General Information 一般信息

Moses was a leader of the ancient Hebrews who brought them out of Egypt in the so-called Exodus (c.1250 BC), mediated the covenant between them and Yahweh at Sinai, and guided them through the desert to the borders of Canaan.摩西是一個領導者的古代希伯來人是誰把他們趕出埃及在所謂的出埃及記( c.1250年) ,該公約介導它們之間耶和華在西奈半島,並指導他們穿越沙漠的邊界迦南。 The biblical tradition assigns him a life span of 120 years, but the reliability of this figure is questioned.傳統聖經指派他的壽命120多年,但可靠性這一數字提出質疑。

The books of Exodus through Deuteronomy in the Bible are the only available sources for details about Moses' life. 這些書籍的出通過申命記在聖經中是唯一可利用的資源,詳細了解摩西的生命。 No contemporary Egyptian documents yet found mention him, and the later traditions about him recorded in the work of Philo of Alexandria and in Josephus and rabbinic sources appear to be mere elaborations of the biblical story. Moreover, the biblical story is a composite of sources, the earliest of which postdates Moses by more than 200 years and allows ample time for legendary accretions. 當代埃及沒有尚未發現的文件提到了他,後來他的傳統中記錄的工作斐羅的亞歷山大和約瑟夫和拉比來源似乎僅僅是闡釋聖經故事。此外,聖經故事是一個綜合的來源,最早的postdates摩西超過200年,並允許有足夠的時間為傳奇accretions 。 The story of the baby Moses in the reed basket on the Nile, for example, is a typical legend about a famous man's childhood.的故事嬰兒摩西在蘆葦籃子尼羅河上的,例如,是一個典型的傳說著名的人的童年。 The same basic story is also told about Sargon, king of Akkad (c.2350 BC).相同的基本故事也是講述薩爾貢,國王阿卡德( c.2350年) 。

According to the biblical account, Moses grew up at the pharaoh's court but was forced to flee to Midian after killing an Egyptian whom he had seen strike an Israelite. Moses' presence at the pharaoh's court may be explained by the Egyptian practice of taking hostages from their Semitic vassals, giving them Egyptian training, and sending them back to lead their people with an ingrained Egyptian point of view.根據聖經的帳戶,摩西長大,在法老的法院,但被迫逃往米甸後殺害埃及他看到罷工的以色列人。摩西出席了法老的法院可能被解釋為埃及的做法從劫持人質他們的反猶附庸,使他們埃及的培訓,並給他們回導致本國人民的一種根深蒂固的埃及的觀點。 Such a background might also explain the story of Moses' adoption by the pharaoh's daughter.這樣的背景下也可以解釋的故事,摩西通過了法老的女兒。

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In exile Moses married the daughter of the high priest of Midian.摩西在流亡中的女兒結婚的高牧師米甸。 While he was keeping his father-in-law's flock, God spoke to him at a burning bush and commissioned him to lead Israel out of Egypt.雖然他保住了他的岳父的羊群,上帝以他在燃燒的叢林,並委託他帶領以色列出埃及。 After the Exodus, Moses met again with his father-in-law, who performed sacrifices and advised him regarding an improved judicial system.在出埃及記,摩西再次會見了他的岳父,誰執行的犧牲和勸他關於改進司法系統。 These traditions suggest that certain aspects of Moses' religious and legislative reforms, perhaps even God's new name, Yahweh, were derived from beliefs of the Midianites.這些傳統表明,某些方面的摩西的宗教和立法改革,甚至上帝的新名稱,耶和華,來自信仰的米甸人。

Moses returned to Egypt to confront the pharaoh with Yahweh's demand.摩西返回埃及法老對抗與耶和華的需求。 After a long struggle involving ten plagues and culminating in the slaying of the first-born of the Egyptians, the pharaoh permitted Israel to leave.經過長期的鬥爭,涉及10個瘟疫和最終殺害的第一個出生的埃及人,法老允許以色列離開。 He then changed his mind, but God drowned the pursuing Egyptians in the Reed (traditionally, Red) Sea.然後,他改變了主意,但上帝淹死的追求埃及人在里德(傳統上,紅色)海。 The ancient poem in Exodus 15 celebrates this victory, but the actual event cannot be reconstructed from this poetic account.古代詩歌中出15個慶祝這一勝利,但實際的事件不能從這個重建詩意的帳戶。

After the Israelites experienced Yahweh's deliverance in the Exodus, Moses led them to the sacred mountain--named Sinai in one source, Horeb in another.之後,以色列人經歷了耶和華的解脫在出埃及記,摩西帶領的聖山-命名西奈來源之一,在另一霍雷布。 There God appeared to them in a frightening display of thunder and lightning. Moses went up into the mountain and returned with God's instructions including the Ten Commandments.有上帝似乎在向他們展示一個可怕的雷電。摩西上升到山區和退還與上帝的指示,包括十誡。 Thus Moses mediated the Covenant God made with the people of Israel. As covenant mediator Moses was a lawgiver, and his status became such that all of Israel's laws were attributed to him, even much later ones (see Torah).因此,摩西介導的盟約上帝與以色列人民。作為契約調解摩西是一個立法者,他的地位變得這樣,所有以色列的法律,歸因於他,甚至更晚的(見聖經) 。

Israel remained in the desert under Moses' leadership for a number of years, camping at Qadesh and other oases.以色列仍然在沙漠下的摩西的領導若干年,露營在Qadesh和其他綠洲。 The Old Testament tells of many conflicts between Moses and the people during this time.舊約講述了許多摩西之間的衝突和人民在這段時間。 The most dramatic one concerned the Golden Calf set up by Moses' brother Aaron while Moses was on Mount Sinai (or Horeb).最引人注目的一個有關黃金犢牛設立摩西弟弟阿龍,而摩西在西奈山(或霍雷布) 。

Although this was a trying period, these stories of conflict were probably shaped in part by much later struggles, making it difficult to determine how much of the story belongs to the Mosaic age and how much was added later. Moses died before Israel crossed into Canaan.雖然這是一個試圖期間,這些故事的衝突是可能形成的部分更晚的鬥爭,因此很難確定有多少故事屬於花葉年齡和多少增加了以後。摩西去世之前,以色列進入迦南。

JJM Roberts JJM羅伯茨

Bibliography 目錄
Beegle, DM, Moses: The Servant of Yahweh (1972); Bright, John, A History of Israel, rev. Beegle ,德國馬克,摩西:僕人的耶和華( 1972年) ;光亮,約翰史以色列恢復。 ed. (1972); Buber, Martin, Moses: The Revelation and the Covenant, new ed.版。 ( 1972年) ;布伯,馬丁,摩西:啟示和盟約,新版。 (1958; repr. 1987); Childs, Brevard, The Book of Exodus (1974); Daiches, David, Moses: The Man and His Vision (1975); Hermann, Siegfried, Israel in Egypt (1973); Maimonides, Moses, The Reason of the Laws of Moses, ed. ( 1958年; repr 。 1987年) ;爾茲,布里瓦德,書出埃及記( 1974年) ;戴希斯,大衛,摩西:人與他的遠見( 1975年) ;赫爾曼,齊格弗里德,以色列在埃及( 1973年) ;邁蒙尼德,摩西,原因規律的摩西,版。 by J. Townley (1827; repr. 1975); Noth, Martin, A History of Pentateuchal Traditions (1972); Wellek, Rene, ed., The Divine Legation of Moses Demonstrated, 4 vols., 2d ed.由J. Townley ( 1827 ; repr 。 1975年) ;北,馬丁史Pentateuchal傳統( 1972年) ;韋勒克,雷,編輯。 ,神公館摩西表明, 4卷。 , 2版。 (1978); Zeligs, DF, ed., Moses: A Psychodynamic Study (1986). ( 1978年) ; Zeligs ,東風,編輯。 ,摩西:一個心理研究( 1986年) 。


Advanced Information 先進的信息

Moses is often called the founder of the religion of Israel; one of the most striking and important figures of the OT.摩西通常被稱為的創始人以色列的宗教;的一個最突出的和重要人物的加時賽。 The Pentateuch attests to his central role in the exodus of the Israelites from Egypt and in the giving of the law on Mount Sinai.在五,證明他的核心作用,大批猶太人從埃及和給予法律的西奈山。

