Philosophical Terms哲學條款

General Information 一般信息

(Editor's Note: (編者注:
This is a capsule presentation of many philosophical positions. Most of these positions are closely related to Christianity or are responses to it.這是一個膠囊提出的許多哲學的立場。其中大部分職位是密切相關的基督教或正在採取的對策。 In the cases that have Christian or other religious significance, BELIEVE includes thorough presentations of these subjects.)在案件的基督教或其他宗教意義,相信包括全面介紹了這些問題。 )

BELIEVE Religious Information Source web-site相信宗教信息來源
Our List of 2,300 Religious Subjects我們所列出的2300名宗教科目
absolutism 絕對
The doctrine that there is one explanation of all reality-the absolute-that is unchanging and objectively true.該理論有一個解釋所有的現實,絕對的,這是不變的和客觀的事實。 Absolutists (such as GWF Hegel) hold that this absolute, such as God or mind, is eternal and that in it all seeming differences are reconciled. Absolutists (如GWF黑格爾)認為,這絕對的,如上帝或銘記,是永恆的,而且這一切似乎是調和的分歧。
agnosticism 不可知論
The belief that it is impossible to know whether God exists, or to have any other theological knowledge.相信這是不可能知道上帝是否存在,或有任何其他的神學知識。 English thinkers TH Huxley (1825-95) and Bertrand Russell were influential agnostics.英國思想家跳赫胥黎( 1825年至1895年)和羅素是有影響力的不可知論者。
altruism 利他主義
The ethical theory that morality consists of concern for and the active promotion of the interests of others.倫理道德理論,包括關心和積極促進其他國家的利益。 Altruists strongly disagree with the doctrine of egoism, which states that individuals act only in their own self-interest.利他主義者強烈反對的理論,利己主義,其中規定,個人行為只有在他們自己的利益。
Aristotelianism 亞里士多德
The thinking and writings of Aristotle, influential until the fall of Rome, when all but his writings on logic were lost to Christian civilization in Europe.在思想和亞里士多德的著作,有影響力的下降,直到羅馬,當所有的著作,但他的邏輯失去了基督教文明在歐洲。 However, his works were preserved in Syrian and Arabic cultures and were revived at the end of the twelfth century.然而,他的作品被保存在敘利亞和阿拉伯文化和恢復了結束時的12世紀。
asceticism 禁慾主義
The view that attention to the body's needs is evil, an obstacle to moral and spiritual development, and displeasing to God.認為,注意身體的需要,是邪惡的,阻礙了道德和精神發展,並displeasing上帝。 According to this view, humans are urged to withdraw into an inner spiritual world to reach the good life.根據這種觀點,人類是敦促撤回到內在精神世界達到美好的生活。
atheism 無神論
The rejection of the belief in God.拒絕相信上帝。 Some atheists have held that there is nothing in the world that requires a God in order to be explained.一些無神論者舉行了有什麼在世界上需要一個上帝,以便加以解釋。 Atheism is not the same as agnosticism, which holds that we can have knowledge neither of the existence nor of the nonexistence of God.無神論是不一樣的不可知論,持有,我們可以有知識既不存在也不是不存在的上帝。
British idealism (neo-Hegelianism) 英國唯心論(新黑格爾哲學)
The philosophy of Hegel as revived in England and Scotland in the mid-nineteenth century.在黑格爾哲學作為恢復英格蘭和蘇格蘭在十九世紀中葉。 The most prominent members of this school were TH Green (1836-82), Bernard Bosanquet (1848 - 1923), and FH Bradley (1846 - 1924).最突出的成員,這所學校是跳綠色( 1836年至1882年) ,伯納德葵( 1848年至1923年) ,和跳頻布拉德利( 1846至1924年) 。 They were united in their opposition to empiricism and utilitarianism and in their emphasis on mind and spirit as primary.他們團結一致,反對經驗主義和功利主義,並在其重點放在思想和精神作為首要。
Buridan's ass 布里丹的驢
A story, falsely attributed to the fourteenth-century thinker John Buridan, in which an ass, faced with two equally desirable bales of hay, starves to death because he cannot find a good reason for preferring one bale to the other.一個故事,錯誤地歸因於十四世紀的思想家約翰布里丹,其中一個屁股,面對兩個同樣不可取包乾草,挨餓致死,因為他不能找到一個很好的理由寧願一包的其他。
conceptualism 概念
The theory that general ideas, such as the idea of man or of redness, exist as entities produced by the human mind and that they can exist in the minds of all men.該理論的一般想法,如人的想法或發紅,存在的實體所產生的人的心靈,他們可以存在於頭腦中的所有男性。 This view is typically contrasted with nominalism and realism.這種觀點是典型的對比與唯名論和現實主義。
cosmogony 宇宙進化論
