Epistle to the Colossians書信的歌羅西書

General Information 一般信息

The Epistle to the Colossians is a book of the New Testament of the Bible.在書信的歌羅西書是一本新約聖經。 Scholars are divided on whether it was written by Saint Paul during one of his imprisonments after AD 60 or by a later follower of Paul who further developed some of his ideas. The author confronts a type of Gnosticism that taught that angelic powers rule the cosmos and that various ascetic and ritual practices are required of Christians. Against these teachings, the epistle shows that since Christ is ruler of the whole cosmos and has saved believers, neither fear nor extreme practices are appropriate. Colossians has many passages in common with the Epistle to the Ephesians, especially the passages that describe the church as a body, with Christ as its head.學者們意見分歧是否有書面的聖保羅在他的一個監禁後,公元60或以後的追隨者保羅誰進一步發展他的一些想法。 作者面臨一種諾斯替主義這告訴我們,天使般的權力的規則和宇宙各種苦行和宗教儀式的做法是需要的基督徒。在這些教導,在書信顯示,自基督是統治者,整個宇宙,並保存信徒, 既不害怕也不極端的做法是適當的。歌羅西書有許多共同的通道的書信,以在以弗所書,特別是段落描述教會作為一個機構,以基督為元首。

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Bibliography 參考書目
A Patzia, Colossians, Philemon, Ephesians (1984).阿Patzia ,歌羅西書,腓利門書以弗所書( 1984年) 。

Epistle to the Colossians書信的歌羅西書

Brief Outline簡要概述

  1. Salutation and thanksgiving (1:1-8)稱呼和感恩( 1:1-8 )
  2. Doctrinal section (1:9-2:5)理論部分( 1:9-2:5 )
  3. Practical exhortations (2:6-4:6)實際規勸( 2:6-4:6 )
  4. Concluding salutations (4:7-18)最後敬意( 4:7-18 )

Epistle to the Colos'sians書信的Colos'sians

Advanced Information 先進的信息

The Epistle to the Colossians was written by Paul at Rome during his first imprisonment there (Acts 28:16, 30), probably in the spring of AD 57, or, as some think, 62, and soon after he had written his Epistle to the Ephesians.在書信的歌羅西書的作者是保羅在羅馬在第一次入獄有(使徒28:16 , 30 ) ,很可能在春季的AD 57 ,或者在一些人認為, 62和後不久,他已經寫信給他的書信在以弗所書。 Like some of his other epistles (eg, those to Corinth), this seems to have been written in consequence of information which had somehow been conveyed to him of the internal state of the church there (Col. 1:4-8).像他的一些其他書信(例如,那些科林斯) ,這似乎已書面資料的後果已不知被轉交給他的內部狀態的教會有(上校1:4-8 ) 。 Its object was to counteract false teaching.其目的是抵制假教學。 A large part of it is directed against certain speculatists who attempted to combine the doctrines of Oriental mysticism and asceticism with Christianity, thereby promising the disciples the enjoyment of a higher spiritual life and a deeper insight into the world of spirits.有很大一部分是針對某些speculatists誰試圖結合理論的東方神秘主義和禁慾主義的基督教,從而有希望的門徒享有較高的精神生活和深入地了解世界的精神。 Paul argues against such teaching, showing that in Christ Jesus they had all things.保羅認為對這種教學,這表明,在基督耶穌裡,他們所有的東西。 He sets forth the majesty of his redemption.他闡述了他的陛下贖回。