Although Moses is not mentioned in historical sources outside the Bible, the OT traditions form a rich tapestry of interpretation of his life and mission.摩西雖然未提到歷史以外的來源聖經,催產素的傳統形式豐富的掛毯解釋他的生活和使命。 His name (derived from the Egyptian ms, "to give birth" or "to bear"; cf. Thutmose, "Thoth is born") and the Egyptian provenance of the Exodus account are incontrovertible evidence of the historical basis of Moses' role; and the biblical tradition, while complex, focuses on Moses and no one else for this portion of sacred history.他的名字(來自埃及毫秒, “生”或“承擔” ;比照。圖特摩斯, “托提出生” )和埃及的原產地的出埃及記帳戶的無可辯駁的證據的歷史基礎摩西的作用;和聖經的傳統,而複雜的,側重於摩西和任何其他人的這一部分神聖的歷史。

Traditionally Moses' life has been divided into three forty-year stages (Acts 7:20-34).傳統摩西生活一直分為三個第四十三一年階段(使徒7:20-34 ) 。 Moses was threatened at birth by Pharaoh's decree aimed at annihilation of the people of Israel; his mother's daring ploy to save him led to his adoption into the Egyptian royal family (Exod. 2:1-10).摩西是在出生時受到威脅的法老的法令,旨在消滅以色列人民的;他母親的大膽的策略,以挽救他導致他通過到埃及王室( Exod. 2:1-10 ) 。 The young man Moses, now a man of two national identities, defended a Hebrew slave, killed an Egyptian officer, and fled into exile from Egypt.這個年輕人摩西,現在一個人兩個民族的特徵,捍衛希伯來奴隸,殺死了一名埃及軍官,逃亡到埃及。 During the second period of his life Moses was adopted into the Midianite (Kenite) family of Jethro (or Reuel) as a "stranger in a strange land" (Exod. 2:11-22).在第二階段的生命通過摩西到Midianite ( Kenite )系列Jethro (或魯埃爾)作為一個“陌生人在一個陌生的土地” ( Exod. 2:11-22 ) 。

God, however, had not forgotten his covenant with the patriarchs and called Moses in the burning bush to be his spokesman before Pharaoh and agent of deliverance for Israel (Exod. 3:1-10).上帝,但是,並沒有忘記他的契約與始祖,並要求摩西在燃燒灌木將他的發言人之前,法老和代理人的解脫,以色列( Exod. 3:1-10 ) 。 God revealed his sacred name (YHWH) to Moses and equipped him with miraculous powers (Exod. 3:11-7:13).上帝暴露了他神聖的名字(耶和華)的摩西和裝備他奇蹟般的權力( Exod. 3:11-7:13 ) 。 After calling down God's judgment against Egypt in plagues and passover (Exod. 7:14-13:16), Moses led the people out of Egypt, and the Lord saved Israel by the miracle at the Red Sea (Exod. 14-15).下降後,呼籲上帝的判決在埃及瘟疫和逾越節( Exod. 7:14-13:16 ) ,摩西帶領人民出埃及,與上帝拯救以色列的奇蹟在紅海( Exod. 14日至15日) 。 Thus the people "believed in the Lord and in his servant Moses."因此,人們“相信上帝和他的僕人摩西。 ” Then at Mount Sinai the Lord revealed himself in a theophany and dictated the Decalogue (Exod. 19:16-20:17); however, the people demanded that Moses conclude God's covenant with them (Exod. 20:18-24).然後在西奈山主發現自己在神和支配的十誡( Exod. 19:16-20:17 ) ;但是,人民要求結束摩西上帝的盟約與他們( Exod. 20:18-24 ) 。 Moses prescribed the law of God (Torah) for Israel: its sanctuary and priesthood (Exod. 25-31; 35-40), its sacrifices and laws of purity (Leviticus), and a census of its tribes (Num. 1:1-10:10).摩西的法律訂明的上帝(聖經)以色列:它的庇護和神職人員( Exod. 25-31 ; 35-40 ) ,其犧牲和法律的純度(利未記) ,以及普查的部落(民數記1:1 -10:10 ) 。 Moses led the people in the wilderness for forty years (Num. 10:11-36) and uttered a final exhortation to obey the Torah as the people gathered on the verge of the promised land (Deuteronomy).摩西帶領人民在曠野四十年(民數記10:11-36 ) ,並發出了最後告誡服從律法的人聚集的邊緣樂土(申命記) 。 Moses himself was not allowed to enter Canaan (cf. Num. 20:2-13; Deut. 1:37; 3:27; 4:21; Ps. 106:32-33) and was buried somewhere in Moab (Deut. 34).摩西本人不得進入迦南(見數。 20:2-13 ; Deut 。 1點37 ; 3點27分, 4時21分;物質。 106:32-33 )和被埋葬在某處莫阿布(申命記34 ) 。

Although Moses is mentioned remarkably infrequently elsewhere in the OT (Josh. 24:5; I Sam. 12:6, 8; Hos. 12:13; Mic. 6:4; Isa. 63:11; Pss. 77, 105-7), his preeminent status and foundational mission are assumed. No other OT figure can compare with Moses (cf. Joshua, Josh. 1:10-11; Elijah, I Kings 19; the prophets, Deut. 34:10).雖然摩西是很少提及其他顯著的催產素( Josh. 24:5我山姆。十二時06分, 8個;飯店。 12:13 ;麥克風。 6時04分;伊薩。 63:11 ;症狀評分。 77 , 105 - 7 ) ,他的卓越地位和基本任務是承擔。沒有其他加時賽數字可以比較與摩西(見約書亞,喬什。 1:10-11 ;以利亞,我國王19 ;的先知, Deut 。 34:10 ) 。 Indeed he is the type par excellence of OT expectation.事實上,他是出類拔萃型的催產素的期望。 He is the "servant of the Lord" (Num. 12:7-8; Deut. 34:5; Josh. 1:1).他是“公僕上帝” (民數記12:7-8 ; Deut 。 34:5 ;喬希。 1:1 ) 。 He alone spoke "mouth to mouth" with God; therefore, he is the first and greatest of the prophets (Exod. 33:7-23; Num. 12:6-8; Deut. 18:15-18).他獨自以“口口”與上帝;因此,他是第一個和最偉大的先知( Exod. 33:7-23 ;數。 12:6-8 ; Deut 。 18:15-18 ) 。 As lawgiver he dominates the Pentateuch, which can thus be called "the law of Moses" (I Kings 2:3; Neh. 8:1; Mal. 4:4).作為立法者,他主宰了五,這因此可以稱為“摩西律法” (我國王2:3 ;全國人文捐贈基金。 8:1 ;誤。 4點04分) 。 His voice is not only authoritative for the wilderness generation, but resounds throughout Israel's history (Deut. 6:20-25; 31:16-22).他的聲音不僅是權威的荒野一代,但迴盪在整個以色列的歷史(申命記6:20-25 ; 31:16-22 ) 。

Moses is a man zealous for the Lord (Num. 16-17); yet he is also described as "the meekest man on earth" (Num. 12:3).摩西是一位熱心的主(民數記16日至17日) ;但他也稱為“ meekest地球上的人” (民數記12時零三) 。 He intercedes on Israel's behalf when it sins, risking his own election for the sake of the people (Exod. 32:32; Num. 11:10-15).他干預以色列的代表時的罪孽,不顧自己當選為人民( Exod. 32:32 ;數。 11:10-15 ) 。 He even sets up the bronze serpent as a perpetual sign of God's saving mercy (Num. 21:4-9). Finally, Moses is the founder of the cultic system by which Israel was to seek reconciliation with God, and he and his brother Aaron functioned as priests before the tabernacle (Exod. 40:31-38).他甚至還建立了銅牌蛇作為一個永久的跡象上帝的憐憫節能(民數記21:4-9 ) 。最後,摩西是創始人邪教制度,以色列,尋求和解神,他和他的兄弟阿倫充當牧師的窩棚前( Exod. 40:31-38 ) 。

In postbiblical Jewish tradition the role of Moses is extended to that of sage and founder of civilization.在postbiblical猶太傳統中的作用摩西延長到鼠尾草和文明的創始人。 Moses is thought to have ascended directly into heaven.摩西認為是有上升直接進入天堂。 For the Jewish halakah Moses was giver of the oral law which authoritatively interprets the Pentateuch (cf. Jub; M. Aboth 1:1).為猶太halakah摩西者的口頭法律權威性的解釋五(參見Jub ;先生Aboth 1:1 ) 。

