General Information 一般信息

Polytheism is the belief in and worship of many gods. It contrasts with Monotheism, belief in one god, and Pantheism, identification of God with the universe. 多神教的信仰和崇拜許多神。它的對比與一神教,信仰在一個神,和泛神論,確定上帝的宇宙。 In polytheism the gods are personified, distinguished by functions, related to one another in a cosmic family, and the subjects of myths and legends.在多神教的神人格化,尊敬的職能,與另一種在宇宙大家庭,主題的神話和傳說。

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The belief in a multitude of distinct and separate deities.相信在眾多的獨特和獨立的神。 It is formally contrasted with pantheism, the belief in an impersonal God identical with the universe, although the two doctrines can sometimes be found in the same religious tradition.這是正式的對比與泛神論,相信在相同的客觀上帝與宇宙,雖然這兩個理論有時會發現在同一宗教的傳統。 Polytheism is distinguished from theism, also called monotheism, on the basis of polytheism's claim that divinity, while personal and distinguished from the universe, is many rather than one.多神教有別於有神論,也稱為一神論的基礎上,多神教的主張,即神,而個人和尊敬的來自宇宙,是許多而不是一個。 Except for the great monotheisms of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, the world's religions are overwhelmingly polytheistic.除了偉大的monotheisms猶太教,基督教和伊斯蘭教,世界上宗教絕大多數是多神教。 Polytheism characterizes Hinduism, Mahayana Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, and Shintoism in the East, and also contemporary African tribal religions.多神教的特點印度教,大乘佛教,儒,道,神道教在東,也當代非洲部落的宗教。 In the ancient world Egyptians, Babylonians, and Assyrians worshipped a plurality of deities, as did the ancient Greeks, Romans, and Norse.在古代世界埃及人,巴比倫人,亞述人崇拜和多元化的神明一樣,古希臘人,羅馬人,和北歐。 Belief in several distinct deities serves to provide a focus for popular religious devotion when the official deity or deities of the religion are remote from the common person.相信在幾個不同的神明可以提供一個重點流行時,宗教奉獻的官方神或神的宗教遠離普通的人。

According to Ninian Smart, deities are formed around a number of aspects of life.據尼尼安的智能,神佛周圍形成了若干方面的生活。 These include natural forces and objects such as fertility and atmospheric forces; vegetation such as trees, sacred herbs, and vineyards; animal and human forms such as serpents, cattle, and animal - human hybrids; and assorted functions such as love, agriculture, healing, and war.這些措施包括自然力量和物體,如生育率和大氣部隊;植被,如樹木,神聖的草藥,和葡萄園;動物和人的形式,如蛇,牛,和動物-人類雜種;和各種功能,如愛,農業,癒合,和戰爭。

The birth of Western philosophy in ancient Greece occurred in a culture with a rich popular polytheism.出生西方哲學在古希臘發生在文化與豐富的流行多神教。 Socrates was sentenced to death for "impiety" and "atheism" in denying the deities worshipped by Athens and for corrupting the youth.蘇格拉底被判處死刑“ impiety ”和“無神論”的否定神崇拜的雅典和腐蝕青年。 Socrates firmly believed in the divine, and in fact believed himself to have a special mission from the gods.蘇格拉底堅信神聖的,事實上,認為自己有特殊使命的神。 His theology was more philosophically and spiritually sophisticated than that of his contemporaries.他的神學是哲學和更複雜的精神比他的同時代人。 It became in fact a matter of indifference in his thought whether gods were one or many, since he denied the distinct personality quirks and moral irregularities that served to differentiate them within the Greek pantheon.它成為事實上的問題漠不關心的他的思想是否有一個神或許多,因為他否認了獨特的個性怪癖和道義上的違規行為,有助於區分它們在希臘萬神殿。 His successor Plato carried on this tradition, and held that in a well run state there would have to be substantial revision in the Homeric mythology before allowing it to be used, because it depicted the gods performing evil and petty acts (Republic 376e - 383c).他的繼任者進行柏拉圖這一傳統,並認為,在良好運行狀態必須有實質性修訂在荷馬的神話之前允許它被使用,因為它描述了神的表演邪惡和零用行為(共和國376e -3 83c) 。 Thus the intellectual motive for maintaining a plurality of deities was disappearing from philosophy at an early stage.因此,知識分子的動機保持一個多元化的神明是從哲學消失在早期階段。

Islam erroneously interprets the Christian Trinity as a polytheistic doctrine, and ancient Israel possibly contended with the devotion to other deities in addition to Yahweh. Nonetheless, it is clear that Judaism, Christianity, and Islam represent forms of theism incompatible with polytheism. 錯誤地解釋伊斯蘭教基督教三一作為一個多神教理論,和古老的以色列可能爭辯的奉獻精神給其他神明除了耶和華。然而 ,很顯然,猶太教,基督教和伊斯蘭教的代表形式的有神論不符合多神教。 As the West becomes infiltrated with Eastern religions and their derivative movements, Western Christians will need directly to confront polytheism.正如西方成為滲透與東方宗教及其衍生物運動,西方基督教徒將需要直接面對多神教。

DB Fletcher數據庫弗萊徹
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (規矩福音字典)

Bibliography 目錄
SGF Brandon, ed., A Dictionary of Comparative Religion; LE Goodman, Monotheism: A Philosophical Inquiry; JM Koller, Oriental Philosophies; Plato, Apology and Republic; N Smart, "Polytheism," Encybrit; GE Swanson, The Birth of the Gods: The Origin of Primitive Beliefs. SGF布蘭登,版。 ,詞典比較宗教學;樂古德曼,一神教:一個哲學探究; JM科勒,東方哲學,柏拉圖,道歉和共和國; ñ智能, “多神教” , Encybrit ;葛斯旺森,出生率眾神:起源的原始信仰。


Catholic Information 天主教新聞

The belief in, and consequent worship of, many gods.的信念,並由此崇拜,許多神。 See the various articles on national religions such as the Assyrian, Babylonian, Hindu, and the ancient religions of Egypt, Greece, and Rome; see also ANIMISM, FETISHISM, TOTEMISM, GOD, MONOTHEISM, PANTHEISM, etc.見的各項條款對國家的宗教,如亞述人,巴比倫人,印度教,和古老的宗教埃及,希臘,羅馬;又見萬物有靈論,拜物教,圖騰崇拜,神,一神論,泛神論等

Publication information The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XII.出版信息天主教百科全書,卷十二。 Published 1911. 1911年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, June 1, 1911. Nihil Obstat , 1911年6月1日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.雷米Lafort ,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York認可。 +約翰法利樞機主教,大主教紐約

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