Untouchables, Harijans鐵面無私, Harijans

General Information 一般信息

Untouchables, now called Harijans, have traditionally occupied the lowest place in the caste system of Hindu India; they were called untouchable because they were considered to be outside the confines of caste. 鐵面無私,現在稱為Harijans ,歷來被佔領的最低發生在印度教種姓制度的印度;它們被稱為碰不得的,因為他們被認為是範圍以外的種姓。 Their impurity derived from their traditional occupations, such as the taking of life and the treatment of bodily effluvia.其雜質源自其傳統的職業,如考慮的生命和治療身體臭氣。

Such was their impurity that traditionally they were banned from Hindu temples; in parts of South India even the sight of an Untouchable was sufficient to pollute a member of a higher caste. In 1949 the Indian government outlawed the use of the term Untouchables. The group has been reclassified as the "Scheduled Castes" and has been granted special educational and political privileges.這是他們的雜質,傳統上他們被禁止印度教寺廟;在印度部分地區甚至是一個不可忽視足以污染的成員,高種姓。 1949年,印度政府禁止一詞的使用鐵面無私。小組已改劃為“賤民” ,並已獲得特別教育和政治特權。 Today it is illegal to discriminate against a Harijan, yet they remain generally at the bottom of the caste hierarchy, performing the most menial roles demanded by society.今天,它是非法的歧視哈力甘,但他們總體上仍底部的種姓等級,表演最卑賤的角色所要求的社會。 They numbered an estimated 65 million in the late 1960s.他們的人數估計有6500萬在1960年代末。

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Bibliography: 參考書目:
PC Aggarwal, Halfway to Equality: The Harijans of India (1983); DP Das, The Untouchables Story (1985); JM Freeman, Untouchable: An Indian Life History (1979); JH Hutton, Caste in India: Its Nature, Function and Origins (1963); M Juergensmeyer, Religion as a Social Vision (1982); RK Kshirsagar, Untouchability in India (1982); JM Mahar, ed., The Untouchables in Contemporary India (1972); DG Mandelbaum, Society in India (1970).電腦色素,一半平等: Harijans印度( 1983年) ;壓達斯,鐵面無私的故事( 1985年) ; JM弗里曼,碰不得:印度生活史( 1979年) ;紅赫頓,種姓在印度:其性質,功能和起源( 1963年) ; M Juergensmeyer ,宗教作為一種社會遠景( 1982年) ;的RK Kshirsagar ,不可接觸制在印度( 1982年) ; JM馬哈爾,教育署。 ,鐵面無私的當代印度( 1972年) ;總幹事曼德伯恩,學會在印度( 1970年) 。


General Information 一般信息

Untouchables are the Harijan caste, the lowest class under Hinduism.鐵面無私的哈力甘種姓,最低級的下印度教。

Caste System種姓制度

General Information 一般信息

Caste is a rigid social system in which a social hierarchy is maintained generation after generation and allows little mobility out of the position to which a person is born.種姓是一個僵化的社會制度中,社會階層保持一代又一代人,使流動性的小的立場,以一個人出生。 The term is often applied to the hierarchical hereditary divisions established among the Hindus on the Indian subcontinent.但這一術語往往用於分層遺傳司之間建立的印度教徒在印度次大陸。 The word caste was first used by 16th-century Portuguese traders; it is derived from the Portuguese casta, denoting family strain, breed, or race.種姓一詞最早是由16世紀的葡萄牙商人,這是來自葡萄牙婭卡斯塔,表明家庭株,繁殖,或種族。 The Sanskrit word is jati.梵語詞賈蒂。 The Sanskrit term varna denotes a group of jati, or the system of caste.梵語長期瓦爾納指一組賈蒂,或制度的種姓。

The traditional caste system of India developed more than 3000 years ago when Aryan-speaking nomadic groups migrated from the north to India about 1500BC.傳統的種姓制度,印度制定超過3000年前,當雅利安語游牧群體從北方遷移到印度約1500BC 。 The Aryan priests, according to the ancient sacred literature of India, divided society into a basic caste system. Sometime between 200BC and AD100, the Manu Smriti, or Law of Manu, was written.雅利安神父,根據古老神聖的文學印度,分裂的社會變成一個基本的種姓制度。有時之間200BC和AD100 ,基諾Smriti ,或法律的吉諾比利,寫。 In it the Aryan priest-lawmakers created the four great hereditary divisions of society still surviving today, placing their own priestly class at the head of this caste system with the title of earthly gods, or Brahmans. Next in order of rank were the warriors, the Kshatriyas. Then came the Vaisyas, the farmers and merchants.在它的雅利安神父,國會設立了四個巨大的遺傳部門的社會今天仍然活著,把自己的司鐸級領導本種姓制度的名稱俗世神,或婆羅門。下一步,以便級別的勇士,在Kshatriyas 。隨後他來到了Vaisyas ,農民和商人。 The fourth of the original castes was the Sudras, the laborers, born to be servants to the other three castes, especially the Brahman. Far lower than the Sudras - in fact, entirely outside the social order and limited to doing the most menial and unappealing tasks - were those people of no caste, formerly known as Untouchables. (In the 1930s Indian nationalist leader Mohandas Gandhi applied the term Harijans, or "children of God," to this group.) The Untouchables were the Dravidians, the aboriginal inhabitants of India, to whose ranks from time to time were added the pariahs, or outcasts, people expelled for religious or social sins from the classes into which they had been born.第四原始種姓是首陀羅,勞動者,出生將公務員的其他三個等級,特別是婆羅門。 遠遠低於首陀羅-事實上,完全超出了社會秩序,限於從事最卑賤和吸引力任務-是這些人沒有種姓,以前被稱為鐵面無私。 (在1930年印度民族主義領袖甘地適用任期Harijans ,或“神的孩子”這一組。 )鐵面無私的Dravidians ,原住民居民印度,他們的職級不時加入的賤民,或遺棄,被驅逐的人的宗教或社會的罪孽從班級到他們已經誕生了。 Thus created by the priests, the caste system was made a part of Hindu religious law, rendered secure by the claim of divine revelation.由此產生的神職人員,種姓制度是印度的一部分,宗教法,提供安全的要求天啟。

