof; and this potentially existing universe became a reality in the act of creation.從這一定義的恩軟, Azriel推導出潛在的永恆世界,世界的一切多方面的表現有可能包含在恩軟,這可能現有的宇宙成為現實行為的創造。 The transition from the potential to the actual is a free act of God: but it can not be called creation; since a "creatio ex nihilo" is logically unthinkable, and nothing out of which the world could be formed exists outside of God, the En-Sof.過渡到潛在的實際是一個免費的天災:但它不能被稱為創造;自“創造無中生有”是不可想像的邏輯,而不是其中的世界可形成內外存在的上帝,恩軟。 Hence, it is not correct to say that God creates, but that He irradiates; for as the sun irradiates warmth and light without diminishing its bulk, so the En-Sof irradiates the elements of the universe without diminishing His power.因此,它是不正確的說,上帝創造了,但他irradiates ;為太陽irradiates溫暖和輕而不削弱其批量,因此恩irradiates軟要素的宇宙而不削弱其權力。 These elements of the universe are the Sefirot, which Azriel tries to define in their relation to the En-Sof as well as to one another.這些要素的宇宙是Sefirot ,其中Azriel試圖確定在其有關恩特種部隊以及彼此。 Although there are contradictions and gaps in Azriel's system, he was the first to gather the scattered elements of the cabalistic doctrines and combine them into an organic whole.雖然有矛盾和差距, Azriel的系統,他是第一個以收集稀散元素的cabalistic理論並結合成一個有機的整體。 Casting aside the haggadic-mystic form of the cabalistic works preceding him, Azriel adopted a style that was equal and at times superior to that of the philosophic writers of the time.鑄造撤銷haggadic ,神秘的形式cabalistic他的作品前, Azriel通過了風格,是平等的,有時甚至優於哲學作家的時間。

Asher ben David, a nephew and pupil of Isaac the Blind, a cabalistic contemporary of Azriel, and probably influenced by him, added little to the development of the Cabala, judging from the few fragments by him that have been preserved.舍本大衛,侄子和學生艾薩克盲人,一個cabalistic當代的Azriel ,並可能影響他說,小的發展Cabala ,從幾個片段的他,已保存。 On the other hand, Isaac ben Sheshet of Gerona, in his "Sha'ar ha-Shamayim," made noteworthy additions to the theoretical part of Azriel's system.另一方面,伊薩克本Sheshet的赫羅納,在他的“ Sha'ar公頃Shamayim ” ,取得了顯著增加的理論部分Azriel的系統。 The author of "Ha-Emunah we-ha-Biṭṭaḥon," erroneously ascribed to Naḥmanides, must also be included in the school of Azriel; but, desirous only to give a popular presentation of Azriel's doctrines, with a strong admixture of German mysticism, he contributed little to their development. More important is "Sefer ha-'Iyyun" (the Book of Intuition), ascribed to the gaon R. Ḥamai, but really originating in the school of Azriel.作者“夏Emunah我們河, Biṭṭaḥon : ”錯誤地歸因於Naḥmanides也必須列入學校的Azriel ; ,但只希望給民眾介紹Azriel的理論,具有很強外加劑的德國神秘主義,他的貢獻不大了它們的發展。更重要的是“之書公頃, 'Iyyun ” (圖書的直覺) ,歸咎於gaon河濱井,但真正原產於學校Azriel 。

Naḥmanides. Naḥmanides 。

The cabalists themselves consider Naḥmanides as the most important pupil of Azriel-a statement not supported by Naḥmanides' works; for his commentary on the Pentateuch, although permeated by mysticism, has little that pertains to the speculative Cabala as developed by Azriel. cabalists自己的考慮Naḥmanides作為最重要的學生Azriel ,聲明不支持Naḥmanides '工程;他的評注五,雖然充滿神秘主義,幾乎沒有屬於投機Cabala制定的Azriel 。 Naḥmanides, on the contrary, emphasizes the doctrine of the "creatio ex nihilo," and also insists that attributes can be ascribed to God; while Azriel's En-Sof is the result of the assumption that God is without attributes. Naḥmanides ,相反,強調理論“創造無中生有” ,並堅持認為,屬性可以歸因於上帝,而Azriel的恩軟的原因是假設,即上帝是沒有的屬性。 Yet Naḥmanides' importance for the development of the Cabala must be recognized.然而, Naḥmanides的重要性的發展Cabala必須得到承認。 The greatest Talmudic authority of his time, and possessing a large following of disciples, his leaning toward the Cabala was transmitted to his pupils, among whom David ha-Kohen, R. Sheshet, and Abner are especially mentioned.最大的塔木德權威的時間,並擁有一個大以下的弟子,他的傾向Cabala轉交給他的學生,其中大衛公頃, Kohen ,河Sheshet ,並押尼珥特別提及。 The brothers Isaac b.兄弟艾薩克灣 Jacob and Jacob b.雅各和雅各灣 Jacob ha-Kohen also seem to have belonged to the circle of Naḥmanides.雅各布公頃Kohen似乎也有屬於循環Naḥmanides 。 His most important pupil, however, and his successor, was Solomon ben Abraham ibn Adret, the great teacher of the Talmud, who also had a strong leaning toward the Cabala, but apparently gave little time to its study.他的學生最重要的,然而,他的繼任者,是所羅門本亞伯拉罕本Adret ,偉大的老師的塔木德,誰也產生了強大的傾向Cabala ,但顯然了很少的時間來研究。 Among his pupils were the cabalists Shem-Ṭob b.在他的學生們的cabalists閃,尖灣 Abraham Gaon, Isaac of Acre, and Baḥya b. Gaon亞伯拉罕,以撒的阿克里州,並Baḥya灣 Asher, the last named of whom, by his commentary on the Pentateuch, contributed much to the spread of the Cabala.舍,最後命名人,他的評注五,很大的貢獻蔓延的Cabala 。

Ibn Latif.本拉蒂夫。

Isaac ibn Latif, who flourished about the middle of the thirteenth century, occupies a peculiar and independent position in the history of the Cabala, owing to his attempt to introduce Aristotelianism. Although he founded no school, and although the genuine cabalists did not even consider him as belonging to their group, many of his opinions found entrance into the Cabala.伊薩克本拉蒂夫,誰蓬勃發展的中間的13世紀,佔有獨特的地位和獨立的歷史中Cabala ,由於他企圖引入亞里士多德。雖然他沒有學校成立,雖然真正的cabalists甚至沒有考慮他是屬於他們的組,他的許多意見發現進入Cabala 。 With Maimonides he upheld the principle of the beginning of the world; his statement, God has no will because He is will, is borrowed from Gabirol; and in addition he teaches the principle of the emanation of the Sefirot. He conceives of the first immediate divine emanation as the "first created" (), a godlike, absolutely simple Being, the all-containing substance and condition of everything that is.隨著邁蒙尼德他堅持這樣的原則開始的世界;他的發言,沒有上帝,因為他將是意志,是借自Gabirol ;此外,他教的原則,氣的Sefirot 。他設想的第一個立即神聖的氣的“首次建立” ( ) ,一個神聖的,絕對簡單目前,所有含有實質內容和條件的一切。 The other Sefirot proceeded from this in gradual serial emanation, growingmore coarse and material as their distance increased from their purely spiritual, divine origin.其他Sefirot從這個漸進的串行氣, growingmore粗糧和物質作為他們的距離增加了他們的純粹的精神,神聖的原產地。 The relation between the "first created" and all that has since come into existence is like that between the simple geometrical point and the complicated geometrical figure.之間的關係“首次創建”和所有自問世就是這樣的簡單的幾何點和複雜的幾何圖形。 The point grows to a line, the line to a plane or superficies, and this into a solid; and just as the point is still present as a fundamental element in all geometrical figures, so the "first created" continues to act as the primal, fundamental element in all emanations.這一點越來越為一條線,線到面或外面,這成為一個堅實的;和公正的一點是仍然存在的一個基本組成部分在所有幾何數字,因此“首次建立”繼續作為原始,基本要素在所有emanations 。 This conception of the first Sefirah as a point, or numeral unit, within the universe reappears with special frequency in the presentations of the later cabalists.這一概念的第一Sefirah作為一個點,或數詞單位,在宇宙中重新出現的頻率特別的介紹後cabalists 。

"Sefer ha-Temunah." “之書公頃, Temunah 。 ”

The real continuation of Azriel's doctrines, however, is to be found in a number of pseudepigraphic works of the second half of the thirteenth century.真正的繼續Azriel的理論,但是,要找到一些pseudepigraphic工程下半年的13世紀。 Although this literature has been preserved only fragmentarily, and has not yet been critically edited to any extent, its trend nevertheless may be clearly discerned.雖然這種文學一直保持只有fragmentarily ,以及尚未危重編輯在任何程度,但其發展趨勢可能明顯。 Such works represent the attempt to put the doctrines of "Bahir" and of Azriel into dogmatic form, to shape and determine the old cabalistic teachings, and not to bring forward new ones.這些作品代表了試圖把理論的“算術珍本”和Azriel變成教條式的形式,形成和確定歲cabalistic教義,而不是提出新的問題。 Among the important products of this dogmatic Cabala is, in the first place, the little work "Sefer ha-Temunah" (Book of Form), which endeavors to illustrate the principle of emanation by means of the forms of the Hebrew letters.其中重要產品的教條Cabala是擺在首位,小工作“之書公頃, Temunah ” (圖書形態) ,這說明事業的原則,氣通過各種形式的希伯來字母。 Here for the first time the conception of the Sefirot is laid down in definite formulæ in place of the uncertain statement that they were to be considered as powers () or as tools () of God.第一次來這裡的概念Sefirot奠定了一定的公式,在不確定的聲明,他們將被視為權力( ) ,或作為工具( )的上帝。 The Sefirot, according to this book, are powers inhering in God, and are related to the En-Sof as, for instance, the limbs are to the human body.該Sefirot ,根據這本書,是權力inhering上帝,並與恩軟,例如四肢的人體。 They are, so to speak, organically connected with God, forming one indivisible whole.他們是,這麼說吧,有機地與上帝,形成一個不可分割的整體。 The question that long occupied the cabalists-namely, how the expression or transmission of the will may be explained in the act of emanation-is here solved in a simple way; for all the Sefirot, being organically connected with the En-Sof, have but one common will.這一問題長期被佔領的cabalists ,即如何表達或傳播的意志可以解釋行為的氣,在這裡解決的一個簡單的方法;的所有Sefirot ,正在有機地與王恩軟,有但一個共同的意願。 Just as man does not communicate his will to his arm when he wants to move it, so an expression of the will of the En-Sof is not necessary in the act of emanation.正如男人不溝通他的意願,他的手臂時,他希望將它移到,所以表達的意願恩軟是沒有必要的行為氣。 Another important principle, which is much in evidence from the Zohar down to the latest cabalistic works, is likewise clearly expressed for the first time in the "Sefer ha-Temunah"; namely, the doctrine of the double emanation, the positive and negative one.另一項重要原則,這是明顯的佐哈爾下降到最新的cabalistic作品,也同樣明確表示,首次在“之書公頃, Temunah ” ,即理論的雙重氣,積極和消極之一。 This explains the origin of evil; for as the one, the positive emanation, produced all that is good and beautiful, so the other, the negative, produced all that is bad, ugly, and unclean. The final form was given to Azriel's Cabala by the work "Ma'areket ha-Elohut" in which Azriel's system is presented more clearly and definitely than in any other cabalistic work.這說明了原產地的邪惡;作為一,積極的氣,產生的一切是好的,美麗的,所以另一方面,消極的,產生的一切是壞的,醜陋,骯髒。最後的形式給予Azriel的Cabala的工作“ Ma'areket公頃, Elohut ”中Azriel的系統,更明確地,肯定比任何其他cabalistic工作。 The fundamental principle of the Cabala herein is the potential eternity of the world; hence the dynamic character of the emanations is especially emphasized.的基本原則Cabala這裡是潛在的永恆的世界,因此動態特性的emanations是特別強調。 The treatment of the Sefirot is also more thorough and extended than in Azriel.治療Sefirot也更加透徹和延長比Azriel 。 They are identified with God; the first Sefirah, ("crown"), containing in potentia all of the subsequent nine emanations.他們確定了與上帝;第一Sefirah ( “皇冠” ) ,載有潛在的所有九名隨後emanations 。 The doctrine of double emanations, positive and negative, is taught in "Ma'areket," as well as in "Sefer ha-Temunah," but in such a way that the contrast, which corresponds exactly with the syzygy theory of the Gnostics, appears only in the third Sefirah, Binah (="intelligence").該理論的雙重emanations ,積極和消極的,是教“ Ma'areket ” ,以及“之書公頃Temunah ” ,但在這樣的方式,相反,這完全符合與syzygy理論Gnostics ,只出現在第三Sefirah , Binah ( = “情報” ) 。 The author of the "Ma-'areket" proceeds as the "Bahir" in the separation of the three superior from the seven inferior Sefirot, but in a much clearer way: he regards only the former as being of divine nature, since they emanate immediately from God; while the seven lower ones, which were all produced by the third Sefirah, are less divine, since they produce immediately the lower world-matter.作者的“馬'areket ”收益的“算術珍本”分離的三個優勢從7個劣勢Sefirot ,但更清楚地說:他認為只有前作為神聖的性質,因為它們產生立即從上帝;另有7較低的,這些都是由第三方Sefirah ,低神聖的,因為它們產生立即較低的世界問題。 A contrast which rules the world can therefore begin only with the third Sefirah; for such contrast can not obtain in the purely spiritual realm.對比這世界的規則,因此才開始與第三Sefirah ;這種反差不能獲得在純粹的精神境界。

This point is an instructive illustration of the activity of the cabalists from the time of the "Bahir" (end of the twelfth century) to the beginning of the fourteenth century.這一點是一種啟發性的例子活動的cabalists從當時的“算術珍本” (結束的12世紀)開始的14世紀。 Within this period the disjointed mystico-gnostic conceptions of the "Bahir" were gradually and untiringly woven into a connected, comprehensive system. Side by side with this speculative and theoretical school, taking for its problem metaphysics in the strict sense of the word-namely, the nature of God and His relation to the world-another mystical movement was developed, more religio-ethical in nature, which, as Grätz rightly says, considered "the ritual, or the practical side, to call it so, as the more important, and as the one to which the theosophical side served merely as an introduction."在此期間, mystico脫節,諾斯底概念的“算術珍本”正在逐步和不懈編織成一個連接,全面系統。並肩這個投機和理論學校,同時考慮其形而上學的問題,嚴格意義上的字即的性質,上帝和他的關係到世界另一個神秘的運動是發達國家,更多的宗教倫理的性質,因為格拉茨正確地說,認為“儀式,或實際方面,要求它做,因為更重要的是,作為一個其中一方擔任theosophical只是作為一個介紹。 “ Both these movements had their common starting-point in the geonic mysticism, which introduced important speculative elements into practical mysticism proper.這兩項運動有其共同的起點在geonic神秘,它介紹了重要的投機因素轉化為現實的神秘主義正確的。 But they also had this in common, that both endeavored to come into closer relationship with God than the transcendentalism of Jewish philosophy permitted, colored as it was by Aristotelianism.但他們也有這個共同點,都致力於進入更密切的關係比與上帝的超驗的猶太哲學許可,有色,因為它是由亞里士多德。 Practical mysticism endeavored to make this union possible for every-day life; while speculative thinkers occupied themselves in reaching out toward a monistic construction of the universe, in which the transcendence of the primal Being might be preserved without placing Him outside of the universe. Both of these movements, with a common end in view, were ultimately bound to converge, and this actually occurred with the appearance of the book called Zohar ( = "Splendor"), after Dan.實用神秘努力使這一聯盟可能日常生活;投機性的思想家,而自己在被佔領伸出走向一元建造的宇宙,其中超越原始的存在可能是保存不使他之外的宇宙。都這些運動,與一個共同的目的,最終必將收斂,這與實際發生的外觀呼籲書佐哈爾( = “輝煌” )後,丹。 xii.十二。 3, (= "The wise shall be resplendent as the splendor of the firmament"), showing that it had the "Bahir" (= Bright) for its model. 3 , ( = “英明應燦爛的輝煌蒼穹” ) ,這表明它的“算術珍本” ( =亮)為模型。 It is in the main a commentary on the Pentateuch, and R. Simon ben Yoḥai is introduced as the inspired teacher who expounds the theosophic doctrines to the circle of his saintly hearers.這是主要的評論對五,和R.西蒙本Yoḥai介紹了作為教師的啟發誰闡述了theosophic理論的循環,他的聖潔的聽眾。 It first appeared therefore under the title of Midrash R. Simon ben Yoḥai. The correspondence to the order of the Scripture is very loose, even more so than is often the case in the writings of the Midrashic literature.它因此,首先出現的標題下的米德拉士河西蒙本Yoḥai 。信函的命令,聖經是非常鬆散,甚至比通常的情況著作的Midrashic文獻。 The Zohar is in many instances a mere aggregate of heterogeneous parts.該佐哈爾在許多情況下只是總的異構部分。 Apart from the Zohar proper, it containsa dozen mystic pieces of various derivations and different dates that crop up suddenly, thus entirely undoing the otherwise loose texture of the Zohar.除了佐哈爾適當的,它神秘的containsa十幾件不同的推導和不同日期的突然出現,從而完全消除了其他質地鬆散的佐哈爾。

