General Information 一般信息

Soul is a term rarely used with precise definition in philosophy, religion, or common life.靈魂是一個長期很少使用精確的定義在哲學,宗教,或共同生活。 It is generally regarded as descriptive of an entity related to but distinguishable from the body--the spiritual part of human beings that animates their physical existence and survives death.它被普遍認為是描述一個實體有關,但有別於機構-精神的一部分人認為他們的身體存在活力和生存死亡。

Primitive religions tend to associate the soul with the vital force in humans and often identify it with particular parts or functions of the body (the heart or kidneys, the breath or pulse).原始宗教往往準的靈魂的重要力量,而且往往在人類識別特別的部分或職能的機構(心髒病或腎臟,呼吸或脈衝) 。 Other religions show traces of such animistic ideas.其他宗教的痕跡表明這種animistic的想法。 In Hinduism, the Atman (originally meaning "breath") is the individual factor that is indestructible and that after death is reborn in another existence.在印度教的阿特曼(原意思是“呼吸” ) ,是個人的因素,是堅不可摧的,而且是死後重生在另一個的存在。 But Atman is identified with Brahman, the Source of all things to which the soul ultimately returns when it ceases to have a separate existence.但是,阿特曼是確定婆羅門來源,一切事物的靈魂最終返回時,不再有一個單獨存在。 (Buddhism, on the other hand, repudiates the notion of Atman, positing the theory of Anatta, nonself.) Early Jewish thought did not conceive the soul as existing apart from the body except in the shadowy realm of departed spirits (Sheol). (佛教,另一方面,否定概念的阿特曼,定位理論,無我,非我。 )早期猶太思想沒有想像的靈魂現有除了身體的影子,除非離開精神境界( Sheol ) 。 Greek and especially Platonic thought divided humans into two parts: body and soul.希臘,尤其是柏拉圖式的思想分為人類分為兩部分:身體和靈魂。 The soul, often referred to as the psyche, was considered both preexistent and immortal.靈魂,通常被稱為心理,認為這兩個preexistent和不朽。

The early Christian church lived under the influence of Greek ideas about the body and soul, although biblical teachings about Resurrection were superimposed on them. Throughout the history of the Christian church, there has been no clearly defined and universally accepted metaphysical conception of the soul.早期的基督教教堂生活的影響下,希臘思想的身體和靈魂,雖然聖經教義關於復活了疊加在它們。縱觀歷史上的基督教教堂,一直沒有明確界定和普遍接受的形而上觀念的靈魂。 Nevertheless, Christian theology and worship have adhered firmly to the conviction of personal survival after death rooted in belief in the love of God and the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead.然而,基督教神學和宗教堅持堅定的信念,個人的生存死後根植於信仰的上帝的愛和復活耶穌基督從死裡復活。

BELIEVE Religious Information Source web-site相信宗教信息來源
Our List of 2,300 Religious Subjects我們所列出的2300名宗教科目
Philosophy has long been preoccupied with speculation about the existence and nature of the soul and its relationship to the body.哲學一直關注猜測的存在和性質的靈魂和身體的關係。 In the 20th century many philosophers have argued, following William James, that the concept of the soul is neither verifiable nor necessary to an understanding of humankind's mode of existence in the world.在20世紀的許多哲學家都認為,以下威廉詹姆斯,這一概念的靈魂既不是可核查的,也沒有必要了解人類的生存模式在世界上。

Charles W. Ranson查爾斯蘭森

Bibliography 參考書目
Cullmann, Oscar, Immortality of the Soul or Resurrection of the Dead?所有Cullmann ,奧斯卡,不朽的靈魂或,死人復活? (1958); Kenny, Anthony JP, The Anatomy of the Soul: Historical Essays in the Philosophy of Mind (1973); Laird, John, The Idea of Soul (1970); Rank, Otto, Psychology and the Soul (1961); Swinburne, Richard, The Evolution of the Soul (1986). ( 1958年) ;肯尼安東尼太平紳士的解剖靈魂:歷史散文中的心靈哲學( 1973年) ;萊爾德,約翰的想法靈魂( 1970年) ;排名,奧托,心理和靈魂( 1961年) ;斯溫伯恩,理查德的演進的靈魂( 1986年) 。


Advanced Information 先進的信息

A Soul is a living being, life principle, person, or individual spiritual nature. It may be ascribed to animals (Gen. 1:30; Rev. 8:9) and to God (Lev. 26:11; Isa. 42:1).靈魂是一種活的,生活的原則,人,或個人的精神性的。這可能是歸因於動物(將軍1:30 ;牧師8時09分)和神( Lev. 26:11 ;赫伊薩。 42 : 1 ) 。 It is often used interchangeably with spirit, although distinctions that begin to appear in the OT are carried forward in the NT.人們常常互換使用的精神,雖然區別開始出現在加時賽結轉在新界。 Thus while soul in the NT normally means an individual spiritual entity with a material body so that a person is thought of as a body-soul, spirit is the special gift of God which places one in relationship to him.因此,雖然靈魂在新界通常是指一個人的精神與物質實體的機構,這樣一個人認為是一種身體的靈魂,精神是上帝的特殊禮物是一個地方的關係給他。 Scripture states that Jesus gave his spirit to his Father (Luke 23:46; John 19:30), but elsewhere it is said that he gave his soul as a ransom for many (Matt. 20:28; John 10:15). In general terms then it can be said that soul in Scripture is conceived to be an immaterial principle created by God, which is usually united to a body and gives it life; however, the soul continues to exist after death in human beings (Matt. 10:28; James 5:20; Rev. 6:9; 20:4), a condition which is ended at the close of this age (I Cor. 15:35-55).聖經指出,耶穌所給他的精神是他的父親(路加福音23:46 ;約翰19:30 ) ,但其他地方有人說,他把自己的靈魂作為贖金許多(太20:28 ;約翰10:15 ) 。從總體上看,那麼,可以說是靈魂的經文設想是一個無關緊要的原則,由上帝創造出來的,通常是美國一個機構,賦予它生命,但是,仍然存在靈魂後死亡的人(太10:28 ;詹姆斯五時20 ;牧師6時09分; 20時零四)一個條件,這是結束在結束這個年齡(我心病。 15:35-55 ) 。

The Early Church初期教會

Speculation about the soul in the subapostolic church was heavily influenced by Greek philosophy.猜測的靈魂在subapostolic教堂嚴重影響了希臘哲學。 This is seen in Origen's acceptance of Plato's doctrine of the preexistence of the soul as pure mind (nous) originally, which, by reason of its fall from God, cooled down to soul (psyche) when it lost its participation in the divine fire by looking earthward.市場普遍認為這是在奧利接受柏拉圖的理論前世的靈魂為純銘記(常識)原來,這是由於其屬於上帝,冷卻到靈魂(精神)時,失去了參與的神聖火尋找earthward 。 It is also seen in Tertullian's repudiation of Greek ideas and his insistence on the biblical teaching of the union of the soul, an immaterial creation of God, with the material body which has been made for it.這也是從良的譴責希臘的思想和他堅持聖經教學聯盟的靈魂,一個無關緊要的創造神,與材料的機構,已經取得的。

Augustine's great influence was felt in the church in his teaching about the soul as in other matters.奧古斯丁的巨大影響感到在他的教會的靈魂教學的其他事項。 Condemning the heathen notions that the soul was originally a part of God, an idea which he calls blasphemy, that it is corporeal, or that it becomes polluted through the body, he saw the soul as a rational-spiritual substance made "like God," and made by him, sustaining and directing the body (The Greatness of the Soul, XIII, 22).譴責異教徒概念最初的靈魂的一部分上帝,一個想法,他呼籲褻瀆,它是物質的,或者它成為污染通過身體,他看到的靈魂作為理性精神實質作了“像上帝, “和他所作的,維持和指揮機構(偉大的靈魂,十三, 22 ) 。 Concerning its origin and whether it was created by God or transmitted by parents, Augustine might be unsure (On the Soul and Its Origin, I, 27), but of its "proper abode" and "homeland" he was certain, and that is God (The Greatness of the Soul, I, 2).關於其來源以及它是否是由上帝創造出來的,或轉交的父母,可能是不確定奧古斯丁(論靈魂及其起源,我, 27歲) ,但其“適當的居留權”和“家園” ,他肯定,那就是上帝(偉大的靈魂,一, 2 ) 。