The NT assumes the role of Moses as mediator of the covenant (John 1:17; Gal. 3:19) and author of the Pentateuch (Luke 24:27).假設新台幣的作用摩西作為調解人的契約(約翰一時17分;半乳糖。 3點19分)和作者的五(路24:27 ) 。 Numerous passages compare or allude to Moses and Jesus as type and antitype (eg, Mark 9:2-10; John 3:14; I Cor. 10).許多段落比較或提到摩西和耶穌的類型和antitype (例如,馬克9:2-10 ;約翰3時14分,我肺心病。 10 ) 。 Paul's typology emphasizes the inferiority of the revelation to Moses.保羅的類型學強調,自卑的啟示摩西。 At other times Paul likens his own apostleship to the mission of Moses (II Cor. 3:7-18; cf. Rom. 9:3).在其他時候保羅把自己的apostleship的使命摩西(二肺心病。 3:7-18 ;比照。光碟。 9點03分) 。 John likewise sees Jesus as the prophet like Moses (John 6:14); he also sees Moses (and Abraham) as the father of "the Jews" who reject Jesus' revelation (John 9:28).約翰同樣認為耶穌是先知摩西一樣(約6點14分) ;他還認為,摩西(和亞伯拉罕) ,作為父親的“猶太人”誰反對耶穌的啟示(約9時28分) 。 For the Epistle to the Hebrews, the Mosaic covenant is merely a shadow of the true reality, but Moses himself is a model of faith (Heb. 3:1-6; 11:24-28).對於書的猶太人,鑲嵌契約僅僅是一個影子真正的現實,但摩西本人是一個典範的信仰(希伯來書3:1-6 ; 11:24-28 ) 。

SF Noll科幻諾爾
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (規矩福音字典)

Bibliography 目錄
WF Albright, From the Stone Age to Christianity; EJ, VII, 371-411; R. deVaux, The Early History of Israel; DM Beegle, Moses, The Servant of Yahweh; JG Griffiths, "The Egyptian Derivation of the Name Moses," JNES 12:225-31.海傍奧爾布賴特,從石器時代到基督教;伯克利分校,七, 371-411 ;河deVaux ,早期歷史的以色列;馬克Beegle ,摩西,僕人的耶和華; JG格里菲思說: “埃及的推導名稱摩西, “ JNES 12:225-31 。


Advanced Information 先進的信息

Moses, drawn (or Egypt. mesu, "son;" hence Rameses, royal son).摩西,制定(或埃及。 mesu “兒子” ;因此,拉美西斯,國王的兒子) 。 On the invitation of Pharaoh (Gen. 45:17-25), Jacob and his sons went down into Egypt.關於邀請法老(創45:17-25 ) ,雅各布和他的兒子走下埃及。 This immigration took place probably about 350 years before the birth of Moses.這移民問題舉行了大約350年前誕生的摩西。 Some centuries before Joseph, Egypt had been conquered by a pastoral Semitic race from Asia, the Hyksos, who brought into cruel subjection the native Egyptians, who were an African race. Jacob and his retinue were accustomed to a shepherd's life, and on their arrival in Egypt were received with favour by the king, who assigned them the "best of the land", the land of Goshen, to dwell in. The Hyksos or "shepherd" king who thus showed favour to Joseph and his family was in all probability the Pharaoh Apopi (or Apopis).百年前的一些約瑟夫,埃及已經征服了田園主義比賽亞洲, Hyksos ,是誰把進入殘酷的隸屬本地埃及人,誰是非洲的比賽。雅各布和他的隨員習慣於一個牧羊人的生活,並在他們抵達在埃及共收到贊成由國王指派他們誰“最好的土地” ,土地的戈申向住進來的Hyksos或“牧羊人”誰國王從而表明贊成,約瑟夫和他的家人是在所有的概率法老王阿波(或Apopis ) 。 Thus favoured, the Israelites began to "multiply exceedingly" (Gen. 47:27), and extended to the west and south.因此贊成,以色列人開始的“ multiply極” (創47:27 ) ,並擴展到西部和南部。 At length the supremacy of the Hyksos came to an end.長度在至高無上的Hyksos宣告結束。

The descendants of Jacob were allowed to retain their possession of Goshen undisturbed, but after the death of Joseph their position was not so favourable.在雅各的後裔被允許保留其擁有的戈申原狀,但去世後,約瑟夫他們的立場並非如此有利的。 The Egyptians began to despise them, and the period of their "affliction" (Gen. 15:13) commenced.埃及人開始看不起他們,期間他們的“苦惱” (創15:13 )開始。 They were sorely oppressed.他們是被壓迫的痛苦。 They continued, however, to increase in numbers, and "the land was filled with them" (Ex. 1:7).他們繼續然而,數量增加,以及“土地充滿了他們” (出一時07分) 。 The native Egyptians regarded them with suspicion, so that they felt all the hardship of a struggle for existence.本地埃及人認為他們的懷疑,因此,他們認為所有艱苦的鬥爭的存在。 In process of time "a king [probably Seti I.] arose who knew not Joseph" (Ex. 1:8).在過程中的時間“國王[可能塞提一]是誰不知道約瑟夫” (出埃及記1:8 ) 。 The circumstances of the country were such that this king thought it necessary to weaken his Israelite subjects by oppressing them, and by degrees reducing their number.的情況等國,這國王認為有必要削弱他以色列人科目的壓迫,並通過學位減少其數目。

They were accordingly made public slaves, and were employed in connection with his numerous buildings, especially in the erection of store-cities, temples, and palaces.他們作出相應的公共奴隸,以及從事與他的許多建築物,尤其是在架設存儲城市,寺廟,和宮殿。 The children of Israel were made to serve with rigour.兒童以色列提出了服務與嚴謹。 Their lives were made bitter with hard bondage, and "all their service, wherein they made them serve, was with rigour" (Ex. 1:13, 14).他們的生活苦了用硬質役, “所有的服務,其中,他們使他們服務,是與嚴格的” (出1:13 , 14 ) 。 But this cruel oppression had not the result expected of reducing their number.但是,這種殘酷的壓迫並沒有預期的結果是減少其數量。 On the contrary, "the more the Egyptians afflicted them, the more they multiplied and grew" (Ex. 1:12).相反, “越折磨他們埃及人,他們越成倍增長” (出1:12 ) 。 The king next tried, through a compact secretly made with the guild of midwives, to bring about the destruction of all the Hebrew male children that be born.未來的國王試圖通過一個緊湊的秘密同公會的助產士,以實現銷毀所有希伯來男孩的出生。 But the king's wish was not rigorously enforced; the male children were spared by the midwives, so that "the people multiplied" more than ever.但是,國王的願望沒有嚴格執行;男性兒童倖免於助產士,使“人民乘以”比以往任何時候更加。 Thus baffled, the king issued a public proclamation calling on the people to put to death all the Hebrew male children by casting them into the river (Ex. 1:22).因此感到困惑,賈南德拉國王發表公開宣布,呼籲人們把死亡的所有希伯來男孩的鑄造成河(出1時22分) 。

But neither by this edict was the king's purpose effected.但無論這一法令是國王的目的生效。 One of the Hebrew households into which this cruel edict of the king brought great alarm was that of Amram, of the family of the Kohathites (Ex. 6:16-20), who with his wife Jochebed and two children, Miriam, a girl of perhaps fifteen years of age, and Aaron, a boy of three years, resided in or near Memphis, the capital city of that time.一個希伯來文的家庭納入這一殘酷的法令國王帶來了巨大的警鐘是,阿姆拉姆,家庭的Kohathites (出6:16-20 ) ,誰與他的妻子Jochebed和兩個孩子,劉健儀,一個女孩或許15歲以下,並亞倫,一個男孩三年,或居住在附近的孟菲斯,首都的時間。 In this quiet home a male child was born (BC 1571).在這安靜的家庭男性兒童出生(公元前1571年) 。 His mother concealed him in the house for three months from the knowledge of the civic authorities.他的母親隱瞞了他的房子3個月的知識的公民當局。 But when the task of concealment became difficult, Jochebed contrived to bring her child under the notice of the daughter of the king by constructing for him an ark of bulrushes, which she laid among the flags which grew on the edge of the river at the spot where the princess was wont to come down and bathe.但是,當任務難以掩蓋, Jochebed做作,使她的孩子根據通知的女兒,由國王為他建造的方舟的bulrushes ,她打下的旗幟增長邊緣的河流現場在公爵習慣來減少和洗澡。 Her plan was successful.她的計劃是成功的。 The king's daughter "saw the child; and behold the child wept."國王的女兒“看到孩子;和看見孩子哭了起來。 ” The princess (Pharaoh's daughter) sent Miriam, who was standing by, to fetch a nurse.公主(法老王的女兒)被劉健儀,站在誰的,擷取一名護士。 She went and brought the mother of the child, to whom the princess said, "Take this child away, and nurse it for me, and I will give thee thy wages."她去,使孩子的母親,給誰公主說: “以這個孩子走了,護士給我,我將給予你你的工資。 ”

