Zen Buddhism

General Information 一般信息

The is a recognized denomination of Buddhism.該公司是業界公認的面額佛。 It is popular among non Buddhists in the US; it seeks to transmit the spirit of Buddhism without demanding allegiance to all the teachings of Buddha.這是很受非佛教徒在美國,它要求轉交佛教的精神,不要求效忠所有佛陀的教誨。 It uses mondo, a question - and - answer technique to reveal truths (some religious) from within the seeker which will bring bodhi (enlightenment).它採用盟,一個問題-和-回答技術揭示真理(一些宗教)從求職者這將使菩提(啟示) 。 Wisdom and love are major emphases.智慧和愛的主要重點。

Many critics see Zen Buddhism as non religious, as a sham religion.許多評論家認為禪非宗教,作為一個深水宗教。 True Buddhists see it as an attempt as a short cut to true enlightenment.真正的佛教徒把它看作是企圖為捷徑真正啟示。 Others see it as an atheistic approach to life.其他人則認為這是一個無神論的生活態度。

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Zen Buddhism

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Zen or Ch'an Buddhism represents a sectarian movement within the Buddhist religion that stresses the practice of meditation as the means to enlightenment.或禪佛教禪宗的一個宗派運動的佛教宗教,強調實踐的冥想為手段,以啟示。 Zen and Ch'an are, respectively, Japanese and Chinese attempts to render the Sanskrit word for meditation, dhyana.禪與禪分別是日本和中國的企圖,使梵文詞冥想,禪宗。

Zen's roots may be traced to India, but it was in East Asia that the movement became distinct and flourished.禪宗的根源可追溯到印度,但在東亞,該運動成為獨特和繁榮。 Like other Chinese Buddhist sects, Ch'an first established itself as a lineage of masters emphasizing the teachings of a particular text, in this case the Lankavatara Sutra.像其他中國佛教宗派,禪首先確立了它作為血統的大師的教誨,強調某一特定文字,在這種情況下,楞伽經。 Bodhidharma, the first Ch'an patriarch in China, who is said to have arrived there from India c.達摩,第一禪主教在中國,誰是說,已經抵達那裡印度角 470 AD, was a master of this text. 470年,是一個總的這個文本。 He also emphasized the practice of contemplative sitting, and legend has it that he himself spent 9 years in meditation facing a wall.他還強調,實踐沉思坐著,和傳說,他本人花了9年的冥想面臨牆。

With the importance of lineages, Ch'an stressed the master - disciple relationship, and Bodhidharma was followed by a series of patriarchs each of whom received the Dharma (religious truth) directly from his predecessor and teacher.的重要性譜系,禪強調船長-弟子的關係,達摩隨後進行了一系列的始祖每個人都收到了拉達爾馬(宗教真理)直接從他的前任和教師。 By the 7th century, however, splits in the line of transmission began to develop, the most important of which was between Shen - hsiu (606 - 706) and Hui - neng (638 - 713), disciples of the 5th patriarch, Hung - jen. According to a later and clearly biased legend, Hui - neng defeated Hung - jen in a stanza - composing contest, thereby demonstrating his superior enlightenment.到公元7世紀,然而,分裂線的傳輸開始發展,其中最重要的是與沉-修( 606 - 706 )和回族-能( 638 - 713 ) ,弟子的第五宗主教,紅-仁。根據稍後並明確偏見傳說,回族-能打敗洪-仁在詩-撰寫競賽,從而表明他的上級啟示。 He was then secretly named 6th patriarch but had to flee south for fear of his rival's jealousy.然後他被秘密任命主教,但第六不得不逃離南害怕他的對手的嫉妒。

The split between Shen - hsiu and Hui - neng accounts for the southern and northern branches of Ch'an, which competed vigorously for prestige and state support.分裂沉-修和回族-能佔南部和北部分行禪,這激烈競爭的威信和國家的支持。 Hui - neng's branch dominated in the long run, and by 796 an imperial decree settled the matter in his favor posthumously.回族-能的分支機構為主,從長遠來看,和796一個帝國法令解決這個問題,他贊成追授。 By then, however, Hui - neng's branch was itself beginning to subdivide into several different schools.到那個時候,但是,回族-能的分支機構本身開始劃分成幾個不同的學校。

The subsequent history of Ch'an in China was mixed.隨後的歷史禪我國混合。 The sect suffered from the great persecution of Buddhism in 845.該教派遭受巨大迫害佛教845 。 It recovered better than many Buddhist schools, however, partly because, in contrast to other monastic communities, Ch'an monks engaged in physical labor, which made them less dependent on state and lay support.它恢復優於許多佛教學校,然而,部分原因是,與其他寺院社區,禪和尚從事體力勞動,使他們越來越少地依賴於國家和非專業的支持。 During the Sung dynasty (960 - 1279), Ch'an again prospered and was a leading influence on the development of Chinese art and neo - Confucian culture.在宋朝(公元960 - 1279年) ,禪再次繁榮,並且是領先的發展的影響和新中國的藝術-儒家文化。