A theory or story about the origin of the universe, either scientific or mythological.理論或講述宇宙的起源,無論是科學或神話。 Cosmogonies are also called creation myths. Cosmogonies也稱為創造神話。
cosmology 宇宙
The systematic study of the origin and structure of the universe as a whole.該系統研究的起源和結構的宇宙作為一個整體。 In such philosophers as Plato, Aristotle, and Kant, cosmology was based on metaphysical speculation; today cosmology is a branch of the physical sciences.在這樣的哲學家如柏拉圖,亞里士多德,康德,宇宙學是基於形而上的投機;今天宇宙學是一門自然科學。
deism 自然神論
A philosophical viewpoint appearing in England in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries and in France in the eighteenth century.哲學觀點出現在英格蘭隊中的第十七和十八世紀,法國在18世紀。 Deists hold that although God created the universe and its laws, He then removed Himself from any ongoing interaction with the material world. Deists認為,儘管上帝創造了宇宙和它的法律,然後他自己取消任何正在進行的互動與物質世界。
deontology 義務論
The ethical philosophy that makes duty the basis of all morality.在倫理哲學,使責任的基礎上所有的道德準則。 According to deontological theorists, such as Kant, some acts-such as keeping a promise or telling the truth-are moral obligations regardless of their consequences.根據義務論的理論家,如康德,一些行為,如保持許諾或講真話,是道義上的義務,不論其後果。
determinism 宿命論
The view that every event has a cause and that everything in the universe is absolutely dependent on and governed by causal laws.據認為,每一個事件的原因,一切都在宇宙中是絕對依賴,並受到法律因果關係。 Since determinists believe that all events, including human actions, are predetermined, determinism is typically thought to be incompatible with free will.自determinists認為,所有事件,包括人的行動,是預定的,決定通常是被認為不符合自由意志。
dualism 二元
Any philosophical theory holding that the universe consists of, or can only be explained by, two independent and separate forces, such as matter and spirit, the forces of good and evil, or the supernatural and natural.任何哲學理論認為宇宙的組成,或只能被解釋為,兩個獨立和單獨的力量,如物質和精神的力量善惡,或超自然和自然。 See also mind-body problem.又見身心問題。
duty 責任
According to many ethical theories, the basis of the virtuous life.根據許多倫理的理論,根據良性的生活。 The Stoics held that man has a duty to live virtuously and according to reason; and Kant held that his categorical imperative is the highest law of duty, no matter what the consequences. Stoics舉行的這個人有責任的生活合乎道德,並根據原因;和康德認為,他是絕對必要的最高法律責任,不管什麼後果。
empiricism 經驗
The view that all knowledge of the world derives solely from sensory experience, using observation and experimentation if needed; empiricism also holds that reason on its own can never provide knowledge of reality unless it also utilizes experience.認為所有的知識世界產生完全來自感官經驗,利用觀察和實驗如果需要;經驗也認為,有理由對自己不能提供知識的現實,除非它還利用經驗。 See also British empiricism.又見英國的經驗主義。
Enlightenment (Age of Reason) 啟示(理性時代)
A period that stretched from the early seventeenth to the early nineteenth century, especially in France, England, and Germany.阿期間,伸展從早期第十七至十九世紀初,特別是在法國,英國,和德國。 Its thinkers strove to make reason the ruler of human life; they believed that all men could gain knowledge and liberation.它的思想家力求使統治者的原因人的生命;他們認為,所有的人能夠獲得的知識和解放。 Major Enlightenment figures include Voltaire, Rousseau, Diderot, and Montesquieu in France; Bacon, Hobbes, and Locke in England; and Leibniz, Lessing (1729-81), and Herder (1744 - 1803) in Germany.主要啟示數字包括伏爾泰,盧梭,狄德羅,孟德斯鳩和法國;培根,霍布斯,洛克和在英格蘭和萊布尼茨,萊辛( 1729年至1781年) ,和赫爾德( 1744年至1803年)在德國。
eschatology 末世論
In theology, the study of "final things," such as death, resurrection, immortality, the second coming of Christ, and the day of judgment.在神學研究的“最後的事情” ,如死亡,復活,永生,第二次來的基督,和一天的判決。
existentialism 存在
A philosophy of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.哲學十九世紀和二十世紀。 The dogma holds that since there are no universal values, man's essence is not predetermined but is based only on free choice; man is in a state of anxiety because of his realization of free will; and there is no objective truth. Major existentialists were Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, Sartre, Heidegger, Karl Jaspers (1883 - 1969), and the religious existentialists Martin Buber and Gabriel Marcel (1889 - 1973).的教條認為,由於沒有普遍價值,人的本質是不是預先確定的,但僅僅基於自由選擇;人是在一個國家的焦慮,因為他實現自由意志; ,也沒有客觀真理。 existentialists主要是克爾凱郭爾,尼采,薩特,海德格爾,雅斯貝爾斯( 1883年至1969年) ,以及宗教existentialists馬丁布伯和Gabriel馬塞爾( 1889至1973年) 。