Thus Jochebed's child, whom the princess called "Moses", ie, "Saved from the water" (Ex. 2:10), was ultimately restored to her.因此Jochebed的孩子,其中公主所謂的“摩西” ,即“儲存的水” (出2時10分) ,最終恢復了她。 As soon as the natural time for weaning the child had come, he was transferred from the humble abode of his father to the royal palace, where he was brought up as the adopted son of the princess, his mother probably accompanying him and caring still for him.當自然斷奶的時候孩子已經到來,他被轉到從謙卑居留權他父親的王宮,他在那裡長大的養子的公主,他的母親陪同他可能和照顧仍然為他。 He grew up amid all the grandeur and excitement of the Egyptian court, maintaining, however, probably a constant fellowship with his mother, which was of the highest importance as to his religious belief and his interest in his "brethren."他長大,由於所有的宏偉和興奮的埃及法院,維護,然而,可能是一個不斷研究和他的母親,這是最重要的是他的宗教信仰和他的興趣在他的“兄弟” 。 His education would doubtless be carefully attended to, and he would enjoy all the advantages of training both as to his body and his mind.他的教育無疑將認真加以注意,他將享受所有的優點,訓練,以他的身體和他的想法。 He at length became "learned in all the wisdom of the Egyptians" (Acts 7:22).他終於成為“所有汲取智慧,埃及人” (使徒7點22分) 。 Egypt had then two chief seats of learning, or universities, at one of which, probably that of Heliopolis, his education was completed.埃及當時兩個主要席位的學習,或大學,在其中一個,也許是赫利奧波利斯,他的教育已經完成。 Moses, being now about twenty years of age, spent over twenty more before he came into prominence in Bible history.摩西,現在正在大約20歲,花了21多前他來到突出的聖經歷史。

These twenty years were probably spent in military service.這二十年,可能用於軍事服務。 There is a tradition recorded by Josephus that he took a lead in the war which was then waged between Egypt and Ethiopia, in which he gained renown as a skilful general, and became "mighty in deeds" (Acts 7:22).有一種傳統記錄的約瑟夫,他領導的戰爭中,然後發動之間的埃及和埃塞俄比亞,其中他獲得聲譽作為一個幹練的一般,並成為“偉大的事蹟” (使徒7時22分) 。 After the termination of the war in Ethiopia, Moses returned to the Egyptian court, where he might reasonably have expected to be loaded with honours and enriched with wealth.終止後的戰爭在埃塞俄比亞,摩西返回埃及法院,在那裡他有可能合理地預計將滿載榮譽和豐富的財富。 But "beneath the smooth current of his life hitherto, a life of alternate luxury at the court and comparative hardness in the camp and in the discharge of his military duties, there had lurked from childhood to youth, and from youth to manhood, a secret discontent, perhaps a secret ambition. Moses, amid all his Egyptian surroundings, had never forgotten, had never wished to forget, that he was a Hebrew."但是, “下面的順利目前他一生迄今為止,生活奢侈候補在法院和相對硬度在營地和在履行其軍事職責,有lurked從童年到青年,從青年到成年,一個秘密不滿,或許一個秘密的雄心壯志。摩西之際,埃及環境,從來沒有忘記,從來沒有想忘記,他是希伯來文。 “ He now resolved to make himself acquainted with the condition of his countrymen, and "went out unto his brethren, and looked upon their burdens" (Ex. 2:11).現在他決心使自己熟悉的條件,他的同胞,和“你們出去他弟兄們,並期待其負擔” (出2時11分) 。

This tour of inspection revealed to him the cruel oppression and bondage under which they everywhere groaned, and could not fail to press on him the serious consideration of his duty regarding them.這巡視發現他的殘酷壓迫和奴役下,他們到處呻吟,並不能不新聞界對他的認真考慮他的工作地點就他們。 The time had arrived for his making common cause with them, that he might thereby help to break their yoke of bondage.時機已經到來,他共同的事業使他們說,他可能從而有助於打破他們的枷鎖束縛。 He made his choice accordingly (Heb. 11:25-27), assured that God would bless his resolution for the welfare of his people.他在選擇相應的(希伯來書11:25-27 ) ,放心,上帝保佑他的決議的福利他的人民。 He now left the palace of the king and took up his abode, probably in his father's house, as one of the Hebrew people who had for forty years been suffering cruel wrong at the hands of the Egyptians. He could not remain indifferent to the state of things around him, and going out one day among the people, his indignation was roused against an Egyptian who was maltreating a Hebrew.現在他離開了宮殿的國王和他討論了居留權,很可能在他父親的房子,作為一個希伯萊人誰了四十年來一直遭受殘酷的錯誤在手中的埃及人。他不能無動於衷的狀態事情在他周圍,並走出去一天的人,他的憤慨是激起對埃及誰是虐待希伯來。 He rashly lifted up his hand and slew the Egyptian, and hid his body in the sand.他貿然抬起他的手,擺在埃及,和他的屍體藏在沙堆裡。 Next day he went out again and found two Hebrews striving together.第二天,他又出去了,並發現了兩個希伯來人共同奮鬥。 He speedily found that the deed of the previous day was known.他迅速發現,契據前一天是眾所周知的。

It reached the ears of Pharaoh (the "great Rameses," Rameses II.), who "sought to slay Moses" (Ex. 2:15).它達到了耳朵法老(以下簡稱“偉大的拉美西斯, ”拉美西斯二世。 )誰“試圖殺死摩西” (出2:15 ) 。 Moved by fear, Moses fled from Egypt, and betook himself to the land of Midian, the southern part of the peninsula of Sinai, probably by much the same route as that by which, forty years afterwards, he led the Israelites to Sinai.感動恐懼,摩西逃離埃及, betook自己的土地,米甸,南部的西奈半島,可能是大致相同的路線,通過它,四十年後,他帶領以色列人對西奈半島。 He was providentially led to find a new home with the family of Reuel, where he remained for forty years (Acts 7:30), under training unconsciously for his great life's work.他providentially領導找到一種新的家庭與家庭的魯埃爾,他在那裡仍然是40年(使徒7:30 ) ,在訓練不自覺地為他偉大的一生的工作。 Suddenly the angel of the Lord appeared to him in the burning bush (Ex. 3), and commissioned him to go down to Egypt and "bring forth the children of Israel" out of bondage.突然間,天使的上帝似乎他在燃燒灌木(出3 ) ,並委託他去到埃及和“帶來的兒童以色列”的束縛。 He was at first unwilling to go, but at length he was obedient to the heavenly vision, and left the land of Midian (4:18-26).他首先不願意去,但在長度,他服從天上的設想,離開土地的米甸( 4:18-26 ) 。 On the way he was met by Aaron (qv) and the elders of Israel (27-31).在路上,他遇到了阿龍( qv )和以色列的長老( 27-31 ) 。 He and Aaron had a hard task before them; but the Lord was with them (ch. 7-12), and the ransomed host went forth in triumph.他和亞倫了艱鉅的任務面前,但上帝是與他們( 7-12章) ,以及東道國去贖中取得勝利。 (See Exodus.) After an eventful journey to and fro in the wilderness, we see them at length encamped in the plains of Moab, ready to cross over the Jordan into the Promised Land. (見出埃及記。 )經過一個多事的旅程來回在荒野裡,我們看到他們在長度紮營在摩押平原,準備越過約旦進入樂土。

