Zoroastrianism, Zoroaster, Zarathusthra, Zarathustra拜火教, Zoroaster , Zarathusthra ,查拉圖斯特拉

General Information 一般信息

During the 7th and 6th centuries BC the ancient polytheistic religion of the Iranians was reformed and given new dimensions by the prophet Zoroaster (or Zarathusthra).在第7次和6次公元前數百年的古老的多神教宗教的伊朗人進行了改革,並給予新的層面的先知Zoroaster (或Zarathusthra ) 。 Zoroaster's life dates have been traditionally given as (c. 628 - 551 BC), but many scholars argue for earlier dates. Zoroaster的生命日期歷來作為(角628 - 551年) ,但許多學者認為較早日期。 Linguistic evidence suggests that he was born in northeastern Iran, but the prophet's message was to spread throughout the Persian Empire.語言學證據表明,他出生在伊朗東北部,但先知的信息是可能擴散到整個波斯帝國。 Adopted as the faith of the Persian kings, Zoroastrianism became the official religion of the Achaemenid empire and flourished under its successors, the Parthian and Sassanian empires. Its theology and cosmology may have influenced the development of Greek, later Jewish, Christian, and Muslim thought. The Muslim conquest of the 7th century AD marked the beginning of a steady decline of Zoroastrianism.採用為信仰的波斯國王,拜火教成為我國的官方宗教和繁榮的阿契美尼德帝國在其繼任者,在帕提亞和波斯薩珊帝國。 及其神學和宇宙可能影響發展的希臘,後來猶太教,基督教和穆斯林思想。穆斯林征服公元7世紀的開始穩步下降的拜火教。 Persecution resulted in the migration (about the 10th century) of the majority of Zoroastrians to India, where the Parsis of Bombay are their modern descendants.迫害導致移民(約10世紀)的多數拜火教徒,印度,那裡的帕西孟買是他們的現代子孫。

The religion of ancient Iran was derived from that of the ancient Indo Europeans, or Aryans.古老的宗教是來自伊朗的古代印歐洲人,或雅利安人。 The language of the earliest Zoroastrian writings is close to that of the Indian Vedas, and much of the mythology is recognizably the same.語言的著作是最早拜火教接近印度吠陀,和許多神話是公認相同。 Two groups of gods were worshiped, the ahuras and the daevas.兩組分別供奉神靈的ahuras和daevas 。 The worship of the ahuras (lords) may have reflected the practice of the pastoral upper classes, and tradition holds that Zoroaster was born into a family that worshiped only the ahuras. The message of the prophet, however, was that Ahura Mazda, the Wise Lord, was the sole creator and lord of the world and that the worship of the daevas was the worship of evil. In Zoroaster's theology the Amesha Spentas, or Bountiful Immortals, were divine beings who acted essentially as agents of the power of Ahura Mazda; they were traditionally seven in number: Bounteous Spirit, Good Mind, Truth, Rightmindedness, Dominion, Health, and Life.崇拜的ahuras (上議院)可能已經反映了實踐的牧區上層階級,與傳統認為Zoroaster出生於一個家庭的崇拜只有ahuras 。 的信息先知,但是,是胡馬自達,智者主啊,是唯一的創建者和上帝的世界,而崇拜daevas是崇拜邪惡。在Zoroaster的神學的Amesha Spentas ,或豐富的神仙,是天人基本上誰擔任代理人的權力胡馬自達;他們是傳統的七號碼:好又多精神,良好的心態,真相, Rightmindedness ,明,健康和生命。 The first of these, Spenta Mainyu, is of special importance in that he is paired with a "twin," Angra Mainyu, or Hostile Spirit.首先, Spenta Mainyu ,具有特殊的重要性,他是在同組的“孿生”安格拉Mainyu ,或有敵意的精神。

When given a choice between good and evil, or truth and the lie, Bounteous Spirit chose truth and Hostile Spirit the lie. Creation becomes a battleground, with the demoted ahuras invoked for the doing of good and the daevas enlisted by Angra Mainyu in the doing of evil.如果可以選擇的善和惡,或真理和謊言,好又多精神選擇真理和敵對的精神,謊言。創作變成戰場,與降級ahuras援引做的很好, daevas編安格拉Mainyu在做邪惡。 Nevertheless, Ahura Mazda has decreed that truth will triumph, and the old world will be destroyed by fire and a new creation instituted.儘管如此, 胡馬自達,艾倫狄金斯真相將取得勝利,和舊的世界將被燒毀,並設立一個新的創造。

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In the period following Zoroaster, for which little evidence remains, Zoroastrianism consolidated its position and spread throughout Iran.在之後的一段時間裡Zoroaster ,因為沒有證據表明仍然存在,拜火教鞏固了其立場,並蔓延到伊朗。 The rise of the southern Persians and Medes seems to have been accompanied by the reinstatement of many of the ahuras, although Ahura Mazda is still recognized as supreme god. Among the most important figures to revive at this time were Mithra (Mithraism), usually associated with the sun, and Anahita, associated with the waters and fertility.崛起的南部波斯人和瑪代人似乎已經伴隨恢復許多ahuras ,雖然胡馬自達仍然是公認的最高神。其中最重要的數據恢復在這個時候是米特拉神( Mithraism ) ,通常與太陽和阿娜希塔,相關水域和生育能力。 Ahura Mazda (who becomes Ormazd) becomes identified with Spenta Mainyu, and Angra Mainyu (Ahriman) remains his antagonist.胡馬自達(誰當選Ormazd )變成確定Spenta Mainyu和安格拉Mainyu ( Ahriman )仍然他拮抗劑。 Ahura Mazda has relinquished some of his absolute supremacy and appears to need the assistance of the lesser ahuras, particularly Mithra, who appears as mediator and protector of the created world.胡馬自達放棄他的一些絕對的優勢,似乎有必要的協助下,較小的ahuras ,特別是米特拉神,誰出現調停者和保護者的創造的世界。

This dualist view eventually became the orthodox position.這二元認為最終成為東正教的立場。 Its development may have owed much to the Magi, a hereditary priestly caste, although their role is unclear.它的發展可能很大程度上要歸功於賢士,世襲祭司種姓,儘管他們的作用還不清楚。 From them, however, the Greco Roman world learned much of what it knew of the religion.他們,但是,希臘羅馬世界學到了很多的東西知道的宗教。 An important reform movement, however, arose within Zoroastrianism - the movement around Zurvan.一個重要的改革運動,然而,出現在拜火教-周圍祖爾宛運動。 The Zurvanites posited a supreme god, Zurvan (Infinite Time), who had sacrificed for 1,000 years in order to gain offspring.假定的Zurvanites最高法院上帝,祖爾宛(無限時間) ,誰犧牲了1000年,以獲得的後代。 At the end of that time he experienced momentary doubt, and from that doubt arose Ahriman; at the same time, Ormazd came into being because of the efficacy of the sacrifices.結束時,當時他經歷短暫懷疑,從懷疑出現Ahriman ;在同一時間, Ormazd應運而生,因為效率的犧牲。 At the end of 3,000 years Ahriman crossed the void that separated them and attacked Ormazd.在結束3000年Ahriman越過無效分離,並攻擊Ormazd 。 The two made a pact to limit the struggle, and Ahriman fell back into the abyss, where he lay for 3,000 years.兩個人協議以限制鬥爭, Ahriman回落的深淵,在那裡他奠定了3000年。

During that period Ormazd created the material and spiritual world; in retaliation, Ahriman called into being six demons and an opposing material world.在此期間Ormazd創造的物質和精神的世界;為了報復, Ahriman所謂形成六個惡魔和物質世界的對立。 In the next 3,000 year period Ahriman attempted to corrupt the creation of Ormazd; he was successful but was trapped in the world of light. The final period of 3,000 years was ushered in by the birth of Zoroaster, who revealed this struggle to man; the prophet is to be followed by three saviors, appearing at intervals of 1,000 years. At the appearance of the last, a day of judgment will occur, the drink of immortality will be offered to those who have fought against Ahriman, and a new creation will be established.在未來的三千年期間Ahriman試圖腐敗創造Ormazd ;他是成功的,但被困在世界上的光。最後期限是3000年所帶來的誕生Zoroaster ,誰發現這個男子的鬥爭的先知是應遵循的三個救世主,出現的時間間隔為1000年。在外觀上,每天將發生的判斷,該飲料的永生,將提供給那些誰也抗擊Ahriman ,和一個新的創造將成立。

The sacred literature of Zoroastrianism is found in the Avesta, which was compiled sometime during the Sassanian period (224 - 640 AD) from much earlier materials. 神聖的文學拜火教被發現在該阿維斯塔,這是編譯的波斯薩珊在某個時期( 224 - 640年)從更早材料。 Only a portion of the Avesta remains, but the language of its earliest sections is extremely ancient, closely related to that of the Indian Vedas.只有部分的阿維斯塔仍然存在,但其最早的語言是非常古老的部分,密切相關的,在印度吠陀。 These sections, the Gathas, are thought to be by Zoroaster himself.這些部分, Gathas ,被認為是由Zoroaster本人。 They are hymns and form the primary part of the Yasna, the central liturgy of the religion.他們是讚美詩和形式的主要部分作家,中央的宗教禮儀。 Also contained in the Avesta are the Yashts, hymns to a number of the ahuras, and later in date than the Gathas.也載於阿維斯塔是Yashts ,讚美詩了一系列的ahuras ,後來日期比Gathas 。 Finally comes the Videvdat, which is concerned with purity and ritual.最後來了Videvdat ,這是涉及純度和儀式。 A large body of commentary exists in Pahlavi, dating from the 9th century AD, which contains quotations from earlier material no longer extant.大機構的評論中存在巴列維的歷史可以追溯到公元9世紀,其中包含的材料報價早些時候不再現存。

The rituals of Zoroastrianism revolve around devotion to the good and the battle against the forces of evil. Fire plays a major role, being seen as the manifestation of the truth of Ahura Mazda, as preached by Zoroaster. 祭祀的拜火教圍繞奉獻的良好和打擊邪惡勢力。消防方面發揮著重要作用,被視為體現了真理的胡馬自達,作為鼓吹Zoroaster 。 Also important is the ritual drink, haoma, which is related to the Vedic soma.同樣重要的是禮儀飲料,手機號碼,這是有關吠陀索瑪。

Tamara M Green塔瑪拉M綠色

Bibliography: 參考書目:
MA Boyce, Zoroastrians: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices (1979); M Dhalla, History of Zoroastrianism (1938) and Zoroastrian Theology from the Earliest Times to the Present Day (1914); J Duchesne - Guillemin, Symbols and Values in Zoroastrianism (1966) and The Western Response to Zoroaster (1958); JH Moulton, Early Zoroastrianism (1913); RC Zaehner, The Dawn and Twilight of Zoroastrianism (1961) and The Teachings of the Magi: A Compendium of Zoroastrian Beliefs (1956).馬爾博伊斯,拜火教徒:他們的宗教信仰和做法( 1979年) ; M Dhalla ,歷史的拜火教( 1938 )和拜火教神學從最早的時候到今天( 1914年) ; J杜申-古勒明,符號和價值觀的拜火教( 1966年)與西方的反應Zoroaster ( 1958年) ;紅莫爾頓,早期拜火教( 1913 ) ;鋼筋混凝土Zaehner ,黎明和黃昏的拜火教( 1961年)和教誨賢士:彙編拜火教信念( 1956年) 。


Spitama Zarathustra (c. 660 - 583 BC). Spitama查拉圖斯特拉(角660 - 583年) 。

Advanced Information 先進的信息

The fundamental idea of Zoroastrianism is that since the beginning, there has existed a spirit of good (Ahura Mazda or Ormazd) and a spirit of evil (Ahriman) who are in perpetual conflict, with the soul of man as the great object of the war.這一基本思想的拜火教是,自年初以來,那裡已經存在的良好的精神(胡馬自達或Ormazd )和精神的罪惡( Ahriman )誰是在永久的衝突,人的靈魂的偉大目標的戰爭。 Ormazd created men free, so that if they allow themselves to fall under the sway of Ahriman they are held to be justly punishable. When a person dies, his good and evil deeds will be weighed against each other, and accordingly as the balance is struck he will be sent to heaven or to hell. If they are exactly equal, the soul passes into an intermediate state and remains there until the day of judgment. Ormazd is to triumph ultimately, and then there will be one undivided kingdom of God in heaven and on earth. Ormazd創建男子自由,所以,如果他們允許自己屬於聽命Ahriman他們將舉行公正懲處。 當一個人去世,他的善和惡的事蹟將權衡對方,因此,作為平衡,他將被送到天堂或地獄。如果他們是完全平等的,靈魂的通行證到一種中間狀態,並且仍然存在,直到有一天的判決。 Ormazd是為了最終勝利,然後將有一個統一的王國上帝在天上和在地球上。

The 'bible' of Zoroastrians is the Zend - Avesta. 的'聖經'的拜火教徒是Zend公司-阿維斯塔。

It is divided into 5 parts:它分為5個部分:

Zoroaster taught a higher moral plane, where men attained virtue by good thoughts and conduct rather than by sacrifice. Zoroaster教更高道德飛機,其中男性達到憑藉良好的思想和行為,而不是犧牲。 All of a man's good works are actually entered into the book of life as credits, and bad works as debits.所有的人的優秀作品,實際上進入了生命之書的學分,而壞作品扣款。 If the total score is positive, the soul goes to heaven; if negative, hell.如果總分是積極的,靈魂進入天堂;如果消極,地獄。 If the balance is close, the soul stays in an intermediate state until the final judgment.如果帳戶餘額為密切,靈魂停留在一個中間狀態,直到最後判決。 Sins could never be washed away, but just balanced out.罪孽永遠不能沖走,只是平衡了。