Distinct mention is made in the Zohar of excerpts from the following writings: (1) "Idra Rabba"; (2) "Idra Zuṭṭa"; (3) "Matnitin"; (4) "Midrash ha-Ne'elam"; (5) "Ra'aya Mehemna"; (6) "Saba" (the Old); (7) "Raze de-Razin"; (8) "Sefer Hekalot"; (9) "Sifra de-Ẓeni'uta"; (10) "Sitre Torah"; (11) "Tosefta"; (12) and lastly, "Yanuḳa." Besides the Zohar proper, there are also a "Zohar Ḥadash" (New Zohar), Zohar to Cant., and "Tiḳḳunim," both new and old, which bear a close relation to the Zohar proper.獨特提的是在佐哈爾的摘錄如下文字: ( 1 ) “ Idra Rabba ” ; ( 2 ) “ Idra Zuṭṭa ” ; ( 3 ) “ Matnitin ” ; ( 4 ) “米德拉士公頃, Ne'elam ” ; ( 5 ) “ Ra'aya Mehemna ” ; ( 6 ) “沙巴” (老) ; ( 7 ) “夷平去Razin ” ; ( 8 ) “之書Hekalot ” ; ( 9 ) “密碼去Ẓeni'uta ” ; ( 10 ) “ Sitre聖經” ; ( 11 ) “ Tosefta ” ; ( 12 )最後, “ Yanuḳa 。 ”除了佐哈爾適當的,也有一個“佐哈爾哈達須” (新佐哈爾) ,佐哈爾,以公會。 ,以及“ Tiḳḳunim , “新舊,其中承擔了密切的關係的佐哈爾恰當的。

The Zohar Literature.在文學佐哈。

For centuries, and in general even to-day, the doctrines contained in the Zohar are taken to be the Cabala, although this book represents only the union of the two movements mentioned above.數百年來,和一般甚至天的理論中所載的佐哈爾採取的Cabala ,雖然這本書僅代表工會的兩個運動上述。 The Zohar is both the complete guide of the different cabalistic theories and the canonical book of the cabalists.該佐哈爾既是完整的指南不同的cabalistic理論和規範圖書的cabalists 。 After the Zohar, which must be dated about the beginning of the fourteenth century, and which received its present shape largely from the hand of Moses de Leon, a period of pause ensued in the development of the Cabala, which lasted for more than two centuries and a half.後佐哈爾,必須對日開始的14世紀,並接受其目前的形狀基本上從另一方面摩西德萊昂,期間暫停隨後的發展Cabala ,歷時兩個多世紀半。 Among the contemporaries of Moses de Leon must be mentioned the Italian Menahem Recanati, whose cabalistic commentary on the Pentateuch is really a commentary on the Zohar.在同時代的摩西德萊昂必須提到意大利梅納海姆雷卡納蒂,其cabalistic評注五確實是一個評注佐哈爾。 Joseph b.約瑟夫灣 Abraham ibn Waḳar was an opponent of the Zohar; his Introduction to the Cabala, which exists in manuscript only, is considered by Steinschneider as the best.亞伯拉罕本Waḳar是對手的佐哈爾;他介紹Cabala ,它存在於手稿只,被認為是Steinschneider是最好的。 It was some time before the Zohar was recognized in Spain.這是前一段時間佐哈爾承認在西班牙。 Abraham b. Isaac of Granada speaks in his work "Berit Menuḥah" (The Covenant of Rest) of "the words of R. Simon b. Yoḥai," meaning the Zohar.亞伯拉罕灣艾薩克格拉納達談到他的工作“貝里特Menuḥah ” (該公約的休息) “的話西蒙灣河Yoḥai ” ,指的是佐哈爾。 In the fifteenth century the authority of the Cabala, comprising also that of the Zohar, was so well recognized in Spain that Shem-Ṭob ben Joseph ibn Shem-Ṭob (died 1430) made a bitter attack on Maimonides from the standpoint of the Zohar.在15世紀的權威Cabala ,還組成了佐哈爾,是如此充分認識到在西班牙的閃,尖本約瑟夫本閃,尖(死於1430年)發了痛苦的攻擊邁蒙尼德的角度的佐哈爾。 Moses Botarel tried to serve the Cabala by his alleged discoveries of fictitious authors and works; while the pseudonymous author of the Ḳanah attacked Talmudism under cover of the Cabala about 1415.摩西試圖Botarel服務Cabala他聲稱發現了虛構的作家和作品;而匿名的作者Ḳanah攻擊Talmudism掩護下Cabala約1415年。 Isaac Arama and Isaac Abravanel were followers of the Cabala in the second half of the fifteenth century, but without contributing anything to its development.艾薩克Arama和Isaac阿布拉瓦內爾被追隨者Cabala下半年的15世紀,但沒有提供任何其發展。 Nor does the cabalistic commentary on the Pentateuch of Menahem Zioni b.也不cabalistic評注五的梅納海姆Zioni灣 Meïr contribute any new matter to the system, although it is the most important cabalistic work of the fifteenth century.梅爾貢獻任何新事項的制度,雖然它是最重要的cabalistic工作的15世紀。 Judah Ḥayyaṭ and Abraham Saba are the only noteworthy cabalists of the end of that century.猶太哈亞特和亞伯拉罕沙巴是唯一值得注意的cabalists結束的世紀。

The happy remark of Baur, that a great national crisis furnishes a favorable soil for mysticism among the people in question, is exemplified in the history of the Cabala.快樂的鮑爾的話,一個偉大的民族危機提供了一個良好的土壤,神秘主義的人民內部問題,體現歷史上的Cabala 。 The great misfortune that befell the Jews of the Pyrenean peninsula at the end of the fifteenth century revivified the Cabala.巨大的不幸降臨在猶太人的比利牛斯半島結束時的15世紀revivified的Cabala 。 Among the fugitives that settled in Palestine Meïr b.其中逃犯是解決巴勒斯坦果灣 Ezekiel ibn Gabbai wrote cabalistic works evincing an acute insight into the speculative Cabala.基爾本Gabbai寫道cabalistic作品表現出一種急性洞察投機Cabala 。 A Sicilian cabalist, Joseph Saragoza, is regarded as the teacher of David ibn Zimra, who was especially active in developing the Cabala in Egypt.西西里cabalist ,約瑟夫Saragoza ,被看作是教師的大衛本Zimra ,誰是特別積極發展Cabala在埃及。 Solomon Molcho and Joseph della Reina (the history of his life is distorted by many legends) represent the reviving mysticism. Deliverance from national suffering was the object of their search, which they thought to effect by means of the Cabala.所羅門群島Molcho和約瑟夫意大利雷納(歷史上的他的生活是扭曲的許多傳說)代表神秘的振興。拯救苦難的國家的目標是與他們的搜索,他們認為這項效應的手段Cabala 。 Solomon Alḳabiẓ and Joseph Caro, who gradually gathered a large circle of cabalistic dreamers about them, endeavored to attain a state of ecstasy by fasting, weeping, and all manner of stringent asceticism, by which means they thought to behold angels and obtain heavenly revelations. Of their number, too, was Moses Cordovero, rightly designated as the last representative of the early cabalists, and, next to Azriel, the most important speculative thinker among them.所羅門群島Alḳabiẓ和約瑟夫親愛的,誰逐步收集了大量循環cabalistic夢想家他們,努力實現國家的忘我的禁食,哭泣,所有的方式和嚴格的苦行,由這意味著他們認為看見天使和獲得上天的啟示。他們的號碼,也是摩西Cordovero ,正確指定的最後代表的早期cabalists ,而且旁邊Azriel ,最重要的投機性的思想家其中之一。

Luria's Cabala.盧里亞的Cabala 。

The modern cabalistic school begins theoretically as well as practically with Isaac Luria (1533-72).現代cabalistic學校開始在理論上和實際上與艾薩克盧里亞( 1533年至1572年) 。 In the first place, its doctrine of appearance, according to which all that exists is composed of substance and appearance, is most important, rendering Luria's Cabala extremely subjective by teaching that there is no such thing as objective cognition.首先,其學說的出現,其中存在的所有組成的內容和外觀,最重要的是,使盧里亞的Cabala非常主觀的教學,有沒有什麼客觀的認識。 The theoretical doctrines of Luria's Cabala were later on taken up by the Ḥasidim and organized into a system.理論學說盧里亞的Cabala ,後來就採取行動的Ḥasidim和組織成一個系統。 Luria's influence was first evident in certain mystical and fanciful religious exercises, by means of which, he held, one could become master of the terrestrial world.盧里亞的影響首先體現在某些神秘和幻想的宗教活動,通過這一手段,他,一個可以成為主人的地面世界。 The writing of amulets, conjuration of devils, mystic jugglery with numbers and letters, increased as the influence of this school spread.撰寫護身符,咒語的魔鬼,神秘的把戲與數字和字母,增加的影響,這所學校傳播。 Among Luria's pupils Hayyim Vital and Israel Saruḳ deserve especial mention, both of them being very active as teachers and propagandists of the new school.在盧里亞的學生Hayyim生命和以色列Saruḳ值得特別提到,他們兩人正在非常積極的教師和宣傳新的學校。 Saruḳ succeeded in winning over the rich Menahem Azariah of Fano. Saruḳ成功地贏得了豐富的梅納海姆Azariah的範諾。 Thus, a large cabalistic school was founded in the sixteenth century in Italy, where even to-day scattered disciples of the Cabala may be met.因此,一個大cabalistic學校始建於16世紀在意大利,甚至日常分散弟子的Cabala可能得到滿足。 Herrera, another pupil of Saruḳ, tried to spread the Cabala among Christians by his "Introduction," written in Spanish.埃雷拉,另一個學生Saruḳ ,試圖傳播基督教徒之間的Cabala他的“導言” ,寫的西班牙語。 Moses Zacuto, Spinoza's fellow-pupil, wrote several cabalistic works strongly tinged with asceticism, which were not without influence on the Italian Jews.摩西Zacuto ,斯賓諾莎的同胞學生,寫幾個cabalistic作品帶有強烈的禁慾主義,這是沒有影響的意大利猶太人。 In Italy, however, there appeared also the first antagonists of the Cabala, at a time when it seemed to be carrying everything before it.在意大利,但是,似乎也是第一個拮抗劑的Cabala的時候,它似乎攜帶一切在它的前面。 Nothing is known of Mordecai Corcos' work against the Cabala, a work that was never printed, owing to the opposition of the Italian rabbis.沒有人知道的莫德Corcos的工作對Cabala ,一個工作,從來沒有印刷,由於反對派的意大利拉比。 Joseph del Medigo's wavering attitude toward the Cabala injured rather than helped it.約瑟夫刪除Medigo的搖擺不定的態度Cabala受傷,而不是幫助它。 Judah de Modena attacked it ruthlessly in his work "Sha'agat Aryeh" (The Lion's Roar); while an enthusiastic and clever advocate appeared, a century later, in the person of Moses Ḥayyim Luzzatto.猶太的摩德納攻擊它無情地在他的作品“ Sha'agat Aryeh ” (獅子的咆哮) ;而熱情和聰明的主張出現,一個世紀之後,在摩西的人Ḥayyim Luzzatto 。 A century later still, Samuel David Luzzatto attacked the Cabala with the weapons of modern criticism. But in the East, Luria's Cabala remained undisturbed.一個世紀後仍塞繆爾大衛Luzzatto攻擊Cabala與現代武器的批評。但是,在東,盧里亞的Cabala保持原狀。

In the Orient.在東方。

After Vital's death and that of the immigrant Shlumiel of Moravia, who by his somewhat vociferousmethods contributed much to the spreading of Luria's doctrines, it was especially Samuel Vital, Ḥayyim Vital's son, together with Jacob Ẓemaḥ, and Abraham Azulai, who endeavored to spread the mode of life () and the mystical meditations for prayer () advocated by Luria.在生命的死亡和移民Shlumiel的摩拉維亞,誰他有點vociferousmethods很大的貢獻傳播盧里亞的理論,這是特別重要的塞繆爾, Ḥayyim生命的兒子,連同雅各布Ẓemaḥ ,和亞伯拉罕Azulai ,誰致力於傳播模式的生活( )和神秘的冥想祈禱( )倡導的盧里亞。 Frequent bathing (), vigils on certain nights, as well as at midnight (see Ḥaẓot), penance for sins, and similar disciplines, were introduced by this aftergrowth of the school of Luria.經常洗澡( ) ,守夜的某些夜晚,以及在午夜(見Ḥaẓot ) ,為罪孽懺悔,類似的學科,介紹了本aftergrowth學校的盧里亞。 It must be noted in their favor that they laid great emphasis on a pure life, philanthropy, brotherly love toward all, and friendship.必須指出的對他們有利的規定,他們非常重視一個純粹的生活,慈善事業,兄弟對所有熱愛和友誼。 The belief that such actions would hasten the Messianic time grew until it took concrete form in the appearance of Shabbethai Ẓebi, about 1665.相信這樣的行動將加快增長彌賽亞的時間,直到它採取了具體的形式出現的Shabbethai Ẓebi ,約1665年。 Shabbethaism induced many scholars to study the speculative Cabala more thoroughly; and, indeed, the Shabbethaian Nehemia Ḥayyun showed in his heretical cabalistic works a more thorough acquaintance with the Cabala than his opponents, the great Talmudists, who were zealous followers of the Cabala without comprehending its speculative side. Shabbethaism, however, did not in the least compromise the Cabala in the eyes of the Oriental Jews, the majority of whom even to-day esteem it holy and believe in it. Shabbethaism引起許多學者研究了投機Cabala更徹底; ,實際上Shabbethaian Nehemia Ḥayyun顯示,在他的異端邪說cabalistic作品更透徹的認識與Cabala比他的對手,偉大的Talmudists ,誰是痴迷者的不理解Cabala其投機一方。 Shabbethaism然而,沒有在最不妥協的Cabala眼中的東方猶太人,其中大部分甚至今天它神聖的自尊和相信這一點。