There Moses addressed the assembled elders (Deut. 1:1-4; 5:1-26:19; 27:11-30: 20), and gives the people his last counsels, and then rehearses the great song (Deut. 32), clothing in fitting words the deep emotions of his heart at such a time, and in review of such a marvellous history as that in which he had acted so conspicious a part.摩西給人們聚集的長者(申命記1:1-4 ; 5:1-26:19 ; 27:11-30 : 20 ) ,並給出了他最後一次人民律師,然後排練的偉大歌曲(申命記32 ) ,服裝配件的話深感情的他的心在這樣一個時代,並在審查這樣一個了不起的歷史,在他採取行動,以便conspicious一部分。 Then, after blessing the tribes (33), he ascends to "the mountain of Nebo (qv), to the top of Pisgah, that is over against Jericho" (34:1), and from thence he surveys the land.然後,在部落的祝福( 33歲) ,他上升到“山尼泊山( qv ) ,頂端的皮斯加,這是對傑里科的” ( 34:1 ) ,並從那裡,他調查的土地。 "Jehovah shewed him all the land of Gilead, unto Dan, and all Naphtali, and the land of Ephraim, and Manasseh, and all the land of Judah, unto the utmost sea, and the south, and the plain of the valley of Jericho, the city of palm trees, unto Zoar" (Deut. 34:2-3), the magnificient inheritance of the tribes of whom he had been so long the leader; and there he died, being one hundred and twenty years old, according to the word of the Lord, and was buried by the Lord "in a valley in the land of Moab, over against Beth-peor" (34:6). “耶和華shewed他所有的土地的Gilead的,你們丹,所有拿弗,土地的以法蓮和瑪,以及所有的土地,猶太,你們最大的海,南方,和平原河谷傑里科,市的棕櫚樹,你們佐阿“ (申命記34:2-3 ) ,繼承的magnificient部落的人,他已經這麼長時間的領袖;和他死後,被一百二十年歲,根據這個詞的上帝,和被埋葬上帝“ ,在山谷中的土地莫阿布,超過對貝絲- peor ” ( 34:6 ) 。 The people mourned for him during thirty days.人民悼念他在三十天。 Thus died "Moses the man of God" (Deut. 33:1; Josh. 14:6).因此死亡“摩西的人,上帝” (申命記33:1 ;喬希。 14時06 ) 。

He was distinguished for his meekness and patience and firmness, and "he endured as seeing him who is invisible." "There arose not a prophet since in Israel like unto Moses, whom the Lord knew face to face, in all the signs and the wonders, which the Lord sent him to do in the land of Egypt to Pharaoh, and to all his servants, and to all his land, and in all that mighty hand, and in all the great terror which Moses shewed in the sight of all Israel" (Deut. 34:10-12).他尊敬他的溫順和耐心,堅定, “他經歷的看到他誰是看不見的。 ” “有是不是一個預言家,因為在以色列願你們摩西,誰知道上帝面對面,在所有標誌及奇蹟,這上帝給他做的土地,埃及法老,和他的所有公務員,以及所有他的土地,並在所有強大的手,並在所有偉大的恐怖shewed摩西在看到所有以色列“ (申命記34:10-12 ) 。 The name of Moses occurs frequently in the Psalms and Prophets as the chief of the prophets.的名字經常出現摩西在詩篇和先知作為主要的先知。 In the New Testament he is referred to as the representative of the law and as a type of Christ (John 1:17; 2 Cor. 3:13-18; Heb. 3:5, 6).在新約,他是指為代表的法律和作為一種基督(約1點17分, 2肺心病。 3:13-18 ;河北。 3時05分, 6 ) 。 Moses is the only character in the Old Testament to whom Christ likens himself (John 5:46; comp. Deut. 18:15, 18, 19; Acts 7:37).摩西是唯一的性質舊約基督的人把他(約翰5點46 ;補償。 Deut 。 18:15 , 18 , 19 ;行為7點37分) 。 In Heb.在河北。 3: 1-19 this likeness to Moses is set forth in various particulars. 3 : 1-19本摩西像中規定的各種細節。 In Jude 9 mention is made of a contention between Michael and the devil about the body of Moses. 9日在洛提到一個論點之間的邁克爾和魔鬼有關機構的摩西。 This dispute is supposed to have had reference to the concealment of the body of Moses so as to prevent idolatry.這一爭端是曾經提及隱瞞機構的摩西,以防止盲目崇拜。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (伊斯頓畫報詞典)

Moses - The Close of His Life摩西-結束他的生命

Advanced Information 先進的信息

From: Home Bible Study Commentary by James M. Gray 來自:主頁聖經研究評論詹姆斯M灰色

DEUTERONOMY CHAPTERS 31:1-32:43申命記章節31:1-32:43


Deut. Deut 。 31:1-8 The law has been rehearsed and Moses' exhortation is drawing to a conclusion. 31:1-8法律已經排練和摩西告誡即將結束。 Several days may have been occupied in the review covered by Deuteronomy thus far.數天可能已經被佔領了審查所涵蓋的申命記迄今。 And now, Israel, by its leaders, having been gathered together at the place of meeting, Moses is apprising them of his departure. Though advanced in years (2), was he conscious of mental or physical decay (34:7)?現在,以色列,其領導人,已經聚集在會議地點的,摩西是apprising他們離開。雖然先進,年( 2 ) ,是他自覺的精神或身體衰變( 34:7 ) ? Can you perceive a reason for the mention of this fact?你能感知的理由提到這一事實? Has it any bearing on the truth and virility of the divine messages Moses was chosen to communicate?它任何影響真理,壯陽神聖的郵件被選為摩西溝通? What indicates that it was by revelation he knew of his approaching separation?何謂表明,它是由啟示,他知道他的接近分離? Name three or four elements of the encouragement Moses gives Israel in verses 3-6.名稱三或四個要素的鼓勵摩西給以色列的詩句3-6 。


Deut. Deut 。 vv.超強。 9-13 What provision was made for the perpetuity of the law (9)? 9-13什麼規定了永久的法律( 9 ) ? Note the allusion to the bearing of the ark by the priests, which they did on extraordinary occasions (Joshua 3:3-8; 1 Chron. 15:11, 12), although commonly it was borne by the Levites.請注意針對軸承的方舟的牧師,而他們的特殊場合(約書亞3:3-8 ; 1專欄。 15:11 , 12 ) ,但通常是所承擔的利。 While the people were to be instructed in the law in their homes, what public rehearsal of it was here provided for (10-11)?雖然人的指示,在法律中他們的家園,市民排練什麼的是這裡提供的( 10-11 ) ? We appreciate how this guaranteed the preservation of the sacred oracles from generation to generation, and can thank God for remembering us in this obligation upon them.我們讚賞如何保證維護神聖的神諭代代相傳,並且可以感謝上帝記住我們在這個對他們的義務。


Deut. Deut 。 vv.超強。 14-30 In what language is the infidelity of Israel foretold (16)? 14-30在哪些語言是以色列的不忠預言( 16 ) ? What would cause this apostasy?什麼是造成這個叛教? What consequence would follow (17, 18)?什麼後果將遵循( 17日, 18日) ? When God says, "I will forsake them," "I will hide My face," etc., He refers to that withdrawal of His protection as symbolized by the cloud of glory, the shekinah.當上帝說, “我將拋棄” , “我將隱藏我的臉, ”等,他指的是撤銷他的保護,體現了雲的輝煌,在shekinah 。 This never appeared in the second temple, ie, after the Babylonian captivity, and, "its non-appearance was a prelude of 'all the evils that came upon them, because their God was not among them.'" Where was the book of the law placed (26).這從來沒有出現在第二寺廟,即在巴比倫囚禁,以及“非外觀是一個序幕,所有的罪惡來到他們,因為他們的上帝不在其中。 ”哪裡是書法律放在( 26 ) 。 In the Revised Version "in" is "by."在修訂版“中的”是“的。 ” It is thought that it was deposited in a receptacle by the side of the ark which contained nothing but the tables of stone (1 Kings 8:9).據認為,這是存放在容器的一側的方舟,其中載只是表石(列王紀上8時09分) 。 But some, guided by Hebrews 9:4, believe it was placed within, and that this was the copy found in the time of Josiah (2 Kings 22:8).但是,一些指導下,希伯來9點04分,相信這是放在,這是副本中發現的時間喬賽亞(列王紀下22點08 ) 。