Zoroastrianism is a religion that developed in Iran from about the sixth century BC, generally ascribed to Zoroaster (Zarathustra), who was born in Iran '258 years before Alexander.' The date of Zoroaster's birth has been given variously as 6000 BC, 1400 BC, and 1000 BC, but Herzfeld accepts the traditional date, approximately, as now confirmed (Herzfeld, (570 - 500 BC); Jackson, 660 - 583 BC).拜火教是一種宗教,發達國家在伊朗從大約公元前6世紀,通常歸因於Zoroaster (查拉圖斯特拉) ,誰是出生在伊朗'258年前亞歷山大。 '的日期Zoroaster的誕生給予了不同程度的6000年, 1400年,和公元前1000年,但赫茨菲爾德接受傳統迄今為止,大約有,因為現在已經證實(赫茨菲爾德, ( 570 - 500年) ;傑克遜, 660 - 583年) 。 Accordingly, Zoroaster was contemporary with other great religious personages, including Buddha, Confucius, Lao Tze, and several Hebrew prophets.因此, Zoroaster是當代與其他偉大的宗教人士,包括佛,孔子,老子,一些希伯來先知。 That Zoroaster used Vedic materials found in early Hinduism can hardly be denied; that he was a polytheist like Darius, Xerxes, and others who were probably Zoroastrians (at least, their inscriptions pay homage to Ahura Mazda) seems most likely.這Zoroaster吠陀材料使用中發現早期印度教難以否認;他是polytheist就像大流士,薛西斯,其他誰可能拜火教徒(至少在他們的題詞頂禮膜拜胡馬自達)似乎最有可能的。

But Zoroaster was protesting against the false and cruel in religion, and followed the principle, "If the gods do aught shameful, they are not gods."但是Zoroaster是抗議的虛假和殘酷的宗教,並遵循的原則, “如果神做奧特可恥的,他們不是神。 ” Accordingly, he exalted Ahura Mazda ("wise Lord," often improperly translated "Lord of light") as supreme among the gods or spirits, and viewed the world as an agelong struggle between Ahura Mazda and Angra Mainy (or Ahramanyus, Ahriman, "Spirit of evil"), both of whom came into existence independently in the distant past.因此,他崇高的胡馬自達( “明智的上帝” ,往往不適當地翻譯“主的光” ) ,作為最高的神或精神,並認為世界上作為一個agelong之間的鬥爭胡馬自達和安格拉Mainy (或Ahramanyus , Ahriman “精神邪惡“ ) ,兩人開始存在獨立在遙遠的過去。 Zoroastrianism is therefore called a dualism, but it is a limited dualism.拜火教因此,所謂的二元論,但它是一個有限的二元論。

Zoroaster calls upon human beings to join in this conflict on the side of Ahura Mazda, the key words of such religion being "good thoughts, good works, good deeds." Zoroaster籲請人加入這場衝突中的一方胡馬自達的關鍵詞這種宗教是“好的想法,好的作品,好事。 ” The ultimate victory of Ahura Mazda, however, was not to be accomplished by human assistance but by the advent of a messiahlike figure, the Saoshyant.的最終勝利的胡馬自達,但是,沒有完成的人力援助,而是出現一個messiahlike數字, Saoshyant 。 The duration of the struggle was to be six thousand years (three thousand had already passed when Zoroaster was born), following which was to be the resurrection and judgment.期間的鬥爭是六千年( 3000已經過去當Zoroaster出生) ,隨後將被復活和判斷。 Many of the details of Zoroastrianism are later developments, some post Christian and even post Mohammedan, and scholars are divided on what elements are to be traced to Zoroaster's own teaching.許多細節的拜火教是後來的事態發展,一些職位的基督教和伊斯蘭教甚至後,學者分為哪些要素是要追溯到Zoroaster自己的教學。

Because of the fact that the revelation of the doctrines of resurrection, angels, Satan, and the Messiah comes late in the OT or even in the intertestamental period in early Judaism, scholars have frequently traced these ideas to Zoroastrian influence exerted upon the Jewish people after the Babylonian exile.由於這一事實,即啟示理論復活,天使,魔鬼,並彌賽亞來晚了催產素,甚至在年初intertestamental期間猶太教,學者們經常追踪這些想法,以拜火教施加影響的猶太人民在巴比倫流亡。 Moulton examined these points in detail and concluded that they were "not proven."莫爾頓審查這些問題,詳細並得出結論認為,他們“沒有得到證明。 ” The discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls has reopened the discussion, due to the presence of marked "Zoroastrian" influences in the Qumran literature.發現的死海古卷已重開討論,由於存在明顯的“拜火教”影響的庫姆蘭文獻。 Some of the most striking parallels to Jewish Christian eschatology can be shown to be very late developments in Zoroastrianism.一些最引人注目的相似之處猶太基督教末世論可以證明是非常晚的事態發展,拜火教。 On the other hand, it would not do violence to a high view of inspiration to admit that God could have used Zoroastrianism as a means of stimulating the Jewish mind to think on these subjects even as he used hellenism to prepare the Jewish mind for the Christian revelation (witness Saul of Tarsus).另一方面,它不會做暴力高鑑於靈感承認上帝可以使用拜火教的一種手段刺激猶太人銘記想就這些問題,即使他用希臘準備猶太人銘記基督教啟示(證人掃羅的塔爾蘇斯) 。 The magi ("wise men") of the birth narrative may have been Zoroastrian priests.賢士( “智者” )的誕生說明可能已經拜火教神職人員。

A branch of Zoroastrians is the Parsees, who are fire worshipers. Zoroastrians generally worship natural objects, such as the sun and fire, and of great heroes.一個分支拜火教徒是Parsees ,誰是火災禮拜。拜火教徒一般崇拜自然物體,如太陽和火,大英雄。

WS Lasor WAS Lasor

Bibliography: 參考書目:
JH Moulton, HDB; AVW Jackson, Jewish Encyclopedia; E Herzfeld, Zoroaster and His World; RP Masani, The Religion of the Good Life, Zoroastrianism; JJ Modi, The Religious Ceremonies and Customs of the Parsees; M Boyce, "Zoroastrianism," in Historia Religionum.紅莫爾頓,建屋局; AVW傑克遜,猶太百科全書; é赫茨菲爾德, Zoroaster和他的世界;反相Masani ,宗教的幸福生活,拜火教;傑杰奧莫迪的宗教儀式和習俗Parsees ; M爾博伊斯, “拜火教”在歷史Religionum 。


Advanced Information 先進的信息

Zoroastrianism is a religion that developed in Iran from about the sixth century BC, generally ascribed to Zoroaster (Zarathustra), who was born in Iran "258 years before Alexander."拜火教是一種宗教,發達國家在伊朗從大約公元前6世紀,通常歸因於Zoroaster (查拉圖斯特拉) ,誰是出生在伊朗“ 258年前亞歷山大。 ” The date of Zoroaster's birth has been given variously as 6000 BC, 1400 BC, and 1000 BC, but Herzfeld accepts the traditional date, approximately, as now confirmed (Herzfeld, 570-500 BC; Jackson, 660-583 BC).日期Zoroaster的誕生給予了不同程度的6000年, 1400年和公元前1000年,但赫茨菲爾德接受傳統迄今為止,大約有,因為現在已經證實(赫茨菲爾德, 570-500公元前;傑克遜660-583年) 。 Accordingly, Zoroaster was contemporary with other great religious personages, including Buddha, Confucius, Lao Tze, and several Hebrew prophets.因此, Zoroaster是當代與其他偉大的宗教人士,包括佛,孔子,老子,一些希伯來先知。 That Zoroaster used Vedic materials found in early Hinduism can hardly be denied; that he was a polytheist like Darius, Xerxes, and others who were probably Zoroastrians (at least, their inscriptions pay homage to Ahura Mazda) seems most likely.這Zoroaster吠陀材料使用中發現早期印度教難以否認;他是polytheist就像大流士,薛西斯,其他誰可能拜火教徒(至少在他們的題詞頂禮膜拜胡馬自達)似乎最有可能的。 But Zoroaster was protesting against the false and cruel in religion, and followed the principle, "If the gods do aught shameful, they are not gods."但是Zoroaster是抗議的虛假和殘酷的宗教,並遵循的原則, “如果神做奧特可恥的,他們不是神。 ” Accordingly, he exalted Ahura Mazda ("wise Lord," often improperly translated "Lord of light") as supreme among the gods or spirits, and viewed the world as an agelong struggle between Ahura Mazda and Angra Mainy (or Ahramanyus, Ahriman, "Spirit of evil"), both of whom came into existence independently in the distant past.因此,他崇高的胡馬自達( “明智的上帝” ,往往不適當地翻譯“主的光” ) ,作為最高的神或精神,並認為世界上作為一個agelong之間的鬥爭胡馬自達和安格拉Mainy (或Ahramanyus , Ahriman “精神邪惡“ ) ,兩人開始存在獨立在遙遠的過去。 Zoroastrianism is therefore called a dualism, but it is a limited dualism.拜火教因此,所謂的二元論,但它是一個有限的二元論。

Zoroaster calls upon human beings to join in this conflict on the side of Ahura Mazda, the key words of such religion being "good thoughts, good works, good deeds." Zoroaster籲請人加入這場衝突中的一方胡馬自達的關鍵詞這種宗教是“好的想法,好的作品,好事。 ” The ultimate victory of Ahura Mazda, however, was not to be accomplished by human assistance but by the advent of a messiahlike figure, the Saoshyant.的最終勝利的胡馬自達,但是,沒有完成的人力援助,而是出現一個messiahlike數字, Saoshyant 。 The duration of the struggle was to be six thousand years (three thousand had already passed when Zoroaster was born), following which was to be the resurrection and judgment.期間的鬥爭是六千年( 3000已經過去當Zoroaster出生) ,隨後將被復活和判斷。 Many of the details of Zoroastrianism are later developments, some post-Christian and even post-Mohammedan, and scholars are divided on what elements are to be traced to Zoroaster's own teaching.許多細節的拜火教是後來的事態發展,一些後基督教,甚至後伊斯蘭教,學者分為哪些要素是要追溯到Zoroaster自己的教學。

Because of the fact that the revelation of the doctrines of resurrection, angels, Satan, and the Messiah comes late in the OT or even in the intertestamental period in early Judaism, scholars have frequently traced these ideas to Zoroastrian influence exerted upon the Jewish people after the Babylonian exile.由於這一事實,即啟示理論復活,天使,魔鬼,並彌賽亞來晚了催產素,甚至在年初intertestamental期間猶太教,學者們經常追踪這些想法,以拜火教施加影響的猶太人民在巴比倫流亡。 Moulton examined these points in detail and concluded that they were "not proven."莫爾頓審查這些問題,詳細並得出結論認為,他們“沒有得到證明。 ” The discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls has reopened the discussion, due to the presence of marked "Zoroastrian" influences in the Qumran literature.發現的死海古卷已重開討論,由於存在明顯的“拜火教”影響的庫姆蘭文獻。 Some of the most striking parallels to Jewish-Christian eschatology can be shown to be very late developments in Zoroastrianism.一些最引人注目的相似之處猶太基督教的末世論可以證明是非常晚的事態發展,拜火教。 On the other hand, it would not do violence to a high view of inspiration to admit that God could have used Zoroastrianism as a means of stimulating the Jewish mind to think on these subjects even as he used hellenism to prepare the Jewish mind for the Christian revelation (witness Saul of Tarsus).另一方面,它不會做暴力高鑑於靈感承認上帝可以使用拜火教的一種手段刺激猶太人銘記想就這些問題,即使他用希臘準備猶太人銘記基督教啟示(證人掃羅的塔爾蘇斯) 。 The magi ("wise men") of the birth narrative may have been Zoroastrian priests.賢士( “智者” )的誕生說明可能已經拜火教神職人員。

WS Lasor WAS Lasor
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (規矩福音字典)

Bibliography 參考書目
JH Moulton, HDB; AVW Jackson, Jewish Encyclopedia; E. Herzfeld, Zoroaster and His World, 2 vols.; RP Masani, The Religion of the Good Life, Zoroastrianism; JJ Modi, The Religious Ceremonies and Customs of the Parsees; M. Boyce, "Zoroastrianism," in Historia Religionum, ed.紅莫爾頓,建屋局; AVW傑克遜,猶太百科全書;體育赫茨菲爾德, Zoroaster和他的世界,第2卷。 ;反相Masani ,宗教的幸福生活,拜火教;傑杰奧莫迪的宗教儀式和習俗Parsees的M.博伊斯, “拜火教” ,在歷史Religionum ,教育署。 CJ Bleeker and G. Widengren.希傑鲌和G. Widengren 。

The Avesta該阿維斯塔

Catholic Information 天主教新聞

The sacred books of Parsees, or Zoroastrians, and the main source of our knowledge concerning the religious and spiritual life the ancient Persians.神聖的書籍Parsees ,或拜火教徒和主要來源的知識關於宗教和精神生活的古代波斯人。 This collection of writings occupies the same place in the literature of Iran (ancient Persia) that the Vedas do in India.這個系列的作品佔據了同一個地方的文學伊朗(古波斯) ,即在印度吠陀做。 The designation Zend-Avesta, which is often employed to denote the sacred code, is not strictly correct.指定的Zend -阿維斯塔,這往往是指僱用的神聖代碼,情況並不十分準確。 It owes its origin to a mistaken inversion of the Pahlavi designation Avistak u Zand, a term which probably means "Text and Commentary"; for the word Zand (in the Avesta itself, Zainti) signifies "explanation" and even in the Avesta is applied to the exegetical matter in the text.它欠其原產地為一個錯誤的反轉的巴列維指定Avistak ü贊德,任期這可能意味著“案文和評注” ,這個詞贊德(在阿維斯塔本身, Zainti )標誌著“解釋” ,甚至在阿維斯塔適用訓詁問題的案文中。 It is similarly used by the Parsee priests to denote the Pahlavi version and commentary, but not the original scriptures. Whether the term Avistak, which is the Pahlavi form of the word Avesta, has the meaning of "text", "law", is not absolutely certain.它同樣採用的帕西牧師來表示巴列維版本及評注,而不是原來的經文。一詞是否Avistak ,這是巴列維形式阿維斯塔一詞,指的“文本” , “法律” ,是沒有絕對肯定。 Some scholars interpret it as "wisdom", "knowledge".一些學者解釋為“智慧” , “知識” 。

