The Occult隱匿

Advanced Information 先進的信息

The term refers to "hidden" or "secret" wisdom; to that which is beyond the range of ordinary human knowledge; to mysterious or concealed phenomena; to inexplicable events.這個詞是指“隱藏”或“秘密”的智慧;這是超出範圍的普通人類的知識;以神秘的或隱蔽的現象;以令人費解的事件。 It is frequently used in reference to certain practices (occult "arts") which include divination, fortune telling, spiritism (necromancy), and magic.這是常用於提及的某些做法(隱匿“藝術” ) ,其中包括占卜,算命,招魂術(招魂)和魔術。

Those phenomena collectively known as "the occult" may be said to have the following distinct characteristics: (1) the disclosure and communication of information unavailable to humans through normal means (beyond the five senses); (2) the placing of persons in contact with supernatural powers, paranormal energies, or demonic forces; (3) the acquisition and mastery of power in order to manipulate or influence other people into certain actions.這些現象統稱為“神秘”可以說,具有以下鮮明特點: ( 1 )信息披露和信息交流的人類無法通過正常的手段(超越五感) ; ( 2 )把人的接觸與神通,超自然的力量,或惡魔的力量; ( 3 )獲取和掌握的權力,以便操縱或影響到其他人的某些行動。

In an attempt to achieve legitimization and acceptance from the larger society, advocates of occultism have in recent years portrayed the occult as basically amenable to scientific investigation.為了實現合法化,並接受廣大社會,提倡神秘近年來描繪了隱匿的基本服從科學調查。 Parapsychology and graphology are two fields in which the claim to scientific status is often advanced.心理學和筆跡學兩個領域,其中要求的科學的地位往往是先進的。 There is considerable disagreement in both the academic world and the religious world as to whether parapsychology, for example, is the "scientific" study of occult phenomena.有相當大的分歧在學術界和宗教界的世界是否心理學,例如,是“科學”研究隱匿現象。 It would appear that the very character of the occult indicates that it deals with contradictory or dissonant knowledge claims that are difficult, if not impossible, to investigate or validate.這樣看來,非常性質的隱匿表明,它涉及矛盾或不和諧的知識聲稱是困難的,如果不是不可能的話,調查或驗證。

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However, recent developments not only in science but in the arts, politics, psychology, and religion indicate a broad shift in Western culture to increased acceptance of a common set of presuppositions that parallel the occult mystical world view, which is in stark contrast to the biblical world view of historic Christianity.然而,最近的事態發展不僅在科學,藝術,政治學,心理學,宗教表明了廣泛的轉變西方文化,以增加接受一套共同的前提,並行神秘神秘的世界觀,這是形成鮮明對比的是聖經世界觀的歷史性基督教。 The classical systems of occult philosophy and their more recent "new age" variants are fundamentally identical with the "cosmic humanism" that characterizes much of the contemporary world. Likewise, these ideas can be linked with such Eastern religious practices as yoga and meditation and an accompanying philosophy which asserts a definition of reality that ultimately denies the personal God of the Bible, promotes the essential divinity of man, and rejects any absolute statement of moral values.經典系統的隱性哲學和他們最近的“新時代”的變種基本上是相同的“宇宙人文”的特點大部分的當代世界。同樣,這些想法可以與東歐等宗教習俗的瑜伽和冥想和伴隨哲學聲稱的定義現實,最終剝奪了個人上帝的聖經,促進了至關重要的神人,並拒絕接受任何絕對的聲明道德價值觀。

The occult mystical world view and its associated religious expression, especially in the Eastern cults presently active in the West, can be analyzed in terms of the following components:神秘神秘的世界觀和其相關的宗教言論,特別是在東歐邪教目前活躍在西方國家,可以分析從以下內容:

(1) The promise of godhood, man is a divine being. ( 1 )承諾godhood ,人是神。 All forms of occult philosophy proclaim that the true or "real" self of man is synonymous with God.一切形式的隱性哲學宣布,真正的或“真正的”自我的人,就是上帝。 Such views are all patterned after the archetypal lie of the serpent in Gen. 3:4, "You will be as gods."這些意見都仿照典型的謊言的蛇在將軍三時04分, “你將是神。 ”

(2) The notion that "all is one", God is everything (pantheism). There is only one reality in existence (monism), and therefore everyone and everything in the material world is part of the Divine. It follows that there is no distinction between supernatural and natural, between good and evil, between God and Satan. ( 2 )概念,即“一切是”上帝就是一切(泛神論) 。只有一個現實的存在(論) ,因此每個人都在物質世界的一部分,是神。因此,有沒有區別超自然與自然之間,善惡之間,上帝和撒旦。

(3) Life's purpose is to achieve awareness of the Divine within, self realization. ( 3 )人生的目的是實現認識的神內,自我實現。 The path to salvation ("illumination," "enlightenment," "union") is an experiential one.道路救國( “照明” , “啟示” , “工會” )是一個經驗之一。 It is the path to gnosis, the seeking of experiential "knowledge" through metaphysical insight.這是直覺道路,尋求廣泛的經驗“知識”通過形而上學的見解。