Origin of the Soul原產地的靈魂

Augustine's reluctance to take sides in the debate on the origin of the soul was not shared by his contemporaries.奧古斯丁不願採取雙方在辯論中的原產地的靈魂不同意他的同時代人。 Some Greek church fathers shared Origen's theory that the soul preexisted with God and that it was assigned to a body as a penalty for its sin of looking downward.一些希臘教會共同奧利父親的理論,即靈魂與上帝和preexisted ,它被分配到一個機構作為懲罰其罪惡尋找下調。 Most, however, accepted the creationist view that God created each individual soul at the moment that he gave it a body, while some, like Tertullian, held the traducianist theory that each soul is derived, along with the body, from the parents.但是,大多數接受創世認為,上帝創造每個人的靈魂的時刻,他給了它一個機構,而有些,如良,舉行了traducianist理論 ,每一個靈魂,導出,隨著機構,由家長。

Arguments cited in favor of creationism were (1) that Scripture distinguishes the origin of man's soul and body (Eccl. 12:7; Isa. 42:5; Zech. 12:1; Heb. 12:9); (2) that creationism preserves the idea of the soul as a simple, indivisible substance better than traducianism, which requires the idea of the division of the soul and its derivation from the parents; and (3) that it makes more credible Christ's retention of a pure soul than does traducianism. 論據引用有利於創造了( 1 )聖經的起源區分人的靈魂和身體( Eccl. 12點07分;赫伊薩。 42:5 ; Zech 。 12:1 ;希伯來。 12時09分) ; ( 2 )創保留思想的靈魂是一個簡單的,不可分割的物質優於traducianism ,這需要的想法,該司的靈魂及其衍生物的父母;和( 3 ) ,它使更可信的基督的保留比純粹的靈魂不traducianism 。

In behalf of traducianism it was said (1) that certain Scripture supports it (Gen. 2:2; Heb. 7:10; cf. I Cor. 11:8); (2) that it offers the best theory for the whole race having sinned in Adam; (3) that it is supported by the analogy of lower life in which numerical increase is obtained by derivation; (4) that it teaches that parents beget the whole child, body and soul, and not just the body; and (5) that it was necessary for Christ to have received his soul from the soul of Mary in order to redeem the human soul. 在代表traducianism有人說( 1 ) ,某些聖經支持(將軍2點02分;希伯來。 7:10 ;比照。我心病。 11時08分) ; ( 2 ) ,它提供了最好的理論對整個比賽中有犯罪亞當; ( 3 ) ,這是支持的類比壽命較低的數值增加得到推導; ( 4 ) ,它教導我們,父母招致整個兒童,身體和靈魂,而不僅僅是身體;和( 5 ) ,這是必要的基督已收到他的靈魂從瑪麗的靈魂,以換取人的靈魂。

Augustine carefully weighed the arguments on each side of the controversy, leaning toward traducianism for a time even while he saw the difficulty of retaining the soul's integrity with this hypothesis; later he admitted that he was perplexed and baffled by the question.奧古斯丁認真權衡的論點兩邊的爭議,傾向traducianism甚至有一段時間,而他看到的困難,保持靈魂的完整性這一假說;後來他承認他感到不解和困惑的問題。

A contemporary theologian who takes essentially the same stance is GC Berkouwer, who calls the controversy "unfruitful," inasmuch as it wrongly assumes that the issue is one of horizontal or vertical relations.當代神學誰需要基本上是相同的立場是氣相色譜Berkouwer ,誰呼籲爭議“徒勞” ,因為它錯誤地假定該問題是橫向或縱向的關係。 "Such a way of putting it is far too feeble an attempt to render adequately the greatness of the work of God" (Man: The Image of God, 292). “這樣的方式把它太軟弱,企圖使充分的偉大工作的上帝” (文:天主的肖像所, 292 ) 。 The God of Israel does not create only in the distant past, but he is constantly active in human history, the Creator in horizontal relationships as well as others.上帝的以色列並不只能建立在遙遠的過去,但他始終活躍在人類歷史上,造物主在橫向關係以及其他國家。 To speak about a separate origin of the soul he sees as impossible biblically, inasmuch as this creationist theory sees the relationship to God as "something added to the 'essentially human,' which later is defined independently as 'soul' and 'body.'談論一個獨立起源的靈魂,他認為不可能聖經,因為這創世理論認為,對上帝的關係稱為“添加到'基本上是人,後來是指獨立'靈魂'和'機構。 Both soul and body can then be viewed in different 'causal' relationships without reference to some intrinsic non-causal relationship to God. If, however, it is impossible to speak of the essence of man except in this latter religious relationship, then it also becomes impossible to introduce duality into the origin of soul and of body within the unitary human individual" (303).靈魂和身體都可以被看作不同的'因果'關係沒有提及一些固有的非因果關係上帝。然而,如果這是不可能談論人的本質,除非後者宗教關係,那麼它也不可能引進偶成的起源靈魂和身體的統一人力個人“ ( 303 ) 。

ME Osterhaven ME的Osterhaven
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (規矩福音字典)

Bibliography 參考書目
GC Berkouwer, Man: The Image of God; A. Dihle et al., TDNT, IX, 608-66; CA Beckwith, SHERK, XI, 12-14; C. Hodge, Systematic Theology, II; L. Berkhof, Systematic Theology.氣相色譜Berkouwer ,男:天主的肖像所;答: Dihle等。 , TDNT ,九, 608-66 ;晚上貝克威思, SHERK ,十一, 12月14日;角霍吉,系統神學,二;研究Berkhof ,系統神學。


Additional Information 其他信息

There are four theories of the origin of the individual soul:有四種理論的起源,個人的靈魂:

Genesis 2:7 tells of God's breathing into man the breath of life (a soul) implying that He never repeated doing that after Adam.成因2點07告訴上帝的呼吸進入人的生活氣息(靈魂)暗示,他從未做到這一點後反复亞當。 This seems to favor Traducianism, but arguments for the other alternatives have sometimes been offered based on that same Scripture.這似乎有利於Traducianism ,但爭論的其他替代辦法有時提供基於同樣的聖經。

The concept of Soul is so esoteric that there are some scholars who deny the very existence of it, partly because there has never been any concrete evidence that proves its existence.靈魂的概念是如此深奧,有一些學者誰否認它的存在,部分原因是從未有過任何具體證據來證明它的存在。 Of course, in that event, any discussion regarding the origin of the Soul becomes meaningless.當然,在這種情況下,任何討論的起源有關的靈魂變得毫無意義。