Little was known concerning the religion and customs of ancient Persia before the Avesta was brought to Europe in the eighteenth century.所知甚少涉及宗教和習俗的古代波斯前阿維斯塔被帶到歐洲在十八世紀。 From the allusions in Greek and Roman writers, like Herodotus, Plutarch, Pliny, and others, it had long been surmised that such a body of scriptures existed.從典故在希臘和羅馬的作家,如希羅多德,普魯塔克,普林尼,和其他人,它早就推測,這樣一個機構存在的經文。 Scattered allusions in Arabic and Syriac writers strengthened this conviction.疏散典故用阿拉伯語和敘利亞作家加強這一信念。 But the information to be extracted from these references was vague and meagre.但是,信息的提取這些提法是模糊的,並且很少。 The first scholar to make the language and the contents of the sacred books of the Parsees known to Europe was a young Frenchman, Anquetil du Perron, who in 1754 went to India for this very purpose.第一個學者,使語言和內容的聖書Parsees眾所周知,歐洲是一個年輕的法國人,安克蒂爾杜門階,誰在1754年前往印度的這一根本目的。 His enthusiasm and perseverance overcame the many obstacles he encountered on his journey to Hindustan and the difficuities he met during his stay in Surat.他的熱情和毅力,克服了許多障礙,他遇到了他的旅程,以印度和difficuities他訪問期間,他會見了在蘇拉特。 Success at last crowned his efforts, and on his return in 1771 he was able to give to the world the first translation of the Avesta.在去年圓滿成功所作的努力,並在1771年他返回他能夠給世界第一的翻譯阿維斯塔。 From the moment of its publication a bitter controversy arose concerning the authenticity of the work.從目前其出版的痛苦爭議產生的真實性問題的工作。 Some scholars, like Sir William Jones, declared that it was a clumsy forgery of modern Parsee priests, and the question was disputed for half a century until the advance made in the study of Sanskrit and comparative philology decided the matter and vindicated the genuineness of the scriptures and the value of Anquetil's work, although his translation, as a first attempt, was necessarily, imperfect in many respects.一些學者,如威廉爵士瓊斯宣稱,這是一個拙劣的偽造現代帕西神父,和這個問題是有爭議的半世紀之前,事先研究報告中提出的梵文和比較語言學決定此事,並證實了真實性的聖經和價值安克蒂爾的工作,雖然他的翻譯,作為第一次嘗試,是必然,不完善在許多方面。


Originally, the sacred scriptures of the Parsees were of far greater extent than would appear from the Avesta in the form in which we now possess it.最初,神聖的經文的Parsees有更大程度似乎比從阿維斯塔的形式,使我們現在擁有它。 Only a relatively small portion of the original has in fact been preserved, and that is collected from several manuscripts, since no single codex contains all the texts now known.只有一小部分的原始事實上已經保存,這是收集一些手稿,因為沒有一個單一的法典包含所有目前已知的案文。 In its present form, therefore, the Avesta is a compilation from various sources, and its different parts date from different periods and vary widely in character.以其目前的形式,因此,阿維斯塔彙編從各種來源,它的不同部分的日期,並從不同的時期有很大差異的性質。 Tradition tells us that the Zoroastrian scriptures consisted originally of twenty-one nasks (books), but only one of these, the Vendidad, had been completely preserved.傳統告訴我們,拜火教經文由最初的21 nasks (書) ,但只有其中之一,該Vendidad ,已被完全保留。 The loss of the sacred books is attributed by the followers of Zoroaster to the invasion of Alexander "the accursed Iskandar", as they call him, who burned the palace library at Persepolis, thus destroying one archetype copy of the text, and threw the other into the river near Samarkand, according to the statement of the Pahlavi records (Dinkard, bk. III, West, "Sacred Books of the East", XXXVII, pp. xxx, xxxi, and Shatroiha-i Airan, 2-5).損失的原因是神聖的書籍的追隨者Zoroaster入侵亞歷山大“艾斯坎達的詛咒” ,因為他們叫他,誰焚燒宮圖書館在波斯波利斯,從而摧毀了一個原型的文本,並把其他到附近的河流撒馬爾罕,根據聲明巴列維記錄( Dinkard ,淺灘。三,西, “聖書東方” ,三十七頁。第三十,三十一,和Shatroiha我Airan , 2月5日) 。 For wellnigh five hundred years after the Macedonian invasion the Parsee scriptures remained in a scattered condition, much being preserved only by memory, until the great Zoroastrian under the Sassanian dynasty (AD 226-651), when the texts were again collected, codified, translated into Pahlavi, and interpreted.為wellnigh五百年入侵後,馬其頓的帕西經文仍處於分散狀態,但只有保存記憶,直至偉大的拜火教的波斯薩珊王朝(公元226-651 )時,文本再次收集,整理,翻譯到巴列維,並解釋。 A beginning in this direction had already been made under the last of the Parthian kings, but the great final redaction took place in Sassanian times, under Shahpuhar II (309-379).一個開始朝這個方向已取得的最後的帕提亞國王,但偉大的最後編輯發生在波斯薩珊倍,根據Shahpuhar二( 309-379 ) 。 Our present Avesta is essentially the work of this redaction, although important sections of the text have been lost since then, especially after the Arabs conquered Persia.我們目前的阿維斯塔基本上是工作的編輯,但重要的部分文字已經失去了自那時以來,特別是在阿拉伯人征服波斯。 This conquest (637-651) was fatal to the Iranian religion, and caused Zoroastrianism to be supplanted by Mohammedanism and the Avesta by the Koran.這征服( 637-651 )是致命的伊朗宗教,並造成拜火教被取代的Mohammedanism和阿維斯塔的古蘭經。 As already mentioned, great portions of the scriptures have since disappeared entirely; out of the original twenty-one nasks, the nineteenth alone (the Verdidad) has survived.如前所述,極大部分的經文已經完全消失;從原來的21 nasks ,第十九單獨(在Verdidad )已存活。 Portions of other nasks are preserved, interspersed here and there among the Yasna and Vispered, or have come down to us as flattered fragments in Pahlavi works, or have been rendered into Pahlavi, like the Bundahishn (Book of Creation) and the Shayast-la-Shayast (Treatise on the Lawful and Unlawful).部分其他nasks保存,穿插在這裡和那裡的作家和Vispered ,或已下降到我們的榮幸碎片巴列維工程,或已變得到巴列維,如Bundahishn (圖書的創作)和Shayast香格里拉- Shayast (傷寒論的合法和非法) 。 In this way we are able to make good some of our losses of the old scriptures enough has been said, however, to explain the lack of coherence noticeable in certain parts of the Avestan code. The Avesta, as we now have it, is usually divided into five sections, relating to the ritual, hymns of praise, the liturgy, and the law.這樣,我們能夠做好我們的一些損失舊聖經不夠已經說過,但是,解釋明顯缺乏一致性,在某些地區的阿維斯塔文代碼。的阿維斯塔,因為我們現在有了它,通常是分為五個部分,有關的儀式,讚美詩的好評,禮儀和法律。 These sections:以下部分:

the Yasna, including the Gathas, or hymns;的作家,包括Gathas ,或讚美詩;

Vispered; Vispered ;

Yashts; Yashts ;

minor texts, such as the Nyaishes (favourite prayers in daily use among the Parsees), and未成年人的文本,如Nyaishes (最喜歡的祈禱在日常使用中Parsees ) ,以及

Vendidad. Vendidad 。

Besides this there are some independent fragments preserved in Pahlavi books (Hadhokt Nask, etc).此外還有一些獨立的片段保存在巴列維書籍( Hadhokt Nask等) 。 The main divisions, when taken together, again fall into two groups, the one liturgical comprising Vendidad, Vispered and Yasna, or the Avesta proper, the other general, called Khorda Avesta (Abridged Avesta) and comprising the minor texts and the Yashts.主要的分歧時,兩者合計,又分為兩個組,一個禮儀包括Vendidad , Vispered和作家,或適當的阿維斯塔,其他一般,所謂的科爾達阿維斯塔(節選阿維斯塔)和未成年人組成的文本和Yashts 。 A brief characterization of the five divisions will now be given.簡要描述的5個師將被給予。

(1) The Yasna (Skt. yajna), "sacrifice", "worship", the chief liturgical portions of the sacred canon. ( 1 )作家( Skt. yajna ) , “犧牲” , “崇拜” ,政務禮儀的神聖部分佳能。 It consists principally of prayers and hymns used in the ritual, and is divided into seventy-two ha or haiti (chapters), symbolized by the seventy-two strands of the kushti, or sacred girdle with which the young Zoroastrian is invested on his being received into the Church.它包括主要的祈禱和讚美詩用於祭祀,分為72公頃或海地(章) ,象徵著由72股的kushti ,或神聖腰帶與年輕拜火教是投資,他正在收到進入教會。 The middle third of the Yasna (Ys., 28-53), however, is not directly connected with the ritual, but contains the Gathas, the holy psalms, songs which preserved the metrical sayings of Zoroaster himself as used in his sermons.中間三分之一的作家( Ys. , 28-53 ) ,但是,沒有直接與儀式,但包含Gathas ,羅馬詩歌,歌曲保留了韻律格言Zoroaster本人在他所用的布道。 This is the oldest portion of the Avesta and descends directly from the prophet and his disciples. These canticles are metrical in their structure and are composed in the so-called Gatha-dialect, a more archaic form of language than is used in the rest of the Avesta.這是最古老的部分阿維斯塔及直系後裔的先知和他的弟子。這些canticles有韻律的結構和組成的所謂伽陀,方言,這是一種更古老的形式語言中使用的其餘部分在阿維斯塔。 There are seventeen of the hymns, grouped in five divisions, each group taking its name from the opening words; thus Ahunavaiti, Ushtavaiti, etc.有17的讚美詩,分為5個師,每個組考慮其名字從開頭;從而Ahunavaiti , Ushtavaiti等 Inserted in the midst of the Gathas is the Yasna Haptanghaiti (the Seven-chapter Yasna) consisting of prayers and hymns in honour of the Supreme Deity, Ahura Mazda, the Angels, Fire, Water, and Earth.插入中間的Gathas是作家Haptanghaiti (七章作家)組成的祈禱和讚美詩的榮譽最高神,胡馬自達,天使,火,水,和地球。 This selection also shows a more archaic type of language, and stands next to the Gathas in point of antiquity.這一選擇也顯示出一個更古老類型的語言,和旁邊的Gathas在文物點。 Its structure though handed down in prose, may once have been metrical.其結構雖然流傳下來的散文,可一旦有韻律。

(2) The Vispered (vispe ratavo, "all the lords") is really a short liturgy, very similar in style and form to the Yasna, which it supplements in a briefer form. It owes its name to the fact that it contains invocations to "all the lords". ( 2 ) Vispered ( vispe ratavo , “所有的領主” )確實是一個短期禮儀,非常相似的風格和形式的作家,它在一個簡短的補充形式。它欠它的名字這樣一個事實,即它包含調用“所有的老爺” 。

(3) The Yashts (yeshti, "worship by praise"), of which there are twenty-one, are hymns in honour of various divinities. ( 3 ) Yashts ( yeshti , “崇拜的讚揚” ) ,其中有01年,是在履行讚美詩的各種神明。 These hymns are for the most part metrical in structure, and they show considerable poetic merit in certain instances, which is not common in Avesta.這些讚美詩大部分韻律結構,它們顯示相當詩意優點在某些情況下,這是不常見的阿維斯塔。 They are of especial interest historically on account of the glimpses they afford us of the great mythological and legendary material in the folklore of ancient Iran used so effectively by Firdausi in his great epic of the Persian kings, the "Shah Namah".他們是歷史上的特殊利益就到瞥見他們使我們的偉大的神話和傳奇色彩的材料在古代民間傳說,以便有效地利用伊朗的菲爾多西在他的偉大史詩的波斯國王的“沙赫那瑪哈” 。 Among the divinities to whom special yashts are devoted we find Ardvi Sura the goddess of waters; Tishtrya, the star Sirius; Mithra, the divinity of light and truth; the Fravashis, or departed souls of the righteous, Verethragna, the genius of Victory and the Kavaya Hvarenah, "kingly glory", the divine light illuminating the ancient kings of Iran.在神的人特別yashts致力於我們發現Ardvi蘇拉的女神水域; Tishtrya ,恆星天狼星;米特拉神,神的光與真理的Fravashis ,或靈魂的正義, Verethragna ,天才的勝利和在Kavaya Hvarenah , “王者的榮耀” ,神聖的光照亮了古老的伊朗國王。

(4) The fourth division (minor texts) comprises brief prayers, like the five Nyaishes (to the Sun, Moon, Mithra, Water, and Fire), the Gahs, Siruzas and Afringans (blessings). ( 4 )第四個司(小文)包括簡短的祈禱,願五個Nyaishes (以太陽,月亮,米特拉神,水,火) ,在Gahs , Siruzas和Afringans (祝福) 。 These selections form a manual of daily devotion.這些選擇形式手冊每日奉獻。

(5) The fifth division, Vendidad (from vi daeva data, "law against the demons"), is the religious law code of Zoroastrianism and comprises twenty-two fargards (chapters). ( 5 )第五司, Vendidad (從六daeva數據, “法律禁止的惡魔” ) ,是宗教法代碼的拜火教和包括22 fargards (第一章) 。 It begins with an account of Creation in which Ormuzd, the god, is thwarted by Ahriman, the devil; then it describes the occurrence of a destructive winter, a sort of Iranian deluge.它一開始就考慮到創作中, Ormuzd ,上帝,是阻礙Ahriman ,魔鬼;然後它敘述了發生破壞性冬季,一種伊朗氾濫。 The remainder of the book is largely devoted to elaborate prescriptions with regard to ceremonial purification, especially the cleansing from defilement incurred by contact with the dead, and to a list of special penances imposed as a means of atoning for impurity.其餘的書主要是專門制定處方禮儀方面的淨化,尤其是清洗的污辱引起的接觸死亡,並在清單中特別penances作為一種手段贖罪的雜質。 The Vendidad is an ecclesiastical code, not a liturgical manual.該教會Vendidad是一個代碼,而不是一個禮儀手冊。 Its different parts vary widely in character and in age.其不同地區差別很大的性質和年齡。 Some parts may be comparatively recent in origins although the greater part is very old.一些地方可能較近期的起源雖然大部份是很老。