(4) Humankind is basically good, evil is an illusion or imperfection. ( 4 )人類基本上是良好的,邪惡是一種幻想或不完善。 Ignorance, not sin, is at the root of the human dilemma.無知,沒有罪孽,是從根本上對人類的困境。 An "enlightened" person will transcend moral distinctions. There is no need of redemption or forgiveness, only self realization.一個“開明”的人將超越道義上的區別。沒有必要的贖回或寬恕,只有自我實現。

(5) Self realization via spiritual technique leads to power, the God - man is in charge. ( 5 )自我實現的精神通過技術導致電力,神-人負責。 By employing spiritual technology such as meditation, chanting, and yoga, and through the application of universal laws, the realized being becomes master of his own reality.由於採用了精神文明技術,如打坐,誦經,並瑜伽,並通過應用普遍的法律,正在成為實現主自己的現實。 He attains the status of guru, or "light bearer," and can influence the lives of others.他達到的地位教主,或“輕旗手” ,並能影響他人的生活。

With this broad occult mystical framework in mind, it can be said that the ultimate objective of psychic occult power is to validate the lie of Satan, that man is God and that death is an illusion.隨著這一廣泛的隱性奧秘框架有鑑於此,可以說,最終目標是心理隱匿權力是驗證撒旦謊言,這名男子是上帝的死亡是一種幻想。 In the deceptive quest for godhood and power of men and women are brought under the power of Satan himself.在欺騙性的追求godhood和力量的男子和婦女受到的力量撒旦本人。 They are able to manifest a degree of counterfeit power by engaging in occult experiences. Such paranormal manifestations represent an imitation of authentic spirituality and demonstrate Satan's true nature as the arch deceiver.他們能夠表現出一定程度的假冒權力從事隱性的經驗。這種超常的表現是一個模仿真實的精神和表現出撒旦的真正性質的拱壩騙子。

Both the OT and the NT proscribe such spiritually impure occultic activities as sorcery, mediumship, divination, and magic.無論是催產素和NT取締這種精神不純occultic巫術活動, mediumship ,占卜,和魔術。 In the OT they are referred to as the "abominable practices" of the pagan cultures which coexisted with the Israelites.在加時賽,他們被稱為“可惡的做法”的異教文化的並存與以色列人。 Involvement with the occult arts was frequently compared to adultery.參與隱匿藝術往往比較通姦。 Jesus and the NT writers also described the dynamic of Satan's counterfeit spirituality and call for discernment of spiritist activity.耶穌和NT作家還介紹了動態撒旦的假冒精神和要求辨別的spiritist活動。

While Scripture acknowledges both the reality and the power of occultic practices, it proclaims that God through Christ has disarmed the principalities and powers.雖然聖經承認的現實和力量occultic的做法,它宣稱,上帝通過耶穌已經解除了公和權力。 At the cross of Calvary the works of the devil were destroyed and the powers of darkness were conquered in an ultimate sense.在十字架上各各他的作品惡魔被摧毀,權力的黑暗中被征服的最終意義。

RM Enroth產品Enroth
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (規矩福音字典)

Bibliography: 參考書目:
B Alexander, Occult Philosophy and Mystical Experience; KE Koch, Between Christ and Satan and Satan's Devices; JS Wright, Christianity and the Occult; SCPJ, Winter 1980 - 81.乙亞歷山大,隱匿哲學和神秘經驗;柯科赫,在耶穌和撒旦和撒旦的設備;江蘇賴特,基督教和隱匿; SCPJ ,冬季1980年至1981年。

Occult Art, Occultism隱匿性藝術,神秘

Catholic Information 天主教新聞

Under this general term are included various practices to which special articles of the Encyclopedia are devoted: ANIMISM; ASTROLOGY; DIVINATION; FETISHISM.根據這一總的任期是包括各種做法,以特別條款的百科全書專門:萬物有靈論;航空;占卜;拜物教。 The present article deals with the form of Occultism known as "Magic".本文章涉及形式的神秘稱為“魔術師” 。

The English word magic is derived through the Latin, Greek, Persian, Assyrian from the Sumerian or Turanian word imga or emga ("deep", "profound"), a designation for the Proto-Chaldean priests or wizards.英文神奇的是通過衍生拉丁,希臘,波斯,亞述人從蘇美爾人或Turanian字imga或emga ( “深” , “深刻” ) ,指定為原底神父或嚮導。 Magi became a standard term for the later Zoroastrian, or Persian, priesthood through whom Eastern occult arts were made known to the Greeks; hence, magos (as also the kindred words magikos, mageia, a magician or a person endowed with secret knowledge and power like a Persian magus.賢士成為一個標準的任期為後來拜火教,或波斯,神職人員通過隱匿其中東方藝術提出了著名的希臘人,因此magos (如親屬也magikos的話, mageia ,魔術師或個人賦予了秘密的知識和力量像波斯賢者。