fatalism 宿命論
The belief that "what will be will be," since all past, present, and future events have already been predetermined by God or another all-powerful force. In religion, this view may be called predestination; it holds that whether our souls go to Heaven or Hell is determined before we are born and is independent of our good deeds.相信, “這將是將” ,因為所有的過去,現在和未來發生的事件已經被預定了上帝或其他所有強大的力量。在宗教,這種看法可能是所謂的運氣,它認為,無論我們的靈魂去天堂或地獄是在我們出生的,是獨立於我們的善行。
free will 自由意志
The theory that human beings have freedom of choice or self-determination; that is, that given a situation, a person could have done other than what he did.該理論認為人類有自由選擇或自決,這是說,鑑於這種情況,一個人可以做以外他做過什麼。 Philosophers have argued that free will is incompatible with determinism.哲學家認為,自由意志是不符合決定。 See also indeterminism.又見非決定。
golden rule 金科玉律
The fundamental moral rule of most religions, especially Christianity, that states, "Do unto others as you would have others do unto you."最根本的道德規則,多數宗教,尤其是基督教國家, “不要告訴別人你會他人,勿施於你。 ”
Hegelianism (neo-Hegelianism) 黑格爾哲學(新黑格爾哲學)
A school of thought associated with Hegel in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, especially in England, America, France, and Italy. FG Bradley (1846 - 1924), Josiah Royce (1855 - 1916), and Benedetto Croce (1866 - 1952) were prominent members; they emphasized the importance of spirit and the belief that ideas and moral ideals are fundamental.一所學校的思想與黑格爾在十九世紀末和二十世紀初,尤其是在英國,美國,法國和意大利。膠布拉德利( 1846至1924年) ,喬賽亞勞斯萊斯( 1855年至1916年) ,以及克羅齊( 1866年至1952年)表現突出的成員,他們強調的精神和信念,即思想和道德理想是基本的。
Hobson's choice 霍布森的選擇
A choice offered without any real alternative- therefore, not really a choice at all.提供的選擇沒有任何真正的選擇,因此,不是一個真正的選擇了。
Humanism 以人為本
Any philosophic view that holds that mankind's well-being and happiness in this lifetime are primary and that the good of all humanity is the highest ethical goal.任何哲學觀點,即認為人類的福祉和幸福在這一輩子是小學和良好的所有人類最高的道德目標。 Twentieth-century humanists tend to reject all beliefs in the supernatural, relying instead on scientific methods and reason. The term is also used to refer to Renaissance thinkers, especially in the fifteenth century in Italy, who emphasized knowledge and learning not based on religious sources.二十世紀人文主義者往往拒絕所有信仰的超自然的,而是依靠科學的方法和原因。一詞也用來指文藝復興時期的思想家,特別是在15世紀在意大利,誰強調知識和學習不是基於宗教根源。
idealism 唯心論
A term applied to any philosophy holding that mind or spiritual values, rather than material things or matter, are primary in the universe.術語適用於任何哲學認為思想或精神價值觀,而不是物質的東西或事物,是主要在宇宙中。 See also British idealism.又見英國唯心論。
immortality 永生
The view that the individual soul is eternal, and thus survives the death of the body it resides in. See also transmigration of souls.認為個人的靈魂是永恆的,因此,生存死亡的機構,它所在又見輪迴的靈魂。
indeterminism 非決定
The view that there are events that do not have any cause; many proponents of free will believe that acts of choice are capable of not being determined by any physiological or psychological cause.據認為,有事件,沒有任何原因;許多主張自由意志認為,行為選擇有能力沒有得到任何確定的生理或心理的原因。
justice 司法
According to most philosophers, starting with Plato, the harmonious balance between the rights of the various members of a society.根據多數哲學家,柏拉圖開始,和諧之間取得平衡的權利,各成員的社會。 Justice is usually understood as including such social virtues as fairness, equality, and correct and impartial treatment.司法部通常理解為包括社會美德等作為公正,平等,正確和公正的待遇。
logical positivism 邏輯實證主義