The Avesta does not represent the whole of the sacred scriptures of the Parsees. It is supplemented by an extensive Pahlavi literature, consisting in part of translations from the sacred canon and in part of original matter.該阿維斯塔並不代表整個神聖經文的Parsees 。這是輔之以廣泛巴列維文學,組成部分的翻譯從神聖佳能和部分原始問題。 The most notable Pahlavi works belonging here are the Dinkard (Acts of Religion), dating from the ninth century of the Christian Era; Bundahishn, "Original Creation", finished in the eleventh or twelfth century of the Christian Era, but containing material as old as the Avesta itself, being in part a version of one of the original nasks; the Mainog-i-Khirad (Spirit of Wisdom), a religious conference on questions of faith, and the Arda Viraf Namak, a sort of Zoroastrian "Divina Commedia", which is especially important because of its account of the Persian ideas concerning the future life.最顯著的巴列維工程屬於以下是Dinkard (行為的宗教) ,建於9世紀的基督教時代; Bundahishn , “原始創新” ,完成了第十一屆或12世紀的基督教時代,但含有舊作為阿維斯塔本身,而在部分版本的一個原始nasks ;的Mainog ,一Khirad (精神的智慧) ,一個宗教會議上的信仰問題,和阿爾達Viraf耐馬克,一種拜火教“神曲Commedia “ ,這一點特別重要,因為它考慮到波斯灣的想法對未來的生活。 There is also some later Zoroastrian literature in modern Persian, comprising works like the Zartushtnamah (Book of Zoroaster), the Sad-dar (Hundred Doors, or Chapters), the Rivayats (traditional treatises).也有一些後來拜火教文學現代波斯語,包括工程,如Zartushtnamah (書Zoroaster ) ,令人悲哀達(百門,或章節) ,在Rivayats (傳統的論文) 。


The language of the Avesta is best designated simply as Avestan, not as Zend, for the reasons given in the beginning of this article.語言的阿維斯塔最好指定只是阿維斯塔文,而不是作為Zend公司的原因,給出了本文開頭。 Nor is Old Bactrian a desirable term, since it is by no means proved that the language of the Avesta was spoken in ancient Bactria.也不是老夏的可取任期,因為這絕不是證明,語言的口語阿維斯塔是在古代巴克特里亞。 The Avestan language is an Indo-Germanic tongue and belongs more specifically to the Iranian group, the other members being the Old Persian of the cuneiform inscriptions, the Pahlavi, and Pazend (or Middle Iranian), and the later dialects, New Persian, Kurdish, Afghan, etc. The Avestan speech is very closely related to Sanskrit; in fact, we are able to transpose any word from one language into the other by the application of special phonetic laws.該阿維斯塔文語言是印度支那日耳曼舌,屬於更具體伊朗集團的其他成員被老波斯的楔形文字銘文的巴列維,並Pazend (或中東伊朗) ,以及後來的方言,新波斯語,庫爾德語,阿富汗等阿維斯塔文講話,是非常密切相關的梵文,事實上,我們能夠移調任何詞從一種語言到其他的應用特別拼音法。 The script employed in the Avestan texts, as five have them, is not so old as the language itself, but dates from the Sassanian period.腳本受僱於阿維斯塔文文本,因為他們五人,是不是過於陳舊的語言本身,而是從波斯薩珊日期間。 It is read from right to left and can be traced ultimately to a Semitic sources.這是閱讀由右至左,並可以追溯到一個猶太人最終來源。 It is not known in what script the original Avesta was recorded.不知道在什麼腳本原始阿維斯塔記錄。


It can no longer be doubted that Zoroaster was a real historical personage.它再也不能被懷疑Zoroaster是一個真實的歷史人物。 The attempts of some scholars to represent him as a mythical being have failed, even though much that is related about his life is legendary, as in the case of Buddha.企圖一些學者,代表他是一個神話正在失敗了,儘管許多有關他的傳奇人生,就如佛。 The man Zoroaster in the original texts appears as Zarathushtra, from which Zoroaster, our present form of the prophet's name, is derived through the Greek and Latin.該名男子Zoroaster在原來的文本顯示為Zarathushtra ,其中Zoroaster ,我們目前的形式先知的名字,是根據通過希臘文和拉丁文。 The Avesta always writes Zarathushtra; the Pahlavi has Zartusht; the modern Persian, Zardusht.該阿維斯塔總是寫Zarathushtra ;的巴列維已Zartusht ;現代波斯語,扎杜什特。 What the meaning of the name is, cannot be stated positively.什麼意義上的名字是,不能說是積極的。 All that we know is that the name is a compound, and that the second element, ushtra, means "camel", the first part has been variously rendered as "old", "lively", "golden", "ploughing", etc. There has been much discussion as to the date when the prophet lived.所有我們知道的是,這個名字是一個大院,而第二個因素, ushtra ,意思是“駱駝”的第一部分已經提供的各種“老” , “活潑” , “黃金” , “耕耘”等。有很多討論的日期先知生活。 The traditional date in the Pahlavi books places his era between the earlier half of the seventh and the sixth century BC, or, more specially, 660-583 BC; but many scholars assign him to a century, or even several centuries, earlier.傳統的日期在巴列維時代書籍的地方之間的早期一半的第七和公元前6世紀,或更特殊,公元前660-583 ,但許多學者分配給他一個世紀,甚至是幾個世紀以來,較早。 There is much uncertainty regarding his birthplace and the details of his life.有許多的不確定性和他的出生地的細節,他的生命。 He was undoubtly born in Western Iran.他無疑出生在伊朗西部。 From Western Iran, more specifically Azerbaijan (the ancient Atropatene) he seems to have gone Ragha (Rai) in Media, and even his mission did not meet with success in that region he turned to the East, to Bactria.從伊朗西部,更具體的阿塞拜疆(古代阿特羅) ,他似乎已經Ragha (雷)在大眾媒介,甚至他的任務並沒有取得成功,他在該地區轉向東方,以巴克特里亞。 There a certain king named named Vishtaspa became converted to his creed, the generous patronage of this powerful defender of the faith the new religion soon gained a firm footing.有一定的國王命名命名Vishtaspa成為轉換為他的信仰,慷慨贊助,這一強大的後衛的信仰新的宗教很快獲得了堅實的基礎。 Presumably the faith was carried from Bactria to Media, whence it spread into Persia and was accepted in all probability by the great Achaemenian kings.大概是信仰是從巴克特里亞媒體,何處它傳播到波斯和被接受的所有概率的巨大阿契美尼德王朝國王。 In the case of Cyrus there is some doubt whether he was adherent of Zoroastrian law, but Darius was a pronounced Mazda-worshipper and presumably, therefore, a true Zoroastrian, as we know that the last kings of the Achaemenian dynasty were genuine followers of the religion.在賽勒斯的情況有一定的懷疑,他貼的拜火教法,但大流士是一個明顯的馬自達崇拜者和推測,因此,一個真正的拜火教,因為我們知道,去年國王的阿契美尼德王朝時期是真正的追隨者宗教。 If tradition can be believed, Zoroaster began his ministry at the age of thirty, made a convert, when he was forty-two, of King Vishtaspa, and was slain at the age of seventy-seven, when the Turanians stormed Balkh.如果傳統可以相信,開始了他的部Zoroaster歲時, 30 ,提出了轉換,當時他42 ,國王Vishtaspa ,和被殺害的年齡為77時, Turanians衝進巴爾赫。 This account of the prophet's death is given, at least, by Firdausi.此帳戶的先知的死是,至少由菲爾多西。

Under the kings of the Achaemenian line the religion founded by Zoroaster became one of the great religions of the ancient East.根據國王的阿契美尼德王朝的宗教行成立Zoroaster成為一個偉大的宗教古代東。 But it shared the fate of the Persian monarchy, it was shattered, though not overthrown, by the conquest of Alexander and fell consequently into neglect under the Seleucid and Parthian dynasties.但共同的命運,波斯國王,它被打破,雖然不是推翻,所征服的亞歷山大和下跌因此成為被忽視的塞流西和帕提亞王朝。 With the accession of the Sassanian dynasty it met with a great revival.隨著加入的波斯薩珊王朝都會晤了偉大復興。 The kings ot the house of Sassan were zealous believers and did everything in their power to spread the faith as a national creed, so that its prosperity rose again to the zenith.國王加時賽眾議院Sassan有熱心的信徒和做的一切都是在其權力範圍內蔓延的信念作為一個國家的信條,所以,它的繁榮再次上升到頂點。 Sectarian movements, to be sure, were not lacking.教派運動,可以肯定的是,並非缺乏。 The heresy of Mazdak for a moment imperilled the union of the Zoroastrian Church and State, and Manichaeism, that menace of early Christian orthodoxy, also threatened the ascendancy of the Iranian national faith, which was really its parent.邪教的Mazdak了一會兒危害聯盟拜火教教會與國家,與摩尼教,這種威脅的早期基督教的正統,還威脅到伊朗的佔支配地位的國家的信念,這是真正的母公司。 These dangers, however, were only temporary and of minor importance as compared with the Arab conquest, which followed in the seventh century (651) and dealt the fatal blow from which Zoroastrianism never recovered.這些危險,但是,只是暫時的和輕微的重要性相比,阿拉伯征服,隨後在7世紀( 651 )和處理的致命一擊而拜火教也沒有恢復。 The victorious followers of Mohammed carried on their proselytizing campaign with relentless vigour.戰勝國穆罕默德的追隨者對他們進行傳教運動與無情的活力。 The few Zoroastrians who stood firmly by their faith were oppressed and persecuted.為數不多的拜火教徒誰堅定地站在了他們的信仰被壓迫和迫害。 Some remained, and were scattered throughout their native land; but the majority took refuge in India, where their descendants, the Parsees, are found even at the present day.有些仍然存在,並且遍布故土;但大多數在印度避難,在那裡他們的後代,在Parsees ,發現即使是在今天。 About 10,000 are here and there throughout Persia, chiefly at Yazd and Kirman, but the bulk of the Zoroastrians, upwards of 90,000 souls, constitute a prosperous community in India, chiefly at Bombay.關於一點〇萬頃這裡整個波斯,主要在亞茲德和Kirman ,但大部分的拜火教徒,超過90000的靈魂,是一個繁榮的社會,印度,主要是在孟買。

Publication information Written by Arthur FJ Remy.出版信息作者阿瑟閩雷米。 Transcribed by Joseph P. Thomas. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume II.轉錄約瑟夫托馬斯。天主教百科全書,第二卷。 Published 1907. 1907年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, 1907. Nihil Obstat , 1907年。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.雷米Lafort ,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur.認可。 +John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰M法利,大主教紐約

The Theological Aspects of the Avesta在神學方面的阿維斯塔

Catholic Information 天主教新聞

I. GOD一神

The name of the Supreme God of the Avestic system is Ahura Mazda (in the Achaemenid royal inscriptions, Auramazda), which probably signifies the All-Wise Lord.的名稱最高神Avestic系統胡馬自達(在阿契美尼德皇家碑文, Auramazda ) ,這可能標誌著全智者主。 This divine name was later modified into the Pahlavi form Auharmazd, the modern Persian Ormuzd (Greek Oromazes).這神聖的名字後來修改的巴列維形式Auharmazd ,現代波斯語Ormuzd (希臘Oromazes ) 。 Hence the name of Mazdeism commonly applied to Avestic religion.因此,名稱Mazdeism普遍適用於Avestic宗教。

Ahura Mazda is a pure spirit; His chief attributes are eternity, wisdom, truth, goodness, majesty, power.胡馬自達是一個純粹的精神,他的行政屬性是永恆,智慧,真,善,陛下,電源。 He is the Creator (datar) of the all good creatures - not, however, of Evil, or evil beings.他是造物主(達塔爾)的所有良好的生物-但是,邪惡或邪惡的。 He is the supreme Lawgiver, the Rewarder of moral good, and the Punisher of moral evil.他是最高立法者,該Rewarder道德良好,懲罰者的道德罪惡。 He dwells in Eternal Light; in the later literature light is spoken of as the clothing of Ahura Mazda or even His "body", ie a kind of manifestation of His presence, like the Old Testament Shekinah.他生活在永恆的光,在以後文學輕講的是服裝的胡馬自達,甚至他的“身體” ,即一種表現,他的存在,就像舊約Shekinah 。 In this same patristic (Pahlavi) literature we find frequent enumerations of the attributes of Ahura Mazda; thus these are said to be "omniscience, omnipotence, all-sovereignty, all-goodness".在這同一教父(巴列維)文學我們發現經常列舉的屬性胡馬自達;因此,這些被稱為“全知,全能,全主權,全優” 。 Again He is styled "Supreme Sovereign, Wise Creator, Supporter, Protector, Giver of good things, Virtuous in act, Merciful, Pure Lawgiver, Lord of the good Creations".他又是以“最高主權,智者創作,支持者,保護者,賜予的好東西,正直的行為,仁慈,純立法者,上帝的優秀的創作。 ”


It has been remarked above that Ahura Mazda is the Creator of all good creatures.它一直表示上述胡馬自達是造物主的所有良好的生物。 This at once indicates the specific and characteristic feature of the Avestic theology generally known as "dualism".這再次表明,在具體和特點的Avestic神學一般稱為“二元論” 。 The great problem of the origin of evil which has ever been the main stumbling-block of religious systems, was solved in the Zoroastrian Reform by the trenchant, if illogical, device of two separate creators and creations: one good, the other evil.偉大的起源問題的邪惡而過的主要絆腳石的宗教體系,是解決改革中的拜火教的鋒利,如果不符合邏輯的,裝置的兩個獨立的創作者和作品:一個良好的,其他的罪惡。 Opposed to Ahura Mazda, or Ormuzd, is His rival, Anro Mainyus (later, Aharman, Ahriman), the Evil Spirit.反對胡馬自達,或Ormuzd ,是他的對手, Anro Mainyus (後來, Aharman , Ahriman )中,邪惡的精靈。 He is conceived as existing quite independently of Ahura Mazda, apparently from eternity, but destined to destruction at the end of time.他被認為是現有相當獨立的胡馬自達,顯然是從永恆,但注定要破壞在年底的時間。 Evil by nature and in every detail the exact opposite of Ahura Mazda, he is the creator of all evil, both moral and physical.邪惡的性質和在每一個細節都完全相反的胡馬自達,他是造物主的一切邪惡,道德和身體。 Zoroaster in the Gathas says (Ys., xlv, 2, Jackon's translation): Zoroaster在Gathas說( Ys. ,第四十五, 2 , Jackon的翻譯) :

Now shall I preach of the World's two primal Spirits,現在我應該宣揚世界兩大原始精神,

The Holier one of which did thus address the Evil:該Holier其中一個沒有因此解決危機:

Neither do our minds, our teachings, nor our concepts,也沒有我們的腦海中,我們的教誨,也沒有我們的概念,

Nor our beliefs, nor words, nor do our deeds in sooth,也沒有我們的信仰,也沒有的話,也不會在撫慰我們的行動,

Nor yet our consciences, nor souls agree in aught.我們的良知也沒有,也不同意在奧特靈魂。

It is here to be remarked that the specific name of Ahura Mazda in opposition to the Evil Spirit is Spento Mainyus, the Holy Spirit, and Ahura Mazda and Spento Mainyus are used as synonyms throughout the Avesta.正是在這裡要指出的具體名稱胡馬自達反對邪靈是Spento Mainyus ,聖靈,和胡馬自達和Spento Mainyus被用作同義詞整個阿維斯塔。 The obviously illogical doctrine of two separate and supreme creators eventually led to certain philosophical attempts to reduce the double system to uniformity.顯然不合乎邏輯的理論,兩個單獨的和最高的創造最終導致某些哲學試圖減少的雙重系統的統一性。 One of these consisted in throwing back the Divine unity to an anterior stage in which Zrvana Akarana, "illimitable time", becomes the single, indifferent, primordial source from which both spirits proceed.其中包括在擲回神統一的前階段, Zrvana Akarana , “ illimitable時間” ,成為單一的,無動於衷,原始來源都精神進行。 Another solution was sought in attributing two spirits (faculties or functions) to Ahura Mazda himself, his Spento Mainyus and his Anro Mainyus, or his creative and destructive spirit -- an idea probably borrowed from lndian philosophy.另一種解決辦法是設法在兩個靈魂歸屬(院系或職能) ,以胡馬自達本人,他的Spento Mainyus和他的Anro Mainyus ,或者他的創造性和破壞性的精神-一個想法可能是借自lndian哲學。 This seems the favourite doctrine of the modern Parsees of Bombay, as may be seen in Mr. Navroji Maneckji Kanga's article in the "Babylonian and Oriental Record" for May, 1900 (VIII, 224-28), and it is claimed to be strictly founded on teaching of the Gathas; but although such a development of thought a real monotheism with the Zoroastrian dualism, these theories cannot really be called Avestic at all, except in so far as Zrvana Akarana is an Avestic term.這似乎是最喜歡的學說現代Parsees孟買,可以看出先生Navroji Maneckji阿卡勒的文章在“東方巴比倫和記錄” 5月, 1900年(第八224-28 ) ,它聲稱是嚴格成立於教學的Gathas ;但是,儘管這樣的發展思路真正一神教的拜火教二元論,這些理論不能真正被稱為Avestic所有,但在迄今為止的Zrvana Akarana是一個Avestic任期。 They are "patristic" or "scholastic". The result of the dualistic conception of the universe is that of a continuous warfare that has been going on even from the beginning between two hostile worlds or camps.他們是“教父”或“學術” 。結果二元觀念的宇宙是一個持續的戰爭已經持續甚至從一開始就兩國之間的敵對世界或營地。 All creatures belong to one or another of the camps, not only sentient and intelligent beings, like the spirit and man, but also the animal and the vegetable worlds.所有的動物屬於一個或另一個營地,不僅有知覺和智能人,如精神和男子,而且動物和植物世界。 All dangerous, noxious, poisonous animals and plants are evil by their very creation and nature.所有危險,有害,有毒動物和植物都是邪惡由於其本身的建立和性質。 [We see here the primal germ of Manichæism. [我們在這裡看到的原始生殖摩尼教。 Mani was a heretic of the Mazdean faith (AD 258).瑪尼是異端信仰的Mazdean (公元258 ) 。 This "heresy" is often reprobated in the Pahlavi religious books, together with Judaism and Christianity.] Hence - in sharp contrast to the Hindi ahimsa, a characteristic tenet of Buddhism, which prohibits the killing of any creature, even the smallest and the most noxious insect - to kill as many as possible of the Khrafstras, or noxious creatures of the Evil Spirit (such as wolves, serpents, snakes, locusts, intestinal worms, ants), is one of the most meritorious of religious actions.這“邪”往往是在巴列維reprobated宗教書籍,以及猶太教和基督教。 ]因此-形成了鮮明的對比印地語阿含沙區,一個特點宗旨佛教,禁止殺害任何動物,即使是最小和最毒蟲-殺死盡可能多的Khrafstras ,或有害生物的邪靈(如狼,蛇,蛇,蝗蟲,腸道蠕蟲,螞蟻) ,是一個最有價值的宗教行動。 This great warfare, both spiritual and material, will go on to the end of time.這個偉大的戰爭中,雙方的精神和物質,將在年底的時間。 It is to end in a final triumph of the Good and the annihilation (apparently) of Evil, including Anro Mainyus himself.這是結束了最後勝利,善,毀滅(顯然)的邪惡,包括Anro Mainyus自己。 Such at least is the teaching in the later "patristic" literature.這種至少是教學中的後來“教父”文學。


Dualism in its widest sense seems to be an inherent and ineradicable tendency of the Iranian mind.二元論在其最廣泛的意義似乎是一種固有的,根深蒂固的趨勢伊朗銘記。 Almost everything is conceived in pairs or doubles.幾乎一切都是設想的對或雙打。 Hence the constant reference to the "Two Worlds", the spiritual and the material.因此,不斷提及“兩個世界”的精神和物質。 The doctrine of the Spirit World, whether belonging to the good or the evil creation, is highly developed in the Avesta and subsequent literature.該學說的精神,無論是屬於好或邪惡的創造,是高度發達的阿維斯塔和隨後的文獻。 Around Ahura Mazda is a whole hierarchy of spirits, corresponding very closely with our "angels".約胡馬自達是一個整體層次的精神,相應的非常密切的與我們的“天使” 。 There is, however, this to be noted, that in the Zoroastrian system many of these creature-spirits are demonstrably old Aryan nature deities who have been skilfully transformed into angels, and so fitted into a monotheistic framework, frequently enough, in hymns and other passages, by the simple interpolation of the epithet Mazdadata (created by Mazda), before their names. Of the good spirits who surround Ahura, the most important are the Amesha Spentas ("Holy Immortals" or "Immortal Saints") generally reckoned as six (though Ahura Mazda himself is frequently included among them, and they are then called seven).然而,這必須指出的是,在拜火教系統的許多動物,精神明顯老神誰雅利安性質已轉變成天使嫻熟,所以安裝在一神教的框架內,經常不夠,在讚美詩和其他通道,由簡單的插值的修飾語Mazdadata (由馬自達) ,然後他們的名字。良好精神誰環繞胡,最重要的是Amesha Spentas ( “聖仙”或“不朽的聖人” ) ,一般計算6 (雖然胡馬自達自己經常列入其中,它們是當時稱為7 ) 。 These are the characteristic genii of the Gathas and their very names show that they are merely personified attributes of the Creator Himself. They are: Vohu Manah (Good Mind), Asha Vahishta (Best Holiness), Khshathra Vairya (Desirable Sovereignty), Spenta Armaiti (Holy Piety, a female spirit), Haurvatat (Health), and Ameretat (Immortality).這些特點海格的Gathas和其本身的名字表明,他們僅僅是人格化的屬性造物主自己。他們是: Vohu Manah (良好的心態) ,阿沙羅絲Vahishta (最佳聖潔) , Khshathra Vairya (理想的主權) , Spenta愛爾麥蒂(羅馬虔誠,女性的精神) , Haurvatat (衛生) ,和Ameretat (長生不老) 。 In the Younger Avesta and later traditional literature these evident personifications, whose very names are but abstract nouns, become more and more concrete personages or genii, with varying functions, most of all Vohu Manah (Vohuman) rises to a position of unique importance.在年輕阿維斯塔,後來這些傳統文學明顯personifications ,他們非常的名字,但抽象名詞,更加具體的人士或海格,具有不同的功能,最重要的是Vohu Manah ( Vohuman )上升到獨特的重要性。 Dr. LH Gray, however, argues, in a very striking article, that even these are evolutions of original naturalistic deities [Archiv für religions wissenschaft (Leipzig, 1904), VII, 345-372].博士激素灰色,但認為,在一個非常引人注目的文章,即使這些變化的原始自然神[檔案館f黵宗教科學(萊比錫, 1904年) ,第七章, 345-372 ] 。 In later patristic literature Vohu Manah is conceived as the "Son of the Creator" and identified with the Alexandrine Logos.在以後的教父文獻Vohu Manah設想為“造物主之子” ,並確定了與亞歷山大標誌。 (See Casartelli, Philosophy of the Mazdayasnian Religion, 42-90.) Asha, also (the equivalent of the Sanskrit Rta=Dharma), is the Divine Law, Right, Sanctity (cf. Ps. cxviii), and occupies a most conspicuous position throughout the Avesta. (見卡薩爾泰利,哲學Mazdayasnian宗教, 42-90 。 )阿沙羅絲,還(相當於梵達=拉達爾馬) ,是神聖的法律,權利,神聖不可侵犯(參見聚苯乙烯。 cxviii ) ,並佔據了最顯眼整個阿維斯塔立場。

But besides the Amesha Spentas, there are a few other archangels whose rank is scarcely less, if it does not sometimes exceed theirs.但是,除了Amesha Spentas ,有一些其他天使的排名幾乎少,如果它不有時候超過他們。 Such is Sraosha ("Obedience" - ie to the divine Law).就是這樣Sraosha ( “服從” -即神聖的法律) 。 With him are associated, in a trio, Rashnu (Right, Justice) and Mithra.與他有聯繫,在一個三重奏, Rashnu (權利,正義)和米特拉神。 This last is perhaps the most characteristic, as he is the most enigmatical, figure of the Iranian angelology. Undoubtedly in origin (like the Vedic Mitra) a Sun-deity of the primitive Aryan nature-worship, he has been taken over into the Avesta system as the Spirit of Light and Truth - the favourite and typical virtue of the Iranian race, as testified even by the Greek historians.最後這也許是最典型的,因為他是最陰陽怪氣,數字伊朗天使。毫無疑問,在原產地(如吠陀米特拉)太陽神的原始雅利安自然崇拜,他已接管納入阿維斯塔制度的精神光與真理-最喜歡的和典型憑藉伊朗的比賽,因為作證甚至希臘歷史學家。 So important is his position that he is constantly linked with Ahura Mazda himself, apparently almost as an equal, in a manner recalling some of the divine couples of the Vedas.因此,重要的是他的立場,他不斷與胡馬自達自己,顯然是幾乎作為一個平等的方式,回顧一些神聖夫婦的吠陀。 It is well known how in later times the Mithra cult became a regular religion and spread from Persia all over the Roman Empire, even into Britain.眾所周知,如何在以後倍米特拉神邪教成為經常性的宗教和傳播波斯各地的羅馬帝國,甚至到英國。 [See, especially, Cumont's great work, Monuments relatifs au culte de Mithra" (Paris, 1893).] Nor must mention be omitted of Atars, the Genius of Fire, on account of the particular importance and sanctity attached to fire as a symbol of the divinity and its conspicuous use in the cult (which has given rise to the entirely erroneous conception of Zoroastrianism as "Fire-worship", and of the Parsees as "Fire-worshippers"). Water, Sun, Moon, Stars, the sacred Haoma plant (Skt. Soma), and other natural elements all have their special spirits. But particular mention must be made of the enigmatical Farvashis, the origin and nature of whom is still uncertain. Some writers [especially Soderblom, "Les Fravashis" (Paris, 1899); "La vie future" (Paris, 1901)] have seen in them the spirits of the departed, like the dii manes, or the Hindu pitris. But, as a matter of fact, their primal conception seems to approach nearest to the pre-existent Ideai of Plato. Every living creature has its own Fravashi, existing before its creation; nay in some places inanimate beings, and, stranger still, Ahura Mazda Himself, have their Fravashis. They play an important role in both the psychology and the ritual cult of Mazdeism. [見,特別是Cumont的偉大工作,紀念碑relatifs 1.00 culte日米特拉神“ (巴黎, 1893年) 。 ]也必須提到忽略的Atars ,天才的消防,考慮到具有特殊的重要性和神聖重視火災的象徵的神和其突出使用的邪教(這已引起了完全錯誤的概念,拜火教為“火崇拜” ,和Parsees為“消防信徒” ) 。水,太陽,月亮,星星的神聖的號碼工廠( Skt.索瑪) ,以及其他自然因素都有其特殊的精神。但是尤其必須提到的陰陽怪氣Farvashis ,起源和性質等人仍然是不確定的。有些作者[特別Soderblom , “歌聲Fravashis ” (巴黎, 1899年) , “生命的未來” (巴黎, 1901年) ]已經看到在他們的靈魂的離去一樣,直接投資收益的鬃毛,或印度教pitris 。但是,事實上,他們的原始概念似乎辦法最接近預先存在Ideai柏拉圖。每個生物都有自己的Fravashi ,現有在其成立;奈在一些地方沒有生命的存在,並仍然陌生,胡馬自達自己,他們Fravashis 。他們中發揮重要作用雙方的心理和禮儀崇拜Mazdeism 。

Face to face with the hierarchy of celestial spirits is a diabolical one, that of the daevas (demons, Pahlavi and Mod. Persian div or dev) and druj's of the Evil Spirit.面對等級中的天體是一個惡魔的精神之一,即daevas (惡魔,巴列維和模型。波斯股利或發展)和druj的的邪靈。 They fill exactly the places of the devils in Christian and Jewish theology.他們填寫準確的地方的魔鬼在基督教和猶太教神學。 Chief of them is Aka Manah (Pahlavi Akoman, "Evil Mind"), the direct opponent of Vohu Manah.首席他們是阿卡Manah (巴列維Akoman , “邪惡思想” ) ,直接對手Vohu Manah 。 Perhaps the most frequently mentioned of all is Aeshma, the Demon of Wrath or Violence, whose name has come down to us in the Asmodeus (Aeshmo daeva) of the Book of Tobias (iii, 8).也許最經常提到的是Aeshma ,魔鬼的憤怒或暴力,他的名字已下降到我們阿斯莫德( Aeshmo daeva )的書托比亞斯(三8 ) 。 The Pairikas are female spirits of seductive but malignant nature, who are familiar to us finder the form of the Peris of later Persian poetry and Iegend.該Pairikas是女性精神的誘惑,但惡性性質,誰是我們熟悉的形式查找的Peris後來波斯詩歌和Iegend 。