In a restricted sense magic is understood to be an interference with the usual course of physical nature by apparently inadequate means (recitation of formularies, gestures, mixing of incongruous elements, and other mysterious actions), the knowledge of which is obtained through secret communication with the force underlying the universe (God, the Devil, the soul of the world, etc.); it is the attempt to work miracles not by the power of God, gratuitously communicated to man, but by the use of hidden forces beyond man's control.在一個神奇的限制意義上被理解為是一種干擾正常過程中的物理性質顯然是不夠的手段(背誦formularies ,手勢,混合不協調的因素,以及其他神秘的行動) ,知識是通過與保密通信根本的力量宇宙(上帝,魔鬼的靈魂世界,等等) ;這是企圖創造奇蹟而不是由權力的上帝,無償傳達給男子,但通過使用隱藏的力量超出人的控制。 Its advocates, despairing to move the Deity by supplication, seek the desired result by evoking powers ordinarily reserved to the Deity.它的倡導者,絕望,推動神的祈求,尋求理想的結果通常引起的權力保留給神。 It is a corruption of religion, not a preliminary stage of it as Rationalists maintain, and it appears as an accompaniment of decadent rather than of rising civilization.這是一個腐敗的宗教,而不是一個初級階段,它作為保持理性主義,它似乎是伴隨的腐朽,而不是上升的文明。 There is nothing to show that in Babylon, Greece, and Rome the use of magic decreased as these nations progressed; on the contrary, it increased as they declined.沒有任何顯示,巴比倫,希臘和羅馬的使用魔法減少這些國家的進展;相反,它增加了他們拒絕。 It is not true that "religion is the despair of magic"; in reality, magic is but a disease of religion.這是不正確的“宗教是絕望的魔術” ;在現實中,魔術是一種疾病,但宗教。

The disease has been widespread; but if one land may be designated as the home of magic it is Chaldea, or Southern Babylonia.這一疾病已普遍;但如果一個土地,有可能被指定為神奇的家是Chaldea ,或南部巴比倫。 The earliest written records of magic are found in the cuneiform incantation inscriptions which Assyrian scribes in 800 BC copied from Babylonian originals.最早的書面記錄被發現神奇的楔形文字銘文的咒語文士亞述人在公元前800複製巴比倫正本。 Although the earliest religious tablets refer to divination and in the latest Chaldean period, astrology proper absorbed the energy of the Babylonian hierarchy, medicinal magic and nature magic were largely practiced.雖然最早的宗教片是指算命,並在最新的迦勒期間,占星術適當吸收的能量巴比倫層次,醫藥魔力和自然神奇的主要練習。 The Barupriest as the diviner seems to have held the foremost rank, but hardly inferior was the Ashipu-priest, the priest of incantations, who recited the magical formularies of the "Shurpu", "Maklu", and "Utukku".該Barupriest的預言似乎已經舉行的最重要的排名,但幾乎沒有劣勢是Ashipu ,神父,牧師的咒語,誰背誦的神奇formularies的“ Shurpu ” , “ Maklu ”和“ Utukku ” 。 "Shurpu" (burning) was a spell to remove a curse due to legal uncleanness; "Maklu" (consuming) was a counter-spell against wizards and witches; "Utukki limmuti" (evil spirits) was a series of sixteen formulae against ghosts and demons. “ Shurpu ” (燃燒)是一個拼寫移除詛咒由於法律uncleanness “ ; Maklu ” (消費)是一個反拼寫對嚮導和巫婆“ ; Utukki limmuti ” (邪靈)是一系列的公式對16鬼和惡魔。 The "Asaski marsuti" was a series of twelve formulae against fevers and sickness.該“ Asaski marsuti ”是一個系列12個公式對發燒和疾病。 In this case the evil influence was first transferred to a wax figure representing the patient or an animal carcass, and the formulae were recited over the substitute.在這種情況下,邪氣首次轉移到蠟像代表病人或動物屍體,以及被背誦公式的替代品。 Ti'i tablets, nine in number, give recipes against headache. Ti'i片, 9個在數量,給予對頭痛的食譜。 The "Labartu" incantations repeated over little figures were supposed to drive away the ogres and witches from children.該“ Labartu ”咒語反复小的數字要趕走ogres和巫婆從兒童。 All these formulae pronounced over the figures were accompanied by an elaborate ritual, eg,所有這些公式明顯的數字是附有詳細的儀式,例如

A table thou shalt place behind the censer which is before the Sun-God (Statue of Shamash), thou shalt place thereon 4 jugs of sesame wine, thou shalt set thereon 3 x 12 loaves of wheat, thou shalt add a mixture of honey and butter and sprinkle with salt: a table thou shalt place behind the censer which is before the Storm-God (Statue of Adad) and behind the censer which is before Merodach.表你應該在幕後進行的香爐面前的太陽神(雕像沙馬什) ,你應該就此進行第4壺芝麻酒,你應該就此一套3 × 12個麵包的小麥,你應該添加的混合蜂蜜和黃油和灑鹽:一個表你應該在幕後進行的香爐面前的風暴神(雕像阿達德)和後面的香爐面前米羅達巴拉。