In Germany and Poland.在德國和波蘭。

While the Cabala in its different forms spread east and west within a few centuries, Germany, which seemed a promising field for mysticism in the beginning of the thirteenth century, was soon left behind.雖然Cabala在其不同的形式傳播東部和西部在幾個世紀中,德國,這似乎有希望的領域,神秘主義在開始的13世紀,很快就落在後面。 There is no cabalistic literature proper among the German Jews, aside from the school of Eleazar of Worms.沒有適當的cabalistic文學之間的德國猶太人,除了學校的利亞撒的蠕蟲。 Lippman Mühlhausen, about 1400, was acquainted with some features of the Cabala; but there were no real cabalists in Germany until the eighteenth century, when Polish scholars invaded the country.李普曼Mühlhausen ,約1400 ,是熟悉的某些功能, Cabala ;但目前還沒有真正cabalists在德國,直到十八世紀,當波蘭學者入侵該國。 In Poland the Cabala was first studied about the beginning of the sixteenth century, but not without opposition from the Talmudic authorities, as, for instance, Solomon b.在波蘭的第一次Cabala有關研究開始的16世紀,但並非沒有反對,塔木德當局,例如,索羅門灣 Jehiel Luria, who, himself a devout disciple of the Cabala, wished to have its study confined to a small circle of the elect. Jehiel盧里亞,誰,自己一個虔誠的信徒的Cabala ,希望其研究局限於一個小圈子的選舉。 His friend Isserles gives proof of wide reading in cabalistic literature and of insight into its speculative part; and the same may be said of Isserles' pupil Mordecai Jaffe.他的朋友Isserles證明給全cabalistic讀文學和深入了解其投機性的一部分;和相同的可以說的Isserles '學生莫迪凱謝斐。 But it is perhaps not a mere chance that the first cabalistic work written in Poland was composed by Mattathias Delacrut (1570), of south European descent, as his name indicates.但是,也許是不僅僅是一個機會,第一次書面工作cabalistic在波蘭組成由Mattathias Delacrut ( 1570 ) ,南部歐洲後裔,因為他的名字。 Asher or Anschel of Cracow at the beginning of the sixteenth century is named as a great cabalist, but the nature of his doctrine can not be ascertained.舍或Anschel的克拉科夫開始時的16世紀命名為一個偉大cabalist ,但他的性質的學說不能確定。 In the seventeenth century, however, the Cabala spread all over Poland, so that it was considered a matter of course that all rabbis must have a cabalistic training.在十七世紀,然而, Cabala遍及波蘭,因此,它被認為是理所當然的,所有的拉比必須有一個cabalistic培訓。 Nathan Spiro, Isaiah Horowitz, and Naphtali b.彌敦道螺,以賽亞霍洛維茨,並拿弗灣 Jacob Elhanan were the chief contributors to the spread of Luria's Cabala in Poland, and thence into Germany.雅各布埃爾赫南的主要貢獻者蔓延的盧里亞的Cabala在波蘭,然後到德國。 Yet, with the exception of Horwitz's work "Shene Luḥot ha-Berit" (The Two Tablets of the Covenant), there is hardly one among the many cabalistic works originating in Poland that rises in any way above mediocrity. In the following century, however, certain important works appeared on the Cabala by Eybeschütz and Emden, but from different standpoints.然而,除了霍維茨的工作“ Shene Luḥot公頃,貝里特” (兩片盟約) ,幾乎之一的許多作品cabalistic原產於波蘭的上升以任何方式上述平庸。在下面的世紀,然而某些重要的作品出現在Cabala的Eybeschütz和埃姆登,而是從不同的角度。 The former contributed a monumental work to the speculative Cabala in his "Shem 'Olam" (Everlasting Name); the latter became the father of modern Cabala criticism by his penetrating literary scrutiny of the Zohar.前者貢獻了巨大的努力投機Cabala在他的“閃' Olam ” (永遠的姓名) ;後者成為父親的現代Cabala批評他的穿透性文學監督的佐哈爾。

Ḥasidism. Ḥasidism 。

The real continuation of the Cabala is to be found in Ḥasidism, which in its different forms includes both the mystical and speculative sides.真正的繼續Cabala要發現Ḥasidism ,其不同的形式既包括神秘和投機雙方。 While the doctrines of the ḤaBaD have shown that the Lurianic Cabala is something more than a senseless playing with letters, other forms of Ḥasidism, also derived from the Cabala, represent the acme of systematized cant and irrational talk.雖然理論ḤaBaD顯示, Lurianic Cabala是一個多玩毫無意義的字母,其他形式的Ḥasidism ,也來自Cabala ,代表了極致的系統化的傾斜和非理性的談話。 Elijah of Wilna's attacks on Hasidism chiefly brought it about that those circles in Russia and Poland which oppose Ḥasidism also avoid the Cabala, as the real domain of the Ḥasidim.以利亞的Wilna攻擊Hasidism主要是把它的那些圈子在俄羅斯和波蘭的反對Ḥasidism也避免Cabala ,因為真正的網域的Ḥasidim 。 Although Elijah of Wilna himself was a follower of the Cabala, his notes to the Zohar and other cabalistic products show that he denied the authority of many of the works of the Lurianic writers: his school produced only Talmudists, not cabalists.雖然以利亞的Wilna自己是一個追隨者的Cabala ,他說明佐哈爾和其他cabalistic產品表明,他否認當局的許多作品Lurianic作者:他的學校只生產Talmudists ,而不是cabalists 。 Although "Nefesh ha-Ḥayyim" (The Soul of Life), the work of his pupil Ḥayyim of Volozhin, has a cabalistic coloring, it is chiefly ethical in spirit.雖然“訴願公頃, Ḥayyim ” (靈魂的生命)的工作,他的瞳孔Ḥayyim對Volozhin ,有cabalistic著色,它主要是道德精神。 Ḥayyim's pupil, Isaac Ḥaber, however, evinces in his works much insight into the older Cabala. Ḥayyim的學生,艾薩克哈伯,但表現出他的作品在許多洞察老年人Cabala 。 The latter also wrote a defense of the Cabala against the attacks of Modena.後者還寫了防禦的Cabala對襲擊的摩德納。 The non-Ḥasidic circles of Russia in modern times, though they hold the Cabala in reverence, do not study it.非哈西德派人士在俄羅斯近代以來,儘管他們舉行Cabala的崇敬,不研究。

Critical Treatment of the Cabala.關鍵的治療Cabala 。

The critical treatment of the Zohar, begun by Emden, was continued toward the middle of the nineteenth century by a large group of modern scholars, and much was contributed in the course of the following period toward a better understanding of the Cabala, although more still remains obscure.關鍵的治療佐哈爾,開始埃姆登,繼續對十九世紀中葉的一個大集團的現代學者,許多捐款的過程中下列期間對更好地了解Cabala ,但更多的還是仍然模糊。 The names of Adolf Franck, MH Landauer, H. Joël, Jellinek, Steinschneider, Ignatz Stern, and Solomon Munk, who paved the way for the scientific treatment of the Cabala, may be noted.姓名阿道夫弗蘭克,充電器道,閣下喬爾,耐克, Steinschneider ,納茲斯特恩和所羅門群島芒克,誰鋪平了道路,為科學治療Cabala ,也可以加以說明。 Many obscurities will probably become clear as soon as more is known about Gnosticism in its different forms, and Oriental theosophy.許多obscurities可能會很清楚盡快更多的了解諾斯替主義在其不同的形式,與東方神智學。

The Cabala in the Christian World.該Cabala在基督教世界。

This historical survey of the development of the Cabala would not be complete if no mention were made of its relation to the Christian world.這一歷史調查的發展Cabala將是不完整的,如果沒有提到了其與基督教世界。 The first Christian scholar who gave proof of his acquaintance with the Cabala was Raymond Lulli (born about 1225; died June 30, 1315), called "doctor illuminatus" on account of his great learning.第一個基督教學者證明是誰給他的熟人與Cabala是雷蒙德Lulli (約1225年出生;死於1315年六月三十日) ,所謂的“醫生illuminatus ”考慮到他偉大的學習。 The Cabala furnished him with material for his "Ars Magna," by which he thought to bring about an entire revolution in the methods of scientific investigation, his means being none other than letter and number mysticism in its different varieties.該Cabala他提供材料,他的“大藝術” ,其中他認為,使整個革命方法的科學調查,他目前沒有任何手段以外的其他文字和一些神秘主義的不同品種。 The identity between God and nature found in Lulli's works shows that he was also influenced by the speculative Cabala.之間的身份和性質上帝發現Lulli的作品表明,他還受投機Cabala 。 But it was Pico di Mirandola (1463-94) who introduced the Cabala into the Christian world.但是,微微地多拉( 1463年至1494年)誰介紹Cabala到基督教世界。 The Cabala is, for him, the sum of those revealed religious doctrines of the Jews which were not originally written down, but were transmitted by oral tradition.該Cabala是,他說,總之這些發現宗教教義的猶太人不屬於原先寫下來,但轉發了口頭傳統。 At the instance of Ezra they were written down during his time so that they might not be lost (compare II Esdras xiv. 45).在實例以斯拉他們寫下在他的時間,使他們可能不會丟失(比較二埃斯德拉斯十四。 45 ) 。 Pico, of course, holds that the Cabala contains all the doctrines of Christianity, so that "the Jews can be refuted by their own books" ("De Hom. Dignit." pp. 329 et seq.).微微,當然,認為Cabala包含所有的理論,基督教,因此, “猶太人可以反駁自己的書” ( “德紅。 Dignit 。 ”頁。 329起。 ) 。 He therefore made free use of cabalistic ideas in his philosophy, or, rather, his philosophy consists of Neoplatonic-cabalistic doctrines in Christian garb.因此,他提出免費使用cabalistic的想法在他的哲學,或者說,他的哲學組成Neoplatonic - cabalistic理論在基督教外衣。 Through Reuchlin (1455-1522) the Cabala became an important factor in leavening the religious movements of the time of the Reformation.通過Reuchlin ( 1455年至1522年)的Cabala成為一個重要的因素,膨鬆的宗教運動的時間改革。

Reuchlin. Reuchlin 。

The aversion to scholasticism that increased especially in the German countries, found a positive support in the Cabala; for those that were hostile to scholasticism could confront it with another system.該厭惡墨守成規,增加尤其是在德國的國家,發現一個積極的支持Cabala ;為那些敵視院可以對付它與另一個系統。 Mysticism also hoped to confirm its position by means of the Cabala, and to leave the limits to which it had been confined by ecclesiastical dogma.神秘還希望以確認其立場的手段Cabala ,並離開限制,它已被局限的教會教條。 Reuchlin, the first important representative of this movement in Germany, distinguished between cabalistic doctrines, cabalistic art, and cabalistic perception. Reuchlin ,第一次重要的代表這項運動在德國,區分cabalistic理論, cabalistic藝術, cabalistic看法。 Its central doctrine, for him, was the Messianology, around which all its other doctrines grouped themselves.其核心理論,他是Messianology ,圍繞著它所有的其他學說分為自己。 And as the cabalistic doctrine originated in divine revelation, so was the art cabalistic derived immediately from divine illumination.作為cabalistic學說起源於神的啟示,所以是最先進的cabalistic衍生立即從神照度。 By means of this illumination man is enabled to get insight into the contents of the cabalistic doctrine through the symbolic interpretation of the letters, words, and contents of Scripture; hence the Cabala is symbolical theology. Whoever would become an adept in the cabalistic art, and thereby penetrate the cabalistic secrets, must have divine illumination and inspiration.通過這一光照人是能夠得到深入了解的內容cabalistic原則通過象徵性的解釋的信件,換句話說,和內容的聖經,因此Cabala是象徵性的神學。誰將成為一個善於在cabalistic藝術,從而穿透cabalistic機密的行為,必須有神照度和靈感。 The cabalist must therefore first of all purify his soul from sin, and order his life in accord with the precepts of virtue and morality.該cabalist因而必須首先淨化自己的靈魂從罪惡,並以他的生命符合戒律的仁義道德。

Reuchlin's whole philosophical system, the doctrine of God, cognition, etc., is entirely cabalistic, as he freely admits. Reuchlin's contemporary, Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa of Nettesheim (1487-1535), holds the same views, with this difference, that he pays especial attention to the practical side of the Cabala-namely, magic-which he endeavors to develop and explain thoroughly. Reuchlin的整個哲學體系的理論,上帝,認知等,是完全cabalistic ,因為他承認自由。 Reuchlin當代,海因里希科尼利厄斯阿格里帕的Nettesheim ( 1487年至1535年) ,持有相同的看法,這種差異,他支付特別注意的實際一側的Cabala ,即,魔術,他致力於開發和解釋透徹。 In his chief work, "De Occulta Philosophia," Paris, 1528, he deals principally with the doctrines of God, the Sefirot (entirely after the fashion of the cabalists), and the three worlds.在他的主要工作, “德隱性哲學” ,巴黎, 1528年,他主要涉及與理論的上帝, Sefirot (後完全時尚的cabalists ) ,以及三個世界。 The last-named point, the division of the universe into three distinct worlds-(1) that of the elements; (2) the heavenly world; and (3) the intelligible world-is Agrippa's own conception but shaped upon cabalistic patterns, by which he also tries to explain the meaning of magic.最後名為點,該師的宇宙分為三個不同的世界, ( 1 )的內容; ( 2 )天國世界; ( 3 )可理解的世界是阿格里帕自己的概念,但形成後cabalistic模式,由他還試圖解釋意義上的魔術。 These worlds are always intimately connected with one another; the higher ever influencing the lower, and the latter attracting the influence of the former.這些世界總是密切聯繫在一起彼此;較高的影響越來越低,而後者的影響力吸引了前者。

Natural Philosophy.自然哲學。

Mention must also be made of Francesco Zorzi (1460-1540), whose theosophy is cabalistic, and who refers to the "Hebræi" ("De Harmonia Mundi," cantus iii. 1, ch. iii.).更不用說還必須作出的弗朗切斯科Zorzi ( 1460年至1540年) ,其神智學是cabalistic ,誰指的是“ Hebræi ” ( “德異色曼迪” ,旋律三。 1 ,膽固醇。三。 ) 。 His doctrine of the threefold soul is especially characteristic, as he uses even the Hebrew terms "Nefesh, "Ruaḥ," and "Neshamah." Natural philosophy in combination with the Christian Cabala is found in the works of the German Theophrastus Paracelsus (1493-1541), of the Italian Hieronymus Cardanus (1501-76), of the Hollander Johann Baptist von Helmont (1577-1644), and of the Englishman Robert Fludd (1574-1637). Natural science was just about to cast off its swaddling-clothes-a crisis that could not be passed through at one bound, but necessitated a number of intermediate steps. Not yet having attained to independence and being bound up more or less with purely speculative principles, it sought support in the Cabala, which enjoyed a great reputation. Among the above-mentioned representatives of this peculiar syncretism, the Englishman Fludd is especially noteworthy on account of his knowledge of the Cabala. Almost all of his metaphysical ideas are found in the Lurianic Cabala, which may be explained by the fact that he formed connections with Jewish cabalists during his many travels in Germany, France, and Italy.他的理論的靈魂的三個特徵尤其是,他甚至用希伯萊條款“訴願” , Ruaḥ “和” Neshamah 。 “自然哲學的結合基督教Cabala被發現在該工程的德國泰奧弗拉斯托斯巴拉賽爾蘇斯( 1493 - 1541 ) ,意大利海歐納莫斯Cardanus ( 1501至1576年) ,霍蘭德的約翰馮海爾蒙特浸信會( 1577年至1644年) ,以及英國人羅伯特Fludd ( 1574年至1637年) 。自然科學只是要擺脫帶,服裝危機無法通過在一個方向,但需要一些中間步驟。還沒有達到獨立和約束了或多或少與純粹的投機性原則,它尋求支持Cabala ,其中享有巨大的聲譽。除上述代表這一特殊的融合,英國人Fludd特別值得注意的是考慮到他的知識Cabala 。幾乎都是他的形而上學思想是發現了Lurianic Cabala ,這可能解釋是,他形成連接cabalists猶太人在他的許多前往德國,法國和意大利。