IV.四。 MAN城域網

In the midst of the secular warfare that has gone on from the beginning between the two hosts of Good and Evil stands Man.處於世俗的戰爭已經持續了從一開始就兩國之間的東道主善惡站滿。 Man is the creature of the Good Spirit, but endowed with a free will and power of choice, able to place himself on the side of Ahura Mazda or on that of Anro Mainyus.人是動物的良好的精神狀態,但賦予了自由意志和選擇權,可以把自己的一方或胡馬自達的Anro Mainyus 。 The former has given him, through His prophet Zarathushtra (Zoroaster) His Divine revelation and law is (daena).前給了他,通過他的先知Zarathushtra ( Zoroaster )他的神聖啟示和法律( daena ) 。 According as man obeys or disobeys this Divine law his future lot will be decided; by it he will be judged at his death.根據人類服從或不服從這一神聖的法律將在今後的許多決定,由它來判斷,他將在他的死亡。 The whole ethical system is built upon this great principle, as in the Christian theology.整個道德體系是建立在這個偉大的原則,在基督教神學。 Moral good, righteousness, sanctity (asha) is according to the Divine will and decrees; Man by his free will conforms to, or transgresses, these.良好的道德,正義,神聖(阿沙羅絲)是根據神的意志和法令;滿了他的自由意志,符合或超越這些。 The Evil Spirit and his innumerable hosts tempt Man to deny or transgress the Divine law, as he tempted Zoroaster himself, promising him as reward the sovereignty of the whole world.在邪靈和他無數的東道主誘惑人否認或超越法律的神聖,因為他很想Zoroaster本人,他的前途獎勵主權的整個世界。 - "No!" - “不! ” replied the Prophet, "I will not renounce it, even if body and soul and life should be severed!"回答先知說: “我不會放棄它,即使身體和靈魂和生命應該切斷! ” (Vendidad, xix, 25, 26). ( Vendidad , 19 , 25 , 26 ) 。 It is well to emphasize this basis of Avestic moral theology, because it at once marks off the Avesta system from the fatalistic systems of India with their karma and innate pessimism.人們都清楚地強調這一點基礎Avestic道德神學,因為它標誌著一次關閉阿維斯塔系統的宿命系統,印度與氣質和天生的悲觀情緒。 [See Casartelli, "Idée du péché chez les Indo-Eraniens" (Fribourg, 1898.)]. [見卡薩爾泰利, “衣蝶杜漁業桑切斯法國印度支那Eraniens ” (弗里堡, 1898 。 ) ] 。 A characteristic note of Iranian religious philosophy is its essential optimism; if there is human sin, there is also repentance and expiation.一個特點注意到伊朗宗教哲學是其基本樂觀;如果有人類罪,也有悔罪和贖罪。 In the later Pahlavi religious literature there is a proper confession of sin (patet) and a developed casuistry.在後來的巴列維宗教文獻有一個適當的招供的罪孽( patet )和發達的詭辯。 Asceticism, however, finds no place therein.禁慾主義,但是,沒有發現有發生。

Divine worship, with elaborate ritual, is an essential duty of man towards his Creator.神的崇拜,精心儀式,是一個重要的責任人對他的創作。 There is indeed no animal sacrifice; the leading rites are the offering of the quasi-divine haoma (the fermented juice of the a sacred plant, a species of Asclepias), the exact counterpart of the Vedic soma-sacrifice; the care of the Sacred Fire, the chanting of the ritual hymns and prayers, and passages of the Sacred Books (Avesta).確實沒有牲;領先儀式提供的準神聖號碼(發酵汁的一種神聖的植物,一個物種的馬利) ,準確對應的吠陀索瑪犧牲;照顧神聖火,唱的讚美詩和祈禱儀式,並段落的聖書(阿維斯塔) 。

The moral teaching is closely akin to our own.道德教育是相近我們自己。 Stress is constantly laid on the necessity of goodness in thought, word, and deed (humata, hakhta, hvarshta) as opposed to evil thought, word, and deed (dushmata, duzhukhta, duzhvarshta).規定強調的是不斷的必要性善良的思想,文字,和契據(陰, hakhta , hvarshta ) ,而不是邪惡的思想,文字,和行動( dushmata , duzhukhta , duzhvarshta ) 。 Note the emphatic recognition of sin in thought.請注意,強調承認罪惡的思想。 Virtues and vices are enumerated and estimated much as in Christian ethics.美德與罪惡列舉和估計多達基督教道德。 Special value is attributed to the virtues of religion, truthfulness, purity and generosity to the poor.特別是由於價值的美德宗教,真,純度和慷慨的窮人。 Heresy, untruthfulness, perjury, sexual sins, violence, tyranny are specially reprobated.異端, untruthfulness ,偽證罪,性罪,暴力,暴政特別reprobated 。 Zoroaster's reform being social as well as religious agriculture and farming are raised to the rank of religious duties and regarded as spiritually meritorious. Zoroaster的改革正在社會以及宗教農業和農業是提高級的宗教義務,被視為精神值得稱讚。 The same will account for the exaggerated importance, almost sanctity, attached to the dog.同樣將帳戶誇大重要性,幾乎神聖不可侵犯,附在狗。 On the other hand, the one repulsive feature of Avestic morality is the glorification, as a religious meritorious act, of the Khvaetva-datha, which is nothing else than intermarriage between the nearest of kin, even brothers and sisters.另一方面,一個令人厭惡的特點Avestic道德是美化,作為宗教立功行為,在Khvaetva - datha ,這是沒有別的比最接近的近親之間的親屬,甚至兄弟姐妹。 In later times this practice was entirely repudiated by the modern Parsees.後來這種做法是完全否定現代Parsees 。


After death the disembodied soul hovers around the corpse for three days.死後的靈魂徘徊在disembodied屍體三天。 Then it sets off across the Cinvat bridge to meet its judgment and final doom in the world beyond the grave.然後,它規定了整個Cinvat橋樑,以滿足其判決和最終滅亡以後在世界上的嚴重。 The three judges of souls are Mithra, Sraosha, and Rashnu.三名法官的靈魂是米特拉神, Sraosha ,並Rashnu 。 The soul of the just passes safely over the bridge into a happy eternity, into heaven (Auhu vahishta, Garo nmana), the abode of Ahura and His blessed angels.的靈魂,只是通過安全的橋樑到幸福永恆,到天堂( Auhu vahishta ,加羅nmana ) ,這座胡和他的幸運天使。 The wicked soul falls from the fatal bridge and is precipitated into hell (Duzh auhu).邪惡的靈魂瀑布從致命的橋樑,是沉澱到地獄( Duzh auhu ) 。 Of this abode of misery a lively description occurs in the later Pahlavi "Vision of Arda Viraf", whose visit to the Inferno, with the realistic description of its torments, vividly recalls that of Dante.本居留權的苦難了生動的描述發生在稍後巴列維的“視覺的阿爾達Viraf ” ,其訪問地獄,與現實說明其折磨,生動地回顧,但丁。 The state called Hamestakan, or Middle State, does not appear in Avesta itself, but is a development of the later patristic theology.國家要求Hamestakan ,或中東國家,並沒有出現在阿維斯塔本身,而且是一個發展的後教父神學。 It is not, however, conceived, exactly as our Purgatory, but rather as an indifferent state for those whose good and evil deeds are found at death to be in perfect equilibrium.這不是,但是,設想,這正是我們的煉獄,而是作為一個漠不關心國家對那些善惡事蹟被發現死亡的完美平衡。 They are therfore neither in suffering nor in happiness.他們既不在therfore痛苦,也不幸福。 At the end of time, the approach of which is described in the Pahlavi literature in terms strikingly like those of our Apocalypse, will come to the last Prophet, Saosyant (Saviour) under whom all occur the Ressurection of the Dead (Frashokereti), the General Judgment the apokatastasis or renewal of the whole world by the great conflagration of the earth and consequent flood of burning matter.在年底的時間內,該方法是中描述的巴列維文學方面驚人地類似我們的啟示,將來到最後的先知, Saosyant (救世主)的人都發生,死人復活( Frashokereti )中,總體判斷或續期的apokatastasis對整個世界的巨大衝突的地球和隨之而來的洪水焚燒問題。 According to the Pahlavi sources, this terrible flood will purify all creatures; even the wicked will be cleansed and added to the "new heavens and the new earth".據巴列維來源,這種可怕的洪水將淨化眾生;甚至惡人將清洗和加入“新天堂和新地球” 。 Meanwhile a mighty combat takes place between Saoshyant and his followers and the demon hosts of the Evil Spirit, who are utterly routed and destroyed forever.同時強大的打擊之間發生Saoshyant和他的追隨者和惡魔主辦邪靈,誰是落花流水,並摧毀永遠。 (See Yasht, xix and xiii) (見Yasht , 19和13 )


It is frequently asserted or assumed that the Avesta religion as above sketched was the religion of Darius and the other Achaemenid Kings of Persia (549-336 BC) From the cuneiform inscriptions of these sovereigns (in the Old Persian language, a sister dialect of the Avestic Zend) we know pretty well what their religion was.這是經常斷言或假定阿維斯塔宗教作為上述描繪的是宗教的大流士和其他阿契美尼德國王波斯( 549-336年)從楔形文字銘文這些君主(舊波斯語言,方言的妹妹Avestic Zend公司) ,我們知道非常好他們的宗教是什麼。 They proclaim themselves Mazdeans (Auramazdiya, Darius, Behistun Column, IV, 56); their Supreme God is Auramazda, greatest of gods (Mathishta baganam).他們宣布自己Mazdeans ( Auramazdiya ,大流士,貝希斯敦柱,四, 56 ) ;他們的最高神是Auramazda ,最偉大的神( Mathishta baganam ) 。 He is Creator of all things - heaven, earth, and man - all things happen by His will (vashna); He sees and knows all things, man must obey His precepts (framana), and follow the "good way" (pathim rastam); man must invoke and praise Him; He hates sin, especially falsehood which is denounced as the chief ot sins, also insubordination and despotism.他是創造萬物的-天,地,人-所有的事情由他的意志( vashna ) ;他認為,知道所有的事情,人必須服從他的戒律( framana ) ,並按照“好辦法” ( pathim拉斯塔姆) ;男子必須援引並讚揚他;他討厭罪,特別是謊言是譴責首席催產素的罪孽,也服從和專制。 Inferior spirits are associated with Him, "clan gods" and particularly Mithra and Anahita.劣質白酒是與他有關的“氏族神” ,特別是米特拉神和阿娜希塔。 Yet, with all these close similarities, we must hesitate to consider the two religious systems are identical.然而,所有這些密切相似性,我們必須毫不猶豫地考慮這兩個宗教制度是相同的。 For in this Achaemenid inscriptions there is absolutely no trace of the dualism which is the characteristic and all-prevailing feature of the Avesta, and no allusion whatever to the great prophet Zoroaster, or the revelation of which he was the mouthpiece.因為在這個阿契美尼德題詞是絕對沒有痕跡的是二元的特點和所有普遍的特點,阿維斯塔,並沒有提及任何的偉大先知Zoroaster ,或啟示了他的喉舌。 The exact relation between the two systems remains enigmatical.確切的關係在這兩個系統之間仍然陰陽怪氣。


"The highest religious result to which human reason unaided by revelation, can attain" is the deliberate verdict of a learned Jesuit theologian (Father Ernest Hull, SJ, in "Bombay Examiner" 28 March, 1903). “最高宗教結果,其中外援的人類理性的啟示,才能實現”是蓄意判決的教訓耶穌會神學家(父親歐內斯特赫爾,律政司司長,在“孟買考官” 03年3月28日) 。 This estimate does not appear exaggerated.這一估計數似乎並不誇張。 The Avesta system may be best defined as monotheism modified by a physical and moral dualism, with an ethical system based on a Divinely revealed moral code and human free will.該系統可阿維斯塔最好定義為一神教的物理改性和道義上的二元論,道德體系的基礎上神揭示道德準則和人類的自由意志。 As it is now followed by the living descendents of its first votaries, the Parsees of India, it is virtually the same as it appears in the Avesta itself, except that its monotheism is more rigid and determined, and that it has shed such objectionable practices as Khvetuk-das (Khvaetva-datha) and seeks to explain them away.現在這樣的生活之後,其後裔首次愛好者的Parsees印度,幾乎是相同的,因為它出現在阿維斯塔本身,但它是更嚴格的一神論和決心,並已擺脫這種令人反感的做法作為Khvetuk ,存在( Khvaetva - datha ) ,並設法解釋他們離開。 A great revival in the knowledge of the old sacred languages (Zend and Pahlavi) which had become almost forgotten, has taken place during the past half-century under the stimulus of European scholarship, whose results have been widely adopted and assimilated. The religious cult is scrupulously maintained as of old.偉大的復興的知識老神聖語言( Zend公司和巴列維)已成為幾乎被人遺忘,已經發生在過去的半個世紀中的刺激下,歐洲的獎學金,其結果已被廣泛採納和吸收。邪教嚴格保持舊。 The ancient traditional and characteristically national virtues of truth and open-handed generosity flourish exceedingly in the small, but highly intelligent, community.古老的傳統和民族特點的真理和美德的雍容大度慷慨繁榮極其小,但高度智能化,社區。

Publication information Written by LC Casartelli.出版信息書面的LC卡薩爾泰利。 Transcribed by Joseph P. Thomas. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume II.轉錄約瑟夫托馬斯。天主教百科全書,第二卷。 Published 1907. 1907年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, 1907. Nihil Obstat , 1907年。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.雷米Lafort ,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur.認可。 +John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰M法利,大主教紐約