32:1-43 In verse 19 of the preceding chapter Moses is commanded to write a song and teach it to Israel, and get them singing it as a witness for God against them in the day of their unfaithfulness. 32:1-43在詩19前一章指揮摩西是寫一首歌教給以色列,並讓他們唱著它作為證人上帝對他們在當天的異心。 "National songs take deep hold of the memories and have a powerful influence in stirring the deepest feelings of a people," and because of this God causes this song to be composed, and is indeed Himself the composer of it. “全國歌曲深深舉行的回憶和具有強大影響力的攪拌最深切的感受的人” ,因為這個上帝這首歌的原因是組成,並確實是自己作曲的。 In the Revised Version the whole chapter down to verse 44 is arranged as poetry.在修訂版的整個一章,以詩44安排詩歌。 (1) After the exordium (1), notice the comparison of the divine instruction to what gentle, useful and beautiful feature of nature (2)? ( 1 )在緒論( 1 ) ,通知的比較神聖的指示,什麼溫柔,有益的和美麗的自然特徵( 2 ) ? What gives this instruction this character (3)?是什麼使這一指示此字( 3 ) ? Point out the seven attributes of God indicated in the ascription of praise that follows (3, 4).指出, 7上帝的屬性中所表明的歸屬讚揚說如下(第3 ,第4 ) 。

Notice that these attributes constitute the proclamation of His name.請注意,這些屬性構成宣布他的名字。 Preachers and Christian workers will find the outline of a rich discourse here.傳教士和基督教的工人會發現大綱豐富的話語在這裡。 (2) After the exordium we come to an indictment of the people (5, 6). ( 2 )在緒論我們來到公訴的人民( 5日, 6日) 。 It is predictive as indicating what they would do in the future, and yet also a historic record of what they had already done. These verses, especially 5, are clearer in the Revised Version.這是因為預測表明他們將在未來,但也是一個歷史性的記錄,他們已經這樣做。這些詩句,尤其是5 ,更加明確的修訂版。 (3) The indictment leads to a reminiscence of God's goodness to them, to deepen their repentence in that day as it shall quicken their gratitude (7-14). ( 3 )起訴書導致懷舊上帝的善良給他們,以加深其悔過在這一天,它應加快感謝( 7-14 ) 。 With verse 8, compare Acts 17:26, 27 in the light of chapter 2:5-9 of the present book, and Genesis 10:5, and observe that God has from the beginning reserved Palestine for this people, through whom He would show forth His wonders to the other nations. And admirably suited is the locality for the purpose.隨著詩句8 ,比較行為17:26 , 27日,鑑於章2:5-9本書,和Genesis 10點05分,並遵守上帝從一開始就巴勒斯坦保留這個人,通過他們,他將顯示了他的奇蹟的其他國家。欽佩和適合的地方是為目的。

In Ezekiel it is described as "the middle of the earth," and as from a common center the glad tidings were, and shall be, "wafted to every part of the globe."在基爾它被描述為“中間的地球” ,並從一個共同的中心的喜訊是,並應“ , wafted到全球的每一個角落。 ” Notice the figure in verses 11 and 12.公告中的數字詩句11日和12日。 When the eaglets are sufficiently grown, the mother bird at first supports them on the tip of her wing, encouraging and aiding their feeble efforts to higher flight.當eaglets有足夠的增長,母親禽流首先支持他們的小費,她機翼,鼓勵和幫助他們的微弱努力,更高的飛行。 (4) This reminiscence of God's goodness is followed by another indictment, fuller than the former, and showing the aggravation of the people's sin. ( 4 )懷舊上帝的善良其次是另一個起訴書中,充分地比前,而且顯示出加重人民的罪孽。 "Jeshurun" is a poetic name for Israel. “ Jeshurun ”是一個詩意的名字以色列。 Notice the reference to "demons" of verse 17 (RV), and observe that such beings exist and are the real objects of the worship of false religions.公告所提到的“惡魔”的詩句17 (房車) ,並觀察這種人的存在和真實物體的崇拜偽宗教。 (5) This second indictment is followed by an announcement of punishment (19-28). ( 5 )這第二份起訴書其次是宣布處罰( 19-28 ) 。

Note the allusion to the calling out of the Gentiles into the Church in verse 21 (third clause).請注意,指的是唱出了外邦人教會在詩21 (第三條) 。 What are God's arrows (23)?什麼是上帝的箭頭( 23 ) ? See for answer the following verse, famine, pestilence, wild beasts, the sword, fear, captivity, etc. Why would He not altogether destroy such a faithless people (26,27)?見回答下列詩句,飢荒,瘟疫,野獸,劍,恐懼,圈養等為什麼他不能完全摧毀這樣一個不忠實的人( 26,27 ) ? (6) The announcement of punishment leads to a promise of forgiveness and restoration in the latter time (29-43). ( 6 )宣布的處罰導致的承諾寬恕和恢復後的時間( 29-43 ) 。 When will the Lord lift His hand from off His people (36)?當上帝將取消他的手從他的人了( 36 ) ? How shall He afflict them who afflicted Israel (41)? What shows that the day of Israel's blessing will be that of the whole earth (43)?如何將他折磨折磨他們誰以色列( 41 )什麼結果表明,每天以色列的祝福將是整個地球( 43 ) ? Compare Psalm 65.對比詩篇65 。


Catholic Information 天主教新聞

Hebrew liberator, leader, lawgiver, prophet, and historian, lived in the thirteenth and early part of the twelfth century, BC希伯來解放者,領導者,立法者,先知,和歷史學家,住在第十三和早期的一部分, 12世紀,公元前


Moshéh (MT), Mouses, Moses. Moshéh (噸) ,鼠標,摩西。 In Ex., ii, 10, a derivation from the Hebrew Mashah (to draw) is implied.在惠。 ,二, 10日,派生希伯來Mashah (提請)是不言而喻的。 Josephus and the Fathers assign the Coptic mo (water) and uses (saved) as the constituent parts of the name.約瑟夫和父親指派科普特謨(水)和使用(儲存) ,作為組成部分的名稱。 Nowadays the view of Lepsius, tracing the name back to the Egyptian mesh (child), is widely patronized by Egyptologists, but nothing decisive can be established.如今,鑑於萊普修斯,追查的名稱回到埃及網(兒童) ,被廣泛光顧了埃及,但沒有決定性可以建立。


To deny or to doubt the historic personality of Moses, is to undermine and render unintelligible the subsequent history of the Israelites.否認或懷疑的歷史人格的摩西,是破壞,使以後的不懂歷史上的猶太人。 Rabbinical literature teems with legends touching every event of his marvellous career: taken singly, these popular tales are purely imaginative, yet, considered in their cumulative force, they vouch for the reality of a grand and illustrious personage, of strong character, high purpose, and noble achievement, so deep, true, and efficient in his religious convictions as to thrill and subdue the minds of an entire race for centuries after his death.猶太教文獻teems與傳說觸摸每一個事件,他了不起的職業生涯:採取單獨,這些流行的故事是純粹的想像力,但認為在其累積的力量,他們保證的現實,大和傑出人物,強大的特性,高的目的,和崇高的成就,如此之深,真正的,高效的在他的宗教信念,以刺激和征服的頭腦整個世紀的比賽後,他的死亡。 The Bible furnishes the chief authentic account of this luminous life.聖經提供了首席真實到這種發光的生活。

BIRTH TO VOCATION (EXODUS 2:1-22)出生職(出埃及記2:1-22 )