A twentieth-century school founded in the 1920s in Europe that was extremely influential for American and English philosophers.阿20世紀學校成立於1920年在歐洲非常有影響力的美國和英國的哲學家。 It advocated the principle of verifiability, according to which all statements that could not be validated empirically were meaningless.它主張的原則,可核查,根據這項聲明,都不能確認經驗都毫無意義。 Logical positivism held that this principle showed that all of metaphysics, religion, and ethics was incapable of being proved either true or false.邏輯實證主義認為,這一原則表明,所有的形而上學,宗教和道德是不能被證明是不是真或假。 See also Vienna Circle.又見維也納學派。
Manichaeanism Manichaeanism
A religious-philosophical doctrine that originated in Persia in the third century and reappeared throughout the next 1300 years.宗教哲學的理論,起源於波斯在第三世紀,又出現了整個未來一千三百年。 It holds that the entire universe, especially human life, is a struggle between the opposing forces of good and evil (light and darkness).它認為,整個宇宙,特別是人的生命,是一個鬥爭的敵對勢力的善和惡(光明與黑暗) 。
Marxism 馬克思主義
The political, economic, and philosophical theories developed by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels in the second half of the nineteenth century.在政治,經濟和哲學理論開發的卡爾馬克思和恩格斯在第二十九世紀下半葉。 The philosophical side of Marxism is called dialectical materialism; it emphasizes economic determinism. See also dialectical materialism.哲學一側的馬克思主義,是所謂的辯證唯物論,它強調經濟決定。又見辯證唯物論。
materialism 唯物論
The theory that holds that the nature of the world is dependent on matter, or that matter is the only fundamental substance; thus, spirit and mind either do not exist or are manifestations of matter.該理論認為,大自然的世界依賴於物質,或這一問題是唯一的基本內容,因此,精神和銘記要么不存在或表現形式的問題。
meta-ethics 元倫理學
A branch of philosophy that analyzes ethics.的一個分支哲學,倫理分析。 It is concerned with such issues as, How are moral decisions justified?這是有關等問題,是如何道義決定是有道理的嗎? What is the foundation of any ethical view?什麼是基礎,任何道德的看法如何? What language is used to state moral beliefs?什麼語言是用來國家道德觀念?
metaphysics 形而上學
The branch of philosophy concerned with the ultimate nature of reality and existence as a whole.該分行有關哲學的最終性質的現實和存在作為一個整體。 Metaphysics also includes the study of cosmology and philosophical theology.形而上學還包括研究宇宙學和哲學神學。 Aristotle produced the first "system" of metaphysics.亞里士多德產生的第一個“系統”的形而上學。
monad 單子
According to Leibniz, the ultimate and indivisible units of all existence.據萊布尼茨,最終的和不可分割的單位,所有的存在。 Monads are not material, like atoms; each monad is self-activating, a unique center of force. Monads不是物質,像原子;每一個單子是自我激活,一個獨特的中心力量。 All monads are in a "pre-established harmony" with each other and with God, the supreme monad.所有monads是在“預先確定的和諧”相互之間以及與上帝,最高單子。
The theory that everything in the universe is composed of, or can be explained by or reduced to, one fundamental substance, energy, or force.該理論,一切都在宇宙中組成的,或可以解釋或減少,一個基本的物質,能源,或武力。
mysticism 神秘
Any philosophy whose roots are in mystical experiences, intuitions, or direct experiences of the divine.任何哲學,其根源是神秘的經驗,直覺,或直接經驗的神聖。 In such experiences, the mystic believes that his or her soul has temporarily achieved union with God.在這樣的經驗,神秘認為,他或她的靈魂已經暫時取得了工會與上帝。 Mystics believe reality can be known only in this manner, not through reasoning or everyday experience.神秘相信現實可以只知道這種方式,而不是通過推理或日常生活的經驗。
myth of Er 神話二
A parable at the end of Plato's Republic about the fate of souls after bodily death; according to Plato, the soul must choose wisdom in the afterlife to guarantee a good life in its next cycle of incarnation.阿寓言結束時,柏拉圖的共和國的命運,靈魂的身體死亡後,根據柏拉圖的靈魂必須選擇的智慧在來世以保證有一個好的生活在其下一次循環的化身。
naturalism 自然
A philosophic view stating that all there is in reality is what the physical and human sciences (for example, physics or psychology) study and that there is no need to posit any supernatural forces or being, such as God, mind, or spirit.哲學觀點指出,所有有在現實中是物理科學和人文科學(例如,物理或心理學)研究,就沒有必要斷定任何超自然的力量或正在,如上帝,心,或精神。
naturalistic fallacy 自然主義謬誤
A belief of many twentieth-century philosophers in England and America that it is invalid to infer any statements of morality (for example, "Men ought to act kindly") from factual statements (for example, "Kindness is a natural quality").相信許多二十世紀的哲學家在英格蘭和美國,這是無效的推斷任何陳述的道德(例如, “男人應該行動懇請” )從事實陳述(例如, “善良是一種自然的質量” ) 。 The notion tries to derive ought from is and was first described by Hume.這一概念試圖從中應該是和從第一次描述了休。
