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The term Tantra refers to a pan Indian religious movement (also called Tantrism) that arose in about the 6th century AD within both Buddhism and Hinduism and to the texts (either Buddhist or Hindu) setting forth its practices and beliefs. The main emphasis of Tantrism is on the development of the devotee's dormant psychophysical powers by means of special meditations and ritual techniques.任期譚崔指的是泛印度宗教運動(也稱為密宗)中出現的有關公元6世紀內與佛教和印度教的案文(無論是佛教或印度教)列明其做法和信仰。主要強調密宗是發展的擁護者的休眠身體權力的手段,特別沉思和禮儀技巧。 These are essentially esoteric and must be passed on personally from master to initiate.這些基本上是深奧的,必須通過由船長親自發起。 Stressing the coordination of body, speech, and mind, they include the use of symbolic gestures (mudras); the uttering of potent formulas (Mantras); the entering (through meditation) of sacred diagrams (Mandalas) and yantras; the meditator's creative visualization of and identification with specific divine forms; and the physical, iconographic, or mental use of sexual forces and symbols.強調協調機構,言論和思想,這些措施包括:使用象徵性的姿態( mudras ) ;發出的強有力的公式(咒語) ;的進入(通過冥想)的神聖圖表( Mandalas )和yantras ;的meditator創造性可視化並確定具體的神聖形式;和物理,肖像權,或精神的性部隊和符號。

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Because of the last of these emphases, Tantra has sometimes been considered as a degenerate form of religion rather than as the final outgrowth of trends whose roots reach deep into YOGA and Indian cosmology.由於最近的這些重點,譚崔有時被看作是退化形式的宗教,而不是最後的結果的趨勢,其根源深入滲透到瑜伽和印度宇宙觀。 Although the particulars of practice vary between the Buddhist and Hindu Tantras and within each of these traditions from one text or lineage to another, they all stress the realization, within the body, of the union of polar opposites, whether these be conceived of as devotee and goddess, the masculine principle (Shiva) and the feminine (Shakti), reason and compassion, or samsara and nirvana.雖然細節的做法各不相同的佛教和印度教Tantras並在每一個傳統從一個文字或系到另一個,他們都強調了實現,在機構,聯盟極對立的,不論這些設想作為愛好者和女神,男性原則(濕婆)和女性(夏克提) ,理智和同情,或輪迴和涅槃。 Tantrism is traditionally practiced in Tibet, Nepal, Bhutan, and other countries where Tibetan Buddhism is followed, as well as in India.密宗歷來實行的是西藏,尼泊爾,不丹,與其他國家的藏傳佛教之後,以及在印度。

Joseph M Kitagawa and John S Strong約瑟夫M北側和約翰強

Bibliography: 參考書目:
B Bhattacharya, The World of Tantra (1988); NN Bhattacharya, History of the Tantric Religion (1983); S Chattopadhyaya, Reflections on the Tantras (1978); A Mookerjee and M Khanna, The Tantric Way: Art, Science, Ritual (1989).乙巴特查亞,世界的譚崔( 1988年) ;網絡巴特查亞,史密宗宗教( 1983年) ;縣Chattopadhyaya ,思考Tantras ( 1978年) ;阿Mookerjee和M雲的密宗道:藝術,科學,儀式( 1989年) 。

Also, see:此外,見:
Buddhism 佛教

Mahayana Buddhism 大乘佛教

Theravada Buddhism 小乘

Lamaism 喇嘛教

Zen Buddhism

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