Catholic Information 天主教新聞

(Greek psyche; Latin anima; French ame; German Seele). (希臘精神;拉丁美洲靈魂;法國跛腳;德國靈魂) 。

The question of the reality of the soul and its distinction from the body is among the most important problems of philosophy, for with it is bound up the doctrine of a future life.這個問題的現實的靈魂和它的區別是從身體的最重要問題的哲學,它是為與約束的理論未來的生活。 Various theories as to the nature of the soul have claimed to be reconcilable with the tenet of immortality, but it is a sure instinct that leads us to suspect every attack on the substantiality or spirituality of the soul as an assault on the belief in existence after death. The soul may be defined as the ultimate internal principle by which we think, feel, and will, and by which our bodies are animated.各種理論的性質,靈魂都聲稱自己調和與不朽的宗旨,但它是一個肯定的本能,導致我們懷疑一切攻擊或精神充實的靈魂的攻擊中存在的信仰後,死亡。靈魂可以被定義為最終的內部原則,我們認為,感覺,並會和我們的機構是動畫。 The term "mind" usually denotes this principle as the subject of our conscious states, while "soul" denotes the source of our vegetative activities as well.術語“銘記”這一原則通常是指作為主體的國家,我們有意識的,而“靈魂”是指我們的營養來源的活動。 That our vital activities proceed from a principle capable of subsisting in itself, is the thesis of the substantiality of the soul: that this principle is not itself composite, extended, corporeal, or essentially and intrinsically dependent on the body, is the doctrine of spirituality.我們的重要活動,從原則能夠存續的本身,是論文的充實的靈魂:這一原則本身並不是複合,擴展,有形的,或本質上和本質上依賴於機構,是理論的靈性。 If there be a life after death, clearly the agent or subject of our vital activities must be capable of an existence separate from the body.如果有一個死後,明確了代理或主題的重要活動必須能夠有一個獨立的機構。 The belief in an animating principle in some sense distinct from the body is an almost inevitable inference from the observed facts of life.相信在一個生動活潑的原則,在一定程度上有別於機構幾乎是不可避免的推理所觀察到的事實的生活。 Even uncivilized peoples arrive at the concept of the soul almost without reflection, certainly without any severe mental effort.即使達成不文明人民概念的靈魂幾乎沒有思考,當然沒有任何嚴重的精神努力。 The mysteries of birth and death, the lapse of conscious life during sleep and in swooning, even the commonest operations of imagination and memory, which abstract a man from his bodily presence even while awake-all such facts invincibly suggest the existence of something besides the visible organism, internal to it, but to a large extent independent of it, and leading a life of its own.奧秘的出生率和死亡率,失效意識到生活在睡眠和swooning ,甚至最常見的行動的想像力和內存,摘要一名男子從他的身體存在,即使醒著,戰無不勝所有這些事實表明,存在著一些除了可見的有機體,它的內部,但在很大程度上是獨立的,並領導自己的生命。 In the rude psychology of the primitive nations, the soul is often represented as actually migrating to and fro during dreams and trances, and after death haunting the neighbourhood of its body.在粗魯的心理原始國家,往往是代表靈魂實際遷移到來回在夢想和trances ,以及死後作祟鄰里的機構。 Nearly always it is figured as something extremely volatile, a perfume or a breath.它幾乎總是佔有的東西極為動盪,香水或呼吸。 Often, as among the Fijians, it is represented as a miniature replica of the body, so small as to be invisible.通常情況下,斐濟之間,這是派一個縮影複製品的身體,所以小隱藏。 The Samoans have a name for the soul which means "that which comes and goes".薩摩亞有一個名稱為靈魂的意思是“這是來得快,去” 。 Many peoples, such as the Dyaks and Sumatrans, bind various parts of the body with cords during sickness to prevent the escape of the soul.許多國家的人民,如Dyaks和Sumatrans ,結合各地區的機構,電線生病期間,以防止逃逸的靈魂。 In short, all the evidence goes to show that Dualism, however uncritical and inconsistent, is the instinctive creed of "primitive man" (see ANIMISM).總之,所有的證據表明,到二元,但批評和不一致的,是本能的信仰的“原始人” (見萬物有靈) 。


Early literature bears the same stamp of Dualism.早期文學負有相同的郵票的兩重性。 In the "Rig-Veda" and other liturgical books of India, we find frequent references to the coming and going of manas (mind or soul).在“鑽機吠陀”和其他禮儀圖書的印度,我們發現經常提到的來來往往瑪納斯(銘記或靈魂) 。 Indian philosophy, whether Brahminic or Buddhistic, with its various systems of metempsychosis, accentuated the distinction of soul and body, making the bodily life a mere transitory episode in the existence of the soul.印度哲學,是否Brahminic或佛教,其各項制度的輪迴,加劇了區分的靈魂和身體,使身體的生命只有短暫的插曲中存在的靈魂。 They all taught the doctrine of limited immortality, ending either with the periodic world-destruction (Brahminism) or with attainment of Nirvana (Buddhism).他們所有的理論講授有限不死,結束或者定期世界毀滅( Brahminism ) ,或與實現涅槃(佛教) 。 The doctrine of a world-soul in a highly abstract form is met with as early as the eighth century before Christ, when we find it described as "the unseen seer, the unheard hearer, the unthought thinker, the unknown knower, the Eternal in which space is woven and which is woven in it."理論的一個世界的靈魂在一個高度抽象的形式會見了早在公元前8世紀,當我們找到它稱為“看不見的先知,是聞所未聞聽話,該unthought思想家,未知能知,永恆的空間是編織和機織的是它。 “

In Greece, on the other hand, the first essays of philosophy took a positive and somewhat materialistic direction, inherited from the pre-philosophic age, from Homer and the early Greek religion.在希臘,另一方面,第一哲學散文採取積極和一定的物質的方向,繼承了前哲學時代,從荷馬和早期希臘宗教。 In Homer, while the distinction of soul and body is recognized, the soul is hardly conceived as possessing a substantial existence of its own.在荷馬,而區分的靈魂和身體是公認的,靈魂是很難設想為擁有大量存在,其本身。 Severed from the body, it is a mere shadow, incapable of energetic life.將從機構,它只是一個影子,無法精力充沛的生活。 The philosophers did something to correct such views.哲學家做了糾正這種看法。 The earliest school was that of the Hylozoists; these conceived the soul as a kind of cosmic force, and attributed animation to the whole of nature.最早的學校,在Hylozoists ;這些設想的靈魂作為一種宇宙的力量,因為動畫的整個性質。 Any natural force might be designated psyche: thus Thales uses this term for the attractive force of the magnet, and similar language is quoted even from Anaxagoras and Democritus.任何自然力量可以指定心理:泰利斯因此使用這個詞的吸引力武力的磁鐵,和類似的語言是由阿那克薩哥拉引述甚至和德謨克利特。 With this we may compare the "mind-stuff" theory and Pan-psychism of certain modern scientists.與此,我們可能比較“觀念的東西”的理論和泛psychism某些現代科學家。 Other philosophers again described the soul's nature in terms of substance.其他哲學家再次闡述了靈魂的性質的實質內容。 Anaximander gives it an aeriform constitution, Heraclitus describes it as a fire.阿那克西曼德賦予它一個無形的憲法,赫拉克利特把它描述為一個防火。 The fundamental thought is the same.基本思想是相同的。 The cosmic ether or fire is the subtlest of the elements, the nourishing flame which imparts heat, life, sense, and intelligence to all things in their several degrees and kinds. The Pythagoreans taught that the soul is a harmony, its essence consisting in those perfect mathematical ratios which are the law of the universe and the music of the heavenly spheres.宇宙醚或火災是subtlest的因素,其中柔軟劑滋補火焰熱,生命,意義,以及情報,以萬物在其數度和種類。 Pythagoreans教導的靈魂是和諧,其實質包括那些完美的數學比率這是法律的宇宙和音樂的神聖領域。 With this doctrine was combined, according to Cicero, the belief in a universal world-spirit, from which all particular souls are derived.與這一理論相結合,根據西塞羅,相信在一個普遍的世界精神,特別是從所有的靈魂產生。

All these early theories were cosmological rather than psychological in character.所有這些早期的理論是宇宙,而不是心理性的。 Theology, physics, and mental science were not as yet distinguished. It is only with the rise of dialectic and the growing recognition of the problem of knowledge that a genuinely psychological theory became possible.神學,物理,心理科學尚未尊敬。只有與辯證的興起和人們日益認識到這個問題的知識,一個真正的心理學理論成為可能。 In Plato the two standpoints, the cosmological and the epistemological, are found combined. Thus in the "Timaeus" (p. 30) we find an account derived from Pythagorean sources of the origin of the soul.在柏拉圖的兩個觀點,宇宙學和認識論,被發現的總和。因此,在“提瑪友斯” (第30頁)我們發現一個帳戶來自畢達哥拉斯來源原產地的靈魂。 First the world-soul is created according to the laws of mathematical symmetry and musical concord.第一世界的靈魂是建立依法對稱的數學和音樂的和諧。 It is composed of two elements, one an element of "sameness" (tauton), corresponding to the universal and intelligible order of truth, and the other an element of distinction or "otherness" (thateron), corresponding to the world of sensible and particular existences.它由兩個要素,一個要素的“同一性” ( tauton ) ,相應的普遍性和可理解為了真理,與其他要素的區別或“異類” ( thateron ) ,相當於世界上的合理和特別是存在的。 The individual human soul is constructed on the same plan.個別人的靈魂是建造在同一計劃。