The mention of the "new moon" and "sabbath days" (2:16) shows also that there were here Judaizing teachers who sought to draw away the disciples from the simplicity of the gospel. Like most of Paul's epistles, this consists of two parts, a doctrinal and a practical.提及“新月亮”和“安息日天” ( 2點16分)也顯示,有猶太化的教師在這裡誰力求打平門徒從簡單的福音。如同大多數的保羅的書信,這包括兩個部分:理論和實際。 (1.) The doctrinal part comprises the first two chapters. ( 1 。 )的理論部分包括前兩章。 His main theme is developed in chapter 2.他的主要議題是在第2章。 He warns them against being drawn away from Him in whom dwelt all the fulness of the Godhead, and who was the head of all spiritual powers.他警告他們對正在制定遠離他在談到其中的所有豐富的神體,以及誰是負責所有的精神力量。 Christ was the head of the body of which they were members; and if they were truly united to him, what needed they more?基督是頭的屍體,他們的成員,如果他們是真正的聯合國給他,他們更需要什麼? (2.) The practical part of the epistle (3-4) enforces various duties naturally flowing from the doctrines expounded. ( 2 。 )的實際部分書信( 3-4 )執行各種任務,自然產生的理論闡述。 They are exhorted to mind things that are above (3:1-4), to mortify every evil principle of their nature, and to put on the new man (3:5-14).他們告誡想到事情是以上( 3:1-4 ) ,向每一個邪惡原則腐壞的性質,並提出新的男子( 3:5-14 ) 。

Many special duties of the Christian life are also insisted upon as the fitting evidence of the Christian character. Tychicus was the bearer of the letter, as he was also of that to the Ephesians and to Philemon, and he would tell them of the state of the apostle (4:7-9).許多特殊的義務的基督徒的生活,也堅持為擬合證據基督教特徵。 Tychicus是無記名的信,因為他也該到以弗所和腓利門書,他會告訴他們的狀況使徒( 4:7-9 ) 。 After friendly greetings (10-14), he bids them interchange this letter with that he had sent to the neighbouring church of Laodicea.經過友好的問候( 10月14日) ,他的出價他們交換這封信,他曾與發送到鄰近的教堂老底嘉。 He then closes this brief but striking epistle with his usual autograph salutation.他然後關閉這個簡短,但引人注目的書信與他一貫的簽名稱謂。 There is a remarkable resemblance between this epistle and that to the Ephesians (qv).有一個顯著的相似之處本書信,並在以弗所( qv ) 。 The genuineness of this epistle has not been called in question.的真實性,本書信還沒有所謂的問題。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (伊斯頓圖解詞典)

Epistle to the Colossians書信的歌羅西書

Catholic Information 天主教新聞

One of the four Captivity Epistles written by St. Paul during his first imprisonment in Rome -- the other three being Ephesians, Philemon and Philippians.一個四圈養書信撰寫的聖保祿在其第一監禁在羅馬-其他三個正在以弗所,腓利門書和腓利。 That they were written in prison is stated in the Epistles themselves.他們是在監獄中寫在自己的書信。 The writer mentions his "chain" and his "bonds" (Ephesians 6:20, Colossians 4:3; 4:18; Philippians 1:7, 13, 17); he names his fellow prisoners (Colossians 4:10; Philemon 23) he calls himself a prisoner (Ephesians 3:1; 4:1; Philemon 9): "Paul an old man, and now a prisoner".作者提到他的“鏈”和他的“債券” (以弗所書6:20 ,歌羅西書4:3 ; 4點18 ;腓利1:7 , 13 , 17 ) ;他的名字他的同胞囚犯(歌羅西書4點10分;腓利門書23 )他自稱囚犯(以弗所書3:1 ; 4:1 ;腓利門書9 ) : “保羅的老人,現在的囚犯” 。 It was supposed by some that these letters were written during the two years' captivity at Cæsarea; but it is now generally acknowledged (by all who admit their authenticity) that they were written during the years immediately following in Rome, during the time that "Paul was suffered to dwell by himself, with a soldier that kept him . . . And he remained two whole years in his own hired lodging; and he received all that came in to him" (Acts 28:16-30).這是假定一些,這些信件寫在兩年的囚禁在凱撒利亞;但現在人們普遍承認(所有誰承認其真實性) ,他們寫在年後在羅馬,在一次“保羅遭受詳談了自己,以一名士兵,那讓他。 。 。以及他仍整整2年,他自己聘請住宿,他收到這一切來向他“ (使徒行28:16-30 ) 。 As St. Paul had appealed to the emperor, he was handed over, to await his trial, to the prefect of the Prætorian Guard, who was at that time probably the famous Burrhus, the friend of Seneca.正如聖保祿呼籲皇帝,他被移交,等待他的審判,對行政區的Praetorian衛隊的,誰是在那個時候可能是著名的Burrhus ,塞尼卡的朋友。 He allowed the Apostle to live near the imperial palace in what was known as custodia militaris, his right wrist being connected day and night, by means of a chain, to the left arm of a soldier, who was relieved at regular intervals (Conybeare, Howson, Lewin).他允許使徒生活皇宮附近,這是被稱為custodia蛹蟲草,他的右手腕連白天和黑夜,通過鏈,左臂的一名士兵,誰被解除定期(科尼比爾,豪森,溫) 。 It was in such circumstances that these Epistles were written, some time between AD 61 and 63.正是在這種情況下,這些書信是書面的,之間的某個時間公元61和63 。 It cannot be objected that there is no mention in them of the earthquake spoken of by Tacitus and Eusebius as having destroyed Laodicea; for there is no evidence that its effects reached Coloss Colossæ,aelig;, and Eusebius fixes the date later than these letters.它不能反對,認為沒有提及他們的地震談到的塔西圖和優西比烏具有摧毀老底嘉;對沒有任何證據表明,其效果達到Coloss Colossæ , aelig ; ,和優西比烏補丁的日期晚於這些信件。