Jewish Viewpoint Information 猶太觀信息

The religion of ancient Persia as founded by Zoroaster; one of the world's great faiths that bears the closest resemblance to Judaism and Christianity.宗教作為古代波斯創立的Zoroaster ;一個世界上最偉大的信仰負有最接近相似猶太教和基督教。 According to the tradition in the Parsee books, Zoroaster was born in 660 BC and died in 583; but many scholars claim that he must have flourished at a much earlier time.根據傳統的帕西書籍, Zoroaster出生於660年,卒於583 ;但許多學者宣稱,他必須有一個蓬勃發展的時間大大提前。 All investigators, however, are agreed that his teachings were generally in force throughout Iran before the time of the Jewish Captivity. His name in its ancient form in the Avesta is "Zarathustra," and in later Persian, "Zardusht"; the form "Zoroaster," which is now common, has been adopted from the Greek and Latin "Zoroastres."所有調查員,但是,一致認為,他的教誨普遍生效之前,伊朗全國各地的時候,猶太人獲釋。他的名字在其古老形式的阿維斯塔是“查拉圖斯特拉” ,並在以後的波斯語, “扎杜什特”的形式“ Zoroaster “ ,這是目前常見的,已通過由希臘文和拉丁文” Zoroastres 。 “ The native country of the prophet is now believed to have been Media, in western Iran, and there are reasons for claiming that his birthplace was in the province of Atropatene, the modern Azerbaijan; but much of his ministry, or rather most of his prophetic career, was passed in eastern Iran, especially in the region of Bactria, where he won a powerful patron for his religion.本國的先知,現在認為是媒體,在伊朗西部,有原因,聲稱他的出生地是在該省的阿特羅,現代阿塞拜疆;但他的大部分部,或者說他的大部分預言職業生涯中,通過在伊朗東部,尤其是在該地區的巴克特里亞,在那裡他獲得了強大的靠山為他的宗教。 This defender of the faith was a king named Vishtaspa, or Gushtasp, a name identical with that of Hystaspes, the father of Darius, although the two personages are not to be confounded, as has sometimes been done.這衛士的信念是一個國王命名Vishtaspa ,或Gushtasp ,名稱相同與斯伯的父親大流士,雖然這兩個人物是不被混淆,因為有時這樣做。

Tenets of the Faith.信條,信念。

Zoroaster was originally a Magian priest, but he appears to have reformed or purified the creed of the Magi. Zoroaster原本是Magian神父,但他似乎已經改革或純化的信條賢士。 His religious teachings are preserved in the Avesta.他的宗教教義保存在阿維斯塔。 The character of the Persian religion before Zoroaster's time is not known, but a comparison with that of India shows that it must have had much in common with the early religion of the Hindus.性質的波斯宗教面前Zoroaster的時間不詳,但比較與印度表明,它必須有許多共同之處,與早期宗教的教徒。 It may be presumed that it was a modified nature-worship, with polytheistic features and some traces of demonistic beliefs.可以推定,這是一個改造自然崇拜,與多神教的功能和一些痕跡demonistic信仰。 Herodotus ("Hist." i. 131 et seq.) states that the Persians from the earliest times worshiped the sun, moon, stars, and earth, and the waters and wind, and he intimates in precise words that they had borrowed certain religious elements from the Assyrians.希羅多德( “組織胺。 ”一, 131頁起。 )指出,波斯人從最早的時候崇拜太陽,月亮,星星,地球,水和風能,他親密的準確的話,他們借了某些宗教內容從亞述人。 One or two superstitious practises which he describes, such as the propitiation of the powers of evil (ib. iii. 35, vii. 114), show survivals of demoniacal rites, against which Zoroaster so strongly inveighed; and the account which he gives of the Magian ceremonies is quite in accordance with Zoroastrianism.一個或兩個迷信做法,他介紹,如和解的權力邪惡( ib.三。 35 ,七。 114 ) ,顯示存活的demoniacal儀式,其中Zoroaster如此強烈inveighed ;和帳戶,他給的該儀式是相當Magian按照拜火教。

The Kingdoms of Good and Evil.王國善惡。

One of the characteristic features of Zoroastrianism is the doctrine of dualism, recognizing the powers of good and evil as two personified principles at war with each other.其中一個特點拜火教是二元論的理論,認識到權力的善和惡的兩個人格化原則戰爭彼此。 Ahuramazda, or Ormuzd ("the Wise Lord"), leads the forces of good; Angra-Mainyu, or Ahriman ("the Spiritual Enemy"), heads the hosts of evil. Ahuramazda ,或Ormuzd ( “智者主” ) ,導致善良的勢力;安格拉- Mainyu ,或Ahriman ( “精神敵” ) ,負責主機的罪惡。 Bands of angels and archangels follow the divine leader, while troops of demons and archfiends hasten after the evil lord.樂隊天使和天使按照神聖領導人,而部隊的惡魔和archfiends加速後的邪惡主。 The archangels are six in number and are called by the general name Amesha Spentas ("Immortal Holy Ones"); they are personifications of virtues and abstract ideas, and are named Vohu Manah ("Good Mind"), Asha Vahishta ("Perfect Righteousness"), Khshathra Vairya ("Wished-for Kingdom"), Spenta Armaiti (a feminine personification of harmony and the earth), Haurvatat ("Health," "Salvation"), and Ameretat ("Immortality").有6個在天使的數量和要求的一般名稱Amesha Spentas ( “不朽的神聖一” ) ;他們personifications的美德和抽象的概念,並分別命名為Vohu Manah ( “好心態” ) ,阿沙羅絲Vahishta ( “完美的正義“ ) , Khshathra Vairya ( ”希望為英國“ ) , Spenta愛爾麥蒂(女性人格化的和諧與地球) , Haurvatat ( ”健康“ , ”救贖“ ) ,並Ameretat ( ”永生“ ) 。 The angels and lesser divine beings are termed Yazatas ("Worshipful Ones") and are very numerous, although twenty-one of them are more prominent than the rest; these include divine embodiments of the sun, moon, stars, fire, earth, water and air, the spirits of the righteous (called "fravashis"), and also several abstract concepts, like victory, religion, kingly glory, and the divinity known as Mithra, an incarnation of light and truth.天使和小天人被稱為Yazatas ( “ Worshipful一” ) ,並且非常眾多,但21人更為突出比其他;其中包括神的化身的太陽,月亮,星星,火,土,水和空氣,精神的正義(稱為“ fravashis ” ) ,和一些抽象的概念也是一樣,勝利,宗教,王者的榮耀,並神稱為米特拉神,一個化身光與真理。 The rabble of hell, led by Ahriman, is ill organized, and the chief archfiend, after Ahriman himself, is the demon Aeshma (Dæva), a name which is thought to be found in the Book of Tobit as Asmodeus, although this view is not accepted by some (see Asmodeus).地獄的烏合之眾,由Ahriman ,是有組織的虐待,以及行政archfiend後, Ahriman自己,是惡魔Aeshma ( Dæva ) ,該名稱可以被認為是在這本書中發現的托比書作為阿斯莫德,但這種觀點是不接受某些(見阿斯莫德) 。 In addition to the six archfiends there is a legion of minor fiends and demons ("dæva," "druj").除了六種archfiends有一個軍團的未成年人fiends和魔鬼( “ dæva ” , “ druj ” ) 。

Millennial Doctrines.千年學說。

The conflict between the opposing kingdoms of light and darkness forms the history of the world, which lasts for 12,000 years and is divided into four great eons.之間的衝突對立演義的形式光明與黑暗的歷史,世界,時間為1.2萬年,它分為四偉大eons 。 The first 3,000 years is the period of spiritual existence.第一次是3000年期間的精神存在。 Ormuzd knows of Ahriman's coexistence, and creates the world first in a spiritual state before giving it a material form, the "fravashis" being the models of the future types of things. Ormuzd知道Ahriman的共存,並創造了世界第一的精神狀態前,它的物質形式, “ fravashis ”是未來的模式類型的東西。 Ahriman is ignorant of his great rival's existence, but on discovering this he counter-creates the hosts of demons and fiends. Ahriman是一無所知,他的偉大對手的存在,但在發現這一點,他反創造了東道主的惡魔和fiends 。 In the second 3,000 years, while Ahriman and his host have been confounded by Ormuzd, the latter creates the world in its material form, and the world is then invaded by Ahriman.在第二個3000年,而Ahriman和他所在的困惑Ormuzd ,後者創造了世界的物質形式,世界是那麼入侵Ahriman 。 The third 3,000 years is the period of conflict between the rival powers and the struggle for the soul of man, until Zoroaster comes into the world.第三次是3000年期間,競爭對手之間的衝突和權力鬥爭的人的靈魂,直到Zoroaster來融入世界。 His birth inaugurates a new era, and the fourth and last 3,000 years begins.他出生開創一個新時代,和第四次,也是最後3000年開始。 These final millennial eras are presided over by Zoroaster himself and his three posthumous sons, who are to be born in future ages in an ideal manner, the last being the Messiah called Saoshyant ("Savior," "Benefactor"; lit. "he who will benefit and save the world").這些最後的千年時代是主持Zoroaster本人和他的三個兒子死後,誰是出生在今後的年齡在一個理想的方式,最後一次是彌賽亞所謂Saoshyant ( “救世主” , “恩人” ;點燃。 “誰將有利於並拯救世界“ ) 。 In its general bearings this dualistic scheme of the universe is theologically monotheistic in so far as it postulates the final predominance ofOrmuzd; and it is optimistic in its philosophy, inasmuch as it looks for a complete regeneration of the world.在其一般性軸承這一二元計劃宇宙是神學一神教只要它假設最後優勢ofOrmuzd ;這是樂觀的哲學,因為它看起來再生為一個完整的世界。

In all this struggle man is the important figure; for the ultimate triumph of right depends upon him.在所有的人是這場鬥爭的重要人物;的最終勝利,取決於他的權利。 He is a free agent according to Zoroaster ("Yasna," xxx. 20, xxxi. 11), but he must ever be on his guard against the misguidance of evil.他是一名自由球員根據Zoroaster ( “作家, ”三十。 20日,三十一。 11 ) ,但他必須永遠對他的警惕misguidance邪惡。 The purpose of Zoroaster's coming into the world and the aim of his teaching are to guide man to choose aright, to lead him in the path of righteousness, in order that the world may attain to ultimate perfection.的目的, Zoroaster即將融入世界的目的,他的教學,引導人,以正確地選擇,導致了他的正義之路,以使這個世界可能達到的最終完善。 This perfection will come with the establishment of the Good Kingdom (Avesta, "Vohu Khshathra"), the Wished-for Kingdom (Avesta, "Khshathra Vairya"), or the Kingdom of Desire (Avesta, "Khshathra Ishtōish").這將完善,建立了良好的英國(阿維斯塔“ Vohu Khshathra ” ) ,本想為英國(阿維斯塔“ Khshathra Vairya ” ) ,或英國的慾望(阿維斯塔“ Khshathra Ishtōish ” ) 。 When this shall come to pass the world will become regenerate (Avesta, "Ahūm Frashem Kar"; or "Frashōkereti"); a final battle between the powers of good and evil will take place; Ahriman and his hosts will be routed; and good shall reign supreme ("Yasht," xix. 89-93; Bundahis, xxx. 1-33).當此之日起通過世界將成為再生(阿維斯塔“ Ahūm Frashem家” ;或“ Frashōkereti ” ) ;最後爭權力善惡將於; Ahriman和他的東道主將改為;和良好應統治最高法院( “ Yasht , ”十九。 89-93 ; Bundahis ,三十。 1-33 ) 。 The advent of the Messiah (Saoshyant) will be accompanied by the resurrection of the dead and the general judgment of the world, which thenceforth will be free from evil and free from harm.來臨的彌賽亞( Saoshyant )將會陪同下,死人復活和一般判斷世界,此後將不受邪惡和免受傷害。

Ethical Teachings and Religious Practises.道德教義和宗教實踐。

The motto of the Zoroastrian religion is "Good thoughts, good words, good deeds" (Avesta, "Humata, hūkhta, hvarshta").的座右銘的拜火教宗教是“好的想法,好話,做好事” (阿維斯塔, “陰, hūkhta , hvarshta ” ) 。 Man in his daily life is enjoined to preserve purity of body and soul alike.男子在他的日常生活責成保持純潔的身體和靈魂一樣。 He is to exercise scrupulous care in keeping the elements earth, fire, and water free from defilement of any kind.他是不折不扣地行使保持要素地球,火,水免受任何形式的污辱。 Truth-speaking and honest dealing are made the basis of every action; kindliness and generosity are virtues to be cultivated; and agriculture and cattle-raising are prescribed as religious duties.真相講,誠實處理的基礎上作出的每一項行動;慈愛和慷慨的美德,以培養以及農業和畜牧業是明的宗教義務。 Marriage within the community of the faithful, even to wedlock with blood relatives, is lauded; and according to the Avesta ("Vendidād," iv. 47), "he who has a wife is to be accounted far above him who has none; and he who has children is far above the childless man."婚姻在社區內的教友,甚至婚外與血親,是讚揚,並根據阿維斯塔( “ Vendidād , ”四。 47 ) , “誰的妻子是被佔遠遠高於他誰也沒有;他是誰已經遠遠超出孩子的孩子的人。 “

In disposing of the dead, it is unlawful to burn or bury the body or to throw it into water, as any of these modes of disposal would defile one of the sacred elements; the dead must therefore be exposed in high places to be devoured by birds and dogs, a custom which is still observed by the Parsees and Gabars in their "Towers of Silence."在處理死了,它是非法的燒傷或掩埋的屍體,或把它轉化成水,因為這些模式的處置會玷污神聖的一個組成部分;死亡,因此必須暴露在高的地方被吃掉了鳥類和狗,一個自定義仍然是觀察到的Parsees和Gabars在其“大廈的沉默。 ”

Priesthood and Ritual.司祭和儀式。

In religious matters the priesthood was supreme in authority, and the sacerdotal order was hereditary.在宗教事務鐸是最高的權威,和sacerdotal秩序遺傳。 The Mobeds and Herbeds were the Levites and Kohanim of Zoroastrianism.該Mobeds和Herbeds是利和Kohanim的拜火教。 The name for priest, "athaurvan," in the Avesta corresponds to "atharvan" in India; the Magi were a sacerdotal tribe of Median origin.牧師的名稱, “ athaurvan , ”在阿維斯塔相當於“ atharvan ”在印度;賢士是部落中sacerdotal來源。 In acts of worship (Avesta, "Yasna") animal sacrifices were sometimes offered, especially in more ancient times, but these immolations were subordinate and gave place more and more to offerings of praise and thanks-giving accompanied by oblations of consecrated milk, bread, and water.行為的崇拜(阿維斯塔, “作家” )動物的犧牲,有時提供的,特別是在更古老的時代,但這些immolations是從屬地位,並越來越多地提供的讚揚和感謝,讓伴隨oblations的神聖牛奶,麵包,和水。 The performance of these rites was attended by the recitation of long litanies, especially in connection with the preparation of the sacred drink "haoma," made from a plant resembling the Indian "sōma," from which an exhilarating juice was extracted.履行這些儀式出席了朗誦的長期棺材,特別是在與編寫的神聖飲料“號碼” ,從一個工廠類似印度“軀體” ,從其中一個令人振奮汁中提取。 It has been thought that the twigs (Avesta, "baresman"; modern Persian, "barsom") employed by the Zoroastrian priests in their ritual are alluded to as the "branch" held to the nose by the sun-worshipers in the vision of Ezekiel (viii. 16-17); and the consecrated cake (Avesta, "draonah"; modern Persian, "darūn") has been compared with the Hebrew showbread.據認為,樹枝(阿維斯塔“ baresman ” ;現代波斯語, “ barsom ” )所僱用的拜火教祭司儀式是在其提到的“處”舉行了鼻子的太陽朝拜視野中厄澤克爾( viii. 16-17日) ;和神聖蛋糕(阿維斯塔“ draonah ” ;現代波斯語, “閏” )已與希伯來showbread 。