natural law 自然法則
The theory that there is a higher law than the manmade laws put forth by specific governments. This law is universal, unchanging, and a fundamental part of human nature.該理論,有較高的法律比人為的法律提出具體的政府。這項法律是普遍的,不變的,和一個基本組成部分人類的本性。 Advocates of this view believe that natural law can be discovered by reason alone.主張這種觀點認為,自然法可以發現的唯一的原因。 The theory originated with the Stoics and was elaborated on by St. Thomas Aquinas, among others.該理論起源與Stoics ,並闡述了由多瑪斯,等等。
natural rights 自然權利
Certain freedoms or privileges that are held to be an innate part of the nature of being a human being and that cannot be denied by society.某些自由或特權,舉行是一個天生的一部分的性質,是一個人,不能否認的社會。 These are different from civil rights, which are granted by a specific nation or government.這些都是不同的民事權利,這是理所當然的一個具體的國家或政府。 Philosophers have differed on which rights are natural, but usually included are life, liberty, equality, equal treatment under the law, the pursuit of happiness, and equality of opportunity.哲學家上有不同的權利是自然的,但通常包括生命,自由,平等,平等相待根據法律,追求幸福,平等的機會。 Locke's influential views on natural rights inspired the writers of the American Constitution.洛克有影響力的意見自然權利的作家的啟發,美國憲法。
Neoplatonism 新柏拉圖主義
A school of philosophy that flourished from the second to the fifth centuries AD It was founded by Plotinus and was influential for the next thousand years.一所學校的哲學,蓬勃發展的第二次至第五世紀廣告公司創始人普羅提諾和影響力在今後一千多年。
nihilism 虛無主義
A term first used in Fathers and Sons (1862) by the Russian novelist Turgenev.阿第一任期中使用父與子( 1862年)由俄羅斯作家屠格涅夫。 Ethical nihilism is the theory that morality cannot be justified in any way and that all moral values are, therefore, meaningless and irrational.道德虛無主義是道德理論,不能以任何理由和方式,所有的道德價值觀,因此,毫無意義的,不合理的。 Political nihilism is the social philosophy that society and its institutions are so corrupt that their complete destruction is desirable.政治虛無主義是社會哲學,社會及其機構是如此腐敗,其徹底摧毀是可取的。 Nihilists may, therefore, advocate violence and even terrorism in the name of overthrowing what they believe to be a corrupt social order. Nihilists可能,因此,鼓吹暴力甚至是恐怖主義的名義推翻了他們認為是一種腐敗的社會秩序。
nominalism 唯名論
The view that general terms, such as "table," do not refer to essences, concepts, abstract ideas, or anything else; "table" makes sense only because all tables resemble each other.認為,總體而言,如“表, ”沒有提及的本質,概念,抽象的概念,或其他任何“表”才有意義,因為所有表格彼此相似。 According to this view, such general terms do not have any independent existence.根據這種觀點,這種一般條款沒有任何獨立存在。
objectivism 客觀
The view that there are moral truths that are valid universally and that it is wrong to knowingly gain pleasure from causing another pain.據認為,有道德的真理是普遍和有效的,這是錯誤的明知增益高興造成另一種痛苦。
obligation 義務
In ethics, a moral necessity to do a specific deed. Some ethicists, following Kant, hold that moral obligations are absolute.在倫理,道德的必要性做一個具體行動。一些倫理學家後,康德認為,道義上的義務是絕對的。
Ockham's razor 奧卡姆剃刀
A principle attributed to the fourteenth-century English philosopher William of Ockham.一個原則歸因於十四世紀英國哲學家奧卡姆的威廉。 It states that entities should not be multiplied beyond necessity, or that one should choose the simplest explanation, the one requiring the fewest assumptions and principles.它指出,實體不應超出乘以必要性,或者說一個應該選擇最簡單的解釋,一個需要最少假設和原則。
ontology 本體
A branch of metaphysics that studies the nature of existence or reality, as such, as opposed to specific types of existing entities.的一個分支,研究形而上學的性質存在或現實,因為這樣,而不是特定類型的現有實體。
operationalism (operationism) operationalism ( operationism )
A philosophy of science according to which any scientific concept must be definable in terms of concrete, observable activities or the operations to which it refers.哲學科學根據的任何科學概念定義必須從具體的,看得見的活動或行動,它是指。
pantheism 泛神論