Colossians, Ephesians, and Philemon were written and dispatched at one and the same time, while Philippians was composed at a somewhat different period of the captivity.歌羅西書以弗所書,並書面和腓利門書被派遣在同一時間,而在腓利組成略有不同時期的飼養。 The first three are an very closely connected.前三個是一個非常密切的聯繫。 Tychicus is the messenger in Eph., vi, 21 and Coloss., iv, 7, 8, 9. Tychicus是在厄的使者。 ,六, 21日和Coloss 。 ,四,七,八,九。 In the latter he is accompanied by Onesimus, in whose favour the Epistle to Philemon was written.在後者,他是伴隨著Onesimus ,惠及的書信,以腓利門書寫。 In both Colossians and Philemon greetings are sent from Aristarchus, Mark, Epaphras, Luke, and Demas and there is the closest literary affinity between Ephesians and Colossians (see AUTHENTICITY OF THE EPISTLE below).在這兩個歌羅西書和腓利門書問候派出阿里斯,標記, Epaphras ,盧克和迪馬斯和有親和力的文學之間的親密以弗所和歌羅西書(見真實性書信下文) 。


Three cities are mentioned in Colossians, Coloss Colossæ aelig; (i, 2), Laodicea, and Hierapolis (iv, 13.) These were situated about 120 miles east from Ephesus in Phrygia, in Western Asia Minor, Colossæ and Laodicea being on the banks of the Lycus, a tributary of the Mæander.三個城市中提到歌羅西書, Coloss Colossæ aelig ; (一, 2 ) ,老底嘉,並希拉波利斯(四, 13 。 )這是位於120英里以東以弗所在Phrygia ,西亞的小調, Colossæ和老底嘉正在對銀行的Lycus ,支流的Mæander 。 All three were within two or three hours' walk from one another.這三個人都是在兩三個小時,步行一個。 Sir William Ramsay has shown that these towns lay altogether outside the routes followed by St. Paul in his missionary journeys; and it is inferred from Coloss., i, 4, 6, 7, 8 and ii, 1, that they were never visited by the Apostle himself.威廉拉姆齊表明,這些城鎮奠定以外的路線完全其次是聖保羅在他的傳教旅程;並推斷Coloss 。 ,我, 4 , 6 , 7 , 8和二, 1 ,他們從來沒有訪問由使徒自己。 The great majority of the Colossian Christians appear to have been Gentile converts of Greek and Phrygian extraction (i, 26, 27; ii, 13), though it is probable that there was a small proportion of Jews living amongst them, as it is known that there were many scattered over the surrounding districts (Josephus, Ant., XII, iii, 4, and Lightfoot).絕大多數Colossian基督徒似乎已詹蒂萊轉換希臘和Phrygian提取(一, 26 , 27 ;二, 13 ) ,但很可能有一小部分猶太人居住其中,因為它是已知的有許多分佈在周邊縣(約瑟夫,螞蟻。 ,十二,三,四,萊特富特) 。


