General Information 一般信息

(This presentation primarily discusses Roman Catholic perspectives on the Eucharist. At the end of this presentation are links to Protestant and Jewish persectives, and a more general presentation on the Eucharist that includes presentation of the Orthodox perspective.) (此介紹主要討論羅馬天主教的觀點聖體。在本月底提交的鏈接新教和猶太教persectives ,以及更廣泛介紹了聖體,包括介紹了東正教的觀點。 )

The central religious service of the Roman Catholic church, Mass is the celebration of the sacrament of the Eucharist, the rite instituted by Jesus Christ at the Last Supper. Some Lutherans and Anglicans also refer to the Eucharist as Mass. 中央宗教儀式的羅馬天主教教堂,彌撒是慶祝聖聖體的禮儀制度的耶穌基督在最後的晚餐。一些路德會和聖公會還提到聖作為馬薩諸塞州 Based on the medieval Latin liturgy of Rome, the Mass takes its name from the Latin missa (dismissed), referring to the practice of dismissing the catechumens before the offertory.基於中世紀拉丁禮儀的羅馬,群眾需要它的名字來自拉丁美洲彌撒(解僱) ,指的做法,駁回慕道前奉獻。 In the Eastern churches, the Mass is called the Holy Liturgy or the Offering.在東方教會,群眾稱為羅馬聖禮或發售。 Catholics believe that consecration of the eucharistic elements of bread and wine transforms their substances into those of Jesus' body and blood; this doctrine is called transubstantiation. Catholics are required to attend Sunday Mass as a minimum of public worship.天主教徒認為,神聖的聖要素的麵包和酒轉變他們的物質進入那些耶穌的身體和血液;這一理論被稱為transubstantiation 。天主教徒必須參加主日彌撒作為一個起碼的公共禮拜。

The two chief parts of the Mass are the Liturgy of the Word and the Liturgy of the Eucharist.兩個主要部分的質量是聖禮的Word和聖禮聖體。 The first consists primarily of two or three Scripture readings, a homily following the Gospel reading, and general intercessions or prayers of the faithful.第一次主要由兩個或三個聖經讀,一個講道以下福音讀,和一般intercessions或祈禱的信徒。 The main actions of the second part are the preparation of the altar and gifts, eucharistic prayer, breaking of bread, and communion.採取的主要行動的第二部分是編寫的祭壇和禮品,聖體祈禱,打破麵包,共融。 The Lord's Prayer is recited at the end of the eucharistic prayer and is followed by the exchange of the sign of peace.該主禱文是背誦結束時聖禱告和其次是交流簽署的和平。 Introductory rites, including an entrance song, penitential rite, and opening prayer, precede the Word liturgy, and a concluding rite follows communion.入門儀式,其中包括入口歌曲,悔罪的儀式,開放和祈禱,之前的Word禮儀,並總結如下共融儀式。

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Our List of 2,300 Religious Subjects我們所列出的2300名宗教科目
The structure of the Mass has remained fairly constant since the 2d century, although some local variations existed until modern times.的結構質量一直相當穩定,因為一口世紀,但也有一些地方存在著的變化,直到近代。 In the Roman rite Mass was celebrated in Latin from an early period until the reforms of the Second Vatican Council, which allowed for the use of vernacular languages, and which emphasized congregational singing and permitted communion in the forms of both bread and wine (previously the congregation had received only the bread).在羅馬彌撒儀式,慶祝在拉丁美洲從初期到改革的第二次梵蒂岡會議,它允許使用本地語言,並強調公理唱歌,並允許共融的形式的麵包和酒(以前的眾只收到麵包) 。 The new Order of Mass of 1969 is one of the chief reforms stemming from the Council.新秩序的大規模的1969年是一個主要源於改革安理會。

LL Mitchell鎊米切爾

Bibliography 目錄
Jungmann, Joseph, The Mass of the Roman Rite (1951); Klauser, Theodor, A Short History of the Western Liturgy, 2d ed. Jungmann ,約瑟夫,大規模的羅馬禮( 1951年) ; Klauser ,西奧多,簡史西方聖禮, 2版。 (1979); McManus, Frederick, ed., Thirty Years of Liturgical Renewal (1987); Patino, JM, ed., The New Order of Mass (1970). ( 1979年) ;麥克馬納斯,弗雷德里克版。 ,三十年的禮儀重建( 1987年) ;帕蒂諾, JM ,編輯。 ,新秩序的群眾( 1970年) 。