Cabalistic ideas continued to exert their influence even after a large section of Christianity broke with the traditions of the Church. Cabalistic想法繼續施加其影響力甚至在一大部分基督教打破了傳統的教會。 Many conceptions derived from the Cabala may be found in the dogmatics of Protestantism as taught by its first representatives, Luther and Melanchthon.許多觀念源自Cabala可能會發現在新教教義學所教的第一屆代表,路德和梅蘭希通。 This is still more the case with the German mystics Valentin Weigel (1533-88) and Jacob Böhme (1575-1624). Although owing nothing directly to the literature of the cabalists, yet cabalistic ideas pervaded the whole period to such an extent that even men of limited literary attainments, like Böhme, for instance, could not remain uninfluenced.這仍然是更多的情況與德國神秘主義者瓦倫丁威格爾( 1533年至1588年)和雅各布伯梅( 1575年至1624年) 。雖然由於沒有任何直接的文學cabalists ,但cabalistic的想法瀰漫在整個期間到這樣的程度,即使男子有限的文學造詣,像伯梅,例如,不能不受影響。 In addition to these Christian thinkers, who took up the doctrines of the Cabala and essayed to work them over in their own way, Joseph de Voisin (1610-85), Athanasius Kircher (1602-84), and Knorr Baron vonRosenroth endeavored to spread the Cabala among the Christians by translating cabalistic works, which they regarded as most ancient wisdom.除了這些基督教思想家,誰負責的理論Cabala和工作essayed他們自己的方式,約瑟夫的Voisin ( 1610至1685年) ,亞他那修斯珂( 1602年至1684年) ,和家樂男爵vonRosenroth致力於傳播在Cabala基督教徒之間的翻譯cabalistic工程,因為他們被視為最古老的智慧。 Most of them also held the absurd idea that the Cabala contained proofs of the truth of Christianity.其中大部分還舉行了荒唐的想法,即Cabala載證明的真理基督教。 In modern times Christian scholars have contributed little to the scientific investigation of cabalistic literature.在現代基督教學者們很少貢獻的科學調查cabalistic文獻。 Molitor, Kleuker, and Tholuk may be mentioned, although their critical treatment leaves much to be desired.莫利托, Kleuker ,並Tholuk可提及,但其關鍵的待遇很不理想。

-Teachings: ,教:

The name "Cabala" characterizes the theosophic teachings of its followers as an ancient sacred "tradition" instead of being a product of human wisdom.命名為“ Cabala ”特點的theosophic教義及其追隨者作為一個古老神聖的“傳統” ,而不是一個產品的人類智慧。 This claim, however, did not prevent them from differing with one another even on its most important doctrines, each one interpreting the "tradition" in his own way.這種說法,但並不妨礙他們從不同的彼此即使在其最重要的理論,每一個解釋“傳統”在他自己的路。 A systematic review of the Cabala would therefore have to take into account these numerous different interpretations.有系統的審查Cabala因此,必須考慮到這些眾多的不同的解釋。 Only one system can, however, be considered here; namely, that which has most consistently carried out the basic doctrines of the Cabala.只有一個系統可以,不過,被視為在這裡,即有最一貫進行的基本理論Cabala 。 Leaving Ḥasidism aside, therefore, the Zoharistic systemas interpreted by Moses Cordovero and Isaac Luria, has most consistently developed these doctrines, and it will be treated here as the cabalistic system par excellence.離開Ḥasidism一邊,因此, Zoharistic systemas解釋摩西Cordovero和Isaac盧里亞,始終有最發達這些理論,將在這裡治療的cabalistic系統卓越。 The literary and historical value of its main works will be discussed in special articles.文學和歷史價值,其主要工程將討論在特殊條款。

The Cabala, by which speculative Cabala ( ) is essentially meant, was in its origin merely a system of metaphysics; but in the course of its development it included many tenets of dogmatics, divine worship, and ethics.該Cabala ,其中投機Cabala ( )從本質上意味著,在其原產地是一個系統的形而上學;但在它的發展歷程它包括許多信條教義學,神聖的崇拜,和職業道德。 God, the world, creation, man, revelation, the Messiah, law, sin, atonement, etc.-such are the varied subjects it discusses and describes.上帝,面向世界,創造人,啟示,救世主,法律,罪過,贖罪等,例如有不同的主題討論,並說明。


The doctrine of the En-Sof is the starting-point of all cabalistic speculation.該學說的恩是軟的起點cabalistic的所有猜測。 God is the infinite, unlimited being, to whom one neither can nor may ascribe any attributes whatever; who can, therefore, be designated merely as En-Sof ( = "without end," "the Infinite").上帝是無限的,無限的,以其中一人也不能也不可以歸咎於任何屬性不管;誰可以,因此,被指定僅僅作為恩軟( = “沒有結束” , “無限” ) 。 Hence, the idea of God can be postulated merely negatively: it is known what God is not, but not what He is.因此,上帝的想法可以假設僅僅是不利:它是知道上帝是不是,但他是什麼。 All positive ascriptions are finite, or as Spinoza later phrased it, in harmony with the Cabala, "omnis determinatio est negatio."一切積極ascriptions是有限的,或作為斯賓諾莎後措辭它,在和諧與Cabala , “ omnis determinatio東方negatio 。 ” One can not predicate of God either will or intention or word or thought or deed (Azriel, in Meïr ibn Gabbai's "Derek Emunah," ed. Berlin, p. 4a).人們不能上游上帝或者將要或打算或詞或思想或契據( Azriel ,在本Gabbai梅爾的“德里克Emunah , ”版。柏林,第4A條) 。 Nor can one ascribe to Him any change or alteration; for He is nothing that is finite: He is the negation of all negation, the absolutely infinite, the En-Sof.一個也不能歸咎於他的任何改變或改動;對他是沒有任何是有限的:他是否定了所有的否定,絕對是無限的,在恩軟。


In connection with this idea of God there arises the difficult question of the creation, the principal problem of the Cabala and a much-discussed point in Jewish religious philosophy.在這方面的想法上帝的存在產生的困難的問題創造,主要問題Cabala和急需討論點,猶太宗教哲學。 If God be the En-Sof-that is, if nothing exists outside of God-then the question arises, How may the universe be explained?如果上帝的恩軟,也就是說,如果不存在外部的上帝然後出現的問題,怎麼可能宇宙的解釋? This can not have preexisted as a reality or as primal substance; for nothing exists outside of God: the creation of the world at a definite time presupposes a change of mind on the part of God, leading Him from non-creating to creating.這不能preexisted作為一個現實的或原始物質;的存在之外沒有上帝:創造世界上一定時間的前提是改變心態的一部分,上帝,他領導的非創造創造。 But a change of any kind in the En-Sof is, as stated, unthinkable; and all the more unthinkable is a change of mind on His part, which could have taken place only because of newly developed or recognized reasons influencing His will, a situation impossible in the case of God.但是,改變任何形式的恩軟的,如,無法想像的;和更不可思議的是改變了態度,他的一部分,這可能已發生不僅是因為新開發的或公認的原因影響他的意願,局勢不可能的情況下上帝。 This, however, is not the only question to be answered in order to comprehend the relation between God and the world.然而,這並不是唯一的問題得到回答,以便理解上帝之間的關係和整個世界。 God, as an infinite, eternal, necessary being, must, of course, be purely spiritual, simple, elemental.上帝,作為一個無限的,永恆的,必要的,當然,必須是純粹的精神,簡單的元素。 How was it possible then that He created the corporeal, compounded world without being affected by coming in contact with it?這怎麼可能那麼他創造了物質,再加上世界上沒有受到影響未來聯繫呢? In other words, how could the corporeal world come into existence, if a part of God was not therein incorporated?換句話說,如何能夠有形到世界的存在,如果上帝的一部分,沒有納入其中?

In addition to these two questions on creation and a corporeal world, the idea of divine rulership of the world, Providence, is incomprehensible.除了這兩個問題,創造和物質的世界中,神聖的思想統治世界,普羅維登斯,是不可理解的。 The order and law observable in the world presuppose a conscious divine government.該命令與法律看得見的世界假定有意識的神聖政府。 The idea of Providence presupposes a knower; and a knower presupposes a connection between the known and the knower.的想法普羅維登斯的前提是能知;和能知的先決條件之間的聯繫和了解能知。 But what connection can there be between absolute spirituality and simplicity on the one side, and the material, composite objects of the world on the other?但是什麼方面能有絕對的靈性和簡單為一方,和材料,複合物體的世界上其他?


No less puzzling than Providence is the existence of evil in the world, which, like everything else, exists through God.同樣令人費解的是比普羅維登斯的存在,邪惡的世界,它像一切,通過上帝存在。 How can God, who is absolutely perfect, be the cause of evil?如何才能上帝,誰是絕對完美的,是事業的邪惡? The Cabala endeavors to answer all these questions by the following assumption:該Cabala努力回答所有這些問題由以下假設:

The Primal Will.原始意願。

Aristotle, who is followed by the Arabian and Jewish philosophers, taught (see Munk's note to his translation of the "Moreh Nebukim," i. 68) that in God, thinker, thinking, and the object thought of are absolutely united.亞里士多德,誰其次是阿拉伯和猶太哲學家,教授(見芒克的說明他翻譯的“雷赫Nebukim , ”島68 ) ,在上帝,思想家,思維和思想的對象是絕對的統一。 The cabalists adopted this philosophic tenet in all its significance, and even went a step further by positing an essential difference between God's mode of thinking and man's.該cabalists通過了這一哲學原理在其所有的意義,甚至更進一步的定位的一個重要區別上帝的思維方式和人的。 With man the object thought of remains abstract, a mere form of the object, which has only a subjective existence in the mind of man, and not an objective existence outside of him.與男子對象思想仍然是抽象的,只是形式的對象,這只是一個主觀存在頭腦的人,而不是一種客觀存在之外的他。 God's thought, on the other hand, assumes at once a concrete spiritual existence.上帝的思想,在另一方面,在承擔具體一次精神的存在。 The mere form even is at once a substance, purely spiritual, simple, and unconfined, of course, but still concrete; since the difference between subject and object does not apply to the First Cause, and no abstraction can be assumed.僅僅是形式甚至是一次內容,純粹的精神,簡單,潛水,當然,但仍混凝土;以來的區別主體與客體並不適用於第一個原因,沒有抽象的可以假定。 This substance is the first product of the First Cause, emanating immediately from Wisdom, which is identical with God, being His thought; hence, like Wisdom, it is eternal, inferior to it only in degree, but not in time; and through it, the primal will (), everything was produced and everything is continuously arranged (Azriel, lc 3a; this point is discussed in detail in Eybeschütz, "Shem 'Olam," pp. 50 et seq.).這種物質是第一個產品的第一個原因,立即從所產生的智慧,這是相同的上帝,被他的思想,因此,像智慧,它是永恆的,不如給它不僅在一定程度,而不是在時間;並通過,原始會( ) ,一切生產和一切正在不斷安排( Azriel ,立法會3A條,這點是詳細討論Eybeschütz , “閃' Olam , ”頁。 50起。 ) 。 The Zohar expresses this thought in its own way in the words: "Come and see! Thought is the beginning of everything that is; but as such it is contained within itself and unknown. . . . The real [divine] thought is connected with the [the "Not"; in the Zohar = " En-Sof "], and never separates from it. This is the meaning of the words (Zech. xiv. 9) 'God is one, and His name is one'" (Zohar, Wayeḥi, i. 246b).祖海爾表示的這一思想在其自己的路的話: “來吧,看看!思想是開始一切,但因為這種它是包含在本身和未知的。 。 。 。真正的[神聖]思想是與由[ “不” ;在佐哈爾= “恩軟” ] ,從來沒有從它分開。這是一詞的含義( Zech.十四。 9 ) '上帝只有一個,和他的名字是一個' “ (佐哈爾, Wayeḥi島246b ) 。

Its Wisdom.其智慧。

The Zohar, as may be seen here, uses the expression "thought" where other cabalists use "primal will"; but the difference of terminology does not imply a difference of conception.該佐哈爾,可這裡看到,使用了“思想”在其他cabalists使用“原始意志” ;但差異的術語,但並不意味著不同的概念。 The designation "will" is meant to express here merely a negation; namely, that the universe was not produced unintentionally by the First Cause, as some philosophers hold, but through the intention-ie, the wisdom-of the First Cause.指定“將”是指在此表示僅僅是一個否定,即宇宙不是無意產生的第一個原因,因為一些哲學家持有,而是通過意向,即智慧的第一原因。 The first necessary and eternal, existing cause is, as its definition "En-Sof" indicates, the most complete, infinite, all-inclusive, and ever actually thinking Wisdom.第一個必要的和永恆的,現有的原因是,因為它的定義“恩軟”表明,最完整的,無限的,包容一切的,和以往任何時候都實際思維智慧。 But it can not be even approached in discussion.但是它並不能成為接近甚至在討論。 The object of its thought, which is also eternal and identified with it, is, as it were, the plan of the universe, in its entire existence and its duration in space and in time.對象的思想,這也是永恆的,並確定了它,是因為它是,該計劃的宇宙,在其整個存在和其期限在空間和時間。 That is to say, this plan contains not only the outline of the construction of the intellectual and material world, but also the determination of the time of its cominginto being, of the powers operating to that end in it; of the order and regulation according to fixed norms of the successive events, vicissitudes, deviations, originations, and extinctions to take place in it.這就是說,這一計劃不僅包含綱要的建設的智力和物質世界,而且還確定時間的cominginto目前的權力運行,為此在它的命令和規章根據固定規範的連續事件,風雲變幻,偏差,發放,並採取滅絕的位置。 The Cabala sought to answer the above-mentioned questions regarding the creation and Providence by thus positing a primal will.該Cabala設法回答上述問題,建立和普羅維登斯的從而定位的Primal意願。 The creation of the world occasioned no change in the First Cause; for the transition from potentiality to reality was contained in the primal will already.創造世界沒有變化引起的第一個原因;的潛力轉變為現實中的原始將已經。


The primal will contains thus within itself the plan of the universe in its entire infinity of space and time, being for that reason eo ipso Providence, and is omniscient concerning all its innumerable details.原始從而將包含在該計劃本身的宇宙在其整個無限的空間和時間,正由於這個原因埃奧當然普羅維登斯,是無所不知的關於其所有無數的細節。 Although the First Cause is the sole source of all knowledge, this knowledge is only of the most general and simple nature.雖然第一個原因是唯一的消息來源的所有知識,這方面的知識只是最普通和簡單的性質。 The omniscience of the First Cause does not limit the freedom of man because it does not occupy itself with details; the omniscience of the primal will, again, is only of a hypothetical and conditional character and leaves free rein to the human will. The act of creation was thus brought about by means of the Primal Will, also called the Infinite Light ().在全知的第一個原因並不限制自由的人,因為它不佔用自己的詳情;的全知的原始意願,再次,是唯一的一個假設的和有條件的性質和葉片放任自流,以人的意志。行為創造的,因此所帶來的手段原始意志,也稱為無限輕( ) 。 But the question still remains unanswered: How is it possible that out of that which is absolute, simple, and indeterminate-it being identical with the "First Cause"-namely, the "Primal Will"-there should emerge determinate, composite beings, such as exist in the universe?但問題仍然答复:怎麼可能,在這其中是絕對的,簡單,和不確定的,它是相同的“第一原因” ,即“原始意志” ,應該出現確定,複合人,如存在於宇宙? The cabalists endeavor to explain the transition from the infinite to the finite by the theory of the Ẓimẓum; ie, contraction. cabalists奮鬥的解釋過渡到無限,以有限的理論Ẓimẓum ,即收縮。 The phenomenon, that which appears, is a limitation of what is originally infinite and, therefore, in itself invisible and imperceptible, because the undefined is insensible to touch and sight.這種現象,這似乎是一個限制是什麼原無限的,因而本身就是無形的,潛移默化的,因為不確定是愚蠢的去觸摸和在望。 "The En-Sof," says the Cabala, "contracted Himself in order to leave an empty space in the world." “在恩軟, ” Cabala說, “自己承包為了留下空的世界。 ” In other words, the infinite totality had to become manifold in order to appear and become visible in definite things.換句話說,無限的整體已經成為多方面的,以便出現,並成為在一定看得見的東西。 The power of God is unlimited: it is not limited to the infinite, but includes also the finite (Azriel, lcp 2a).電力上帝是無限的:它不局限於無限,但也包括有限( Azriel , LCP的2A )款。 Or, as the later cabalists phrase it, the plan of the world lies within the First Cause; but the idea of the world includes the phenomenon, which must, therefore, be made possible.或者,作為後來cabalists詞組,該計劃是世界上的第一個原因,但思想的世界包括現象,因此,必須成為可能。 This power contained in the First Cause the cabalists called "the line" () [compare the Gnostic "Ḳaw la-Ḳaw" mentioned above.-K.]; it runs through the whole universe and gives it form and being.這種權力中所載的第一個原因cabalists所謂的“線” ( ) [比較諾斯底“考拉考”提到above. - K表。 ] ;它貫穿整個宇宙,並賦予它形式和福祉。