Colossians was written as a warning against certain false teachers, about whom St.歌羅西書是書面警告對某些虛假的教師,誰街 Paul had probably heard from Epaphras, his "fellow-prisoner" and the founder of the Church of the Colossians.保羅很可能聽到Epaphras ,他的“同胞囚犯”的創始人和教堂的歌羅西書。 The most diverse opinions have been held regarding these seducers.最多樣的意見,已舉行了有關這些seducers 。 They were called philosophers by Tertullian, Epicureans by St. Clement of Alexandria, Jews by Eichhorn, heathen followers of Pythagoras by Grotius.它們被稱為哲學家的良, Epicureans的聖克萊門特的亞歷山德里亞,猶太人的艾希霍恩,異教徒的追隨者畢達哥拉斯的格羅提斯。 They have also been called Chaldean magicians, Judaizing Christians, Essenes, Ebionites, Cabbalists, Gnostics, or varying combinations of all these (see Jacquier, Histoire, I, 316; Cornely, Introduction, III, 514).他們也被稱為加爾丁魔術師,猶太化基督徒,愛色尼,以便尼派, Cabbalists , Gnostics ,或不同的組合所有這些(見Jacquier ,歷史,我, 316 ; Cornely ,導言,三, 514 ) 。 The main outlines of their errors are, however, stated with sufficient clearness in the Epistle, which contains a two fold refutation of them: first, by a direct statement of the true doctrine on Christ, by which the very foundations of their erroneous teaching are shown to be baseless; and secondly, by a direct polemic in which is laid bare the hollowness of what they put forth under the specious name of "philosophy".主要概述了他們的錯誤,但是,有足夠清晰的書信,其中載有2倍駁斥他們說:第一,直接聲明的基督真正的教義,其中的根本基礎是其錯誤教學證明是毫無根據的;第二,直接論戰中,是暴露了這部作品,他們所提出的似是而非的名稱為“哲學” 。 Here, philosophy in general is not condemned, but only the philosophy of those false teachers (Hort, Jud. Chr., 118).在這裡,哲學的一般是不譴責,但只有那些虛假的哲學教師(撫,珠德。染色體。 , 118 ) 。 This was not "according to Christ", but according to the "tradition of men", and was in keeping only with the very alphabet of worldly speculation (kata ta stoicheia tou kosmou -- see Galatians 4:3).這不是“根據基督” ,但據“傳統的男人” ,是唯一保持非常字母與世俗投機(魯卡塔鉭stoicheia頭kosmou -見加拉太4:3 ) 。 Josephus and Philo apply the word "philosophy" to Jewish teaching, and there can be no doubt that it was applied so in Coloss., ii; some of its details are given in 16-23: (1) The false teachers wished to introduce the observance of Sabbaths, new moons, and other such days.約瑟夫和斐羅適用中的“哲學”猶太教學,毫無疑問,這是適用於Coloss 。 ,二;一些詳情16-23 : ( 1 )虛假教師想介紹遵守安息日,新的衛星,以及其他如天。 (2) They forbade the eating and drinking and even the very tasting and touching of certain things. ( 2 )他們禁止飲食,甚至非常品嚐和觸摸的某些事情。 (3) Under the false pretence of humility they inculcated the worship (threskeia) of angels, whom they regarded as equal or superior to Christ. ( 3 )根據虛假藉口謙卑他們灌輸的崇拜( threskeia )的天使,他們被視為等於或優於基督。 The best modern commentators, Catholic and non-Catholic agree with St. Jerome that all these errors were of Jewish origin.最佳現代評論家,天主教和非天主教聖杰羅姆同意,所有這些錯誤的猶太血統。 The Essenes held the most exaggerated ideas on Sabbath observance and external purism, and they appear to have employed the names of the angels for magical purposes (Bel. Jud. II, vii, 2-13, Lightfoot, Col. and Dissertations).愛色尼舉行的最誇張的想法守安息日和外部的觸感,他們似乎已受聘的名稱為神奇的目的天使( Bel.珠德。二,七, 2月13日,萊特富特上校和論文) 。 Many scholars are of opinion that the "elements of this world" (stoicheia tou kosmou) mean elemental spirits; as, at that time, many Jews held that all material things had special angels.許多學者都認為, “這個世界的要素” ( stoicheia頭kosmou )意味著元素精神;因為,在那個時候,許多猶太人認為,所有物質的東西有特殊的天使。 In the Book of Henoch and the Book of Jubilees we read of angels of the stars, seasons months, days of the year, heat, cold, frost, hail, winds, clouds etc. Abbott (Eph. and Coloss., p. 248) says that "the term properly used of the elements ruled by these spirits might readily be applied to the spirits themselves, especially as there was no other convenient term".在這本書中的過敏和圖書的Jubilees我們讀到天使的明星,季節裡,今年的天,熱,冷,霜凍,冰雹,風,雲等雅培( Eph.和Coloss 。 ,第248頁)說, “正確地使用這個詞的內容所統治這些精神可能隨時適用於自己的精神,特別是因為沒有其他方便的” 。 At any rate angels play an important part in most of early apocryphal books of the Jews, eg in the two books just mentioned, the Book of the Secrets of Henoch, the Testament of the Twelve Patriarchs, etc.無論如何天使中發揮重要作用最早期未經書籍的猶太人,例如在剛才提到的兩本書,該書的秘密過敏的約十二始祖等