Of Levitic extraction, and born at a time when by kingly edict had been decreed the drowning of every new male offspring among the Israelites, the "goodly child" Moses, after three months' concealment, was exposed in a basket on the banks of the Nile. Levitic的提取,以及出生時的王道法令已下令溺死的每一個新的雄性後代的猶太人中, “優美的兒童”摩西,三個月後,隱瞞,被暴露在一籃子的銀行尼羅河。 An elder brother (Exodus 7:7) and sister (Exodus 2:4), Aaron and Mary (AV and RV, Miriam), had already graced the union of Jochabed and Amram.哥哥(出埃及記7時07分)和妹妹(出埃及記2:4 ) ,阿倫和瑪麗( AV和右心室,劉健) ,已選出工會Jochabed和阿姆拉姆。 The second of these kept watch by the river, and was instrumental in inducing Pharaoh's daughter, who rescued the child, to entrust him to a Hebrew nurse.第二這些監視的河流,並在誘導法老王的女兒,誰的孩子救出,委託他向希伯來護士。 The one she designedly summoned for the charge was Jochabed, who, when her "son had grown up", delivered him to the princess.一個故意召見她的罪名是Jochabed ,誰時,她的“兒子長大了” ,發表他的公主。 In his new surroundings, he was schooled "in all the wisdom of the Egyptians" (Acts 7:22).在他的新環境,他是學校“在所有的智慧,埃及人” (使徒7時22分) 。 Moses next appears in the bloom of sturdy manhood, resolute with sympathies for his degraded brethren.摩西出現在明年的開花堅固的男子氣概,堅決與同情他的退化兄弟。 Dauntlessly he hews down an Egyptian assailing one of them, and on the morrow tries to appease the wrath of two compatriots who were quarrelling.他預警系統,堅韌不拔下跌埃及調戲其中之一,在明天試圖安撫憤怒的兩個同胞誰是爭吵。 He is misunderstood, however, and, when upbraided with the murder of the previous day, he fears his life is in jeopardy.他是誤解了,然而,當選民的謀殺案的前一天,他擔心他的生命處於危險之中。 Pharaoh has heard the news and seeks to kill him.法老已聽到這個消息,並設法殺死他。 Moses flees to Madian.摩西逃離到Madian 。 An act of rustic gallantry there secures for him a home with Raguel, the priest.一個質樸的行為,保證了英勇的有他的家裡拉貴爾,神父。 Sephora, one of Raguel's seven daughters, eventually becomes his wife and Gersam his first-born.絲芙蘭之一,拉貴爾的七個女兒,最終成為他的妻子和他的第一Gersam出生的。 His second son, Eliezer, is named in commemoration of his successful flight from Pharaoh.他的第二個兒子,埃利澤,它的名字,以紀念他的成功飛行的法老。

VOCATION AND MISSION (EXODUS 2:23-12:33)使命和任務(外流2:23-12:33 )

After forty years of shepherd life, Moses speaks with God.經過四十多年的牧羊生活,摩西與神說話。 To Horeb (Jebel Sherbal?) in the heart of the mountainous Sinaitic peninsula, he drives the flocks of Raguel for the last time.為了霍雷布(山Sherbal ? )的心臟地帶的山區Sinaitic半島,他推動了成群的拉貴爾最後一次。 A bush there flaming unburned attracts him, but a miraculous voice forbids his approach and declares the ground so holy that to approach he must remove his shoes.布什有未燃燒的吸引,但他奇蹟般的聲音禁止他的做法,並宣布在當地如此神聖的辦法,要他必須刪除他的鞋。 The God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob designates him to deliver the Hebrews from the Egyptian yoke, and to conduct them into the "land of milk and honey", the region long since promised to the seed of Abraham, the Palestine of later years.上帝的亞伯拉罕,以撒,雅各,並指定他提供希伯來來自埃及枷鎖,並進行他們的“土地牛奶和蜂蜜” ,該地區的長期承諾,因為種子的亞伯拉罕,巴勒斯坦的晚年。 Next, God reveals to him His name under a special form Yahweh as a "memorial unto all generations".下一步,上帝向他透露他的名字下的一種特殊形式耶和華為“紀念祂的所有後代。 ” He performs two miracles to convince his timorous listener, appoints Aaron as Moses's "prophet", and Moses, so to speak, as Aaron's God (Exodus 4:16).他執行兩個奇蹟來說服他的膽怯聽眾,任命阿倫作為摩西的“先知” ,和摩西,可以這麼說,因為阿倫的神(出四點16分) 。 Diffidence at once gives way to faith and magnanimity. Diffidence一次讓位於誠意和氣度。 Moses bids adieu to Jethro (Raguel), and, with his family, starts for Egypt.招標摩西向Jethro告別(拉貴爾) ,並與他的家人,開始對埃及。 He carries in his hand the "rod of God", a symbol of the fearlessness with which he is to act in performing signs and wonders in the presence of a hardened, threatening monarch.他隨身攜帶的手在他的“神桿”的象徵無畏,使他的行為是在履行標誌和奇蹟的存在硬化,威脅國王。 His confidence waxes strong, but he is uncircumcised, and God meets him on the way and fain would kill him.他的信心蠟強勁,但他是猶太人,上帝滿足了他的方式和欣然將殺死他。 Sephora saves her "bloody spouse", and appeases God by circumcising a son.絲芙蘭節省了她的“血腥的配偶” ,並姑息上帝circumcising一個兒子。 Aaron joins the party at Horeb.阿龍加入黨的霍雷布。 The first interview of the brothers with their compatriots is most encouraging, but not so with the despotic sovereign. Asked to allow the Hebrews three days' respite for sacrifices in the wilderness, the angry monarch not only refuses, but he ridicules their God, and then effectually embitters the Hebrews' minds against their new chiefs as well as against himself, by denying them the necessary straw for exorbitant daily exactions in brick making.第一次採訪的兄弟與他們的同胞是最令人鼓舞的,但並非如此的專制主權。被問及允許希伯來三天喘息的犧牲,在荒野裡,憤怒的國王不僅拒絕,但他ridicules他們的上帝,然後有效地embitters希伯來人的頭腦對他們的新首領,以及對自己,不讓他們提供必要的稻草每日勒索巨額磚決策。 A rupture is about to ensue with the two strange brothers, when, in a vision, Moses is divinely constituted "Pharaoh's God", and is commanded to use his newly imparted powers.破裂即將隨之而來的兩個奇怪的兄弟,當時的設想中,摩西是神構成了“法老的上帝” ,是指揮使用他的新傳授的權力。 He has now attained his eightieth year.他現在已經達到他的八十歲。 The episode of Aaron's rod is a prelude to the plagues.這一事件的克阿倫的棒是一個前奏瘟疫。 Either personally or through Aaron, sometimes after warning Pharaoh or again quite suddenly, Moses causes a series of Divine manifestations described as ten in number in which he humiliates the sun and river gods, afflicts man and beast, and displays such unwonted control over the earth and heavens that even the magicians are forced to recognize in his prodigies "the finger of God".親自或通過亞倫,有時警告後再次法老或相當突然,摩西造成了一系列的神聖的表現形容為十數,他侮辱的太陽神和河流,影響著人與野獸,並顯示這種不同尋常的控制權地球和天空,即使是魔術師不得不承認他的天才“指的上帝” 。 Pharaoh softens at times but never sufficiently to meet the demands of Moses without restrictions.在法老時代軟化,但從未充分滿足摩西沒有任何限制。 He treasures too highly the Hebrew labour for his public works.他也高度珍視希伯來勞動力的公共工程。 A crisis arrives with the last plague.危機到達最後的瘟疫。 The Hebrews, forewarned by Moses, celebrate the first Pasch or Phase with their loins girt, their shoes on their feet, and staves in their hands, ready for rapid escape.希伯來人,預先的摩西,慶祝第一階段Pasch或其腰帶,他們的鞋上腳,壁在他們手中,隨時可以快速逃脫。 Then God carries out his dreadful threat to pass through the land and kill every first-born of man and beast, thereby executing judgment on all the gods of Egypt.然後,上帝進行他的可怕的威脅,通過土地和殺死每頭出生的人與野獸,從而執行判決的所有埃及諸神。 Pharaoh can resist no longer.法老能夠抵禦不再。 He joins the stricken populace in begging the Hebrews to depart.他加入了受災民眾乞討希伯來離開。