Identity of Substance and Form.身份的內容和形式。

But another danger arises here.但是,另一個危險出現在這裡。 If God is immanent in the universe, the individual objects-or, as Spinoza terms them, the "modi"-may easily come to be considered as a part of the substance.如果上帝是內在的宇宙中,個人的物體,或作為他們而言斯賓諾莎的“作案” ,可能很容易被視為一個部分的內容。 In order to solve this difficulty, the cabalists point out, in the first place, that one perceives in the accidental things of the universe not only their existence, but also an organic life, which is the unity in the plurality, the general aim and end of the individual things that exist only for their individual aims and ends.為了解決這一困難, cabalists指出,擺在首位,即認為在一個偶然的事情的宇宙不僅存在,而且還一個有機的生命,這是團結的多元化,一般目標和年底的個人東西,只存在他們的個人目標和目的。 This appropriate interconnection of things, harmonizing as it does with supreme wisdom, is not inherent in the things themselves, but can only originate in the perfect wisdom of God.這適當的互連的事情,統一因為它與最高智慧,是不是固有的東西本身,而只能來自於完美的智慧的上帝。 From this follows the close connection between the infinite and the finite, the spiritual and the corporeal, the latter being contained in the former.從這個如下之間的密切聯繫的無限和有限的,精神和肉體,後者是在前者。 According to this assumption it would be justifiable to deduce the spiritual and infinite from the corporeal and finite, which are related to each other as the prototype to its copy.根據這一假設將是合理的推斷的精神和無限的物質的和有限的,這是有關對方為原型的副本。 It is known that everything that is finite consists of substance and form; hence, it is concluded that the Infinite Being also has a form in absolute unity with it, which is infinite, surely spiritual, and general.眾所周知,一切是有限的組成內容和形式,因此,它是得出結論認為,無限也存在某種形式的絕對團結,這是無限的,肯定的精神,和一般。 While one can not form any conception of the En-Sof, the pure substance, one can yet draw conclusions from the "Or En-Sof" (The Infinite Light), which in part may be cognized by rational thought; that is, from the appearance of the substance one may infer its nature.雖然不能形成任何概念的恩軟,純物質,人們可以得出結論尚未從“或EN -特種部隊” (無限輕) ,其中一部分可cognized了理性思考,即從外觀的物質可以推斷其性質。 The appearance of God is, of course, differentiated from that of all other things; for, while all else may be cognized only as a phenomenon, God may be conceived as real without phenomenon, but the phenomenon may not be conceived without Him (Cordovero, "Pardes," xxv., "Sha'ar ha-Temurot").外觀的上帝,當然是有別於所有其他的事情;的,而所有其他可能cognized只作為一種現象,上帝可能會被視為真正的現象,但這種現象可能無法設想沒有他( Cordovero “ Pardes , ”二十五。 “ Sha'ar公頃, Temurot ” ) 。 Although it must be admitted that the First Cause is entirely uncognizable, the definition of it includes the admission that it contains within it all reality, since without that it would not be the general First Cause.雖然必須承認,第一個原因是完全uncognizable的定義,它包括了承認,它包含在這一切的現實,因為沒有,它不會成為一般第一個原因。 The infinite transcends the finite, but does not exclude it, because the concept of infinite and unlimited can not be combined with the concept of exclusion.超越無限的有限,但並不排除它,因為概念的無限和無限不能結合的概念,排斥。 The finite, moreover, can not exist if excluded, because it has no existence of its own.有限,而且不能存在,如果排除在外,因為它沒有存在的自身。 The fact that the finite is rooted in the infinite constitutes the-beginnings of the phenomenon which the cabalists designate as ("the light in the test of creation"), indicating thereby that it does not constitute or complete the nature of God, but is merely a reflection of it.事實上,有限植根於無限的構成,開始對這一現象的cabalists指定為( “根據試驗中創造的” ) ,從而表明它並不構成或完全性質的上帝,但只是反映了它。 The First Cause, in order to correspond to its concept as containing all realities, even those that are finite has, as it were, retired into its own nature, has limited and concealed itself, in order that the phenomenon might become possible, or, according to cabalistic terminology, that the first concentration () might take place.第一個原因,以符合其概念包含了所有的現實,即使是那些有限的,因為它是,退休到它自己的性質,限制和隱藏自己,為了這一現象可能會成為可能,或者,根據cabalistic術語,第一次濃度( )可能發生。 This concentration, however, does not represent the transition from potentiality to actuality, from the infinite to the finite; for it took place within the infinite itself in order to produce the.這種集中,但並不代表潛力過渡到現狀,從無限到有限;因為它發生在無限的自己,以便產生。 infinite light.無限的光。 Hence this concentration is also designated as ("cleavage"), which means that no.因此,這種集中也被指定為( “切割” ) ,這意味著沒有。 change really took place within the infinite, just as we may look into an object through a fissure in its surface while no change has taken place within the object itself.變化真的發生在無限的,正如我們可能考慮的對象通過裂隙在其表面,而不會改變已經發生的對象本身。 It is only after the infinite light has been produced by this concentration, ie-after the First Cause has become a phenomenon-that a beginning is made for the transition to the finite and determinate, which is then brought about by a second concentration.這是只有在無限的光製作了這一集中,也就是說,在第一個原因已經成為一種現象,即開始了為過渡到有限和確定,然後帶來了第二次集中。


The finite in itself has no existence, and the infinite as such can not be perceived: only through the light of the infinite-does the finite appear as existent; just as by virtue of the finite the infinite becomes perceptible.有限的本身已不存在,而這種無限不能被認為:只有通過鑑於無限的有限不出現存在;一樣憑藉有限成為無限明顯。 Hence, the Cabala teaches that the infinite light contracted and retired its infinityin order that the finite might become existent; or, in other words, the infinite appears as the sum of finite things.因此, Cabala教導我們無限的合同,並根據其退休infinityin為了使有限的存在成為可能;或者,換句話說,無限出現的總和有限的東西。 The first as well as the second concentration takes place only within the confines of mere being; and in order that the infinite realities, which form an absolute unity, may appear in their diversity, dynamic tools or forms must be conceived, which produce the gradations and differences and the essential distinguishing qualities of finite things.第一及第二個集中地只限於單純的福利;和秩序,無限的現實,形成一個絕對統一,可能會出現在其多樣性,動態的工具或形式必須設想,產生的等級分歧和區別的基本素質有限的東西。

The Sefirot.該Sefirot 。

This leads to the doctrine of the Sefirot, which is perhaps the most important doctrine of the Cabala.這導致理論Sefirot ,這也許是最重要的理論Cabala 。 Notwithstanding its importance, it is presented very differently in different works.儘管它的重要性,它是非常不同的在不同的作品。 While some cabalists take the Sefirot to be identical, in their totality, with the Divine Being-ie, each Sefirah representing only a different view of the infinite, which is comprehended in this way (compare "Ma'areket," p. 8b, below)-others look upon the Sefirot merely as tools of the Divine power, superior creatures, that are, however, totally different from the Primal Being (Recanati, "Ṭa'ame Miẓwot," passim).雖然有些cabalists採取Sefirot完全相同,在其全部,與神,即每個Sefirah僅代表了不同的觀點的是無限的,這是理解這種方式(比較“ Ma'areket , ”第8B條,下文) ,其他人看待Sefirot僅僅作為工具的神聖的權力,優越的生物,即然而,完全不同於原作為(雷卡納蒂, “ Ṭa'ame Miẓwot , ”各處) 。 The following definition of the Sefirot, in agreement with Cordovero and Luria, may, however, be regarded asa logically correct one:下面的定義Sefirot ,同意Cordovero和盧里亞,然而,可能被視為阿薩邏輯正確的:

God is immanent in the Sefirot, but He is Himself more than may be perceived in these forms of idea and being.上帝是內在的Sefirot ,但他本人以上可能被認為在這些形式的想法和福祉。 Just as, according to Spinoza, the primal substance has infinite attributes, but manifests itself only in two of these-namely, extent and thought-so also is, according to the conception of the Cabala, the relation of the Sefirot to the En-Sof.正如,根據斯賓諾莎的原始物質無限的屬性,但只體現在兩個,即,程度和思想也是這樣,根據構想Cabala ,關係的Sefirot的恩軟。 The Sefirot themselves, in and through which all changes take place in the universe, are composite in so far as two natures may be distinguished in them; namely, (1) that in and through which all change takes place, and (2) that which is unchangeable, the light or the Divine power.該Sefirot自己,並通過所有的變化發生在宇宙中,是複合的,因為兩個性質可能是在他們尊敬的,即( 1 )中,並通過所有發生的變化,以及( 2 )這是不可改變的,光或神聖的權力。 The cabalists call these two different natures of the Sefirot "Light" and "Vessels" (). For, as vessels of different color reflect the light of the sun differently without producing any change in it, so the divine light manifested in the Sefirot is not changed by their seeming differences (Cordovero, lc "Sha'ar 'Aẓamot we-Kelim," iv.). The first Sefirah, Keter ( = "crown," or = "exalted height"), is identical with the primal will () of God, and is differentiated from the En-Sof, as explained above, only as being the first effect, while the En-Sof is the first cause.該cabalists呼籲這兩個不同性質的Sefirot “輕”和“容器” ( ) 。因為,正如船隻不同的顏色反映了陽光不同而不產生任何改變,所以神聖的光表現在Sefirot是沒有改變其表面上的分歧( Cordovero ,立法會“ Sha'ar ' Aẓamot我們,凱利姆, ”四) 。 。第一Sefirah , Keter ( = “皇冠” ,或= “崇高的高度” ) ,是相同的原始會( )的上帝,是有區別的從李恩軟,如上面所解釋的,只能作為第一影響,而張恩軟是第一原因。 This first Sefirah contained within itself the plan of the universe in its entire infinity of time and space.這是第一個Sefirah本身包含在該計劃的宇宙在其整個無限的時間和空間。 Many cabalists, therefore, do not include the Keter among the Sefirot, as it is not an actual emanation of the En-Sof; but most of them place it at the head of the Sefirot.許多cabalists ,因此,不包括Keter之間的Sefirot ,因為它不是一個實際發射的恩軟,但其中大多數是將其放置在頭部的Sefirot 。 From this Keter, which is an absolute unity, differentiated from everything manifold and from every relative unity, proceed two parallel principles that are apparently opposed, but in reality are inseparable: the one masculine, active, called Ḥokmah ( = "wisdom"); the other feminine, passive, called Binah ( = "intellect").從這個Keter ,這是一個絕對的團結,區別於一切多方面的,從每一個相對統一,進行兩個平行的原則,顯然是反對,但在現實中是分不開的:一個男人的,積極的,所謂的Ḥokmah ( = “智慧” ) ;其他女性,被動的,所謂的Binah ( = “智力” ) 。 The union of Ḥokmah and Binah produces Da'at ( = "reason"); that is, the contrast between subjectivity and objectivity finds its solution in reason, by which cognition or knowledge becomes possible.該Ḥokmah工會和Binah生產Da'at ( = “原因” ) ; ,即對比主觀和客觀認定其解決方案的原因,其中認知或知識成為可能。 Those cabalists who do not include Keter among the Sefirot, take Da'at as the third Sefirah; but the majority consider it merely as a combination of Ḥokmah and Binah and not as an independent Sefirah.這些cabalists誰不包括Keter之間的Sefirot ,採取Da'at第三Sefirah ;但多數認為它僅僅作為一種組合Ḥokmah和Binah ,而不是Sefirah獨立。

The First Three Sefirot.前三Sefirot 。

The first three Sefirot, Keter, Ḥokmah, and Binah, form a unity among themselves; that is, knowledge, the knower, and the known are in God identical, and thus the world is only the expression of the ideas or the absolute forms of intelligence.前三Sefirot , Keter , Ḥokmah ,並Binah ,形成彼此間的團結,這就是知識,能知,與已知的是上帝相同,因此,世界上只有表達的想法或絕對的形式情報。 Thus the identity of thinking and being, or of the real and ideal, is taught in the Cabala in the same way as in Hegel.這樣的身份,思想和正在或實際和理想,是講授Cabala以同樣的方式在黑格爾。 Thought in its threefold manifestation again produces contrasting principles; namely, Ḥesed ( = "mercy"), the masculine, active principle, and Din ( = "justice"), the feminine, passive principle, also called Paḥad ( = "awe") and Geburah ( = "might"), which combine in a common principle, Tif'eret (= "beauty").思想在其三倍的表現再次產生截然不同的原則,即Ḥesed ( = “憐憫” ) ,男性,主動的原則,丁( = “正義” ) ,女性,被動的原則,也稱為帕哈德( = “敬畏” )和Geburah ( = “可能會” ) ,結合在一個共同的原則, Tif'eret ( = “美” ) 。 The concepts justice and mercy, however, must not be taken in their literal sense, but as symbolical designations forexpansion and contraction of the will; the sum of both, the moral order, appears as beauty.的概念,正義和憐憫,但是,絕不能在其字面意義,但作為象徵性的名稱forexpansion和收縮的意願;的總和都,道德秩序,顯示美感。 The last-named trinity of the Sefirot represents dynamic nature, namely, the masculine Neẓaḥ ( = "triumph"); and the feminine Hod ( = "glory"); the former standing for increase, and the latter for the force from which proceed all the forces produced in the universe.最後命名三位一體的Sefirot代表動態性質,即男性Neẓaḥ ( = “勝利” ) ;和女性的方法( = “榮耀” ) ;前站立增加,而後者的力量從著手所有部隊中產生的宇宙。 Neẓaḥ and Hod unite to produce Yesod ( = "foundation"), the reproductive element, the root of all existence. Neẓaḥ團結和方法生產Yesod ( = “基礎” ) ,生殖因素,根源都存在。

These three trinities of the Sefirot are also designated as follows: The first three Sefirot form the intelligible world (, or , as Azriel [lcp 3b] calls it, corresponding to the κόσμο1ς νοητός of the Neoplatonists), representing, as we have seen, the absolute identity of being and thinking.這三個trinities的Sefirot也指定如下:前三個Sefirot形成可理解的世界(或作為Azriel [ LCP的三號乙]要求它,相應的κόσμο1ς νοητός的Neoplatonists )代表,因為我們已經看到,絕對身份的福祉和思維。 The second triad of the Sefirot is moral in character; hence Azriel (lc) calls it the "soul-world," and later cabalists ("the sensible world"); while the third triad constitutes the natural world (, or, as in Azriel [lc], , and in the terminology of Spinoza "natura naturata").第二個黑社會的是Sefirot道義性的;因此Azriel (立法會)要求它的“靈魂世界” ,後來cabalists ( “明智的世界” ) ;而第三個黑社會構成了自然世界的(或,如Azriel [立法會] ,並在術語斯賓諾莎“自然naturata ” ) 。 The tenth Sefirah is Malkut ( = "dominion"), that in which the will, the plan, and the active forces become manifest, the sum of the permanent and immanent activity of all Sefirot.第十屆Sefirah是Malkut ( = “自治領” ) ,在該會的計劃,並積極力量變得明顯,總和常任理事國和內在活動的一切Sefirot 。 The Sefirot on their first appearance are not yet the dynamic tools proper, as it were, constructing and regulating the world of phenomena, but merely the prototypes of them. Sefirot上的首次出現,尚未動態工具,適當的,因為它是,建設和管理的世界現象,而僅僅是他們的原型。