The magicians mentioned above were authorized and practiced "white", or benevolent, magic; the "Kashshapi", or unauthorized practitioners, employed "black" magic against mankind.該魔術師上述被授權和實行“白色” ,或仁慈,魔術;的“ Kashshapi ” ,或未經授權的從業人員,僱用“黑”神奇的危害人類。 That the latter had preternatural powers to do harm no one doubted; hence the severe punishment meted out to them.後者有超自然的權力,這樣做傷害任何人懷疑,因此嚴重懲罰他們。 The Code of Hammurabi (c. 2000 BC) appointed the ordeal by water for one who was accused of being a sorcerer and for his accuser.在漢謨拉比法典(角公元前2000年)任命了磨難的水是一個誰被指控為巫師和他的指控。 If the accused was drowned, his property went to the accuser; if he was saved, the accuser was put to death and his property went to the accused.如果被告被淹死,他的財產去原告;如果他保存,原告提出的死亡和他的財產去被告。 This of course took place only if the accusation could not be satisfactorily proven otherwise.當然,這只是發生的指控,如果不能得到令人滿意的其他證明。 The principal god invoked in Chaldean Magic were Ea, source of all wisdom, and Marduk (Merodach) his son, who had inherited his father's knowledge.主要的神援引迦勒魔術鄂,來源的所有智慧和馬爾杜克(米羅達巴拉)他的兒子,誰繼承了他父親的知識。 A curiously naive scene was supposed to be enacted before the application of a medicinal spell: Marduk went to Ea's house and said: "Father, headache from the underworld hath gone forth. The patient does not know the reason; whereby may he be relieved?"阿好奇天真的場景被認為是前頒布的應用具有藥性的說明:馬爾杜克去EA的房子說: “爸爸,頭痛的黑社會上帝去等等。病人不知道的原因; ,即他可能會得到緩解? “ Ea answered: "O Marduk, my son, what can I add to thy knowledge? What I know thou knowest also. Go, my son Marduk"; and then follows the prescription.鄂回答說: “啊,馬爾杜克,我的兒子,怎麼添加到你的知識?什麼我知道你也知道。去吧,我的兒子馬爾杜克” ; ,然後如下處方。 This tale was regularly repeated before use of the recipe.這故事是經常反复使用前的食譜。

Without suggesting the dependence of one national system of magic upon another, the similarity of some ideas and practices in the magic of all peoples must be noted.如果沒有提示的依賴一個國家制度的另一個神奇,相似的一些想法和做法,在神奇的所有人民必須指出的。 All rely on the power of words, the utterance of a hidden name, or the mere existence of the name on an amulet or stone.所有依靠的力量,也就是說,話語的一個隱藏的名稱,或僅僅存在名稱上的護身符或石頭。 Magic was supposed to be the triumph of intellect over matter, the word being the key to the mysteries of the physical world: utter the name of a malignant influence and its power is undone; utter the name of a benevolent deity and force goes out to destroy the adversary.魔術隊被認為是勝利的智慧了問題,正在這個詞的關鍵奧秘的物理世界:完全的名稱惡性的影響和權力撤消;徹底的名稱和仁慈的神部隊前去摧毀敵人。 The repeated naming of Gibel-Nusku and his attributes destroyed the evil influence in the wax figure representing the person concerned.一再命名銀, Nusku和他的屬性摧毀了邪惡的影響的蠟像代表有關的人。 The force of the Gnostic Iota-Alpha-Omega was notorious.該部隊的諾斯底絲毫- α -歐米茄是臭名昭著的。 In Egyptian magic a mere agglomeration of vowels or of meaningless syllables was supposed to work good or evil.在埃及的神奇僅僅團聚的元音或毫無意義的音節是要工作好或邪惡。 Their barbarous sounds were the object of ridicule to the man of common sense.他們的聲音被野蠻的對象,嘲笑的人的常識。 In many cases they were of Jewish, or Babylonian, or Aramaic origin and because unintelligible to Egyptians, the words were generally corrupted beyond recognition.在許多情況下,他們是猶太人,或巴比倫,或原籍亞拉姆語,因為不懂的埃及人,改為一般損壞無法辨認。 Thus on a demotic papyrus is found the prescription: "in time of storm and danger of shipwreck cry Anuk Adonai and the disaster will be averted"; on a Greek papyrus the name of the Assyrian Ereskihal is found as Eresgichal.因此,在通俗的莎草紙是找到了處方: “在時間上的風暴和沉船的危險哭Anuk阿多奈和災難將是避免” ;在希臘的莎草紙的名稱是亞述Ereskihal發現Eresgichal 。 So potent is a name that if an inscribed amulet be washed and the water drunk or the charm written on papyrus be soaked in water and this taken, or if the word be written on hard-boiled eggs without shell and these eaten, preternatural powers come into play.所以是一個有力的名字,如果登記護身符洗滌水或喝醉的魅力寫在莎草紙被浸泡在水中,這措施,或者如果字是寫在煮硬了的蛋無殼,這些吃,超自然的權力來發揮作用。 Another prevalent idea in magic is that of substitution: the person or thing to be affected by the spell is replaced by his image, or, like the "ushabtiu" figures in Egyptian tombs, images replace the protective powers invoked, or lastly some part (hair, nailparings, garments, etc.) take the place of the whole person.另一種流行的觀點是,魔術替代:人或事物受到拼寫所取代他的形象,或如“ ushabtiu ”的數字在埃及墓穴,圖像取代援引保護的權力,或最後部分(頭髮, nailparings ,服裝等)代替整個人。 The almost universal "magic circle" is only a mimic wall against the wicked spirits outside and goes back to Chaldean magic under the name of usurtu, made with a sprinkling of lime and flour.幾乎是普遍的“魔圈”只是一個模仿牆對邪惡的精神外,並可以追溯到迦勒神奇的名字usurtu ,取得了灑石灰和麵粉。 If the medical wizard or the Indian sorcerer surrounds himself or others with a rampart of little stones, this is again but the make-believe of a wall. After Babylonia, Egypt was foremost in magic; the medieval practice of alchemy shows by its name its Egyptian origin.如果醫療嚮導或印度巫師圍繞自己或他人的防禦工事的小石塊,這是再次但虛幻的牆。巴比倫後,埃及是重要的神奇;的中世紀煉金術的做法表明其名稱其埃及的原產地。 Coptic exorcisms against all sorts of diseases abound amongst the papyri pertaining to magic, and magic claims a great part of ancient Egyptian literature.科普特exorcisms對各種疾病的比比皆是之間的紙莎草紙與魔術,魔術和索賠的很大一部分古埃及文獻。 Unlike Babylonian magic however, it seems to have retained to the last its medicinal and preventive character; it rarely indulged in astrology or prediction.與巴比倫神奇,但似乎保留到最後其藥用和預防性質的,它很少沉迷於占星術或預測。 Egyptian legend spoke of a magician Teta who worked miracles before Khufu (Cheops) (c. 3800 BC), and Greek tradition tells of Nectanebus, last native King of Egypt (358 BC), as the greatest of magicians.埃及傳說談到魔術師泰塔誰奇蹟工作之前胡夫(基奧普斯) (角3800年) ,和希臘傳統講述了Nectanebus ,去年本地埃及國王( 358年) ,作為最大的魔術師。

