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The Upanishads are chronologically the latest portions of the Vedas, the sacred texts of Hinduism.是按時間順序的Upanishads的最新部分吠陀,根據神聖的文本印度教。 The earliest Upanishads, probably dating from 900 to 600 BC, represent the first development of philosophical reflections in Sanskrit literature; later works have also been accepted from time to time as Upanishads.最早的Upanishads ,大概可追溯到公元前600年至900 ,代表第一發展的哲學思考梵文文學;後來工程也已接受不時Upanishads 。 According to a widespread tradition the oldest Upanishads are the Isa, Kena, Katha, Prasna, Mundaka, Mandukya, Taittiriya, Aitareya, Chandogya, Brhadaranyaka, Svetasvatara, Kaushitaki, and Maitri Upanishads. The material they comprise is part poetry, part prose.根據一種普遍的傳統,是歷史最悠久的Upanishads ISA ,克娜, Katha , Prasna , Mundaka , Mandukya , Taittiriya , Aitareya , Chandogya , Brhadaranyaka , Svetasvatara , Kaushitaki ,並Maitri Upanishads 。組成的物質,他們是詩歌,散文的一部分。 They contain didactic stories, allegories, and passages for meditation, a number of which are repeated in more than one Upanishad or elsewhere in the Vedic corpus.它們包含的說教故事,寓言和通道冥想,其中一些是重複了一個以上的奧義書或其他方面的吠陀語料庫。

The fundamental concern of the Upanishads is the nature of reality. They teach the identity of the individual soul (atman) with the universal essence soul (Brahman). Because they are the final portions of the Vedas, they are also known as Vedanta, "the end of the Vedas," and their thought, as interpreted in succeeding centuries, is likewise known as Vedanta. 根本關注的Upanishads的性質是現實。他們教的身份,個人心靈(靈魂)的普遍本質靈魂(婆羅門) 。因為他們是最後的部分吠陀,他們也被稱為韋丹塔“結束吠陀經“和他們的思想,解釋在幾個世紀,也同樣被稱為韋丹塔。

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Bibliography: 參考書目:
P Deussen, The Philosophy of the Upanishads (1960); E Easwaren, The Upanishads: A Selection (1987); NA Nikam, Ten Principal Upanishads: Some Fundamental Ideas (1974); S Sharma, Life in the Upanishads (1985). P朋友杜森,哲學的Upanishads ( 1960年) ; é Easwaren ,該Upanishads :一種選擇( 1987年) ;那Nikam ,十項主要Upanishads :一些基本的思想( 1974年) ;縣夏爾馬,生活在Upanishads ( 1985年) 。

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