It may be noted in passing, that the words of the Epistle against the superstitious worship of angels cannot be taken as condemning the Catholic invocation of angels.可以指出在過去,這兩個詞的書信反對迷信崇拜天使不能作為譴責天主教援引天使。 Dr. TK Abbott, a candid non-Catholic scholar, has a very pertinent passage which bears on this point (Eph. and Coloss. p. 268): "Zonaras . . . says there was an ancient heresy of some who said that we should not call on Christ for help or access to God, but on the angels. . . . This latter view, however, would place Christ high above the angels, and therefore cannot have been that of Colossians, who required to be taught the superiority of Christ." The objection sometimes brought from a passage of Theodoret on the Council of Laodicea, is clearly and completely refuted by Estius (Comm. in Coloss., II, 18).雅培傳統知識的博士,坦率非天主教的學者,有一個十分中肯的通行負有在這一點上( Eph.和Coloss 。第268頁) : “ Zonaras 。 。 。說,是一種古老的異端一些誰說過,我們不應呼籲基督的幫助或者獲得上帝,但在天使。 。 。 。這後一種觀點,但是,將地方基督高空的天使,因此不能被認為的歌羅西書,誰需要學習的優越性基督。 “反對有時帶來的一個通道上的Theodoret理事會老底嘉,顯然是完全駁斥了Estius ( Comm.在Coloss 。 ,二, 18 ) 。 Another difficulty may be mentioned in connection with this portion of the Epistle.另一個困難可能會提到的這部分書信。 The statement that the vain philosophy was in accordance with "the tradition of men" is not any disparagement of Apostolic traditions, of which St. Paul himself speaks as follows: "Therefore brethren, stand fast; and hold the traditions which you have learned, whether by word or by our Epistle" (2 Thessalonians 2:14).聲明說,徒勞的哲學是根據“傳統的男人”是沒有任何輕視的使徒傳統,其中聖保羅自己講如下: “所以弟兄們,堅守;和舉行傳統您的經驗教訓,無論是文字或我們的書信“ (帖撒羅尼迦後書2時14 ) 。 "Now I praise you, brethren that in all things you are mindful of me: and keep my ordinances as I have delivered them to you" (1 Corinthians 11:2. -- See also 2 Thessalonians 3:6; 1 Corinthians 7:17; 11:23; 14:33; 2 Corinthians 1:18; Galatians 1:8; Colossians 2:6, 7; 2 Timothy 1:13, 14; 2:2; 3:14; 2 John 1:12; 3 John 13). “現在,我讚美你,兄弟,在所有的事情你知道我:我的條例,並為我提供給你” (哥林多前書11點零二。 -又見帖撒羅尼迦後書3時06分;哥林多前書7 : 17 ; 11:23 ; 14:33 ;哥林多後書1:18 ;加拉太1:8 ;歌羅西書2時06分, 7個;提摩太后書1時13分, 14 ; 2點02 ; 3:14 ;約翰二書1:12 ;約翰三書13 ) 。 Finally, the very last verse, dealing with the errors (ii, 23) is considered one of the most difficult passages in the whole of the Scriptures.最後,最後的詩句,處理錯誤(二, 23歲)被認為是最困難的通道在整個聖經。 "Which things have indeed a shew of wisdom in superstition and humility, and not sparing the body; not in any honour to the filling of the flesh." “哪個事情確實是一個明智的shew的迷信和謙卑,而不是節約的身體;不以任何榮譽,填補了肉。 ” The last words of this verse have given rise to a multitude of the most conflicting interpretations.最後一句話的詩句引起了眾多的最相互矛盾的解釋。 They have been taken as a condemnation of bodily mortification, and as an exhortation to it.他們已經採取作為譴責身體屈辱,並作為一項告誡它。 Modern commentators devote much space to an enumeration of the many opinions and to an exhaustive study of these words without any satisfactory result.現代評論家付出空間列舉的許多意見,並詳盡地研究這些話沒有任何令人滿意的結果。 There can be little doubt that the opinion of Hort, Haupt, and Peake (Exp. Greek Test., 535) is the right one, viz.毫無疑問的意見園藝,豪普特和皮克(預期值希臘試驗。 , 535 )是正確的,即。 that the correct reading of this verse became irrevocably lost, in transcription, in very early times.正確的讀這詩成為付諸東流,在轉錄,在很早就倍。