The Four Worlds.這四個世界。

In their own realm, called ("realm of emanation"; see Aẓilut), or sometimes Adam Ḳadmon, because the figure of man is employed in symbolic representation of the Sefirot, the Sefirot are conceived merely as conditions of the finite that is to be; for their activity only begins in the other so-called three worlds; namely, (1) the world of creative ideas (), (2) the world of creative formations (), and (3) the world of creative matter ().在自己的領域,所謂的( “境界氣” ,見Aẓilut ) ,或有時亞當Ḳadmon ,因為這個數字的人是受僱在象徵性的代表Sefirot的Sefirot設想只是條件有限將要;為他們的活動不僅開始在其他所謂的三個世界,即( 1 )世界上的創意( ) , ( 2 )世界上的創造性編隊( ) , ( 3 )世界上的創造性問題( ) 。 The earliest description of these four worlds is found in the "Masseket Aẓilut."最早的說明,這四個世界上發現的“ Masseket Aẓilut 。 ” The first Aẓilutic world contains the Sefirot ( in this passage = , as Azriel, lc 5a, says), and in the Beriatic () world are the souls of the pious, the divine throne, and the divine halls.第一Aẓilutic世界包含Sefirot (在此通過= ,因為Azriel ,立法會5A型,說) ,並在Beriatic ( )世界是靈魂的虔誠,神聖的寶座,神聖的會堂。 The Yeẓiratic () world is the seat of the ten classes of angels with their chiefs, presided over by Meṭaṭron, who was changed into fire; and there are also the spirits of men.該Yeẓiratic ( )世界是所在地的10個類別的天使的首領,主持Meṭaṭron ,誰變為火災;也有精神的男人。 In the 'Asiyyatic () world are the ofanim, the angels that receive the prayers and control the actions of men, and wage war against evil or Samael ("Masseket Aẓilut," in Jellinek, "Ginze Ḥokmat ha-Ḳabbalah," pp. 3-4).在' Asiyyatic ( )世界是ofanim ,天使收到的禱告和控制行動的男子,並發動戰爭的罪惡或薩麥爾( “ Masseket Aẓilut , ”在耐克, “ Ginze Ḥokmat公頃,卡巴拉, ”頁。 3-4 ) 。 Although there is no doubt that these four worlds were originally conceived as real, thus occasioning the many fantastic descriptions of them in the early Cabala, they were subsequently interpreted as being purely idealistic.雖然毫無疑問的是,這四個世界是原先設想的實際,從而引致了許多精彩的說明他們在早期Cabala ,他們後來被解釋為純粹的理想化。

The later Cabala assumes three powers in nature, the mechanical, the organic, and the teleological, which are connected together as the result of a general, independent, purely spiritual, principal idea.They are symbolized by the four worlds.後來Cabala假定三個權力的性質,機械,有機和目的,這是連在一起的結果一般的,獨立的,純粹的精神,主要是象徵idea.They的四個世界。 The corporeal world () is perceived as a world subjected to mechanism.世界的物質( )被視為是世界上遭受機制。 As this can not be derived from a body or corporeality, the Cabala attempts to find the basis for it in the noncorporeal; for even the 'Asiyyatic world has its Sefirot; ie, non-corporeal powers that are closely related to the monads of Leibnitz.由於這不能來自一個或多個corporeality的Cabala試圖找到其依據的noncorporeal ; ,甚至' Asiyyatic世界上Sefirot ,即非物質的權力,是密切相關的萊布尼茨monads 。 This assumption, however, explains only inorganic nature; while organic, formative, developing bodies must proceed from a power that operates from within and not from without. These inner powers that form the organism from within, represent the Yeẓiratic world, the realm of creation.這種假設,然而,只有無機解釋的性質,而有機,形成,發展機構必須從權力的經營範圍內,而不是沒有。這些內在的權力,形成了從內部有機體,代表Yeẓiratic的世界中,創造境界。 As there is found in nature not activity merely, but also wise activity, the cabalists call this intelligence manifested in nature the realm of creative ideas. Since, however, the intelligent ideas which are manifested in nature proceed from eternal truths that are independent of existing nature, there must necessarily exist the realm of these eternal truths, the Aẓilutic world.由於在自然界存在的不只是活動,而且還明智的活動, cabalists呼籲這一情報體現在性質領域的創意。然而,由於智能的想法表現在性質從永恆的真理是獨立的現有性質,因此必然存在著這些領域的永恆的真理,世界上的Aẓilutic 。 Hence the different worlds are essentially one, related to one another as prototype and copy.因此,不同的世界基本上是一個,與另一種為原型和複製。 All that is contained in the lower world is found in higher archetypal form in the next higher world.所有這一切都包含在較低的世界中找到原型更高形式在未來更高的世界。 Thus, the universe forms a large unified whole, a living, undivided being, that consists of three parts enveloping one another successively; and over them soars, as the highest archetypal seal, the world of Aẓilut.因此,宇宙的形成了一個大統一的整體,一個活生生的被分割,即由三部分組成頃刻間又先後之一;和他們的劇增,作為最高典型的印章,在世界上Aẓilut 。


The psychology of the Cabala is closely connected with its metaphysical doctrines.心理學的Cabala是緊密聯繫在一起的形而上學的教條。 As in the Talmud, so in the Cabala man is represented as the sum and the highest product of creation.在塔木德,因此在Cabala男子派的總和最高的產品創造的。 The very organs of his body are constructed according to the mysteries of the highest wisdom: but man proper is the soul; for the body is only the garment, the covering in which the true inner man appears.非常機關他的身體構造根據奧秘的最高智慧:正確的,但人是靈魂;的機構只有服裝,覆蓋在其中的人真正的內心出現。 The soul is threefold, being composed of Nefesh, Ruaḥ, and Neshamah; Nefesh () corresponds to the 'Asiyyatic world, Ruaḥ () to the Yeẓiratic, and Neshamah () to the Beriatic.靈魂有三個方面,即組成的訴願, Ruaḥ ,並Neshamah ;訴願( )對應的' Asiyyatic世界, Ruaḥ ( )的Yeẓiratic ,並Neshamah ( )的Beriatic 。 Nefesh is the animal, sensitive principle in man, and as such is in immediate touch with the body. Ruaḥ represents the moral nature; being the seat of good and evil, of good and evil desires, according as it turns toward Neshamah or Nefesh.訴願是動物,敏感的原則的人,因為這種是直接接觸人體。 Ruaḥ代表的道德性質;正在所在地的善惡,善惡的願望,根據它變成對Neshamah或訴願。 Neshamah is pure intelligence, pure spirit, incapable of good or evil: it is pure divine light, the climax of soul-life. Neshamah是純粹的情報,純粹的精神,不能很好或邪惡的:它是純粹的神聖的光,高潮靈魂的生活。 The genesis of these three powers of the soul is of course different. Neshamah proceeds directly from divine Wisdom, Ruaḥ from the Sefirah Tif'eret ("Beauty"), and Nefesh from the Sefirah Malkut ("Dominion").起源這三個權力的靈魂當然是不同的。 Neshamah收益直接從神的智慧, Ruaḥ從Sefirah Tif'eret ( “美” ) ,並訴願從Sefirah Malkut ( “明” ) 。 Aside from this trinity of the soul there is also the individual principle; that is, the idea of the body with the traits belonging to each person individually, and the spirit of life that has its seat in the heart.除了這個三位一體的靈魂也有個別的原則,即思想的機構,性狀屬於每個人單獨和精神的生活,其所在地的心臟。 But as these last two elements no longer form part of the spiritual nature of man, they are not included in the divisions of the soul.但是,隨著這最後兩個因素不再組成部分的精神本質的人,他們是不包括在分裂的靈魂。 The cabalists explain the connection between soul and body as follows: All souls exist before the formation of the body in the suprasensible world (compare Preexistence), being united in the course of time with their respective bodies.解釋的cabalists之間的聯繫的靈魂和身體情況如下:所有的靈魂存在之前形成的機構suprasensible世界(比較前世) ,團結過程中的時間與各自的機構。 The descent of the soul into the body is necessitated by the finite nature of the former: it is bound to unite with the body in order to take its part in the universe, to contemplate the spectacle of creation, to become conscious of itself and its origin, and, finally, to return, after having completed its tasks in life, to the inexhaustible fountain of light and life-God.該血統的靈魂到身體是必要的,有限性前:這是必然團結的機構,以便考慮其在宇宙中,考慮到了壯觀的建立,將成為意識到自己和起源,並最終返回後,完成任務的生活方式,對取之不盡,用之不竭的源泉輕和生命的上帝。


While Neshamah ascends to God, Ruaḥ enters Eden to enjoy the pleasures of paradise, and Nefesh remains in peace on earth.雖然Neshamah上升上帝, Ruaḥ進入伊甸園享受快樂的天堂,訴願仍然在地球上的和平。 This statement, however, applies only to the just.這一聲明,但只適用於公正。 At the death of the godless, Neshamah, being stained with sins, encounters obstacles that make it difficult for it to return to its source; and until it has returned, Ruaḥ may not enter Eden, and Nefesh finds no peace on earth.在死亡的godless , Neshamah ,被染色的罪孽,遇到的障礙,使之難以返回其來源; ,直到它已經回來了, Ruaḥ不得進入伊甸園,並訴願沒有發現地球上的和平。 Closely connected with this view is the doctrine of the transmigration of the soul (see Metempsychosis), on which the Cabala lays great stress.密切聯繫這一觀點的理論輪迴的靈魂(見輪迴) ,該Cabala突出強調。 In order that the soul may return to its source, it must previously have reached full development of all its perfections in terrestrial life.為了使靈魂可以返回其來源,它必須以前已達到充分發展其全部完善陸地生活。 If it has not fulfilled this condition in the course of one life, it must begin all over again in another body, continuing until it has completed its task.如果沒有履行這一條件的過程中一條生命,它必須首先對所有在另一個機構,一直持續到它已完成其任務。 The Lurianic Cabala added to metempsychosis proper the theory of the impregnation () of souls; that is, if two souls do not feel equal to their tasks God unites both in one body, so that they may support and complete each oṭher, as, for instance, a lame man and a blind one may conjointly do (compare the parable in Sanh. 91a, b). Cabala的Lurianic添加到適當的輪迴理論的浸漬( )的靈魂,也就是說,如果兩個靈魂不覺得等於其任務上帝都團結在一個機構,以便它們可以支持和完整的對方,因為對例如,一個跛腳男子及一名盲人可以conjointly做(比較寓言中Sanh 。 91a , b )項。 If one of the two souls needs aid, the other becomes, as it were, its mother, bearing it in its lap and nourishing it with its own substance.如果其中的兩個靈魂需要的援助,其他變成,因為它是,它的母親,同時它圈和滋養它自己的實質內容。

Love, the Highest Relation to God.愛的最高上帝的關係。

In regard to the proper relation of the soul to God, as the final object of its being, the cabalists distinguish, both in cognition and in will, a twofold gradation therein.關於正確關係的靈魂交給上帝,為最終對象的福祉, cabalists區別,無論是在認知和意願,其中有兩個層次。 As regards the will, we may fear God and also love Him.至於會,我們可能會擔心上帝,也愛他。 Fear is justified as it leads to love.擔心是有道理的,因為它導致愛。 "In love is found the secret of divine unity: it is love that unites the higher and lower stages,and that lifts everything to that stage where all must be one" (Zohar, wa-Yaḳhel, ii. 216a). “在發現愛的秘密神聖的統一:這是愛,團結更高和更低的階段,電梯一切的階段,都必須是一個” (佐哈爾,佤, Yaḳhel ,二。 216a ) 。 In the same way human knowledge may be either reflected or intuitive, the latter again being evidently the higher.以同樣的方式人類的知識可以是反映或直觀的,後者顯然再次以較高者為準。 The soul must rise to these higher planes of knowledge and will, to the contemplation and love of God; and in this way it returns to its source.靈魂必須迎接這些較高的飛機的知識和意願,在沉思和上帝的愛;並以這種方式返回其來源。 The life beyond is a life of complete contemplation and complete love.以後的生活是一個完整的生命沉思和完整的愛。 The relation between the soul and God is represented in the figurative language of the Zoharistic Cabala as follows: "The soul, Neshamah [which proceeds from the Sefirah Binah, as mentioned above], comes into the world through the union of the king with the matrona-'king' meaning the Sefirah Tiferet and 'matrona' the Sefirah Malkut-and the return of the soul to God is symbolized by the union of the matrona with the king."之間的關係的靈魂,是代表上帝的形象語言Zoharistic Cabala如下: “靈魂, Neshamah [收益從Sefirah Binah ,如上所述] ,進入世界通過工會與國王馬特羅娜- 'king '指的是Sefirah Tiferet和'馬特羅娜'的Sefirah Malkut ,並歸還的靈魂是上帝所象徵的聯盟馬特羅娜的國王。 “ Similarly, the merciful blessing that God accords to the world is symbolized by the first figure; and by the second, the spiritualizing and ennobling of what is material and common through man's fulfilment of his duty.同樣的,仁慈的祝福,上帝給予世界的象徵第一的數字;和第二, spiritualizing和崇高的是什麼材料和共同通過人的履行自己的職責。

Ethics of the Cabala.道德Cabala 。

It is seen hereby that ethics is the highest aim of the Cabala; it can be shown, indeed, that metaphysics is made subservient to it. The cabalists of course regard the ethical question as a part of the religious one, their theory of influence characterizing their attitude toward ethics as well as law.它被看作是道德茲是最高目標Cabala ;可以證明,事實上,形而上學是屈從於它。 cabalists的當然方面的倫理問題作為一個組成部分的宗教之一,其理論特徵的影響他們的態度,職業道德以及法律。 "The terrestrial world is connected with the heavenly world, as the heavenly world is connected with the terrestrial one," is a doctrine frequently recurring in the Zohar (Noaḥ, i. 70b). “世界的陸地是與天上的世界,因為世界是天上與地面之一, ”是一個經常性的理論常常在佐哈爾(諾亞島70b ) 。 The later cabalists formulate this thought thus: The Sefirot impart as much as they receive. Although the terrestrial world is the copy of the heavenly ideal world, the latter manifests its activity according to the impulse that the former has received.後來cabalists制定本以為這樣:傳遞的Sefirot盡可能接受。雖然是世界上陸地的副本理想的天國世界,後者表現它的活動按照衝動,前者已收到。 The connection between the real and the ideal world is brought about by man, whose soul belongs to heaven, while his body is earthy.之間的聯繫實際和理想的世界所帶來的男子,他們的靈魂屬於天國,而他的身體是泥土。 Man connects the two worlds by means of his love for God, which, as explained above, unites him with God.滿連接兩個世界的手段,他的愛上帝,因為上面所解釋的,團結他的上帝。

The Doctrine of Influence.該學說的影響。

The knowledge of the law in its ethical as well as religious aspects is also a means toward influencing the higher regions; for the study of the law means the union of man with divine wisdom.該法律知識在其道德以及宗教方面也是一個影響的手段走向更高的地區;研究的法律是指工會的男子神聖的智慧。 Of course, the revealed doctrine must be taken in its true sense; ie, the hidden meaning of Scripture must be sought out (see Jew. Encyc. i. 409, sv Allegorical Interpretation).當然,顯示理論必須考慮其真正意義,即隱藏的含義,聖經必須尋求(見猶太人。 Encyc 。島409 ,希沃特寓言解讀) 。 The ritual also has a deeper mystical meaning, as it serves to preserve the universe and to secure blessings for it.儀式也有更深的神秘意義,因為它可以維護宇宙,並爭取為它祝福。 Formerly this was the object of the ritual sacrifices in the Temple; but now their place is taken by prayer. Devout worship, during which the soul is so exalted that it seems desirous of leaving the body in order to be united with its source, agitates the heavenly soul; that is, the Sefirah Binah. Formerly this was the object of the ritual sacrifices in the Temple; but now their place is taken by prayer. Devout worship, during which the soul is so exalted that it seems desirous of leaving the body in order to be united with its source, agitates天上的靈魂,即Sefirah Binah 。 This stimulus occasions a secret movement among the Sefirot of all the worlds, so that all approach more or less to their source until the full bliss of the En-Sof reaches the last Sefirah, Malkut, when all the worlds become conscious of a beneficent influence.這刺激多次秘密行動中Sefirot世界所有,因此所有的辦法或多或少的來源,直到完全幸福的恩軟達到去年Sefirah , Malkut ,當世界所有成為自覺的善行影響。 Similarly, just as the good deeds of man exert a beneficent influence on all the worlds, so his evil actions injure them.同樣,就像善行的人施加有益的影響,對世界所有,因此他的罪惡行動傷害他們。

The question as to what constitutes evil and what good, the cabalists answer as follows:的問題是,什麼構成邪惡和什麼好, cabalists回答如下:

The Problem of Evil.問題的邪惡。

In discussing the problem of evil, a distinction must be made between evil itself, and evil in human nature.在討論這個問題的邪惡,一個必須區分邪惡的本身,正義與邪惡的人類的本性。 Evil is the reverse of the divine V03p477001.jpg [the left side, while the good is the right side-a Gnostic idea (see above).-K.].邪惡是扭轉神聖V03p477001.jpg [左側,而良好的右側一個諾斯底的想法(見上文) .-光] 。 As the divine has true being, evil is that which has no being, the unreal or the seeming thing, the thing as it appears.作為神聖的真正正,邪惡是沒有任何福利,不真實或表面的事情,事情,因為它會出現。 And here again distinction must be made, between the thing which appears to be but is not-ie, the appearance of a thing which is unreal-and the appearance of a thing which is what it appears to be-ie, as a being of its own, having an original type of existence of its own.在這裡再次和必須加以區別,之間的事情似乎是,但不即出現的事情是虛幻和外觀的事情是什麼似乎是,也就是說,作為一個幸福自己,有一個原始類型的存在本身。 This "appearance of an appearance" or semblance of the phenomenon is manifested in the very beginnings of the finite and the multiform, because these beginnings include the boundaries of the divine nature; and the boundaries of the divine constitute the godless, the evil.這種“出庭露面”或類似的現象表現在一開始的有限和多種形式的,因為這些開端包括邊界的神聖性質和邊界的神聖構成godless ,邪惡的。 In other words, evil is the finite.換言之,邪惡是有限的。 As the finite includes not only the world of matter, but, as has been shown above, also its idea, the cabalists speak of the Beriatic, Yeẓiratic, and 'Asiyyatic worlds of evil, as these worlds contain the beginnings of the finite.由於有限的,不僅包括世界上的事,但是,一直所示,其理念, cabalists談論Beriatic , Yeẓiratic ,和' Asiyyatic世界的邪惡,因為這些世界上包含的開端有限。 Only the world of the immediate emanations (V03p477002.jpg), where the finite is conceived as without existence and seeking existence, is free from evil.世界上只有立即emanations ( V03p477002.jpg ) ,其中有限被認為是不存在的,謀求生存,不受邪惡。 Evil in relation to man is manifested in that he takes semblance for substance, and tries to get away from the divine primal source instead of striving after union with it.邪惡與男子表現在,他需要的物質的假象,並試圖擺脫神聖的原始來源,而非努力後,工會與它。

The Fall of Man.秋季的人。

Most of the post-Zoharic cabalistic works combine with this theory of evil a doctrine on the fall of man resembling the Christian tenet.大多數後Zoharic cabalistic工程相結合這一理論的邪惡學說的人屬於類似基督教的宗旨。 Connecting with the ancient view of Adam's corporeal and spiritual excellence before the Fall (see Adam in Rabbinical Literature), the later cabalists assert that originally all souls were combined into one, forming the soul of Adam.結合古代鑑於亞當的肉體和精神的卓越的秋季之前(見亞當在猶太教文學) ,後來cabalists斷言,原來所有的靈魂被合併成一個,形成了亞當的靈魂。 Man in his original state, therefore, was still a general being, not endowed with the empirical individuality with which he now appears in the world; and together with man the whole lower creation was in a spiritual, glorified state.男子在他的原始狀態,因此,仍是一般,而不是賦予了個性化的經驗與他現在出現在世界;並與整個人類創造較低的是一種精神,頌揚狀態。 But the venom of the serpent entered into man, poisoning him and all nature, which then became susceptible to the influence of evil.但毒液的蛇進入男子,中毒他和所有的性質,然後成為容易受到影響的邪惡。 Then human nature was darkened and made coarse, and man received a corporeal body; at the same time the whole 'Asiyyatic world, of which man had been the lord and master, was condensed and coarsened.然後,人類的本性是黑暗和粗糧,以及男子收到了有形的機構;在同一時間整個' Asiyyatic世界,其中男子一直是貴族和主人,是凝聚和粗化。 The Beriatic and Yeẓiratic worlds were also affected; influenced by man, they sank like the 'Asiyatic world, and were also condensed in a proportionately superior degree.該Beriatic和Yeẓiratic世界上也受到影響;影響的人,他們像沉沒' Asiyatic世界,也濃縮在一個成比例的優越程度。 By this theory the cabalists explain the origin of physical and moral evil in the world.根據這一理論解釋的cabalists起源的物質和道義上的罪惡世界。 Yet the Cabala by no means considers man as lost after the Fall.然而, Cabala絕不認為人丟失後的秋季。 The greatest sinner, they hold, may attract the higher heavenly power by penitence, thus counteracting the poison of the serpent working in him.最大的罪人,他們持有,可能會吸引更高的神聖權力的懺悔,從而抵消了毒藥的蛇在他的工作。 The warfare between man and the satanic power will only ceasewhen man is again elevated into the center of divine light, and once more is in actual contact with it.戰爭人類與邪惡力量只會ceasewhen男子再次上升為中心的神的光,一旦更多的是在實際的聯繫。 This original glory and spirituality of man and of the world will be restored in the Messianic age, when heaven and earth will be renewed, and even Satan will renounce his wickedness. This last point has a somewhat Christian tinge, as indeed other Christian ideas are also found in the Cabala, as, eg, the trinity of the Sefirot, and especially of the first triad.這種原始光榮和靈性的男人和世界將恢復在彌賽亞時代,天地將延長,甚至撒旦將放棄其邪惡。最後這一點已經有點基督教色彩,事實上其他基督教思想還發現在Cabala ,因為,如三位一體的Sefirot ,尤其是第一次黑社會。 [But on three powers in the one God compare Philo, "De Sacrificio Abelis et Caini," xv.; iaem, "Quæstio in Genes." [但在三權中的一個上帝比較斐洛, “德Sacrificio Abelis等彩妮, ”十五。 ; iaem , “ Quæstio的基因。 ” iv.四。 2; and F. Conybeare, "Philo's Contemplative Life," 1895, p. 2 ;和F.科尼比爾, “哲學的思惟生活” , 1895年,頁 304.-K.] But although the Cabala accepted various foreign elements, actual Christian elements can not be definitely pointed out. 304.-K. ]但是,儘管Cabala接受各種外國勢力,實際基督教內容不能明確指出。 Much that appears Christian is in fact nothing but the logical development of certain ancient esoteric doctrines, which were incorporated into Christianity and contributed much to its development, and which are also found in Talmudic works and in Talmudic Judaism.大部分基督教出現實際上是什麼,但合乎邏輯的發展的某些古老深奧的理論,它已被納入基督教和貢獻良多的發展,而且也存在於塔木德工程和在塔木德猶太教。

Opinions on the Value of the Cabala.意見的價值Cabala 。

In forming an opinion upon the Cabala one must not be prejudiced by the general impression made on the modern mind by the cabalistic writings, especially the often repulsive Zoharistic Cabala.在形成意見時Cabala不能受到損害的一般印象了現代銘記的cabalistic著作,特別是常常反感Zoharistic Cabala 。 In former centuries the Cabala was looked upon as a divine revelation; modern critics are inclined to condemn it entirely owing to the fantastic dress in which most cabalists clothe their doctrines, which gives the latter an entirely un-Jewish appearance.在數百年前的Cabala被看作一項神聖的啟示;現代批評家傾向於譴責它完全由於出色的服裝,其中最cabalists衣食他們的學說,從而使後者完全取消猶太外觀。 If the Cabala were really as un-Jewish as it is alleged to be, its hold upon thousands of Jewish minds would be a psychological enigma defying all process of reasoning.如果真的Cabala作為聯合國猶太人因為它是被指控,其持有成千上萬的猶太人心中將是一個心理上藐視一切之謎的推理過程。 For while the attempt, inaugurated by Saadia, to harmonize Talmudic Judaism with Aristotelianism failed in spite of the brilliant achievements of Maimonides and his school, the Cabala succeeded in being merged so entirely in Talmudic Judaism that for half a century the two were almost identical.對於同時嘗試,成立了Saadia ,協調猶太教塔木德與亞里士多德,儘管失敗的輝煌成就邁蒙尼德和他的學校, Cabala成功合併,以便完全猶太教塔木德,為半個世紀以來兩人幾乎一模一樣。 Although some cabalists, such as Abulafia and the pseudonymous author of "Kanah," were not favorably disposed toward Talmudism, yet this exception only proves the rule that the cabalists were not conscious of any opposition to Talmudic Judaism, as is sufficiently clear from the fact that men like Naḥmanides, Solomon ibn Adret, Joseph Caro, Moses Isserles, and Elijah b.雖然有些cabalists ,如Abulafia和匿名的作者“ Kanah , ”不看好Talmudism好感,但這種例外只有證明規則,即cabalists沒有意識到任何反對猶太教塔木德,這是十分清楚的事實男子喜歡Naḥmanides ,所羅門群島本Adret ,約瑟夫卡羅,摩西Isserles ,並以利亞灣 Solomon of Wilna were not only supporters of the Cabala, but even contributed largely to its development.所羅門群島的Wilna不僅支持者Cabala ,但即使在很大程度上促進其發展。

The Cabala and the Talmud.該Cabala和塔木德。

As these men were the actual representatives of true Talmudic Judaism, there must have been something in the Cabala that attracted them.由於這些人的實際代表真正的塔木德猶太教,一定有東西在Cabala ,吸引他們。 It can not have been its metaphysics; for Talmudic Judaism was not greatly interested in such speculations.它不能被其形而上學;猶太教的猶太法典不是非常感興趣這種猜測。 It must be, then, that the psychology of the Cabala, in which a very high position is assigned to man, appealed to the Jewish mind.它必須是,那麼,該心理Cabala ,其中一個非常高的位置分配給男子,呼籲猶太人銘記。 While Maimonides and his followers regarded philosophical speculation as the highest duty of man, and even made the immortality of the soul dependent on it; or, speaking more correctly, while immortality meant for them only the highest development of "active intellect" () in man, to which only a few attained, the Cabalists taught not only that every man may expect a great deal in the future world, according to his good and pious actions, but even that he is the most important factor in nature in this world.雖然邁蒙尼德和他的追隨者視為投機哲學的最高責任人,甚至作出不朽的靈魂依賴於它,或者更準確地講,而永生意味著不僅為他們的最高發展“積極的智慧” ( )在人,其中只有少數幾個實現, Cabalists教的不僅是每個人可以指望得到了大量的未來世界,根據他的良好的和虔誠的行動,但即使他是最重要的因素的性質在這個世界上。 Not man's intelligence, but his moral nature, determines what he is.沒有男人的情報,但他的道德性質,確定他是什麼。 Nor is he merely a spoke in the wheel, a small, unimportant fragment of the universe, but the center around which everything moves.也不是他僅僅是一個以車輪,一個小,不重要的片段的宇宙,但圍繞這一切的行動。 Here the Jewish Cabala, in contrast to alien philosophy, tried to present the true Jewish view of life, and one that appealed to Talmudic Judaism.在這裡,猶太人Cabala相反,外來哲學,試圖目前真正的猶太人的人生觀,一個呼籲塔木德猶太教。

The Cabala and Philosophy.該Cabala和哲學。

The Jew as well as the man was recognized in the Cabala. Notwithstanding the strongly pantheistic coloring of its metaphysics, the Cabala never attempted to belittle the importance of historic Judaism, but, on the contrary, emphasized it.猶太人以及該名男子被確認的Cabala 。雖有強烈pantheistic著色的形而上學,在Cabala從來沒有試圖貶低的重要性,歷史性的猶太教,但與此相反,強調它。 Like the school of Maimonides, the cabalists also interpreted Scripture allegorically; yet there is an essential difference between the two. Abraham and most of the Patriarchs are, for both, the symbols of certain virtues, but with this difference; namely, that the Cabala regarded the lives of the Patriarchs, filled with good and pious actions, as incarnations of certain virtues-eg, the life of Abraham as the incarnation of love-while allegorical philosophy sought for exclusively abstract ideas in the narratives of Scripture.像學校的邁蒙尼德的cabalists還解釋聖經allegorically ;尚未有本質區別的兩個。亞伯拉罕和大部分始祖是,無論,符號的某些優點,但這種差異;即Cabala視為生命的始祖,充滿了良好的和虔誠的行動,因為化身的某些優點,例如,亞伯拉罕生活的化身愛情而寓言哲學尋求完全抽象的概念在說明聖經。 If the Talmudists looked with horror upon the allegories of the philosophical school, which, if carried out logically-and there have always been logical thinkers among the Jews-would deprive Judaism of every historical basis, they did not object to the cabalistic interpretation of Scripture, which here also identified ideality with reality.如果Talmudists期待與恐懼的寓言的哲學學校,如果進行了邏輯和一直存在的邏輯思想家之間的猶太人,將剝奪每一個猶太教歷史的基礎上,他們並不反對cabalistic解釋聖經,這在這裡還發現理想與現實。

The same holds good in regard to the Law.同樣擁有良好方面的法律。 The cabalists have been reproved for carrying to the extreme the allegorization of the ritual part of the Law.該cabalists已責備執行的極端的allegorization的儀式的一部分,該法。 But the great importance of the Cabala for rabbinical Judaism lies in the fact that it prevented the latter from becoming fossilized.但非常重要的Cabala為猶太教猶太教在於,它阻止後者成為化石。 It was the Cabala that raised prayer to the position it occupied for centuries among the Jews, as a means of transcending earthly affairs for a time and of feeling oneself in union with God.這是Cabala ,提高祈禱的立場它佔領數百年的猶太人,作為一種手段超越世俗事務的時間和感覺自己在聯盟範圍內的上帝。 And the Cabala achieved this at a period when prayer was gradually becoming a merely external religious exercise, a service of the lips and not of the heart. Cabala和實現這一期間在祈禱時,逐漸成為一個僅僅是外來的宗教活動,服務的嘴唇,而不是發自內心。 And just as prayer was ennobled by the influence of the Cabala, so did most ritual actions cast aside their formalism, to become spiritualized and purified. The Cabala thus rendered two great services to the development of Judaism: it repressed both Aristotelianism and Talmudic formalism.就像祈禱ennobled的影響Cabala ,所以最宗教儀式沒有行動,拋開形式主義,成為spiritualized和純化。 Cabala因此,在提供服務的兩個大的發展,猶太教:它壓制雙方亞里士多德和塔木德形式主義。

Noxious Influences.有毒的影響。

These beneficial influences of the Cabala are, however, counterbalanced by several most pernicious ones.這些有益的影響, Cabala然而,抵消一些最有害的。 From the metaphysical axiom, that there is nothing in the world without spiritual life, the cabalists developed a Jewish Magic.從形而上學的公理,沒有什麼是世界上僅有的精神生活, cabalists發達國家的一個猶太魔術隊。 They taught that the elements are the abode of beings which are the dregs or remnants of the lowest spiritual life, and which are divided into four classes; namely, elemental beings of fire, air, water, and earth; the first two being invisible, while the last two may easily be perceived by the senses.他們講授的內容有居留權的人這是渣或遺留的最低精神生活,並分為四個等級,即元素存在的火災,空氣,水和土;的頭兩個被無形的,而在過去兩年很可能會刺激感官。 While the latter are generally malicious imps who vex and mock man, the former are well disposed and helpful. Demonology, therefore, occupies an important position in the works of many cabalists; for the imps are related to those beings that are generally designated as demons (), being endowed with various supernatural powers and with insight into the hidden realms of lower nature, and even occasionally into the future and the higher spiritual world.而後者則是一般的惡意放大器誰煩惱和模擬人,前者是好感和幫助。魔鬼,因此,佔有重要地位的作品,許多cabalists ;的放大器都與這些人一般是被指定為惡魔( ) ,被賦予了不同的神通和洞察隱藏境界較低的性質,甚至偶爾到未來和更高的精神世界。 Magic () may be practised with the help of these beings, the cabalists meaning white magic in contrast to ("the black art").魔術( )可實行的幫助下,這些人的cabalists白魔的含義相反, ( “黑色藝術” ) 。