Resemblances Between Zoroastrianism and Judaism.相似之處拜火教和猶太教。

The points of resemblance between Zoroastrianism and Judaism, and hence also between the former and Christianity, are many and striking.點相似之處拜火教和猶太教,因此也與前和基督教,有許多驚人的。 Ahuramazda, the supreme lord of Iran, omniscient, omnipresent, and eternal, endowed with creative power, which he exercises especially through the medium of his Spenta Mainyu ("Holy Spirit"), and governing the universe through the instrumentality of angels and archangels, presents the nearest parallel to Yhwh that is found in antiquity. Ahuramazda ,最高法院主伊朗,無所不知,無所不在,永恆的,賦予了創造性的力量,他工作特別是通過媒介的Spenta Mainyu ( “聖靈” ) ,並通過有關宇宙的工具天使和天使,介紹了最近的平行Yhwh這是在古代。 But Ormuzd's power is hampered by his adversary, Ahriman, whose dominion, however, like Satan's, shall be destroyed at the end of the world.但是Ormuzd的權力也受到他的對手, Ahriman的統治,但是,象撒旦的,應予以銷毀結束時的世界。 Zoroastrianism and Judaism present a number of resemblances to each other in their general systems of angelology and demonology, points of similarity which have been especially emphasized by the Jewish rabbinical scholars Schorr and Kohut and the Christian theologian Stave.拜火教和猶太教目前一些相似之處對方在其一般性制度的天使和魔鬼,相似點已特別強調了猶太人和猶太教學者爾胡特和基督教神學木板。 There are striking parallels between the two faiths and Christianity in their eschatological teachings-the doctrines of a regenerate world, a perfect kingdom, the coming of a Messiah, the resurrection of the dead, and the life everlasting.有驚人的相似之處兩個信仰和基督教的末世論的教義,理論的再生的世界,一個完美的英國,在未來的彌賽亞,死人復活,和生命永恆的。 Both Zoroastrianism and Judaism are revealed religions: in the one Ahuramazda imparts his revelation and pronounces his commandments to Zarathustra on "the Mountain of the Two Holy Communing Ones"; in the other Yhwh holds a similar communion with Moses on Sinai.雙方拜火教和猶太教是啟示宗教:在一個Ahuramazda柔軟劑宣布他的啟示和他的誡命,以查拉圖斯特拉的“山兩聖Communing一” ;在其他Yhwh舉行了類似的交流與摩西在西奈半島。 The Magian laws of purification, moreover, more particularly those practised to remove pollution incurred through contact with dead or unclean matter, are given in the Avestan Vendïdād quite as elaborately as in the Levitical code, with which the Zoroastrian book has been compared (see Avesta).法律的Magian純化,此外,更特別是那些實行以消除污染費用通過接觸死亡或不乾淨的問題,給出了相當的阿維斯塔文Vendïdād的精心在Levitical代碼,這本書的拜火教了比較(見阿維斯塔) 。 The two religions agree in certain respects with regard to their cosmological ideas.兩個宗教同意在某些方面對他們的宇宙觀念。 The six days of Creation in Genesis find a parallel in the six periods of Creation described in the Zoroastrian scriptures.在為期6天的創作起源找到一個平行六期創作中描述的拜火教經文。 Mankind, according to each religion, is descended from a single couple, and Mashya (man) and Mashyana are the Iranian Adam (man) and Eve.人類,根據每一個宗教,是從一個單一的夫婦,和Mashya ( MAN )和Mashyana是伊朗亞當(男子)和夏娃。 In the Bible a deluge destroys all people except a single righteous individual and his family; in the Avesta a winter depopulates the earth except in the Vara ("enclosure") of the blessed Yima.在聖經洪水摧毀了所有的人除了一個正直的個人和他的家人;在阿維斯塔冬季depopulates地球除了在瓦拉( “文” )的祝福義馬。 In each case the earth is peopled anew with the best two of every kind, and is afterward divided into three realms.在每一種情況下,地球是,這裡再次與兩個最好的每一種,是後分為三個境界。 The three sons of Yima's successor Thraetaona, named Erij (Avesta, "Airya"), Selm (Avesta, "Sairima"), and Tur (Avesta, "Tura"), are the inheritors in the Persian account; Shem, Ham, and Japheth, in the Semiticstory.這三個兒子義馬的繼任Thraetaona ,命名Erij (阿維斯塔“ Airya ” ) , Selm (阿維斯塔“ Sairima ” ) ,和圖爾(阿維斯塔, “圖拉” ) ,是在繼承中的波斯帳戶;閃,火腿,和Japheth ,在Semiticstory 。 Likenesses in minor matters, in certain details of ceremony and ritual, ideas of uncleanness, and the like, are to be noted, as well as parallels between Zoroaster and Moses as sacred lawgivers; and many of these resemblances are treated in the works referred to at the end of this article.肖像中的小事,在某些細節的典禮和儀式,思想uncleanness ,等等,都應該注意到,以及相似之處和摩西Zoroaster神聖lawgivers ;和許多相似之處的處理工程提到在本文結尾的。

Causes of Analogies Uncertain.類比的原因尚不清楚。

It is difficult to account for these analogies.這是很難考慮到這些類比。 It is known, of course, as a historic fact that the Jews and the Persians came in contact with each other at an early period in antiquity and remained in more or less close relation throughout their history (see Avesta; Media; Persia).據悉當然作為歷史性事實猶太人和波斯人來聯繫彼此在早期時期文物,並在或多或少密切關係整個歷史上(見阿維斯塔;媒體;波斯) 。 Most scholars, Jewish as well as non-Jewish, are of the opinion that Judaism was strongly influenced by Zoroastrianism in views relating to angelology and demonology, and probably also in the doctrine of the resurrection, as well as in eschatological ideas in general, and also that the monotheistic conception of Yhwh may have been quickened and strengthened by being opposed to the dualism or quasi-monotheism of the Persians.大多數學者,猶太人和非猶太人,認為猶太教是強烈影響拜火教有關的意見和魔鬼天使,也許還學說的復活,以及在一般的末世論思想,並還一神教概念Yhwh可能已經加快和加強了反對的二元或準一神教的波斯人。 But, on the other hand, the late James Darmesteter advocated exactly the opposite view, maintaining that early Persian thought was strongly influenced by Jewish ideas.但是,另一方面,已故的詹姆斯Darmesteter主張完全相反觀點,認為早期波斯思想產生了重大影響猶太人的想法。 He insisted that the Avesta, as we have it, is of late origin and is much tinctured by foreign elements, especially those derived from Judaism, and also those taken from Neoplatonism through the writings of Philo Judæus.他堅持認為,阿維斯塔,因為我們,是原籍國和晚得多tinctured外國要素,尤其是那些來自猶太教,以及那些從Neoplatonism通過的著作斐羅Judæus 。 These views, put forward shortly before the French scholar's death in 1894, have been violently combated by specialists since that time, and can not be said to have met with decided favor on any side.這些意見,提出前不久,法國學者的死亡在1894年,被暴力打擊的專家自那時以來,並不能說已經取得了決定支持任何一方。 At the present time it is impossible to settle the question; the truth lies probably somewhere between the radical extremes, and it is possible that when knowledge of the Assyrian and Babylonian religion is more precise in certain details, additional light may be thrown on the problem of the source of these analogies, and may show the likelihood of a common influence at work upon both the Persian and Jewish cults.目前這是不可能解決這個問題的真相在於大約有激進的極端,這是可能的,當知識的亞述和巴比倫宗教是更精確的某些細節,更多的可能是投擲輕的問題來源這些類比,並可能出現的可能性,共同影響,在工作中對雙方波斯人和猶太人的邪教。

Kaufmann Kohler, AVW Jackson考夫曼科勒, AVW傑克遜
Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.猶太百科全書出版01年至1906年之間。

Bibliography: 參考書目:
For general works on the subject consult bibliographies under articles Avesta, Media, and Persia. Special works on Zoroaster and the religion: Jackson, Zoroaster the Prophet of Ancient Iran, New York, 1899; idem, Die Iranische Religion, in Geiger and Kuhn, Grundriss der Iranischen Philologie, Leipsic, 1904; Justi, Die Aelteste Iranische Religion und Ihr Stifter Zarathustra, in Preussische Jahrbücher, lxxxviii.對於一般工程關於這個問題的協商書目阿維斯塔條規定,媒體和波斯。特別適用於Zoroaster和宗教:傑克遜, Zoroaster古代先知伊朗,紐約, 1899年;同上,模具Iranische宗教,蓋革和庫恩, Grundriss之Iranischen語文學, Leipsic , 1904年; Justi ,模具Aelteste Iranische宗教與國際衛生條例Stifter查拉圖斯特拉,在Preussische年鑑, lxxxviii 。 55-86, 231-262, Berlin, 1897; Lehmann, Die Parsen, in Chantepie de la Saussaye, Lehrbuch der Religionsgeschichte, 3d ed., Tübingen, 1905; idem, Zarathustra, en Bog om Persernes Gamle Tro, pp. 55-86 , 231-262 ,柏林, 1897年;萊曼,模具Parsen ,在Chantepie德拉薩Saussaye ,教科書之Religionsgeschichte ,三維版。 ,蒂賓根大學, 1905年;同上,查拉圖斯特拉,恩沼澤唵Persernes Gamle返回頁。 1-2, Copenhagen, 1899, 1902; Tiele, Geschichte der Religion: Die Religion bei den Iranischen Völkern, vol. 1月2日,哥本哈根, 1899年, 1902年; Tiele ,史宗教:模具宗教北大街Iranischen Völkern ,第二卷。 ii., section 1, translated by Gehrich, Gotha, 1898 (English transl. by Nariman in Indian Antiquary, vols. xxxii. et seq., Bombay, 1903). Particular treatises on the analogies between Zoroastrianism and Judaism: Schorr, in He-Ḥaluẓ, ii.-v.; Kohut, Ueber die Jüdische Angelologie und Dämonologie in Ihrer Abhängigkeit vom Parsismus, Leipsic, 1866; idem, Was Hat die Talmudische Eschatologie aus dem Parsismus Aufgenommen?二。 1節譯Gehrich ,戈塔, 1898年(英文譯。納里曼在印度的古董商,第一卷和第二卷。三十二。起。 ,孟買, 1903年) 。特別論文之間的類比拜火教和猶太教:斯科爾,在他- Ḥaluẓ , ii.-v. ;胡特,論死Jüdische Angelologie與Dämonologie在Ihrer Abhängigkeit論Parsismus , Leipsic , 1866年;同上,是紅帽死於Talmudische Eschatologie澳大利亞DEM的Parsismus Aufgenommen ? in ZDMG xxi.在ZDMG二十一。 552-591; De Harlez, Avesta, Introduction, pp. 552-591 ;者Harlez ,阿維斯塔,導言,頁。 ccv.-ccvi., ccix., Paris, 1881; Spiegel, Eranische Alterthumskunde, ii. ccv. -變異。 , ccix 。 ,巴黎, 1881年;明鏡, Eranische Alterthumskunde ,二。 17, 19, 26, 34, 40, 50 et seq., 63-65, 75, 117, 166 et seq., 169-171, Leipsic, 1878; Darmesteter, La Zend-Avesta, iii., Introduction, pp. 17 , 19 , 26 , 34 , 40 , 50起。 , 63-65 , 75 , 117 , 166起。 , 169-171 , Leipsic , 1878年; Darmesteter ,香格里拉的Zend -阿維斯塔,三。導言,頁。 lvi.-lxii., Paris, 1893; SBE 2d ed., iv., Introduction, pp. lvi. - lxii 。 ,巴黎, 1893年;磺丁醚的2D版。 ,四。導言,頁。 lvii.-lix.; Cheyne, Origin and Religious Concepts of the Psalter, London, 1891; Aiken, The Avesta and the Bible, in Catholic University Bulletin, iii. lvii. -螺旋。 ;進益,起源和宗教概念的Psalter ,倫敦, 1891年;艾肯的阿維斯塔和聖經,在天主教大學公告,三。 243-291, Washington, 1897; Stave, Einfluss des Parsismus auf das Judenthum, Haarlem, 1898; Söderblom, La Vie Future d'Après le Mazdeisme, Paris, 1901; Böklen, Verwandschaft der Jüdisch-Christlichen mit der Parsischen Eschatologie, Göttingen, 1902; Moulton, in Expository Times, ix. 243-291 ,華盛頓, 1897年;木板, Einfluss萬Parsismus奧夫之Judenthum ,哈萊姆, 1898年; Söderblom ,人生未來德apr鑣樂Mazdeisme ,巴黎, 1901年; Böklen , Verwandschaft之Jüdisch - Christlichen麻省理工學院之Parsischen Eschatologie ,哥廷根, 1902年;莫爾頓,在說明性時報九。 351-359, xi. 351-359 ,十一。 257-260, and in Journal of Theological Studies, July, 1902, pp. 257-260 ,並在雜誌神學研究, 7月, 1902年,頁。 514-527; Mills, The Avesta, Neoplatonism and Philo Judœus, i., Leipsic, 1904; Moffat, Zoroastrianism and Primitive Christianity, in Hibbert Journal, 1903, i. 514-527 ;米爾斯,阿維斯塔, Neoplatonism和斐羅Judœus島, Leipsic , 1904年;法特,拜火教和原始基督教,在希伯特期刊, 1903年,島 763-780.KAVWJ 763 - 780.KAVWJ

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