It was during this period that Ch'an was first established in Japan. Within 30 years of each other, two Japanese monks, Eisai (1141 - 1215) and Dogen (1200 - 53), went to China, where they trained respectively in the Lin - chi (Japanese, Rinzai) and Ts'ao - tung (Japanese, Soto) schools of Ch'an.這是在這一時期,禪成立於日本。在30年內對彼此,兩名日本僧侶,衛材( 1141年至1215年)和Dogen ( 1200年至1253年) ,去中國,他們在那裡訓練,分別在林-遲浩田(日語,臨濟)和曹操-東(日語,爾索托)學校的禪。 These they then introduced into Japan.這些,然後介紹到日本。 Rinzai emphasizes the use of Koans, mental stumbling blocks or riddles that the meditator must solve to the satisfaction of his master. Soto lays more stress on seated meditation without conscious striving for a goal (zazen).臨濟強調利用Koans ,精神障礙或謎語的meditator必須解決的滿意他的主人。爾索托奠定更加注重坐在靜坐不自覺追求的目標( zazen ) 。 Both schools fostered good relations with the shoguns and became closely associated with the Japanese military class.這兩所學校培養良好的關係shoguns密切相關,並成為與日本的軍事類。 Rinzai in particular was highly influential during the Ashikaga period (1338 - 1573), when Zen played an important role in propagating neo - Confucianism and infusing its own unique spirit into Japanese art and culture.臨濟特別是很有影響力的在利期間( 1338至1573年) ,當禪宗中發揮了重要作用,宣傳新-儒學與注入了自己獨特的精神轉化為日本藝術和文化。

The heart of Zen monasticism is the practice of meditation; it is this feature that has been most popular in Zen's spread to the West. Zen meditation highlights the experience of enlightenment, or satori (Chinese: wu), and the possibility of attaining it in this life. The strict training of Zen monks, the daily physical chores, the constant wrestling with koans, the long hours of sitting in meditation, and the special intensive periods of practice (sesshin) are all directed toward this end.心臟是禪宗修道的做法冥想,這是此功能已被最流行的禪宗傳播到西方。禪宗冥想突出的經驗啟示,或佐鳥(中文:吳) ,並有可能實現它的這種生活。嚴格培訓禪宗僧侶,每天身體家務,經常摔跤的koans ,在長時間打坐,特別密集時期的實踐( sesshin )都是針對這一目的。

At the same time, enlightenment is generally thought of as being sudden.與此同時,啟示一般認為是被突然。 The meditator needs to be jolted awake, and the only one who can do this is his Zen master.該meditator需要顛簸醒來,只有誰能夠做到這一點是他的禪師。 The master - disciple relationship often involves private interviews in which the Zen trait of unconventionality sometimes comes to the fore; the master will allow no refuge in the Buddha or the sutras but demands from his disciple a direct answer to his assigned koan.船長-弟子的關係往往涉及私下約談,其中禪宗性狀的異常有時突出;船長將不允許避難佛像或經文,但要求他的弟子直接回答,他指派公案。 Conversely, the master may goad the disciple by remaining silent or compassionately help him out, but with the constant aim of trying to cause a breakthrough from conventional to absolute truth.相反,船長可鞭策門徒通過保持沉默或同情幫助他,但不斷目的是試圖造成突破常規,以絕對的真理。

Joseph M Kitagawa And John S Strong約瑟夫M北側約翰強

Bibliography: 參考書目:
H Dumoulin, History of Zen Buddhism (1963); T Hoover, Zen Culture (1977); C Humphreys, Zen: A Way of Life (1971); S Ogata, Zen for the West (1959); NW Ross, ed., The World of Zen (1960); DT Suzuki, Essays in Zen Buddhism (1927 - 1934), Introduction to Zen Buddhism (1957), and Manual of Zen Buddhism (1960); J Van de Wetering, The Empty Mirror: Experiences in a Japanese Zen Monastery (1974); A Watts, The Spirit of Zen (1958); P Yampolsky, The Platform Sutra of the Sixth Patriarch (1967). H迪穆蘭,史禪( 1963年) ; Ť胡佛,禪文化( 1977年) ; ç弗萊斯,禪:一種生活方式( 1971年) ;縣緒方貞子,禪西( 1959年) ;淨重羅斯,教育署。 ,禪的世界( 1960年) ; DT公司鈴木,散文在禪( 1927至1934年) ,介紹禪( 1957年) ,和手動的禪( 1960年) ; J范德韋特靈,空鏡:經驗,日本禪寺( 1974年) ;甲瓦,本著禪( 1958年) ; P Yampolsky ,該平台經第六主教( 1967年) 。

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