The characteristics of an Indian caste include rigid, hereditary membership in the caste into which one is born; the practice of marrying only members of the same caste (endogamy); restrictions on the choice of occupation and on personal contact with members of other castes; and the acceptance by each individual of a fixed place in society.特性的印度種姓包括僵化,遺傳成員種姓納入其中出生;結婚的做法,只能屬於同一種姓(內婚) ;限制選擇職業和個人的聯繫成員的其他種姓;並接受了每一個人的固定在社會中的地位。 The caste system has been perpetuated by the Hindu ideas of samsara (reincarnation) and karma (quality of action).種姓制度一直延續了印度教思想的輪迴 (轉世)和 (質量的行動) 。 According to these religious beliefs, all people are reincarnated on earth, at which time they have a chance to be born into another, higher caste, but only if they have been obedient to the rules of their caste in their previous life on earth.根據這些宗教的信仰,所有的人是地球上的轉世,當時他們有機會到另一個出生,高種姓,但是只有當他們被服從的規則,其種姓在以前的地球上的生命。 In this way karma has discouraged people from attempting to rise to a higher caste or to cross caste lines for social relations of any kind.以這種方式阻礙了業的人試圖將上升到更高的種姓或跨種姓的社會關係的任何形式。

The four original castes have been subdivided again and again over many centuries, until today it is impossible to tell their exact number.原來的四個種姓被分割一次又一次地在許多世紀以來,直到今天,也不可能告訴他們的確切人數。 Estimates range from 2000 to 3000 different castes established by Brahmanical law throughout India, each region having its own distinct groups defined by craft and fixed by custom.估計從2000年至3000不同種姓法律設立的Brahmanical印度各地,每個區域有自己獨特的群體界定的工藝和固定的習慣。

The complexities of the system have constituted a serious obstacle to civil progress in India.複雜的系統構成了嚴重障礙,在印度民間進展。 The trend today is toward the dissolution of the artificial barriers between the castes.今天的趨勢是走向解體人為障礙之間的種姓。 The stringency of the caste system of the Hindus was broken down greatly during the period of British rule in India.更嚴格的種姓制度的印度教教徒被細分大大期間,英國統治印度。 The obligation of the son to follow the calling of his father is no longer binding; men of low castes have risen to high ranks and positions of power; and excommunication, or the loss of caste, is not as serious as it may once have been.的義務,兒子跟隨他的父親要求的已不再具有約束力;男子低種姓已上升到較高的職級和職務的權力;和逐出教會,或損失的種姓,並不嚴重,因為它可能會再次被。 In addition, the caste system was from time to time burst from within by ecclesiastical schisms, most notably the rise of Buddhism, itself a reaction from, and protest against, the intolerable bondage of the caste system.此外,種姓制度是不時爆發教會內部的分裂,特別是佛教的興起,本身的反應,和抗議,不能容忍的桎梏的種姓制度。

In recent years considerable strides toward eradicating unjust social and economic aspects of the caste system as practiced in India have been made through educational and reform movements.在最近幾年相當大的步伐走向消除不公正的社會和經濟方面的種姓制度在印度的實踐取得了通過教育和改革運動。 The great leader in this endeavor was Mohandas Gandhi.偉大領袖在這一努力是甘地。 The drafted constitution of India, which was published a few days after the assassination of Gandhi in January 1948, stated in a special clause under the heading "human rights": "Untouchability is abolished and its practice in any form is forbidden."在起草憲法的印度,這是出版後的數天暗殺甘地在1948年1月,在一項特別條款項下的“人權” : “不可接觸制的廢除與實踐以任何形式是被禁止的。 ” Despite official attempts to improve the status of members of the lowest caste, many of whom now prefer to be referred to as Dalits (Hindi for "oppressed people"), discrimination and exploitation is still common.儘管官方試圖改善成員的地位是最低的種姓,其中許多人現在更願意被稱為達利特(印地語為“受壓迫的人” ) ,歧視和剝削仍然是共同的。

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