At the head of 600,000 men, besides women and children, and heavily laden with the spoils of the Egyptians, Moses follows a way through the desert, indicated by an advancing pillar of alternating cloud and fire, and gains the peninsula of Sinai by crossing the Red Sea.在頭部的600000人,除了婦女和兒童,重載貨的戰利品,埃及人,摩西如下的方式穿越沙漠,由一個前進的支柱交替雲和火災,並取得了西奈半島的跨越紅海。 A dry passage, miraculously opened by him for this purpose at a point today unknown, afterwards proves a fatal trap for a body of Egyptian pursuers, organized by Pharaoh and possibly under his leadership. The event furnishes the theme of the thrilling canticle of Moses.幹通行,奇蹟般地打開了他為此在今天指向不明,事後證明了一個致命的陷阱機關追捕埃及舉辦的法老王,並可能在他的領導下。這項活動提供了主題的驚險頌歌摩西。 For upwards of two months the long procession, much retarded by the flocks, the herds, and the difficulties inseparable from desert travel, wends its way towards Sinai.對於以上的2個月的長期遊行,許多智障的雞群,對牲畜,和困難分不開的沙漠旅行,文德走向西奈半島。 To move directly on Chanaan would be too hazardous because of the warlike Philistines, whose territory would have to be crossed; whereas, on the south-east, the less formidable Amalacites are the only inimical tribes and are easily overcome thanks to the intercession of Moses.為了推動直接Chanaan會太危險,因為好戰的非利士人,其境內就必須跨越;而在東南,越艱鉅Amalacites是唯一的和有害的部落很容易克服感謝調解摩西。 For the line of march and topographical identifications along the route, see ISRAELITES, subsection The Exodus and the Wanderings.對於遊行路線和地形識別沿途,看到以色列人,第出走和流浪。 The miraculous water obtained from the rock Horeb, and the supply of the quails and manna, bespeak the marvellous faith of the great leader.神奇水從岩石霍雷布,並供應鵪鶉和甘露, bespeak奇妙的信仰的偉大領袖。 The meeting with Jethro ends in an alliance with Madian, and the appointment of a corps of judges subordinate to Moses, to attend to minor decisions.會見結束Jethro聯盟與Madian ,並任命一名法官隊伍服從摩西,參加輕微的決定。 At Sinai the Ten Commandments are promulgated, Moses is made mediator between God and the people, and, during two periods of forty days each, he remains in concealment on the mount, receiving from God the multifarious enactments, by the observance of which Israel is to be moulded into a theocratic nation (cf. MOSAIC LEGISLATION).在西奈半島的十誡的頒布,是摩西之間的調解人上帝和人民,並在兩期40天,他仍然在隱瞞的安裝,接收來自上帝多方面的法規,通過遵守這是以色列要塑造成一個神權國家(見馬賽克立法) 。 On his first descent, he exhibits an all-consuming zeal for the purity of Divine worship, by causing to perish those who had indulged in the idolatrous orgies about the Golden Calf; on his second, he inspires the deepest awe because his face is emblazoned with luminous horns. After instituting the priesthood and erecting the Tabernacle, Moses orders a census which shows an army of 603,550 fighting men.在他的首後裔,他的所有展品消費熱情的純潔性神崇拜,造成對亡人誰曾沉迷於orgies的盲目崇拜的黃金犢牛;第二次,他激勵著最深切的敬畏,因為他的臉是印與發光牛角。後實行鐸和樹立了幕,摩西命令人口普查表明,軍隊的戰鬥六十零點三五五萬男子。 These with the Levites, women, and children, duly celebrate the first anniversary of the Pasch, and, carrying the Ark of the Covenant, shortly enter on the second stage of their migration.這些與利,婦女和兒童,適當慶祝一週年的Pasch ,並攜帶約櫃,很快進入第二階段的移民。 They are accompanied by Hobab, Jethro's son, who acts as a guide.他們是伴隨著Hobab , Jethro的兒子,誰的行為作為指導。 Two instances of general discontent follow, of which the first is punished by fire, which ceases as Moses prays, and the second by plague.兩種情況一般不滿的後續,其中第一個是懲罰火災,不再作為摩西祈禱,第二次的瘟疫。 When the manna is complained of, quails are provided as in the previous year.當甘露是抱怨,提供鵪鶉在過去一年。 Seventy elders -- a conjectural origin of the Sanhedrin -- are then appointed to assist Moses. 70長者-一個推測起源公會-然後任命來協助摩西。 Next Aaron and Mary envy their brother, but God vindicates him and afflicts Mary temporarily with leprosy.下一步阿倫和瑪麗羨慕他們的兄弟,但上帝證明他和瑪麗暫時折磨與麻風病。 From the desert of Pharan Moses sends spies into Chanaan, who, with the exceptions of Joshue and Caleb, bring back startling reports which throw the people into consternation and rebellion.從沙漠Pharan摩西發送到Chanaan間諜,誰與例外Joshue和顧盛,帶回驚人的報告扔了人們驚愕和叛亂。 The great leader prays and God intervenes, but only to condemn the present generation to die in the wilderness.偉大領袖祈禱上帝干預,但只有譴責目前這一代死在荒野。 The subsequent uprising of Core, Dathan, Abiron, and their adherents suggests that, during the thirty-eight years spent in the Badiet et-Tih., habitual discontent, so characteristic of nomads, continued.隨後,起義的核心, Dathan , Abiron ,他們的追隨者表明,在三十八年花費在Badiet等悌。 ,慣常的不滿,所以游牧民族的特點,繼續。 It is during this period that tradition places the composition of a large part of the Pentateuch.這是在這一時期,傳統的地方組成的很大一部分五。 Towards its close, Moses is doomed never to enter the Promised Land, presumably because of a momentary lack of trust in God at the Water of Contradiction.建立密切,摩西是注定永遠不會進入樂土,大概是因為一時的缺乏信任上帝在水的矛盾。 When the old generation, including Mary, the prophet's sister, is no more, Moses inaugurates the onward march around Edom and Moab to the Arnon. After the death of Aaron and the victory over Arad, "fiery serpents" appear in the camp, a chastisement for renewed murmurings.當老一代,包括瑪麗,先知的妹妹,沒有更多的,摩西的揭幕典禮3月起周圍以東和摩押的阿爾。逝世後,阿倫和戰勝阿拉德, “火蛇”出現在營,責罰重新murmurings 。 Moses sets up the brazen serpent, "which when they that were bitten looked upon, they were healed".摩西設置厚顏無恥的蛇, “這當他們被咬傷期待時,他們治愈” 。 The victories over Sehon and Og, and the feeling of security animating the army even in the territory of the hostile Balac, led to presumptuous and scandalous intercourse with the idolatrous Moabites which results, at Moses's command, in the slaughter of 24,000 offenders.在戰勝Sehon和產品,以及安全的感覺了活力軍甚至在其境內的敵對Balac ,導致狂妄和可恥的交往與莫亞比特人盲目崇拜的結果,在摩西的命令,在屠宰24000罪犯。 The census, however, shows that the army still numbers 601,730, excluding 23,000 Levites.普查然而,結果表明,軍隊仍號碼60.173萬,其中不包括23000利。 Of these Moses allows the Reubenites, Gadites, and the half-tribe of Manasses to settle in the east-Jordan district, without, however, releasing them from service in the west-Jordan conquest.這些摩西允許Reubenites , Gadites ,和半部落Manasses解決東部與約旦的地區,但不釋放他們從服務西部和約旦征服。


As a worthy legacy to the people for whom he has endured unparalleled hardships, Moses in his last days pronounces the three memorable discourses preserved in Deuteronomy.作為一個有價值的遺產人民對他經受了前所未有的困難,摩西在他的最後幾天宣布的三個難忘的話語保存在申命記。 his chief utterance relates to a future Prophet, like to himself, whom the people are to receive.他的主要話語涉及到未來的先知,就像他本人,他的人接受。 He then bursts forth into a sublime song of praise to Jahweh and adds prophetic blessings for each of the twelve tribes. From Mount Nebo -- on "the top of Phasga" -- Moses views for the last time the Promised Land, and then dies at the age of 120 years.然後,他用了一個崇高的歌聲讚美Jahweh ,並增加了預言的祝福為每個12部落。從山尼泊山-關於“上方的P hasga” -摩西的看法是最後一次樂土,然後死亡在年齡為120歲。 He is buried "in the valley of Moab over against Phogor", but no man "knows his sepulchre".他是埋葬“在山谷莫阿布對Phogor以上” ,但沒有人“知道他的墳墓。 ” His memory has ever been one of "isolated grandeur".他的記憶過一個“孤立的偉大” 。 He is the type of Hebrew holiness, so far outshining other models that twelve centuries after his death, the Christ Whom he foreshadowed seemed eclipsed by him in the minds of the learned.他是希伯來文類型的聖潔,迄今outshining其他模式, 12世紀後,他的死,基督他似乎預示所掩蓋他心中的教訓。 It was, humanly speaking, an indispensable providence that represented him in the Transfiguration, side by side with Elias, and quite inferior to the incomparable Antitype whose coming he had predicted.這是人類來講,一個不可缺少的普羅維登斯,代表他在變,並肩與埃利亞斯,相當低劣的無與倫比的Antitype的未來,他曾預測。

Publication information Written by Thomas A K. Reilly.出版信息撰稿:托馬斯賴利光。 Transcribed by Sean Hyland. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume X. Published 1911.轉錄的肖恩海侖。天主教百科全書,卷十, 1911年發布。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1911. Nihil Obstat , 1911年10月1日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.雷米Lafort ,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York認可。 +約翰法利樞機主教,大主教紐約

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