The belief that God and the universe are identical; among modern philosophers, Spinoza is considered to be a pantheist.相信上帝和宇宙是一致的;之間的現代哲學家,斯賓諾莎被認為是一個pantheist 。
Pascal's wager 帕斯卡賭注
An argument made by Blaise Pascal for believing in God.論點提出的布萊斯帕斯卡爾相信上帝。 Pascal said that either the tenets of Roman Catholicism are true or they are not.帕斯卡爾說,無論是原則羅馬天主教是真正的或它們並非如此。 If they are true, and we wager that they are true, then we have won an eternity of bliss; if they are false, and death is final, what has the bettor lost?如果他們是真正的,我們的賭注,他們是真的,那麼我們就獲得了永恆的幸福;如果他們是假的,死亡是最後的,什麼都bettor失去了? On the other hand, if one wagers against God's existence and turns out to be wrong, there is eternal damnation.另一方面,如果一個賭注對上帝的存在和證明是錯誤的,有永恆的詛咒。
personalism 人格
A term applied to any philosophy that makes personality (whether of people, God, or spirit) the supreme value or the source of reality.術語適用於任何哲學,使人格(不論是人,神,或精神)的最高價值或來源的現實。 Personalism as a movement flourished in England and America in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Personalists are usually idealists.人格作為一個運動的蓬勃發展在英國和美國在十九世紀和二十世紀。 Personalists通常是理想主義者。
pessimism 悲觀
The philosophic attitude holding that hope is unreasonable, that man is born to sorrow, and that this is the worst of all possible worlds. Schopenhauer's philosophy is an example of extreme pessimism.哲學持有的態度,希望是沒有道理的,人是出生在悲傷,這是最壞的一切可能的世界。叔本華的哲學就是一個例子極端悲觀。
philosopher king 哲學家國王
In Plato's Republic, a philosopher trained by formal study in disciplines including mathematics and philosophy.在柏拉圖的共和國,一個哲學家正規訓練的研究學科包括數學和哲學。 Plato emphasized that philosopher kings' leadership would be shown by their ability to see the Forms, or universal ideals.柏拉圖強調,哲學家國王的領導下將表現出的能力,看到形式,或普遍的理想。
philosophy of mind 哲學思想
The area of philosophy that studies the mind, consciousness, and mental functions such as thinking, intention, imagination, and emotion.該地區的哲學研究的思想,意識,心理功能,如思維,意向,想像力和情感。 It is not one specific branch of philosophy, but rather an aspect of most traditional branches, such as metaphysics, epistemology, and aesthetics.它不是一個具體的部門哲學,而是一個方面,最傳統的部門,如形而上學,認識論,和美學。
philosophy of religion 哲學,宗教
A branch of philosophy concerned with such questions as, What is religion?的一個分支哲學有關問題,諸如,什麼是宗教? What is God?什麼是上帝? Can God's existence be proved?可上帝存在的證明? Is there immortality? What is the relationship between faith, reason, and revelation?是否有永生?之間的關係是什麼信仰,因此,與啟示? Is there a divine purpose in the world?是否有一個神聖宗旨的世界嗎?
philosophy of science 科學哲學
The branch of philosophy that studies the nature of science.該分行的哲學的研究性質的科學。 It is particularly concerned with the methods, concepts, and assumptions of science, as well as with analyzing scientific concepts such as space, time, cause, scientific law, and verification.它特別關注的是與方法,概念和假設的科學,以及分析科學概念,如空間,時間,原因,科學規律和核查。
Platonism 柏拉圖
Thoughts and writings developed in the fifth century BC in Athens by Plato, the greatest student of Socrates.思想和著作發達國家在公元前五世紀雅典的柏拉圖,最偉大的蘇格拉底的學生。 Platonism's chief tenet is that the ultimate reality consists of unchanging, absolute, eternal entities called Ideas or Forms; all earthly objects are not truly real but merely partake in the Forms.柏拉圖的主要宗旨是,最終的現實是不變的,絕對的,永恆的實體要求的想法或形式;所有塵世對象是不是真正真正的只是參與的形式。
Plato's cave 柏拉圖的洞穴
An analogy in Plato's Republic between reality and illusion.比喻在柏拉圖的共和國之間的現實和幻想。 The main image is of men who see on the walls of a cave only the shadows of the real objects moving around outside the cave.主要形象是男人誰見的牆壁上只有一個洞穴的陰影真正的移動的物體周圍以外的洞穴。 When these men leave the cave and see the real objects, they cannot, upon returning to the cave, convince those who have never left of the reality of the objects.當這些人離開洞穴,看到了真正的對象,他們不能,回國後的洞穴,說服那些誰也從未離開過的現實的對象。
pluralism 多元化