That the Jews were prone to magic is evidenced by the strict laws against it and the warnings of the Prophets (Exodus 22:18; Deuteronomy 18:10; Isaiah 3:18, 20; 57:3; Micah 5:11; cf. 2 Kings 21:6).猶太人容易神奇的是證明了嚴格的法律反對和警告的先知(出埃及記22:18 ;申命記18:10 ;以賽亞3時18分, 20人; 57:3 ;米卡5點11 ;比照。列王紀下21點06分) 。 Nevertheless, Jewish magic flourished, especially just before the birth of Christ, as appears from the Book of Enoch, the Testament of the Twelve Patriarchs, and the Testament of Solomon.然而,猶太神奇蓬勃發展,特別是前耶穌誕生,因為似乎從以諾書,在全書十二始祖,以及全書的所羅門群島。 Origen testifies that in his day to adjure demons was looked upon as specifically "Jewish", that these adjurations had to be made in Hebrew and from Solomon's books (In Math., xxvi, 63, PG, XIII, 1757).奧利證明,他在一天adjure惡魔被看成專門“猶太人” ,這些adjurations不得不作出在希伯來文和來自所羅門群島的書籍(在數學。 , 26 , 63 ,前列腺素,十三, 1757年) 。 The frequency of Jewish magic is also corroborated by Talmudic lore.頻率的猶太魔術也證實了塔木德傳說。

The Aryan races of Asia seem somewhat less addicted to magic than the Semitic or Turanian races.雅利安種族的亞洲似乎有點不太沉迷於魔術比猶太人或Turanian比賽。 The Medes and the Persians, in the earlier and purer period of their Avesta religion, or Zoroastrianism, seem to have a horror of magic.在米底王國和波斯人,在更早時期純潔的阿維斯塔宗教或拜火教,似乎有一個可怕的魔力。 When the Persians after their conquest of the Chaldean Empire, finally absorbed Chaldean characteristics, the magi had become more or less scientific astronomers rather than sorcerers.當波斯人征服後的迦勒帝國,終於吸收迦勒特點,已成為賢士或多或少科學的天文學家,而不是巫師。 The Indians, likewise, to judge from the Rigveda, were originally free from this superstition.印度人,同樣,對法官Rigveda ,原先免費的從這個迷信。 In the Yajurveda, however, their liturgical functions are practically magic performances; and the Atharvaveda contains little else than magical recitations against every ill and for every happening.在Yajurveda然而,他們的禮儀功能幾乎神奇的表演;和Atharvaveda包含沒有其他神奇的朗誦比對每一個病人和每發生。 The Sutras, finally, especially those of the Grihya and Sautra ritual, show how the higher aspects of religion had been overgrown by magical ceremonies.在經最後,特別是那些Grihya和Sautra儀式,顯示出較高的宗教方面已經長滿了神奇的儀式。 Against this degeneration the Vedanta makes a vigorous stand and attempts to bring the Indian mind back to earlier simplicity and purity. Buddhism, which at first disregarded magic, fell a prey to the universal contagion, especially in China and Tibet.在這種變性的韋丹塔作出了積極的立場,企圖把印度銘記回到以前的簡單和純潔性。佛教,其中第一無視魔術,下降了獵物的普遍蔓延,特別是在中國和西藏。