First Part (1-2)第一部分( 1-2 )

The Epistle consists of two parts the first two chapters being dogmatico-polemical and the last two practical or moral.在書信由兩部分組成的頭兩章正在dogmatico -論戰,並在過去兩年的實際或道義上的。 In the first part the writer shows the absurdity of the errors by a direct statement of the supereminent dignity of Christ, by Whose blood we have the redemption of sins. He is the perfect image of the invisible God, begotten before all creatures.在第一部分中,作者顯示了荒唐的錯誤,直接聲明supereminent尊嚴基督,通過的血,我們有贖回的罪孽。他是一個完美的形象,無形的上帝,生之前,所有的動物。 By Him and for Him were created all things in heaven and on earth, visible and invisible, spiritual as well as material, and by Him are all things upheld.由他和他創建的所有東西,天上,地下,有形和無形的,精神和物質,並通過他都是堅持。 He is the Head of the Church and He has reconciled all things through the blood of His cross, and the Colossians "also he hath reconciled . . . through death".他是教會的元首,他已通過核對一切事物的血液他的十字架,和歌羅西書“還他規勸和解。 。 。通過死亡” 。 St. Paul, as the Apostle of the Gentiles and a prisoner for their sakes, exhorts them to hold fast to Christ in Whom the plenitude of the Godhead dwells, and not to allow themselves under the plausible name of philosophy, to be re-enslaved by Jewish traditions based on the Law of Moses, which was but the shadow of which Christ was the reality and which was abrogated by His coming.聖保羅,因為使徒的外邦人和囚犯的酒,激勵他們堅守基督的人的完滿的神體居住,而不是讓自己的名字下似是而非的哲學,必須重新奴役猶太傳統的基礎上摩西律法,這只不過是其中的陰影是基督的現實和該所廢止,他的到來。 They are not to listen to vain and rudimentary speculations of the false teachers, nor are they to suffer themselves to be deluded by a specious plea of humility to put angels or demons on a level with Christ, the creator of all, the master of angels, and conqueror of demons.他們不聽徒勞的和最基本的投機的虛假教師,也不是受到自己被矇騙了似是而非的認罪謙卑把天使或魔鬼的水平上與基督,作者所有,主天使和征服者的惡魔。

Second Part (3-4)第二部分( 3-4 )