The view that there are more than two kinds of fundamental, irreducible realities in the universe, or that there are many separate and independent levels of reality.認為有超過兩種基本的,不可現實宇宙中,或者說有許多單獨的和獨立的現實水平。
positivism 實證
A theory originated by French philosopher Auguste Comte.理論來源於法國哲學家奧古斯特孔德。 It holds that all knowledge is defined by the limits of scientific investigation; thus, philosophy must abandon any quest for knowledge of an ultimate reality or any knowledge beyond that offered by science.它認為,所有的知識是確定的界限的科學調查,因此,哲學必須放棄任何尋求知識的一個最終的現實或任何超越知識所提供的科學。 See also logical positivism.又見邏輯實證。
Pragmatism 實用主義
An American philosophy developed in the nineteenth century by Charles Sanders Peirce (1839 - 1914) and William James, and elaborated on in the twentieth century by John Dewey.美國哲學發達國家在19世紀由查爾斯桑德斯皮爾斯( 1839年至1914年)和威廉詹姆斯,並闡述了在二十世紀的杜威。 Its central precepts are that thinking is primarily a guide to action and that the truth of any idea lies in its practical consequences.其核心概念是,主要是思想行動的指南,而真理的任何想法在於它的實際後果。
principle (or law) of noncontradiction 原則(或法律)的noncontradiction
Dating back to Aristotle, this universally accepted "law of thought" has two parts: a statement cannot be both true and false; nothing can both have a quality, like red, and not have it, at the same time.可以追溯到亞里士多德,這個公認的“法律思想”有兩個部分:一份聲明中不能同時為true和false ;什麼都可以有一個質量一樣,紅的,沒有它,在同一時間。
rationalism 理性
The philosophic approach that holds that reality is knowable by the use of reason or thinking alone, without recourse to observation or experience.哲學的做法,認為,現實情況是可知的使用理由或獨自思考,不訴諸觀察或經驗。 See also seventeenth-century rationalists.又見17世紀的理性主義。
realism 現實主義
The major medieval and modern view on the problem of universals other than nominalism.主要中世紀和現代的觀點問題的共性以外唯名。 Extreme realism, which is close to Plato's theory of Forms, holds that universals exist independently of both particular things and the human mind; moderate realism holds that they exist as ideas in God's mind, through which He creates things.極端現實主義,這是接近柏拉圖的理論形式,普遍認為,獨立存在的事物,尤其是人的心靈;溫和的現實主義認為,他們存在的思想上帝的思想,通過他創造的東西。
relativism 相對論
The precept that people's ideas of right and wrong vary considerably from place to place and time to time; therefore, there are no universally valid ethical standards.的信條,人們的思想,正確和錯誤有很大的不同地點和時間的時間,因此,不存在放之四海而皆準的道德標準。
Scholasticism 士林
A general term referring to the Christian philosophy of the Middle Ages, especially at the medieval universities.的一般用語基督教哲學的中世紀,尤其是在中世紀的大學。 The Scholastics basically followed Aristotle's empiricism, using highly analytical logical and linguistic methods of argumentation, especially with respect to the problem of universals.該Scholastics基本上遵循亞里士多德的經驗主義,用高度的分析邏輯和語言方法的論證,特別是對問題的共性。
The theory that one cannot know anything other than his or her own thoughts, feelings, or perceptions; therefore, other people and the real world must be projections of one's own mind with no existence in and of themselves.該理論,人們可以不知道任何其他他或她自己的思想,感情,或觀念,因此,和其他人的現實世界中必須預測自己的頭腦,不存在本身。 See also egocentric predicament.又見自我中心困境。
spiritism 招魂術
A term referring to the belief that spirits of the dead communicate with the living, for instance, at seances or through a medium.術語指的是信念,即精神死者溝通的生活,例如,在seances或通過一個媒介。
spiritualism 唯心論
The view that the ultimate reality in the universe is the spirit.據認為,最終的現實宇宙中的精神。 Advocates of this view may disagree about the nature of the spirit.主張這一觀點可能會不同意的性質的精神。
Stoicism 儉樸
A Greek school founded by Zeno in the third century BC Stoics held that men should submit to natural law and that a man's chief duty is to conform to his destiny.希臘學校創辦的芝諾在公元前三世紀Stoics舉行,男子應該向自然法和一名男子的主要任務是,以符合自己的命運。 They also believed the soul to be another form of matter, and thus not immortal.他們還認為靈魂是另一種形式的問題,因此不能不朽的。
supernaturalism 超自然
The belief that there are forces, energies, or beings beyond the material world-such as God, spirit, or occult forces-that affect events in our world.相信,有力量,精力,或者超出人們的物質世界,如上帝,精神,或隱匿力量,影響的事件在我們的世界。