General Information 一般信息

High Mass is sung, with a Priest, a Deacon and a sub-Deacon participating. 質量成,以牧師,執事和一個分迪肯參加。

Low Mass is spoken, not sung, with only a Priest and server participating. 低質量是口語,而不是唱,只有祭司和服務器的參與。


General Information 一般信息

Mass is the ritual of chants, readings, prayers, and other ceremonies used in the celebration of the Eucharist in the Roman Catholic church. The same name is used in high Anglican churches.質量是禮儀的聖歌,讀,祈禱,和其他儀式中使用的慶祝聖體中的羅馬天主教教堂。相同的名稱中使用高聖公會教堂。 Other Protestant churches call this ritual Holy Communion or the Lord's Supper ; Eastern Orthodox churches call it the Divine Liturgy .其他新教稱之為聖餐儀式或上帝的晚餐 ;東正教教堂稱之為神聖的聖禮 The word mass comes from the Latin missa ("sent").質量一詞來自拉丁文彌撒( “發送” ) 。 It was taken from the formula for dismissing the congregation: Ite, missa est ("Go, the Eucharist has been sent forth"), referring to the ancient custom of sending consecrated bread from the bishop's Mass to other churches in Rome to symbolize that church's unity with the bishop in the celebration of the Mass.這是取自公式駁回眾:精英,彌撒市盈率( “去吧,聖體已發出了” ) ,指的是古老的習俗,向神聖的麵包從主教的群眾其他羅馬教會的象徵的教堂團結主教在慶祝馬薩諸塞州

Forms of the Mass形式的群眾

The earliest form of the celebration of the Mass was the domestic Eucharist.最早的形式慶祝彌撒是國內體。 Archaeological evidence shows that from the 3rd to the 4th century, Christian communities celebrated Mass in large homes.考古證據表明,從3至4世紀,基督教社區群眾慶祝大家園。 The local bishop presided over this Eucharist.當地主教主持本體。 After Emperor Constantine the Great's Edict of Toleration (313 AD), public buildings - called basilicas - were adapted to the celebration of the bishop's Eucharist.經過皇帝君士坦丁大帝的寬容敕令(公元313 ) ,公共建築-所謂的大教堂-適應慶祝主教的聖體。 As the church grew and the number of individual churches increased, presbyters attached to these churches came to lead the celebration.由於教堂長大的人數增加了個別教會, 長老重視這些教會來領導慶祝活動。 Eventually, these presbyters became known as sacerdotes ("priests"; see Priest).最後,這些長老被稱為sacerdotes ( “祭司” ,見牧師) 。

Before the 8th century, the only form of the Mass was the public Mass, celebrated by a bishop or priest with a congregation.前8世紀,只有形式的質量是市民大眾,慶祝主教或神父與眾。 In its solemn form ( High Mass ), most parts are sung.在莊嚴的形式( 高級質譜 ) ,大部分地區都成。 In its most elaborate form, the papal Mass , the pope is assisted by the papal nobility, Latin and Eastern Rite deacons, the papal court, and numerous other functionaries.在其最詳細的形式, 教皇彌撒 ,教宗是協助教皇貴族,拉丁美洲和東歐祭執事,教皇法院,以及眾多的其他工作。 The pontifical Mass (solemn Mass of a bishop) is less elaborate, although besides deacons, subdeacons, thurifers (incense bearers), and acolytes, the bishop is also assisted by his familia (family), assistants who are responsible for taking care of his regalia (solemn vestments) and insignia (miter, crosier, and pontifical cross). 教皇彌撒 (莊嚴彌撒聖主教)擬訂少,但除了執事,耶穌, thurifers (香者) ,以及追隨者,主教也是由他協助家庭(家庭) ,助理誰負責照顧他的雷加里亞 (莊嚴法衣)和標誌 (字,牧杖,以及宗座交叉) 。 The solemn parish, or monastic, Mass is celebrated with deacon and subdeacon.在莊嚴的教堂,或寺院,地下是慶祝執事和subdeacon 。 The simplest form of sung Mass is celebrated by one priest, with the assistance of acolytes and thurifer.最簡單的演唱形式慶祝彌撒由一個牧師的協助下,追隨者和thurifer 。 In daily celebrations, a simpler form is used in which all parts of the Mass are read by one priest.在日常生活中的慶祝活動,更簡單的形式中使用的所有零部件的質量正在閱讀的一牧師。 This is the Missa Lecta ("read Mass"), or Low Mass.這是彌撒Lecta ( “閱讀大眾” ) , 馬薩諸塞州