In this portion of the Epistle St. Paul draws some practical lessons from the foregoing teaching.在這部分的使徒聖保羅借鑒一些實際經驗從上述教學。 He appeals to them that as they are risen with Christ they should mind the things that are above; put off the old man and put on the new. In Christ there is to be neither Gentile nor Jew, barbarian nor Scythian, bond nor free.他呼籲他們,因為他們與基督上升他們應該記住的事情是以上;推遲歲男子,並把新的。在基督那裡是既不詹蒂萊也不猶太人,野蠻,也不西徐亞人,債券,也沒有免費的。 The duties of wives and husbands, children and servants are next given.的職責,妻子和丈夫,子女和僕人的未來考慮。 He recommends constant prayer and thanksgiving, and tells them to walk with wisdom towards them that are without, letting their speech be always in grace seasoned with salt, that they may know how to answer every man.他建議不斷祈禱和感恩,並告訴他們走與智慧對他們說,不,讓他們的言論總是在寬限期調味鹽,它們可能知道如何回答每一個男人。 After the final greeting the Apostle ends with: "The salutation of Paul with my own hand. Be mindful of my bands. Grace be with you. Amen".最後的問候之後,使徒結束: “稱呼的保羅與我自己的手。考慮到我的樂隊。恩典與你同在。阿門” 。


External Evidence外部證據

The external evidence for the Epistle is so strong that even Davidson has gone to the extent of saying that "it was unanimously attested in ancient times". Considering its brevity, controversial character, and the local and ephemeral nature of the errors dealt with, it is surprising how frequently it was used by early writers.外部的證據,書信是如此強烈,甚至已經戴維森的程度說, “這是一致證明在遠古時代。 ”考慮到其簡潔,爭議的性質,以及地方和短暫性的錯誤處理的,它令人驚訝的頻率,它是用於早期作家。 There are traces of it in some of the Apostolic Fathers and it was known to the writer of the Epistle of Barnabas, to St. Polycarp, and Theophilus of Antioch.有痕跡,但在一些使徒教父,它是已知的作家書信巴爾納巴斯,聖波利卡普和西奧菲勒安提。 It was quoted by Justin Martyr, Irenæus, Tertullian, Clement of Alexandria, etc. From the Muratorian Fragment and early versions it is evident that it was contained in the very first collections of St. Paul's Epistles.有人援引賈斯汀烈士Irenæus ,良,克萊門特亞歷山大等從穆拉多利片段和早期版本很明顯,這是載於第一個集合的聖保祿書信。 It was used as Scripture early in the second century, by Marcion, the Valentinians, and by other heretics mentioned in the "Philosophoumena"; and they would not have accepted it had it originated among their opponents after they broke away from the Church.它被用來作為聖經早在二世紀,由馬吉安的Valentinians和其他異教徒中提到的“ Philosophoumena ” ,他們不會接受它起源中他們的對手後,脫離了教會。

Internal Evidence內部證據

The Epistle claims to have been written by St. Paul, and the internal evidence shows close connection with Philippians (von Soden) and Philemon, which are admitted to be genuine letters of St. Paul.索賠的書信已撰寫的聖保羅,和內部證據表明緊密結合腓利(馮索登)和腓利門書,這是承認是真正的信聖保羅。 Renan concedes that it presents several traits which are opposed to the hypothesis of its being a forgery, and of this number is its connection with the Epistle to Philemon.雷南維承認,它提出了幾個特點是反對的假設它是偽造的,而且這個數字是其與書信向腓利門書。 It has to be noted, too, that the moral portion of the Epistle, consisting of the last two chapters has the closest affinity with similar portions of other Epistles, while the whole admirably fits in with the known details of St. Paul's life, and throws considerable light upon them.必須指出,也認為在道義上的部分書信,包括最後兩章最密切的親和與其他類似的部分書信,而整個欽佩符合已知的細節聖保祿生活,全相當輕它們。