syllogism 三段論
A kind of deductive reasoning or argument.一種演繹推理或論證。 As defined by Aristotle, it was considered the basis of reasoning for over two thousand years.所界定的亞里士多德,有人認為根據推理超過二千年。 In every syllogism, there are two statements (premises) from which a conclusion follows necessarily.在每一個三段論,有兩個報表(樓宇)由其中一個結論如下必然。 Syllogisms are of three basic logical types, as illustrated by these examples: Syllogisms有三個基本的邏輯類型,說明了這些例子:
tabula rasa 白板
A Latin phrase meaning "blank slate," used by Locke to describe the state of the human mind at birth.一個拉丁短語意思是“一張完完全全的白紙, ”洛克所使用的描述狀態的人的心靈出生時。 Locke believed there are no innate ideas and that the mind gets all of its ideas from experience.洛克認為,沒有天生的想法,而獲得銘記所有的想法經驗。
teleological ethics 論道德
In contrast with deontological ethics, this moral theory holds that whether an action is morally right depends solely on its expected consequences. See also utilitarianism.與此相反的義務論道德,這種道德理論認為,一項行動是否在道義上是正確完全取決於其預期的後果。又見功利主義。
Thomism Thomism
The philosophical and theological system developed by St. Thomas Aquinas in the thirteenth century. One of its chief principles is that philosophy seeks truth through reason while theology seeks it through revelation from God; therefore, the two are compatible.在哲學和神學系統開發的多瑪斯在13世紀。之一,其主要原則是實事求是的哲學通過神學的理由,而要求通過上帝的啟示,因此,這兩個都是兼容的。
transcendent 超然
Beyond the realm of sense experience.超越常識的經驗。 In many religious views, God is held to be transcendent.在許多宗教的觀點,上帝是要舉行的是至高無上的。
Transcendentalism 超驗
A nineteenth-century movement developed in New England and expounded by Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803 - 82) and Henry David Thoreau (1817 - 62). 19世紀運動發展的新英格蘭,並闡述了愛默生( 1803至1882年)和亨利大衛梭羅( 1817年至1862年) 。 It maintains that beyond our material world of experience is an ideal spiritual reality that can be grasped intuitively.它堅持認為,超出了我們的物質世界的經驗,是一個理想的精神現實,可以直觀地把握。
transmigration of souls 輪迴的靈魂
The belief that the same soul can, in different lifetimes (incarnations), reside in different bodies, human or animal.相信,同樣的靈魂可以在不同的壽命(化身) ,居住在不同機構,人或動物。 While typically a part of most Eastern religions, the doctrine came into Western philosophy from Pythagoras and his contemporaries in the sixth century BC and especially through Plato.雖然通常的一部分最東方宗教,學說開始從西方哲學畢達哥拉斯和他的同時代人在公元前6世紀,特別是通過柏拉圖。
utilitarianism 功利主義
A theory of morality holding that all actions should be judged for rightness or wrongness in terms of their consequences; thus, the amount of pleasure people derive from those consequences becomes the measure of moral goodness.理論的道德舉行,所有行動應判斷為正確或不正當而言,其後果,因此,數額高興的人來自這些後果將成為衡量道德善良。 Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill, in the nineteenth century, were the chief proponents of this view. See also principle of utility.傑里米邊沁和彌爾,在十九世紀,是主要的支持者這一觀點。又見原則的實用工具。
utopianism 烏托邦主義
The belief in the possibility or desirability of not just a better but a perfect society.信念的可能性還是可取的不只是一個更好的,但一個完美的社會。 The term derives from Sir Thomas More's Utopia (1516), which depicts an ideal state.一詞源於托馬斯莫爾爵士的烏托邦( 1516年) ,描繪一個理想的狀態。 Utopian states also appear in the writings of Plato and Bacon.烏托邦州也出現在柏拉圖的著作和培根。
Young Hegelians 青年黑格爾派
A group of thinkers in Germany in the first half of the nineteenth century whose views strongly influenced Karl Marx. A組的德國思想家在第一十九世紀下半葉的意見強烈影響卡爾馬克思。 They were followers of Hegel who believed that the political conditions under which they lived were irrational.他們的追隨者黑格爾認為,誰的政治條件,使他們生活有不合理的。 They held that the goal of philosophy should be to promote a revolution of ideas and critical thinking about the world.他們認為,這一目標的哲學應當是促進革命的思想和批判性思維的世界。 Ludwig Feuerbach (1804 - 72) was the most important of the Young Hegelians.路德維希費爾巴哈( 1804年至1872年)是最重要的青年黑格爾派。

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