The Aryans of Europe, Greeks, Romans, Teutons, and Celts were never so deeply infected as the Asiatics.在歐洲雅利安人,希臘人,羅馬人,日爾曼人,和凱爾特人從未被深深地感染的Asiatics 。 The Romans were too self-reliant and W practical to be terrified by magic.羅馬人過於自力更生和W實際是害怕的魔力。 Their practice of divination and auguries seems to have been borrowed from the Etruscans and the Marsi; the latter were considered experts in magic even during the empire (Verg., "Æn.", VII, 750, sqq.; Pliny, VII, ii; XXI, xii).他們的做法,占卜和auguries似乎已經借用Etruscans和Marsi ,後者被認為是專家,即使是在魔法帝國( Verg. , “ AEN符合。 ”第七章, 750 sqq 。 ;普利尼,七,二;二十一,十二) 。 The Dii Aurunci, to avert calamities, used magical power, but they were not native Roman deities.要素收益流入Aurunci ,以避免災難,用神奇的力量,但它們並非羅馬神。 The Romans were conscious of their common sense in these matters and felt themselves superior to the Greeks.羅馬人意識到他們的共同意識在這些問題上,並認為自己優於希臘人。 In the first century of our era Oriental magic invaded the Roman Empire.在二十一世紀我們時代的東方魔入侵羅馬帝國。 Pliny in his "Natural History" (AD 77) in the opening chapters of Bk.普林尼在他的“自然史” (公元77 )在開幕章節的淺灘。 XXX, gives the most important extant discussion on magic by any ancient writer, only to brand all magic as imposture.三十,使現存的最重要的討論神奇的任何古老的作家,只有所有品牌的冒牌魔術。 None the less his book is a storehouse of magic recipes, eg: "Wear as an amulet the carcass of a frog minus the claws and wrapped in a piece of russet-coloured cloth and it will cure fever" (Bk. XXXII, xxxviii).然而,他的著作是一個倉庫的神奇食譜,例如: “磨損作為護身符胴體的青蛙減去爪子和包裹在一塊赤褐色顏色的布料,並將治愈熱” ( Bk.三十二,三十八) 。 Such advice argues at least a belief in medicinal magic.這些意見認為至少有信仰的藥用神奇。 But among the Romans it may be said that magic was condemned in every age by many of the best spirits of their day: Tacitus, Favorinus, Sextus Empiricus, and Cicero who even demurred against divination.但在羅馬人可以說,神奇的是譴責每個年齡的許多精神的最好的一天:佗, Favorinus , Sextus Empiricus和西塞羅誰異議甚至反對占卜。 Officially by many laws of the empire against "malefic" and "mathematici" magic was forbidden under Augustus, Tiberius, Claudius, and even Caracalla; unofficially, however, even the emperors sometimes dabbled in magic. Nero is said to have studied it; but failing to work miracles, he abandoned it in disgust.正式通過了許多法律帝國對“ malefic ”和“ mathematici ”神奇被禁止下奧古斯都,留,托勒密,甚至卡拉卡拉;內定,但是,即使是皇帝有時涉足魔術。尼祿據說,研究它,但未能創造奇蹟,他被遺棄在厭惡。 Soon after the magicians found an imperial supporter in Otho, and tolerance under Vespasian, Hadrian, and M. Aurelius, and even financial aid under Alexander Severus.不久後,魔術師找到了一個帝國的支持者在Otho ,並根據維斯帕先容忍,哈德良和M.奧里利厄斯,甚至財政援助下亞歷山大塞維魯。

The Greeks regarded Thessaly and Thrace as the countries especially addicted to magic.希臘人視為塞薩利和色雷斯的國家,特別是沉迷於魔術。 The goddess Hecate, who was thought to preside over magical functions, was originally a foreign deity and was probably introduced into Greek mythology by Hesiod.女神赫科特,認為誰主持神奇的功能,原本是外國神,並可能引入希臘神話中的赫西奧德。 She is not mentioned in the Iliad or Odyssey though magic was rife in Homeric times.她是中沒有提到或伊利亞特奧德賽雖然充滿神奇的是在荷馬時代。 The great mythical sorceress of the Odyssey is Circe, famous for the well-known trick of changing men into beasts (Od., X-XII).偉大的神秘女巫的奧德賽是Circe ,著名的眾所周知的伎倆改變男子到野獸( Od. ,第十至十二) 。 In later times the foremost magician was Medea, priestess of Hecate; but the gruesome tales told of her express the Greek horror for, as well as belief in, black magic. Curse formulae or magic spells against the lives of one's enemies seem to have found no mightier name than Hermes Chthonios.在稍後的時間最主要的是美狄亞的魔術師,女祭司的赫科特;但可怕的故事,告訴她表示,希臘恐怖的,以及信仰,巫術。詛咒公式或魔法對生命的敵人似乎已經找到沒有強大的名字比愛馬仕Chthonios 。 As earth-god he was a manifestation of the world-soul and controlled nature's powers.作為地球之神,他體現了世界的靈魂和控制性質的權力。 In Egypt he was identified with Thoth, the god of hidden wisdom, became the keeper of magic secrets and gave his name to Trismegistic literature.在埃及,他被確認與托提,神隱藏的智慧,成為門將的神奇秘密,並讓他的名字Trismegistic文獻。 Greece, moreover, welcomed and honoured foreign magicians.希臘,此外,並榮幸地歡迎外國魔術師。 Apuleius, by education an Athenian, in his "Golden Ass" (c. AD 150), satirized the frauds of contemporary wonder-workers but praised the genuine magi from Persia. Apuleius ,通過教育的雅典,在他的“金驢” (角公元150 ) ,諷刺欺詐難怪當代工人,但讚揚了真正的賢士來自波斯。 When accused of magic, he defended himself in his "Apology" which shows clearly the public attitude towards magic in his day.當被告的魔力,他為自己辯護在他的“道歉”這清楚地表明公眾的態度在他的神奇一天。 He quoted Plato and Aristotle who gave credence to true magic St. Hippolytus of Rome (A Refutation of All Heresies, Bk. IV) gives a sketch of the wizardry practiced in the Greek-speaking world.他引用柏拉圖,亞里士多德是誰給相信真正的魔力街西波呂的羅馬(駁一切邪說,淺灘。四)給出了示意圖巫術實踐在希臘講的世界。