Natural magic depends largely on man himself; for, according to the Cabala, all men are endowed with insight and magical powers which they may develop.天然神奇在很大程度上取決於他本人;的,根據Cabala ,所有男人被賦予的洞察力和神奇的權力,他們可能發展。 The means especially mentioned are: "Kawwanah" () = intense meditation, in order to attract the higher spiritual influence; a strong will exclusively directed toward its object; and a vivid imagination, in order that the impressions from the spiritual world may enter profoundly into the soul and be retained there.手段特別提到是: “ Kawwanah ” ( ) =激烈的冥想,為了吸引更高的精神影響;堅強的意志完全針對其對象;和豐富的想像力,以便展示的精神世界,可輸入深刻進入靈魂和有保留。 From these principles many cabalists developed their theories on casting of lots, Necromancy, Exorcism, and many other superstitions.從這些原則cabalists許多發達國家他們的理論鑄造的手,招魂,驅魔,以及其他許多迷信。 Bibliomancy and the mysticism of numbers and letters were developed into complete systems. Bibliomancy和神秘的數字和字母有發展成完整的系統。

Cabalistic Superstition. Cabalistic迷信。

The metaphysical conception of the identity of the real with the ideal gave rise to the mystical conception that everything beheld by our senses has a mystical meaning; that the phenomena may instruct man as to what takes place in the divine idea or in the human intellect.形而上的概念,人的身份與真正的理想產生了神秘的概念,一切都看見我們的感官有一個神秘的含義;該現象可能指示的人對什麼發生在神聖的想法或在人類智慧。 Hence the cabalistic doctrine of the heavenly alphabet, whose signs are the constellations and stars.因此, cabalistic學說天上字母,其標誌是星座和恆星。 Thus Astrology was legitimized, and bibliomancy found its justification in the assumption that the sacred Hebrew letters are not merely signs for things, but implements of divine powers by means of which nature may be subjugated.因此,占星術是合法的,並bibliomancy發現其理由,前提是神聖的希伯來字母不只是事物的跡象,但實施的神聖權力的手段,這自然可以被征服。 It is easy to see that all these views were most pernicious in their influence on the intellect and soul of the Jew. But it is equally true that these things did not originate in the Cabala, but gravitated toward it.不難看出,所有這些觀點是最惡劣的影響,智慧和靈魂的猶太人。但同樣正確的是,這些事情並不起源於Cabala ,但gravitated走向它。 In a word, its works represent that movement in Judaism which attempted to Judaize all the foreign elements in it, a process through which healthy and abnormal views were introduced together.總之,其代表作品,該運動在猶太教的猶太化的企圖所有外國元素的,這個過程通過健康的和不正常的看法,介紹了一起。 Compare Adam Ḳadmon, Allegorical Interpretation, Amulets, Ascension, Aẓilut, Creation, Emanation, Metempsychosis, Sefirot, Syzygies, Zohar; and, on the relation of the Cabala to non-Jewish religions, Gnosticism.亞當Ḳadmon對比,寓言解釋,護身符,阿森松島, Aẓilut ,創作,發射,輪迴, Sefirot , Syzygies ,佐哈爾,以及關係的Cabala非猶太人的宗教,諾斯替主義。

Kaufmann Kohler, Louis Ginzberg考夫曼科勒,路易斯金茲伯格
Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.猶太百科全書出版01年至1906年之間。

Bibliography: 參考書目:
Only those cabalistic works are mentioned here that systematically discuss the Cabala or that are recognized as standard authorities in reference to it.只有那些cabalistic工程是這裡提到的,系統討論Cabala ,或者被確認為標準當局在提到它。 The catalogue of Oppenheimer's library, Ḳohelet David, Hamburg, 1826, contains the names of most of the cabalistic works that had appeared up to the first third of the eighteenth century.目錄Oppenheimer的圖書館, Ḳohelet大衛,漢堡, 1826年,載有姓名的大部分cabalistic作品,已經出現了第一個三分之一的十八世紀。 Neubauer's catalogue of the Hebrew books in the Bodleian Library, Oxford, and Steinschneider's of the Munich Library, give information on the most important manuscripts of the Cabala.紐鮑爾的目錄,希伯萊文書籍在伯德雷恩圖書館,牛津大學,並Steinschneider的慕尼黑圖書館,提供最重要的手稿的Cabala 。 The following are the most important cabalistic works that have appeared: Azriel, Perush 'Eser Sefirot, Berlin, 1850, in Meïr ibn Gabbai.以下是最重要的cabalistic作品,已經出現: Azriel , Perush '埃澤爾Sefirot ,柏林, 1850年,在梅爾本Gabbai 。 Derek Emunah; Eleazar of Worms, commentary on the Sefer Yeẓirah, Przemysl, 1889; Keter Shem-Ṭob (anonymous), in Jellinek, Auswahl Kabbalistischer Mystik, Leipsic, 1853; Abraham Abulafia, Sheba' Netibot ha-Torah, in Jellinek, Philosophie und Kabbala, ib.德里克Emunah ;利亞撒的蠕蟲,評注之書Yeẓirah , Przemysl , 1889年; Keter閃,尖(匿名) ,在耐克, Auswahl Kabbalistischer Mystik , Leipsic , 1853 ;亞伯拉罕Abulafia ,巴' Netibot公頃,律法,在耐克,哲學與Kabbala ,興業。 1854; Isaac ibn Latif, Ginze ha-Melek, in Kokbe Yiẓḥaḳ, xxviii.; Ẓurat ha-'Olam, Vienna, 1862; Rab Pe'alim, Lemberg, 1885; Ma'areket ha-Elahut (alleged author, Pharez), Ferrara, 1557; Joseph b. 1854年,伊薩克本拉蒂夫, Ginze公頃,觸,在Kokbe Yiẓḥaḳ ,二十八。 ; Ẓurat公頃, 'Olam ,維也納, 1862年;饒Pe'alim ,倫貝爾, 1885年; Ma'areket公頃, Elahut (據稱作者, Pharez )費拉拉, 1557 ;約瑟夫灣 Abraham Gikatilla, Sha'are Orah, Mantua, 1561; Moses b.亞伯拉罕Gikatilla , Sha'are Orah ,曼圖亞, 1561 ;摩西灣 Shem-Ṭob de Leon, Sefer Nefesh ha-Ḥakamah, Basel, 1608; Zohar, alleged author, Simon b.閃,尖德萊昂,訴願之書公頃, Ḥakamah ,巴塞爾, 1608 ;佐哈爾,據稱,西蒙灣 Yoḥai, Mantua, 1558-60; Cremona,1558; Shem-Ṭob ben Shem-Ṭob, Sefer ha-Emunot, Ferrara, 1556; Meïr ben Ezekiel ibn Gabbai, Derek Emunah, Padua, 1562; Moses b. Yoḥai ,曼圖亞, 1558年至1560年;克雷莫納, 1558 ;閃,閃邊尖,尖,之書公頃, Emunot ,費拉拉, 1556 ;梅爾本基爾本Gabbai ,德里克Emunah ,帕多瓦, 1562 ;摩西灣 Jacob Cordovero, Pardes Rimmonim, Cracow and Novydvor, 1591, the best and most profound treatise upon the Cabala by a cabalist.雅各布Cordovero , Pardes Rimmonim ,克拉科夫和Novydvor , 1591 ,最好的和最深刻的論文後Cabala由cabalist 。 Isaac b.艾薩克灣 Solomon Luria's doctrines are discussed in the works of his pupils, especially in Ḥayyim Vital, Eẓ Ḥayyim, Korez, 1784; Abraham Herrera, Sha'ar ha-Shamayim, Amsterdam, 1665; also in Latin, Porta Cœlorum, Sulzbach, 1678; Isaiah b.所羅門群島盧里亞的理論中所討論的作品他的學生,尤其是在Ḥayyim至關重要,雌二醇Ḥayyim , Korez , 1784 ;亞伯拉罕埃雷拉, Sha'ar公頃, Shamayim ,阿姆斯特丹, 1665 ;也是在拉丁美洲,門Cœlorum ,蘇爾茨巴赫, 1678年;以賽亞灣 Abraham Horwitz, Shene Luḥot ha-Berit, Amsterdam, 1649; Joseph Ergas, Shomer Emunim, Amsterdam, 1736, a readable discussion of important cabalistic doctrines, Moses Ḥayyim Luzzatto, Ḥoker u-Meḳabbel, Shklov, 1785; German transl.亞伯拉罕霍維茨, Shene Luḥot公頃,貝里特,阿姆斯特丹, 1649 ;約瑟夫Ergas , Shomer Emunim ,阿姆斯特丹, 1736年,可讀討論的重要cabalistic理論,摩西Ḥayyim Luzzatto , Ḥoker U型Meḳabbel , Shklov , 1785 ;德國譯。 by Freystadt, Königsberg, 1840; Sefer Pitḥe Ḥokmah, Korez, 1785, the last and best introduction to the Cabala by a cabalist; Jonathan Eybeschütz, Shem'Olam, Vienna, 1891, on the geonic mystical literature, (see page 463 of the Jew. Encycl., vol. ii.). Sources: A. Adler, in Nowack, Jahrbücher der Philosophie, 1846-47; Bernfeld, Da'at Elohim, pp.由Freystadt ,康尼斯堡, 1840年;之書Pitḥe Ḥokmah , Korez , 1785年,最後和最佳介紹Cabala由cabalist ;喬納森Eybeschütz , Shem'Olam ,維也納, 1891年,上geonic神秘的文學, (見463頁的猶太人。 Encycl 。 ,第二卷。二) 。 。來源如下: A.阿德勒,在Nowack ,哲學年鑑, 1846年至1847年; Bernfeld , Da'at瑩,頁。 335-399; Sam. 335-399 ;山姆。 A. Binion, The Kabbalah, in Library of the World's Best Literature, ed.字母a.比尼恩,在卡巴拉,在圖書館世界上最好的文學,編輯。 CD Warner, pp.裁談會華納頁。 8425-8442; Bloch, Die jüdische Mystik und Kabbala, in Winter and Wünsche, Jüdische Literatur, iii., also separately; Buddeus, Introductio ad Historiam Philosophiœ Hebrœorum, Halle, 1702, 1721; Ehrenpreis, Entwickelung der Emanationslehre, Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1895; A. 8425-8442 ;布洛赫,模具jüdische Mystik與Kabbala ,在冬季和Wünsche , Jüdische文學,三。 ,還分別; Buddeus ,引廣告Historiam Philosophiœ Hebrœorum ,哈雷, 1702 , 1721 ; Ehrenpreis , Entwickelung之Emanationslehre ,法蘭克福上在主, 1895年的A. Epstein, Leḳorot ha-Ḳabbalah ha-Ashkenazit, in Ha-Ḥoker, ii. 1-11, 38-48; A.愛潑斯坦, Leḳorot公頃,卡巴拉公頃, Ashkenazit ,在河Ḥoker ,二。 1-11 , 38-48的A. Franck, La Kabbale, Paris, 1843; 2d ed.弗蘭克,香格里拉Kabbale ,巴黎, 1843年; 2版。 ib. 123 。 1889; German transl. 1889年,德國譯。 by Ad.按廣告。 Gelinek (= Jellinek), Leipsic, 1844; Freystadt, Philosophia Cabbalistica, Königsberg, 1832; idem, Kabbalismus und Pantheismus, ib.; Ginsburg, The Ḳabbalah, London, 1865; Grätz, Gesch. Gelinek ( =耶利內克) , Leipsic , 1844年; Freystadt ,哲學Cabbalistica ,康尼斯堡, 1832 ;同上, Kabbalismus與Pantheismus ,興業。 ;金斯伯格,在卡巴拉,倫敦, 1865年;格拉茨, Gesch 。 der Juden, vii.; compare also the notes by Harkavy to the Hebrew transl.德國猶太人,七。 ;比較,也說明Harkavy的希伯來文譯。 of Grätz in vol.在格拉茨在卷。 v.; Hamburger, Die, Hohe Bedeutung .訴;漢堡,模具,霍厄意義。 . . der Kabbalah, 1844; Jellinek, Beiträge zur Gesch.德國卡巴拉, 1844年,耐克, Beiträge楚Gesch 。 der Kabbala, 2 vols., Leipsic, 1852; idem, Auswahl Kabbalistischer Mystik.德國Kabbala ,第2卷。 , Leipsic , 1852年;同上, Auswahl Kabbalistischer Mystik 。 ib. 123 。 1853; idem, Philosophie und Kabbala, ib. 1853 ;同上,和Kabbala哲學,興業。 1854; DH Joël, Midrash ha-Zohar, die Religionsphilosphie des Zohar, ib. 1849; Jost, Gesch. 1854年;署喬爾,米德拉士公頃,佐哈爾,模具Religionsphilosphie萬佐哈爾,興業。 1849年;喬斯特, Gesch 。 des Judenthums und Seiner Sekten, ii., iii., see Index; Kleuker, Ueber die Natur .萬Judenthums與Seiner Sekten ,二。 ,三。 ,見指數; Kleuker ,論死於自然。 . . der Emanationslehre bei den Kabbalisten, Riga, 1786; Karppe, Etude sur les Origines .德國Emanationslehre北大街Kabbalisten ,裡加, 1786 ; Karppe ,練習曲河畔萊起源。 . . du Zohar, Paris, 1901; Hamburger, RBT sv Geheimlehre, Kabbala, and Mystik; Flügel, Philosophie, Qabbala, und Vedanta, Baltimore, 1902; Kiesewetter, Der Occultismus der Hebräer, in Der Occultismus des Alterthums, Leipsic, no date; Landauer, in Orient Lit.杜佐哈爾,巴黎, 1901年;漢堡,彩鈴希沃特Geheimlehre , Kabbala ,並Mystik ; Flügel ,哲學, Qabbala ,與韋丹塔,巴爾的摩, 1902年;基塞韋特,明鏡Occultismus之Hebräer ,在明鏡Occultismus萬Alterthums , Leipsic ,無日期;蘭在東方25,823 。 vi., vii., several articles of great value as pioneer work; Eliphaz Levi (pseudonym for L'abbé AL Constant), La Clef des Grands Mysteres, Paris, 1861; idem, Le Livre des Splendeurs, ib.六。 ,七。若干條具有極大的價值為先驅的工作; Eliphaz李維(化名為拉貝美聯恆) ,香格里拉音符沙漠大獎賽Mysteres ,巴黎, 1861年;同上,樂圖書公司Splendeurs ,興業。 1894; SD Luzzatto, Wikkuah 'al Ḥokmat ha-Ḳabbalah, Göritz, 1852; I. 1894年;統計處Luzzatto , Wikkuah '基地Ḥokmat公頃,卡巴拉, Göritz , 1852年;一 Misses, Ẓofnat Pa'aneaḥ (Germah), 2 vols., Cracow, 1862-63; Molitor, Philosophie der Gesch.小姐, Ẓofnat Pa'aneaḥ ( Germah ) , 2第一卷和第二卷。 ,克拉科夫, 1862年至1863年;莫利托,哲學Gesch 。 oder über die Tradition, 4 vols., Frankfort and Münster, 1827-53; Isaac Myer, Qabbalah, Philadelphia, 1888; Steinschneider, Ḳabbalah, in Jewish Literature, xiii.; Rosner, Yad Binyamin, Vienna, 1882; Tedeschi, La Cabbala, Triest, 1900; Zunz, GV 2d ed., pp.尤伯杯死亡或者傳統, 4卷。 ,法蘭克福和明斯特, 1827年至1853年;瑪雅艾薩克, Qabbalah ,費城, 1888年; Steinschneider ,卡巴拉,在猶太文學,十三。 ;羅斯納,亞德瓦本雅明,維也納, 1882年;特德斯奇,香格里拉Cabbala ,的裡雅斯特, 1900 ; Zunz ,科技GV 2版。頁。 415 et seq.; Rubin, Heidentum, und Kabbala, in Hebrew, Vienna, 1888; in German, ib. 415及以下。 ;魯賓, Heidentum ,和Kabbala ,希伯來文,維也納, 1888年,在德國,興業。 1893; idem, Kabbala und Agada, Vienna, 1895; Stöckl, Gesch. 1893年;同上, Kabbala與Agada ,維也納, 1895年;施特克爾, Gesch 。 der Philosophie, des Mittelalters, ii.哲學沙漠Mittelalters ,二。 232-251, Mayence, 1865, with an account of the influence of the Cabala on the Reformation; Tennemann, Gesch. 232-251 ,馬揚斯, 1865年,同一個帳戶影響的Cabala改革; Tennemann , Gesch 。 der Philosophic, ix.德國哲學,九。 167-185, Leipsic, 1814.KLG 167-185 , Leipsic , 1814.KLG

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