Sometimes, as in the "Phaedrus", Plato teaches the doctrine of plurality of souls (cf. the well-known allegory of the charioteer and the two steeds in that dialogue).有時,如在“ Phaedrus ” ,柏拉圖的理論教導多元化的靈魂(參見眾所周知的charioteer寓言和兩個駿在這一對話) 。 The rational soul was located in the head, the passionate or spirited soul in the breast, the appetitive soul in the abdomen.合理的靈魂是位於頭部,或激情昂揚的靈魂乳腺癌,靈魂的欲求的腹部。 In the "Republic", instead of the triple soul, we find the doctrine of three elements within the complex unity of the single soul.在“共和國” ,而不是靈魂的三倍,我們發現理論的三個組成部分的複雜統一的單一的靈魂。 The question of immortality was a principal subject of Plato's speculations.不朽的問題是一個主要議題柏拉圖的揣測。 His account of the origin of the soul in the "Timaeus" leads him to deny the intrinsic immortality even of the world-soul, and to admit only an immortality conditional on the good pleasure of God.他考慮到原產地的靈魂在“提瑪友斯”使他否認內在永生甚至世界的靈魂,承認只有一個不朽有條件的良好高興上帝。 In the "Phaedo" the chief argument for the immortality of the soul is based on the nature of intellectual knowledge interpreted on the theory of reminiscence; this of course implies the pre-existence of the soul, and perhaps in strict logic its eternal pre-existence.在“ Phaedo ”行政論據不朽的靈魂是基於知識的性質知識解釋理論的回憶;當然,這意味著前存在的靈魂,也許在嚴格的邏輯其永恆的預存在。 There is also an argument from the soul's necessary participation in the idea of life, which, it is argued, makes the idea of its extinction impossible.還有一個論點從靈魂的必要參與生命的觀點,其中有人認為,提出的想法,它的滅絕是不可能的。 These various lines of argument are nowhere harmonized in Plato (see IMMORTALITY).這些不同的線沒有統一的說法是在柏拉圖(見IMMORTALITY ) 。 The Platonic doctrine tended to an extreme Transcendentalism.柏拉圖式的理論往往是一種極端超驗。 Soul and body are distinct orders of reality, and bodily existence involves a kind of violence to the higher part of our composite nature.靈魂和身體是不同的命令的現實,身體存在涉及一種暴力較高的一部分,我們的綜合性質。 The body is the "prison", the "tomb", or even, as some later Platonists expressed it, the "hell" of the soul.該機構是“監獄”的“墳墓” ,甚至,因為一些後來Platonists表示它的“地獄”的靈魂。 In Aristotle this error is avoided.在亞里士多德的這個錯誤是可以避免的。 His definition of the soul as "the first entelechy of a physical organized body potentially possessing life" emphasizes the closeness of the union of soul and body.他的靈魂定義為“第一entelechy身體組織機構可能擁有的生活” ,強調貼近聯盟的靈魂和身體。 The difficulty in his theory is to determine what degree of distinctness or separateness from the matter of the body is to be conceded to the human soul. He fully recognizes the spiritual element in thought and describes the "active intellect" (nous poetikos) as "separate and impassible", but the precise relation of this active intellect to the individual mind is a hopelessly obscure question in Aristotle's psychology.困難在他的理論是確定何種程度的差異或分開的,這個問題的機構要承認人類的靈魂。他充分認識到精神因素,思想和闡述了“積極的智慧” (常識poetikos )作為“單獨和傷害“ ,但確切的關係,這種積極的智力個人銘記是一種絕望掩蓋問題,亞里士多德的心理。 (See INTELLECT; MIND.) (見智力;主意。 )

The Stoics taught that all existence is material, and described the soul as a breath pervading the body.該Stoics告訴我們,所有存在的物質,並介紹了靈魂的呼吸普遍存在的機構。 They also called it Divine, a particle of God (apospasma tou theu) -- it was composed of the most refined and ethereal matter.他們還呼籲這是神的,上帝的粒子( apospasma頭theu ) -它是由最完善和幽雅的問題。

Eight distinct parts of the soul were recognized by them:八個不同地區的靈魂都承認他們:

the ruling reason (to hegemonikon)執政的原因(以hegemonikon )

the five senses;五感;

the procreative powers.的生育權力。

Absolute immortality they denied; relative immortality, terminating with the universal conflagration and destruction of all things, some of them (eg Cleanthes and Chrysippus) admitted in the case of the wise man; others, such as Panaetius and Posidonius, denied even this, arguing that, as the soul began with the body, so it must end with it.絕對不朽否認;相對不死,終止與普遍的衝突,並銷毀所有的東西,其中有些人(如Cleanthes和Chrysippus )承認的情況智者;其他國家,如Panaetius和尼奧,甚至否認這一點,爭論作為靈魂開始的機構,因此它必須結束它。

Epicureanism accepted the Atomist theory of Leucippus and Democritus.享樂主義接受Atomist理論Leucippus和德謨克利特。 Soul consists of the finest grained atoms in the universe, finer even than those of wind and heat which they resemble: hence the exquisite fluency of the soul's movements in thought and sensation.靈魂由最優秀的細粒度的原子在宇宙中,甚至比那些細風和熱它們類似於:因此,精緻流暢的靈魂的運動思想和感覺。 The soul-atoms themselves, however, could not exercise their functions if they were not kept together by the body.靈魂原子本身,但是,不能行使其職責,如果他們不關在一起的機構。 It is this which gives shape and consistency to the group.正是這種使形和連貫性的集團。 If this is destroyed, the atoms escape and life is dissolved; if it is injured, part of the soul is lost, but enough may be left to maintain life.如果這是破壞,原子逃生和生活解散;如果是受傷,部分丟失的靈魂,但可能會留下足夠維持生活。 The Lucretian version of Epicureanism distinguishes between animus and anima: the latter only is soul in the biological sense, the former is the higher, directing principle (to hegemonikon) in the Stoic terminology, whose seat is the heart, the centre of the cognitive and emotional life.該版本的享樂主義Lucretian區分阿尼姆斯和靈魂:後者不僅是企業的靈魂在生物意義上說,前者是高,指導原則(以hegemonikon )在斯多葛術語,其座位的心臟,該中心的認知和情感生活。


Graeco-Roman philosophy made no further progress in the doctrine of the soul in the age immediately preceding the Christian era.希臘羅馬哲學沒有取得進一步進展的靈魂學說的年齡緊接公元。 None of the existing theories had found general acceptance, and in the literature of the period an eclectic spirit nearly akin to Scepticism predominated.沒有任何現有的理論找到了普遍接受,並在這一時期文學的一個折衷的精神幾乎類似於懷疑論為主。 Of the strife and fusion of systems at this time the works of Cicero are the best example.的衝突和融合的系統在這個時候西塞羅的作品就是最好的例子。 On the question of the soul he is by turns Platonic and Pythagorean, while he confesses that the Stoic and Epicurean systems have each an attraction for him.關於這個問題的靈魂,他又開始了柏拉圖和畢達哥拉斯,儘管他承認說,斯多葛和伊壁鳩魯系統都吸引他。 Such was the state of the question in the West at the dawn of Christianity.這是國家對這個問題在西方的開端基督教。 In Jewish circles a like uncertainty prevailed.在猶太人圈子類似的不確定性佔了上風。 The Sadducees were Materialists, denying immortality and all spiritual existence.該撒都該人是唯物論者,剝奪不朽,一切精神的存在。 The Pharisees maintained these doctrines, adding belief in pre-existence and transmigration.法利保持這些理論,加上信仰前存在和輪迴。 The psychology of the Rabbins is founded on the Sacred Books, particularly the account of the creation of man in Genesis.心理的Rabbins的基礎是神聖的書籍,特別是考慮到建立男子成因。 Three terms are used for the soul: nephesh, nuah, and neshamah; the first was taken to refer to the animal and vegetative nature, the second to the ethical principle, the third to the purely spiritual intelligence.三種形式是用於靈魂: nephesh , nuah ,並neshamah ;第一次被帶到提及的動物和植物的性質,第二的道德原則,第三次的純粹精神情報。 At all events, it is evident that the Old Testament throughout either asserts or implies the distinct reality of the soul.在所有的事件,很顯然,整個舊約要么聲稱或暗示的不同的現實情況的靈魂。 An important contribution to later Jewish thought was the infusion of Platonism into it by Philo of Alexandria.作出了重要貢獻後猶太思想注入柏拉圖到它的斐羅亞歷山大。 He taught the immediately Divine origin of the soul, its pre-existence and transmigration; he contrasts the pneuma, or spiritual essence, with the soul proper, the source of vital phenomena, whose seat is the blood; finally he revived the old Platonic Dualism, attributing the origin of sin and evil to the union of spirit with matter.他教的神源是立即的靈魂,它的前存在和輪迴,他對比了元氣,或精神實質,正確的靈魂,源的重要現象,其所在地是血;最後,他又恢復了舊的柏拉圖式的二元論歸於起源的罪惡和邪惡聯盟的精神與物質。