Teutons and Celts also had their magic though less is known of it.日爾曼和凱爾特人也有神奇的儘管不那麼眾所周知的。 The magical element in the First Edda and in the Beowulf is simple and closely connected with nature phenomena.神奇的因素在第一埃達和貝奧武夫是簡單和密切的聯繫與自然的現象。 Woden (Wodan) who invented the runes, was the god for healing and good charms.沃登( Wodan )誰發明了魯內斯小,是神的醫治和良好的魅力。 Loki was a malignant spirit who harassed mankind and with the witch Thoeck caused the death of Baldur (Balder).洛基是一個惡性本著誰騷擾人類與巫婆Thoeck造成死亡的博德之門(巴爾德) 。 The magic of the mistletoe seems to be an heirloom from earliest Teutonic times.的魔力槲寄生似乎是祖傳從最早的日爾曼倍。 The magic of the Celts seems to have been in the hands of the druids, who, though perhaps mainly diviners, appear also as magicians in Celtic heroic literature.的魔力凱爾特人似乎已在手中的德魯伊,誰,但也許主要diviners ,似乎也為魔術在凱爾特英雄文獻。 As they wrote nothing, little is known of their magical lore.當他們寫什麼,沒有人知道他們的神奇傳說。 For modern magic amongst uncivilized races consult especially Skeat's "Malay Magic" (London, 1900). Magic as a practice finds no place in Christianity, though the belief in the reality of magical powers has been held by Christians and individual Christians have been given to the practice.現代魔術的比賽中不文明的磋商特別是Skeat的“馬來魔” (倫敦, 1900年) 。魔術作為實踐認為,沒有發生在基督教,但信仰的現實神通已舉行的基督教徒和個人基督教徒已經考慮到這種做法。 Two main reasons account for the belief: first, ignorance of physical laws.主要有兩個原因賬戶的信念:第一,無知的物理規律。 When the boundary between the physically possible and impossible was uncertain, some individuals were supposed to have gained almost limitless control over nature.當之間的邊界實際上可能和不可能是不確定的,有些人理應獲得了幾乎是無限的控制權性質。 Their souls were attuned to the symphony of the universe; they knew the mystery of numbers and in consequence their powers exceeded the common understanding.他們的靈魂是適合交響樂的宇宙;他們知道的神秘數字和後果的權力,超出了共同的認識。 This, however, was natural magic. But, secondly, belief in the frequency of diabolical interference with the forces of nature led easily to belief in real magic.然而,這是自然的神奇。但是,第二,信仰的頻率惡魔干擾自然的力量容易導致信仰的真正的魔術。 The early Christians were emphatically warned against the practice of it in the "Didache" (v, 1) and the letter of Barnabas (xx, 1).早期的基督徒都強烈警告的做法,它在“十二使徒遺訓” (五, 1 )和文字的巴拿巴( 20 , 1 ) 。 In fact it was condemned as a heinous crime.事實上這是譴責的滔天罪行。 The danger, however, came not only from the pagan world but also from the pseudo-Christian Gnostics.的危險,然而,不僅來自世界各地的異教徒,而且從偽基督教Gnostics 。 Although Simon Magus and Elymas, that child of the devil (Acts 13:6 sqq.) served as deterrent examples for all Christians, it took centuries to eradicate the propensity to magic.儘管西蒙和Elymas賢者,即兒童的惡魔(使徒13點06 sqq 。 )擔任威懾的例子所有基督教徒,花了數百年來根除傾向魔術。 St. Gregory the Great, St. Augustine, St. Chrysostom, and St. Ephraem inveighed against it.聖格里高利大,聖奧古斯丁,聖金口,和聖Ephraem inveighed反對。 A more rational view of religion and nature had hardly gained ground, when the Germanic nations entered the Church and brought with them the inclination for magic inherited from centuries of paganism.更合理的宗教觀和性質幾乎沒有上漲,當日耳曼民族進入教會,使他們傾斜魔法世紀遺留下來的異教。 No wonder that during the Middle Ages wizardry was secretly practiced in many places notwithstanding innumerable decrees of the Church on the subject.難怪在中世紀魔法秘密練習在許多地方,儘管有無數的法令,教會這個問題。 Belief in the frequency of magic finally led to stringent measures taken against witchcraft.信仰的頻率魔術,最終導致了嚴厲的措施打擊巫術。