Beginning in the 8th century, the private Mass evolved in the monasteries of northern Europe.從8世紀,私營質量演變的寺廟的歐洲北部。 Monks were originally laity, and they relied on local priests for their sacramental needs or ordained some of their own members for those needs.原來僧人俗人,他們依靠當地的神父為他們聖禮需要或任命自己的一些成員對這些需要。 Beginning in the 8th century, British and Irish monks were ordained for the missionary work of converting the tribes of northern Europe that had been subdued by Charlemagne and his successors.從8世紀,英國和愛爾蘭僧侶被任命為傳教工作轉換的部落歐洲北部已疲弱的查理曼和他的繼任者。 By the 11th century (after the great missionary age), the growing monasteries of northern Europe continued to ordain their monks; so the number of priests eventually far exceeded the sacramental needs of the monks.到11世紀(後偉大的傳教士歲) ,越來越多的寺廟的歐洲北部繼續注定他們的僧侶;因此,一些神職人員最終遠遠超出了聖禮需要的僧侶。 Thus, the practice of private daily celebration of Mass grew until, by the 12th century, it was common.因此,實踐私營每日慶祝增長到質量,由12世紀,這是共同的。

Parts of the Mass部分群眾

By the 6th century the parts of the Mass were relatively fixed. Six principal sections can be distinguished.到6世紀的部分群眾有相對固定的。六個主要部分可以加以區別。

Liturgical Books禮儀圖書

Before the 13th century a variety of liturgical books were used in the celebration of the Mass. The choir used the Graduale (for the Gradual chant) and Antiphonale (for the responsive processional chants at the Entrance, Offertory, Communion, and Recessional).在13世紀的各種禮儀的書籍中使用了慶祝活動的馬薩諸塞州的合唱團用Graduale (逐步詠)和Antiphonale (為響應processional聖歌在入口,奉獻,交流,並Recessional ) 。 The subdeacon used the Apostolus (letters of the New Testament), the deacons the Evangelarium (Gospel) , and the presiding celebrant the Sacramentarium, which contained all the prayers of the Mass. As the practice of private Mass grew, the various liturgical texts were gathered into one book for the priest who performed all the parts of the Mass alone.該subdeacon使用Apostolus (信新約) ,執事的Evangelarium (福音) ,並主持了Sacramentarium,其中載有所有的祈禱馬薩諸塞州的做法私人質量的增長,各種禮儀文本收集到一本書的牧師誰演出的所有部分的群眾就有。 This book, called the missal , contained all the prayers, readings, and chants of the Mass. The various missals used since the 13th century were standardized in an official text, the Roman missal (1570), which was issued by order of the Council of Trent.這本書,叫做missal ,載所有的禱告,讀,和聖歌的馬薩諸塞州的各種missals使用以來, 13世紀是一個標準的正式文本羅馬missal (第1570 ) ,這是發出命令的理事會的特倫特。 Earlier, in 1298, papal and episcopal ceremonies had been standardized in the Roman pontifical .此前,在1298年,羅馬教皇和主教儀式標準化已羅馬教皇 The Roman missal and the Roman pontifical have been revised several times over the centuries.羅馬missal和羅馬教皇已經修改多次的世紀。

The Second Vatican Council (1962-65) introduced a number of changes into the celebration of Mass. The council returned to the ancient practice of calling this sacrament and its celebration by the same name: the Eucharist .梵蒂岡第二次大公會議( 1962年至65年)實行了一系列改革融入慶祝馬薩諸塞州安理會返回到古老的做法,要求這聖禮和慶祝活動由同一名稱: 體。 The principal liturgical changes include the introduction of vernacular languages into the Eucharist, the return to the custom of allowing the laity to receive both bread and wine, and the reintroduction of the practice of concelebration.禮儀的主要變化包括採用本地語言的聖體,返回的習俗,讓俗人接收麵包和葡萄酒,以及重新引進的做法concelebration 。