It was Christianity that, after many centuries of struggle, applied the final criticisms to the various psychologies of antiquity, and brought their scattered elements of truth to full focus.這是基督教,經過幾百年的鬥爭,最後批評適用的各種心態的文物,並把他們的稀散元素的真相,以充分關注的焦點。 The tendency of Christ's teaching was to centre all interest in the spiritual side of man's nature; the salvation or loss of the soul is the great issue of existence.的傾向,基督的教學是中心,所有有興趣的精神方面的人的本質;的救贖或損失的靈魂是偉大的問題存在。 The Gospel language is popular, not technical.福音的語言很受歡迎,而不是技術。 Psyche and pneuma are used indifferently either for the principle of natural life or for spirit in the strict sense.心理和靈魂都被用來漠然的原則自然生命或為精神,嚴格意義上的。 Body and soul are recognized as a dualism and their values contrasted: "Fear ye not them that kill the body . . . but rather fear him that can destroy both soul and body in hell." In St. Paul we find a more technical phraseology employed with great consistency.身體和靈魂是公認的二元論和他們的價值觀形成鮮明對照: “你們不害怕他們,殺死體內。 。 。而是怕他,可摧毀的靈魂和身體在地獄裡。 ”聖保羅我們找到更多的技術用語僱用非常一致。 Psyche is now appropriated to the purely natural life; pneuma to the life of supernatural religion, the principle of which is the Holy Spirit, dwelling and operating in the heart.波西卡現在撥的純粹自然生活;靈魂的生命超自然宗教的原則,這是聖靈,住所和經營的核心。 The opposition of flesh and spirit is accentuated afresh (Romans 1:18, etc.).反對派的肉體和精神是加劇重新(羅馬書1:18 ,等等) 。 This Pauline system, presented to a world already prepossessed in favour of a quasi-Platonic Dualism, occasioned one of the earliest widespread forms of error among Christian writers -- the doctrine of the Trichotomy.這波利娜系統,提交給世界已經prepossessed贊成準柏拉圖式的二元論,引起最早普遍形式的錯誤之一基督教作家-理論的三分法。 According to this, man, perfect man (teleios) consists of three parts: body, soul, spirit (soma, psyche, pneuma).根據這一點,男人,完美的人( teleios )包括三個部分:身體,靈魂,精神(軀體,心理,靈魂) 。 Body and soul come by natural generation; spirit is given to the regenerate Christian alone.身體和靈魂來自然生成;精神,是考慮到再生基督教的。 Thus, the "newness of life", of which St. Paul speaks, was conceived by some as a superadded entity, a kind of oversoul sublimating the "natural man" into a higher species.因此, “新奇的生活” ,其中聖保羅講,是由一些作為superadded實體,一種超昇華的“自然的人”進入了更高的物種。 This doctrine was variously distorted in the different Gnostic systems.這一理論是不同的扭曲在不同的諾斯底系統。 The Gnostics divided man into three classes:男子的Gnostics劃分為三個類別:

pneumatici or spiritual, pneumatici或精神,

psychici or animal, psychici或動物,

choici or earthy. choici或泥土。

To each class they ascribed a different origin and destiny.他們每一類不同的原因起源和命運。 The spiritual were of the seed of Achemoth, and were destined to return in time whence they had sprung -- namely, into the pleroma.人的精神的種子Achemoth ,並注定要返回的時候他們已經湧現何處-即到pleroma 。 Even in this life they are exempted from the possibility of a fall from their high calling; they therefore stand in no need of good works, and have nothing to fear from the contaminations of the world and the flesh.即使在這種生活,他們免交的可能性,屬於他們的高要求;因此,他們的立場在任何需要的優秀作品,並沒有什麼可擔心的污染的世界和肉體。 This class consists of course of the Gnostics themselves.這一類包括的過程中Gnostics自己。 The psychici are in a lower position: they have capacities for spiritual life which they must cultivate by good works.該psychici是在較低的位置:他們有能力的精神生活,他們必須培養良好的工程。 They stand in a middle place, and may either rise to the spiritual or sink to the hylic level.他們站在中間的地方,可導致精神或匯的物質水平。 In this category stands the Christian Church at large.在這個類別中的基督教會隨時在逃。 Lastly, the earthy souls are a mere material emanation, destined to perish: the matter of which they are composed being incapable of salvation (me gar einai ten hylen dektiken soterias).最後,樸實的靈魂是一個單純的原料氣,注定要滅亡:這件事的,他們都被無法救贖(我明嘉einai 10 hylen dektiken soterias ) 。 This class contains the multitudes of the merely natural man.這個類包含了眾多的只是自然的人。

Two features claim attention in this the earliest essay towards a complete anthropology within the Christian Church:兩個特點索賠注意在這方面最早的一篇完整的人類學的基督教會:

an extreme spirituality is attributed to "the perfect";一個極端的精神,是因為“完美” ;

immortality is conditional for the second class of souls, not an intrinsic attribute of all souls.永生的條件是,第二類的靈魂,而不是一種內在的屬性,所有的靈魂。

It is probable that originally the terms pneumatici, psychici, and choici denoted at first elements which were observed to exist in all souls, and that it was only by an afterthought that they were employed, according to the respective predominance of these elements in different cases, to represent supposed real classes of men.很可能原來的條款pneumatici , psychici ,並choici被命名為第一要素,在發現存在於所有的靈魂,它是唯一的一種事後,他們被僱用,根據各自的優勢,這些要素在不同情況下,代表理應真正班男子。 The doctrine of the four temperaments and the Stoic ideal of the Wise Man afford a parallel for the personification of abstract qualities.理論的四個氣質和斯多葛理想智者不起平行的人格化摘要素質。 The true genius of Christianity, expressed by the Fathers of the early centuries, rejected Gnosticism.真正的天才的基督教,所表達的教父世紀初,拒絕諾斯替主義。 The ascription to a creature of an absolutely spiritual nature, and the claim to endless existence asserted as a strictly de jure privilege in the case of the "perfect", seemed to them an encroachment on the incommunicable attributes of God.歸屬到的產物,是絕對精神的性質,並聲稱無休止的存在斷言作為嚴格的法律上的特權的情況“完美” ,似乎他們侵犯incommunicable屬性上帝。 The theory of Emanation too was seen to be a derogation from the dignity of the Divine nature For this reason, St. Justin, supposing that the doctrine of natural immortality logically implies eternal existence, rejects it, making this attribute (like Plato in the "Timaeus") dependent on the free will of God; at the same time he plainly asserts the de facto immortality of every human soul.理論的發射也被認為是背離的尊嚴的神聖性質出於這個原因,聖上,假定理論的邏輯意味著自然永恆不朽的存在,拒絕它,使這個屬性(如柏拉圖在“提瑪友斯“ )依賴於上帝的自由意志;在同一時間,他顯然聲稱事實上永生每個人的靈魂。 The doctrine of conservation, as the necessary complement of creation, was not yet elaborated.學說的保護,作為必要補充的創造,是尚未制訂。 Even in Scholastic philosophy, which asserts natural immortality, the abstract possibility of annihilation through an act of God's absolute power is also admitted.即使在士林哲學,它主張自然不死,抽象的可能性湮沒通過行為的上帝的絕對的權力也承認。 Similarly, Tatian denies the simplicity of the soul, claiming that absolute simplicity belongs to God alone.同樣,塔蒂安否認了簡單的靈魂,聲稱絕對簡單屬於上帝的。 All other beings, he held, are composed of matter and spirit.所有其他人,他,是由物質和精神。 Here again it would be rash to urge a charge of Materialism.在這裡再次將皮疹敦促收取唯物主義。 Many of these writers failed to distinguish between corporeity in strict essence and corporeity as a necessary or natural concomitant.許多這些作家沒有區分體質嚴格本質和體質作為必要或自然相伴。 Thus the soul may itself be incorporeal and yet require a body as a condition of its existence.因此,靈魂本身可能是無形的,但需要一個機構作為其存在的條件。 In this sense St. Irenæus attributes a certain "corporeal character" to the soul; he represents it as possessing the form of its body, as water possesses the form of its containing vessel.在這個意義上街Irenæus屬性一定的“物質的性質”的靈魂,他代表該擁有的形式,它的身體,因為水具有的形式,其含有的船隻。 At the same time, he teaches fairly explicitly the incorporeal nature of the soul.與此同時,他教導相當明確的資產性質的靈魂。 He also sometimes uses what seems to be the language of the Trichotomists, as when he says that in the Resurrection men shall have each their own body, soul, and spirit.他有時還採用了似乎是語言的Trichotomists ,因為當他說,在復活的男子都須自己身體,靈魂和精神。 But such an interpretation is impossible in view of his whole position in regard to the Gnostic controversy. The dubious language of these writers can only be understood in relation to the system they were opposing.但是,這種解釋是不可能的,鑑於他的整個立場關於諾斯底爭議。莫須有的語言,這些作家只能理解有關制度他們反對。 By assigning a literal divinity to a certain small aristocracy of souls, Gnosticism set aside the doctrine of Creation and the whole Christian idea of God's relation to man.指定一個字面神某小貴族的靈魂,諾斯替主義擱置的理論創新和整個基督教思想上帝的關係的人。 On the other side, by its extreme dualism of matter and spirit, and its denial to matter (ie the flesh) of all capacity for spiritual influences, it involved the rejection of cardinal doctrines like the Resurrection of the Body and even of the Incarnation itself in any proper sense.另一方面,其極端的二元論的物質和精神,它剝奪的問題(即肉)的所有能力的精神影響,它涉及的否決紅衣主教理論像復活的身體,甚至自己的道成肉身在任何適當的意義。 The orthodox teacher had to emphasize:東正教老師強調:

the soul's distinction from God and subjection to Him;靈魂的區別和服從上帝給他;

its affinities with matter.其親緣關係與問題。

The two converse truths -- those of the soul's affinity with the Divine nature and its radical distinction from matter, were apt to be obscured in comparison. It was only afterwards and very gradually, with the development of the doctrine of grace, with the fuller recognition of the supernatural order as such, and the realization of the Person and Office of the Holy Spirit, that the various errors connected with the pneuma ceased to be a stumbling-block to Christian psychology.這兩個相反的事實-是靈魂的親和與神聖的性質和根本區別的問題,是容易被遮蔽了比較。這只是事後,非常逐步的發展理論的寬限期,以充分承認超自然的命令,例如,與實現人與辦公室聖靈的各種錯誤與靈魂不再是絆腳石基督教心理。 Indeed, similar errors have accompanied almost every subsequent form of heterodox Illuminism and Mysticism.事實上,類似的錯誤伴隨幾乎每一個隨後的形式非正統Illuminism和神秘主義。

Tertullian's treatise "De Anima" has been called the first Christian classic on psychology proper.德爾圖良的論文“者阿妮瑪”被稱為第一次基督教經典的心理適當。 The author aims to show the failure of all philosophies to elucidate the nature of the soul, and argues eloquently that Christ alone can teach mankind the truth on such subjects.作者的目的是顯示所有的失敗,闡明哲學性質的靈魂,雄辯地指出基督僅靠人類的真理教等學科。 His own doctrine, however, is simply the refined Materialism of the Stoics, supported by arguments from medicine and physiology and by ingenious interpretations of Scripture, in which the unavoidable materialism of language is made to establish a metaphysical Materialism.他自己的理論,然而,僅僅是完善唯物主義的Stoics ,支持的論點從醫學和生理學和巧妙的解釋聖經,其中不可避免的唯物主義的語言是建立一個形而上學的唯物主義。 Tertullian is the founder of the theory of Traducianism, which derives the rational soul ex traduce, ie by procreation from the soul of the parent.德爾圖良是理論的創立者Traducianism ,這源於合理的靈魂前譖,即生育的靈魂,是由母公司。 For Tertullian this was a necessary consequence of Materialism.為良,這是一種必然後果唯物主義。 Later writers found in the doctrine a convenient explanation of the transmission of original sin.後來作家的理論中找到一個方便的解釋傳播原罪。 St. Jerome says that in his day it was the common theory in the West.聖杰羅姆表示,他當天就共同理論在西方。 Theologians have long abandoned it, however, in favour of Creationism, as it seems to compromise the spirituality of the soul.神學家早就放棄了,但是,在有利於創造論,因為它似乎妥協的精神靈魂。 Origen taught the pre-existence of the soul.奧利教前存在的靈魂。 Terrestrial life is a punishment and a remedy for prenatal sin.地球生命是一種懲罰和補救的產前罪孽。 "Soul" is properly degraded spirit: flesh is a condition of alienation and bondage (cf. Comment. ad Romans 1:18). “靈魂”是適當的退化精神:肉體是一個條件,異化和奴役(參見評論。廣告羅馬書1:18 ) 。 Spirit, however, finite spirit, can exist only in a body, albeit of a glorious and ethereal nature. Neo-Platonism, which through St. Augustine contributed so much to spiritual philosophy, belongs to this period.的精神,但是,有限的精神,可以只存在於一個機構,儘管是一項光榮而空靈的性質。新柏拉圖主義,它通過聖奧古斯丁了很大貢獻的精神哲學,屬於這一時期。 Like Gnosticism, it uses emanations.像諾斯替主義,它使用emanations 。 The primeval and eternal One begets by emanation nous (intelligence); and from nous in turn springs psyche (soul), which is the image of nous, but distinct from it. Matter is a still later emanation.原始的和永恆的一個產生的氣常識(情報) ;和靜脈反過來彈簧心靈(靈魂) ,這是形象的常識,但不同於它。物質仍然是後來氣。 Soul has relations to both ends of the scale of reality, and its perfection lies in turning towards the Divine Unity from which it came.靈魂關係兩端規模的現實,它的完美在於轉向神聖統一由它來了。 In everything, the neo-Platonist recognized the absolute primacy of the soul with respect to the body.在一切,新柏拉圖承認絕對首要的靈魂與身體。 Thus, the mind is always active, even in sense -- perception -- it is only the body that is passively affected by external stimuli.因此,考慮到始終是積極的,甚至在意識-認知-這是唯一的機構,是被動地受外界刺激。 Similarly Plotinus prefers to say that the body is in the soul rather than vice versa: and he seems to have been the first to conceive the peculiar manner of the soul's location as an undivided and universal presence pervading the organism (tota in toto et tota in singulis partibus).同樣普羅提諾喜歡說,這個機構是在靈魂,而不是相反:他似乎是第一次懷孕的特殊方式的靈魂的位置作為一個不可分割的和普遍的存在普遍存在的生物體(托塔全文等托塔在singulis partibus ) 。 It is impossible to give more than a very brief notice of the psychology of St. Augustine.這是不可能的,使超過一個非常簡短的通知,心理學聖奧古斯丁。 His contributions to every branch of the science were immense; the senses, the emotions, imagination, memory, the will, and the intellect -- he explored them all, and there is scarcely any subsequent development of importance that he did not forestall.他的貢獻,每一個分支科學是巨大的;感官,情感,想像,記憶,意志和智慧-他探討所有這些,也幾乎沒有任何後繼發展的重要性,他沒有阻止。 He is the founder of the introspective method.他的創始人內省方法。 Noverim Te, noverim me was an intellectual no less than a devotional aspiration with him. Noverim碲, noverim我是一個沒有智力不到他的虔誠的願望。 The following are perhaps the chief points for our present purpose:以下是行政長官點也許我們現在的目的:

he opposes body and soul on the ground of the irreducible distinction of thought and extension (cf. DESCARTES).他反對身體和靈魂在地面上的不可區分的思想和延期(參見DESCARTES ) 。 St. Augustine, however, lays more stress on the volitional activities than did the French Idealists. As against the Manichæans he always asserts the worth and dignity of the body. Like Aristotle he makes the soul the final cause of the body.聖奧古斯丁,然而,奠定更加注重活動的意志比法國的理想主義者。而對他總是聲稱Manichæans的價值和尊嚴的機構。像亞里士多德,他提出的靈魂最終導致身體。 As God is the Good or Summum Bonum of the soul, so is the soul the good of the body. The origin of the soul is perhaps beyond our ken.作為上帝是好的或Summum善的靈魂,所以是靈魂的好身體。起源的靈魂也許是超出了我們的視野。 He never definitely decided between Traducianism and Creationism.他從來沒有肯定決定之間Traducianism和創。

As regards spirituality, he is everywhere most explicit, but it is interesting as an indication of the futile subtleties current at the time to find him warning a friend against the controversy on the corporeality of the soul, seeing that the term "corpus" was used in so many different senses.至於靈性,他是世界各地最明確的,但有趣的是,這表明目前的徒勞的微妙之處時找到他警告朋友對爭議的corporeality的靈魂,看到了“人身”的使用在這麼多不同的含義。 "Corpus, non caro" is his own description of the angelic body. “語料庫,非卡羅”是他自己的描述天使機構。