Catholic theology defines magic as the art of performing actions beyond the power of man with the aid of powers other than the Divine, and condemns it and any attempt at it as a grievous sin against the virtue of religion, because all magical performances, if undertaken seriously, are based on the expectation of interference by demons or lost souls.天主教神學定義為神奇的藝術表演的行動超出了人的力量的援助下的權力以外的神,並譴責任何企圖它看作一個嚴重的罪過憑藉對宗教,因為所有的神奇表演,如果進行認真,是基於期望的干擾,惡魔或丟失的靈魂。 Even if undertaken out of curiosity the performance of a magical ceremony is sinful as it either proves a lack of faith or is a vain superstition.即使進行了好奇心的表現神奇的儀式是有罪的,因為它可以證明缺乏信心或者是徒勞的迷信。 The Catholic Church admits in principle the possibility of interference in the course of nature by spirits other than God, whether good or evil, but never without God's permission.天主教會在原則上承認的可能性干涉過程中的精神性質以外的上帝,不管是好或邪惡的,但從來沒有在上帝的許可。 As to the frequency of such interference especially by malignant agencies at the request of man, she observes the utmost reserve.至於頻率的這種干涉尤其是惡性機構的請求人,她指出最大的儲備。

Publication information Written by JP Arendzen.出版信息書面由JP Arendzen 。 Transcribed by Matthew Daniel Eddy. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XI.轉錄的馬修丹尼爾渦流。天主教百科全書,卷席。 Published 1911. 1911年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, February 1, 1911. Nihil Obstat二月一日1911 。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor. Imprimatur.雷米Lafort ,性病,檢查員。認可。 +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰法利樞機主教,大主教紐約


R. CAMPBELL THOMPSON, Semitic Magic (London, 1908); THORNDYKE, The Place of Magic in the intellectual history of Europe in Stud.河坎貝爾湯普森,反猶魔術(倫敦, 1908年) ; THORNDYKE的地點在魔術隊歷史上的智力在歐洲螺柱。 Hist.歷史。 Econom. Econom 。 of Columbia University XXIV (New York, 1905); BUDGE, Egyptian Magic (London, 1899), SCHERMAN Griechische Zauberpapyri (Leipzig, 1909): KIESEWETTER Gesch.哥倫比亞大學二十四(紐約, 1905年) ;讓步,埃及魔術(倫敦, 1899年) , SCHERMAN希臘Zauberpapyri (萊比錫, 1909年) :基塞韋特Gesch 。 des neuren Okkultismus (Leipzig, 1891); WIEDEMANN Magic und Zauberei im alten Egypten (Leipzig, 1905), LANG, Magic and Religion (London 1910), HABERT, La religion des peuples non cirilises (Paris, 1907 IDEM, La Magic (Paris, 1908); ABT, Die Apologie des Apulejus ud antike Zauberei (1908), WEINEL, Die Wirkung des Geistes . . . bis auf Irendus (Freiburg, 1899); DU PREL, Magic ale Naturewissenshaft (2 vole., 1899); MATHERS, The Book of Sacred Magic (1458), reprinted (London, 1898); FRASER, The Golden Bough: a Study in Magic and Religion (3 volt., London, 1900). This last-mentioned work is indeed a storehouse of curious information, but is to be used with the utmost caution as it is vitiated by the author's prejudices. Readers are warned against the following works, which are either books on oonjuring or produotions of the RATIONALIST PRESS AGENCY CONYBEARE Myth, Magic and Morals; EVANS, The Old and New Magic; THOMPSON, Magic and Mystery.萬neuren Okkultismus (萊比錫, 1891年) ;蠅魔術與Zauberei免疫舊波蘭(萊比錫, 1905年) ,郎,魔術和宗教(倫敦1910 ) , HABERT ,香格里拉宗教萬人民的非cirilises (巴黎, 1907年同上,香格里拉魔術(巴黎, 1908年) ; ABT生根粉,模具之Apulejus辯護寰龍antike Zauberei ( 1908年) ,魏耐耳,模具效力精神。 。 。二奧夫Irendus (弗賴堡, 1899年) ;杜PREL ,魔術啤酒Naturewissenshaft ( 2田鼠。 , 1899年) ;馬瑟斯,這本書的神聖魔術( 1458 ) ,重印(倫敦, 1898年) ;弗雷澤的金枝:一個研究魔法與宗教( 3伏。 ,倫敦, 1900年) 。這最後提到的工作確實是一個好奇的倉庫資料,但可用於極為謹慎,因為它是無效的作者的偏見。讀者警告說,下面的作品,這是任何書籍oonjuring或produotions的理性通訊社科尼比爾神話,魔術和道德;埃文斯新舊魔術;湯普森,魔術和神秘。

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