Medieval psychology prior to the Aristotelean revival was affected by neo-Platonism, Augustinianism, and mystical influences derived from the works of pseudo-Dionysius.中世紀心理學之前Aristotelean恢復受新柏拉圖,奧古斯丁,以及神秘的影響來自作品的偽狄奧尼修斯。 This fusion produced sometimes, notably in Scotus Eriugena, a pantheistic theory of the soul.這種融合產生有時,特別是在司各脫Eriugena ,一個pantheistic理論的靈魂。 All individual existence is but the development of the Divine life, in which all things are destined to be resumed.所有個別存在,但發展的神聖的生命,其中所有的東西都注定要被收回。 The Arabian commentators, Averroes and Avicenna, had interpreted Aristotle's psychology in a pantheistic sense.阿拉伯評論家,阿威羅伊和阿維森納,解釋亞里士多德的心理學在pantheistic意義。 St. Thomas, with the rest of the Schoolmen, amends this portion of the Aristotelean tradition, accepting the rest with no important modifications.聖托馬斯,與其他Schoolmen ,修改這部分Aristotelean傳統,接受,沒有其他重要的修改。 St. Thomas's doctrine is briefly as follows:聖托馬斯的學說簡要如下:

the rational soul, which is one with the sensitive and vegetative principle, is the form of the body.合理的靈魂,這是一個敏感和植被的原則,是形式的機構。 This was defined as of faith by the Council of Vienne of 1311;這被定義為信仰理事會的維埃納的1311年;

the soul is a substance, but an incomplete substance, ie it has a natural aptitude and exigency for existence in the body, in conjunction with which it makes up the substantial unity of human nature;靈魂是一種物質,但不完整的實質,即它有一個自然的能力和緊急情況的存在在人體內,同時它彌補了大量統一的人性;

though connaturally related to the body, it is itself absolutely simple, ie of an unextended and spiritual nature.雖然connaturally有關機構,它本身是絕對簡單,即一個未予和精神文明的性質。 It is not wholly immersed in matter, its higher operations being intrinsically independent of the organism; the rational soul is produced by special creation at the moment when the organism is sufficiently developed to receive it.它不是完全沉浸在的問題,其較高的業務正在本質上獨立的有機體;合理的靈魂是由設立在特別的時刻生物體是不夠發達接收。 In the first stage of embryonic development, the vital principle has merely vegetative powers; then a sensitive soul comes into being, educed from the evolving potencies of the organism -- later yet, this is replaced by the perfect rational soul, which is essentially immaterial and so postulates a special creative act.在第一階段的胚胎發育的重要原則,只是營養權力;然後一個敏感的靈魂形成, educed從不斷變化的效力的生物體-後來然而,這是所取代完善合理的靈魂,基本上是無關緊要所以假設一個特別創意的行為。 Many modern theologians have abandoned this last point of St. Thomas's teaching, and maintain that a fully rational soul is infused into the embryo at the first moment of its existence.許多現代的神學家已經放棄這最後一點的聖托馬斯的教學,並堅持認為,一個完全合理的靈魂注入胚胎在第一時刻,它的存在。


Modern speculations respecting the soul have taken two main directions, Idealism and Materialism.現代投機尊重靈魂已採取兩個主要方向,唯心主義和唯物主義。 Agnosticism need not be reckoned as a third and distinct answer to the problem, since, as a matter of fact, all actual agnosticisms have an easily recognized bias towards one or other of the two solutions aforesaid.不可知論不必計算三分之一和獨特的回答這個問題,因為事實上,所有實際agnosticisms有一個很容易認出偏向一方或另一方的上述兩個解決方案。 Both Idealism and Materialism in present-day philosophy merge into Monism, which is probably the most influential system outside the Catholic Church.唯心主義和唯物主義這兩個在當今哲學融入論,這可能是最有影響力的制度以外的天主教會。


Descartes conceived the soul as essentially thinking (ie conscious) substance, and body as essentially extended substance.笛卡兒的靈魂的設想基本上思維(即有意識的)實質內容和機構基本上延長實質。 The two are thus simply disparate realities, with no vital connection between them.這兩個根本不同的,因此現實,沒有它們之間的重要方面。 This is significantly marked by his theory of the soul's location in the body.這是顯著特點是他的理論的靈魂的位置在人體中。 Unlike the Scholastics he confines it to a single point -- the pineal gland -- from which it is supposed to control the various organs and muscles through the medium of the "animal spirits", a kind of fluid circulating through the body.不同的學術,他的局限到一個單點-松果腺-由它來控制各機關和肌肉中通過的“動物精神” ,是一種液體循環到身體的其他部位。 Thus, to say the least, the soul's biological functions are made very remote and indirect, and were in fact later on reduced almost to a nullity: the lower life was violently severed from the higher, and regarded as a simple mechanism.因此,至少可以說,靈魂的生物功能都取得了非常偏遠的和間接的,而且在事實上減少以後幾乎無效:較低的生命被暴力將從更高,並視為一種簡單的機制。 In the Cartesian theory animals are mere automata.在笛卡兒理論動物僅僅是自動機。 It is only by the Divine assistance that action between soul and body is possible.這是唯一的神援助行動的靈魂和身體是有可能的。 The Occasionalists went further, denying all interaction whatever, and making the correspondence of the two sets of facts a pure result of the action of God.該Occasionalists更進一步,否認所有互動不管,讓信件兩套事實一個純粹由於行動上帝。 The Leibnizian theory of Pre-established Harmony similarly refuses to admit any inter-causal relation.理論的Leibnizian預先確定的和諧同樣拒絕承認任何的因果關係。 The superior monad (soul) and the aggregate of inferior monads which go to make up the body are like two clocks constructed with perfect art so as always to agree.優越的單子(靈魂)和總結下monads其中去彌補身體就像兩個鐘錶構建完美的藝術,以便總是同意。 They register alike, but independently: they are still two clocks, not one.他們都登記,但獨立:他們仍然兩個鐘錶,而不是一個。 This awkward Dualism was entirely got rid of by Spinoza.這尷尬的二元論是完全擺脫了斯賓諾莎。 For him there is but one, infinite substance, of which thought and extension are only attributes.他只有一個,無限的物質,其中的思想和延伸只有屬性。 Thought comprehends extension, and by that very fact shows that it is at root one with that which it comprehends.思想的理解延伸,並通過這一事實本身表明,它是一個根與它理解。 The alleged irreducible distinction is transcended: soul and body are neither of them substances, but each is a property of the one substance.據稱不可超越的區別是:靈魂和身體既不是他們的物質,但每一個都是財產的一個內容。 Each in its sphere is the counterpart of the other.每一個在其職權範圍內是對應的。 This is the meaning of the definition, "Soul is the Idea of Body".這是意義上的定義, “靈魂是思想的身體” 。 Soul is the counterpart within the sphere of the attribute of thought of that particular mode of the attribute of extension which we call the body.靈魂是對應的範圍內屬性的思想模式的特定屬性的擴展我們稱之為機構。 Such was the fate of Cartesianism.這是命運的笛卡兒。

English Idealism had a different course.英國唯心主義有不同的課程。 Berkeley had begun by denying the existence of material substance, which he reduced merely to a series of impressions in the sentient mind.伯克利分校已開始否認存在的材料實質內容,他只是減少了一系列展示在眾生銘記。 Mind is the only substance.心靈是唯一的物質。 Hume finished the argument by dissolving mind itself into its phenomena, a loose collection of "impressions and ideas".休謨的論點完成解散銘記納入其本身的現象,一個鬆散的集合“的印象和想法” 。 The Sensist school (Condillac etc.) and the Associationists (Hartley, the Mills, and Bain) continued in similar fashion to regard the mind as constituted by its phenomena or "states", and the growth of modern positive psychology has tended to encourage this attitude.該Sensist學校(孔狄亞克等)和Associationists (哈特利,工廠,和Bain )繼續以同樣的方式把牢記所構成的現象或“國家” ,並積極發展現代心理學往往鼓勵這種的態度。 But to rest in Phenomenalism as a theory is impossible, as its ablest advocates themselves have seen.但是,其餘的Phenomenalism的理論是不可能的,因為它能幹主張自己所看到的。 Thus JS Mill, while describing the mind as merely "a series [ie of conscious phenomena] aware of itself as a series", is forced to admit that such a conception involves an unresolved paradox.因此爵士軋機,同時描述了心目中只是“系列[即有意識的現象]意識到自己作為一個系列” ,是不得不承認,這樣的概念涉及到一個懸而未決的矛盾。 Again, W. James's assertion that "the passing thought is itself the Thinker", which "appropriates" all past thoughts in the "stream of consciousness", simply blinks the question.同樣,詹姆斯的斷言,即“思想是通過自己的思想家” ,這“合適的”所有過去的思想中的“意識流” ,只需閃爍的問題。 For surely there is something which in its turn "appropriates" the passing thought itself and the entire stream of past and future thoughts as well, viz.對於確實存在的東西反過來“合適”的通過思想本身和整個流的過去和未來的思考,以及,即。 the self-conscious, self-asserting "I" the substantial ultimate of our mental life. To be in this sense "monarch of all it surveys" in introspective observation and reflective self-consciousness, to appropriate without itself being appropriated by anything else, to be the genuine owner of a certain limited section of reality (the stream of consciousness), this is to be a free and sovereign (though finite) personality, a self-conscious, spiritual substance in the language of Catholic metaphysics.的自我意識,自我主張“我”的大量最終我們的精神生活。將在這個意義上“的君主的一切調查”的內省觀察和反思自我意識,適當而本身正在核撥別的,成為真正的主人某些有限的部分現實(的意識流) ,這將是一個自由和主權(但有限)的個性,自我意識,精神實質的語言天主教形而上學。


The foregoing discussion partly anticipates our criticism of Materialism.上述討論的部分預計批評唯物主義。 The father of modern Materialism is Hobbes, who accepted the theory of Epicurus, and reduced all spirits either to phantoms of the imagination or to matter in a highly rarefied state.父親是現代唯物主義霍布斯,誰接受了理論伊壁鳩魯,並降低所有烈酒要么幻影想像力或事項在一個高度稀薄狀態。 This theory need not detain us here.這一理論不必扣留我們這裡。 Later Materialism has three main sources:後來唯物主義有三個主要來源:

Newtonian physics, which taught men to regard matter, not as inert and passive, but as instinct with force.牛頓物理學,其中教授男子方面問題,而不是作為惰性和被動,但本能的力量。 Why should not life and consciousness be among its unexplored potencies?為什麼不應該在生活和意識成為其未效力? (Priestley, Tyndall, etc.) Tyndall himself provides the answer admitting that the chasm that separates psychical facts from material phenomena is "intellectually impassable". (普利斯特利,廷德爾等)廷德爾自己提供了答案承認鴻溝隔開心理事實材料的現象是“智力障礙” 。 Writers, therefore, who make thought a mere "secretion of the brain" or a "phosphorescence" of its substance (Vogt, Moleschott) may be simply ignored.作家,因此,誰想到僅僅作出“分泌的腦”或“磷光”其實質內容(沃格特, Moleschott )可能只是被忽略。 In reply to the more serious Materialism, spiritualist philosophers need only re-assert the admissions of the Materialists themselves, that there is an impassable chasm between the two classes of facts.在回答更嚴重的唯物論, spiritualist哲學家只需要重新主張招生的唯物論者本身,有一個不可逾越的鴻溝之間的兩班的事實。

Psychophysics, it is alleged, shows the most minute dependence of mind-functions upon brain-states.心理物理學,據稱,顯示了最微小的依賴心功能時腦國。 The two orders of facts are therefore perfectly continuous, and, though they may be superficially different yet they must be after all radically one.這兩個命令的事實,因此完全連續的,和,儘管他們可能是表面上不同但他們必須在所有根本之一。 Mental phenomena may be styled an epiphenomenon or byproduct of material force (Huxley).心理現象可稱為一個epiphenomenon或副產品的物質力量(赫胥黎) 。 The answer is the same as before.答案是和以前一樣。 There is no analogy for an epiphenomenon being separated by an "impassable chasm" from the causal series to which it belongs.毫無類比為epiphenomenon被分隔的一個“不可逾越的鴻溝”的因果一系列它所屬。 The term is, in fact, a mere verbal subterfuge.這個詞是,事實上,僅僅是口頭托詞。 The only sound principle in such arguments is the principle that essential or "impassable" distinctions in the effect can be explained only by similar distinctions in the cause.只有健全的原則,這種觀點是至關重要的原則,或“不通”的區別的影響可以解釋的區別只有通過類似的事業中。 This is the principle on which Dualism as we have explained it, rests.這是原則上的二元論,因為我們已經解釋過它,在於。 Merely to find relations, however close, between mental and physiological facts does not advance us an inch towards transcending this Dualism.只是找到關係,但收盤時,心理和生理的事實不事先我們英寸走向超越這個二元。 It only enriches and fills out our concept of it.它不僅豐富和填寫的概念它。 The mutual compenetration of soul and body in their activities is just what Catholic philosophy (anticipating positive science) had taught for centuries.相互compenetration的靈魂和身體的活動正是天主教哲學(預測實證科學)告訴百年。 Man is two and one, a divisible but a vital unity.人是兩個,一個整除,但一個重要的團結。

Evolutionism endeavours to explain the origin of the soul from merely material forces.進化論努力解釋起源的靈魂從單純的物質力量。 Spirit is not the basis and principle; rather it is the ultimate efflorescence of the Cosmos.精神不是依據和原則;相反,它是最終風化的宇宙。 If we ask then "what was the original basis out of which spirit and all things arose?"如果我們要問,然後選擇“是在原來的基礎上,其中的精神和一切事物產生的? ” we are told it was the Unknowable (Spencer).我們被告知這是不可知(斯賓塞) 。 This system must be treated as Materialistic Monism.這一制度必須被視為唯物主義一元。 The answer to it is that, as the outcome of the Unknowable has a spiritual character, the Unknowable itself (assuming its reality) must be spiritual.答案是,作為結果的不可知的精神品格,不可知本身(假設其現實)必須精神。

As regards monistic systems generally, it belongs rather to cosmology to discuss them.至於一元系統通常情況下,它屬於宇宙而是加以討論。 We take our stand on the consciousness of individual personality, which consciousness is a distinct deliverance of our very highest faculties, growing more and more explicit with the strengthening of our moral and intellectual being.我們採取的立場上的個性意識,這意識是一個獨特的解脫我們非常最高學院,越來越明確與加強我們的道德和智慧的。 This consciousness is emphatic, as against the figments of a fallaciously abstract reason, in asserting the self-subsistence (and at the same time the finitude) of our being, ie it declares that we are independent inasmuch as we are truly persons or selves, not mere attributes or adjectives, while at the same time, by exhibiting our manifold limitations, it directs us to a higher Cause on which our being depends.這種意識是有力的,對的虛構之事的fallaciously摘要原因,在主張自我的生活(以及在同一時間的有限性) ,我們正在,即宣布,我們是獨立的,因為我們是真正的個人或自我,不只是屬性或形容詞,同時,通過展示我們多方面的限制,引導我們走向一個更高的原因是我們正在依賴。

Such is the Catholic doctrine on the nature, unity, substantiality, spirituality, and origin of the soul.這是天主教教義的本質,團結,充實,精神,和原產地的靈魂。 It is the only system consistent with Christian faith, and, we may add, morals, for both Materialism and Monism logically cut away the foundations of these.這是唯一系統符合基督教信仰,以及,我們可能會購買,道德,對唯物主義和論邏輯截的基礎這些。 The foregoing historical sketch will have served also to show another advantage it possesses -- namely, that it is by far the most comprehensive, and at the same time discriminating, syntheseis of whatever is best in rival systems.上述歷史素描服務也將表現出的另一個優勢是擁有-即它是迄今為止最全面的,並在同一時間歧視, syntheseis無論是最好的競爭對手的系統。 It recognizes the physical conditions of the soul's activity with the Materialist, and its spiritual aspect with the Idealist, while with the Monist it insists on the vital unity of human life.它認識到物質條件的靈魂的活動與唯物論,其精神方面的理想主義者,而它與一元堅持的重要團結人的生命。 It enshrines the principles of ancient speculation, and is ready to receive and assimilate the fruits of modern research.它的原則作出了規定古代投機,並願意接受和吸收現代研究成果。

Publication information Written by Michael Maher & Joseph Bolland.出版信息作者邁克爾馬希爾和約瑟夫博蘭德。 Transcribed by Tomas Hancil and Joseph P. Thomas. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XIV.轉錄由托馬斯Hancil和約瑟夫托馬斯。天主教百科全書,體積十四。 Published 1912.發布時間1912年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, July 1, 1912. Nihil Obstat , 1912年7月1日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.雷米Lafort ,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York認可。 +約翰法利紅衣主教,大主教紐約

Also, see:此外,見:
Traducianism Traducianism
Origin of the Soul 原產地的靈魂

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