As the historical evidence is much stronger than that for the majority of classical writings, it may be asked why its genuineness was ever called in question.作為歷史的證據是非常強的大多數古典著作,可以問,為什麼它的真實性是以往任何時候都要求有問題。 It was never doubted until 1838, when Meyerhoff, followed by others, began to raise objections against it.這是從來沒有懷疑過,直到1838年,當Meyerhoff ,其次是其他人,開始以提高反對它。 It will be convenient to deal with these objections under the following four heads: (1) Style; (2) Christology; (3) Errors dealt with; and (4) Similarity to Ephesians.可以方便地處理這些反對以下四個首長: ( 1 )風格; ( 2 )基督; ( 3 )錯誤處理;和( 4 )相似,以以弗所。

(1) Style ( 1 )風格

(a) In general, on comparing the Epistle with Corinthians, Romans, and Galatians, it will be seen that the style, especially in the earlier part, is heavy and complicated. (一)一般情況下,就比較書信與科林蒂安,羅馬人,和加拉太,可以看到的風格,特別是在早期,是沉重的,複雜的。 It contains no sudden questions, no crushing dilemmas, no vehement outbursts of sweeping Pauline eloquence.它不包含任何突發性問題,沒有沉重的難題,沒有強烈的爆發席捲波利娜口才。 Some of the sentences are long and involved, and though the whole is set forth in a lofty and noble strain, the presentment is uniform and not quite in the manner, say, of Galatians.有些句子很長,參與,但整體上所載崇高應變,出示是統一的,而不是完全的方式,也就是說,加拉太。 Hence it is objected that it could not have been written by St. Paul.因此,反對,認為它不能被寫的聖保羅。 But all this can be very naturally explained when it is borne in mind that the Epistle was written after several years of monotonous confinement, when Christianity had taken firm root, when the old type of Judaizer had become extinct and St. Paul's position securely established.但是,所有這一切都可以很自然的解釋時,銘記的是,書信寫經過幾年的單調限制,當基督教已經深深紮根,在舊型的Judaizer已經滅絕和聖保羅的地位穩固確立。 His advancing years also should be taken into account.他的推進年也應該予以考慮。 It is unfair, moreover, to compare this Epistle, or but parts of it, with only certain portions of one or two of the earlier ones.這是不公平,此外,比較本書信,或但部分,只有某些部分的一個或兩個以往。 There are long and involved sentences scattered throughout Romans, I and II Corinthians, and Galatians, and the generally admitted Epistle to the Philippians.有長期參與判決遍布羅馬,我和哥林多和加拉太和普遍承認的腓利書信。 It has also to be observed that many of the old Pauline expressions and methods of reasoning are most naturally and inextricably interwoven with the very tissue and substance of the Epistle.它也必須指出,許多老波琳表現形式和方法的推理是最自然和不可分割的交織在一起的組織和實質問題的書信。 Ample proofs for all these statements and others throughout this article, are given in works mentioned in the bibliography.充分證明所有這些報表和其他各地本文給出了工程中所提到的書目。 Dr. Sanday has voiced the opinion of fair-minded critics when he says that nobody can view the Epistle as a whole, without being impressed by its unbreakable unify and genuine Pauline character.桑迪博士已表示的意見,公正的批評時,他說,沒有人可以查看書信作為一個整體,而不留下了深刻的印象其牢不可破的統一和真正的波利娜性質。

(b) Many of St. Paul's favourite expressions are wanting. ( b )許多聖保羅最喜愛的表現形式是希望。 From eight to a dozen words not unfrequently used by him in earlier writings are absent from this short Epistle and about a dozen connecting particles, which he employs elsewhere, are also missing. 8至12個字不unfrequently利用他在早期著作是沒有這麼短的書信和大約12個連接的粒子,他僱用了其他地方,也下落不明。 One or two instances will show how such objections may readily be solved, with the aid of a concordance.一個或兩個例子顯示如何將這種反對可能會隨時得到解決,與援助的和諧。 The words dikaios, soteria and soteria are not found in the Epistle.字dikaios , soteria和soteria找不到在書信。 Therefore, etc. -- But dikaios is wanting both in I Cor.因此,等等-但是dikaios是想在我心病。 and I Thess.; nomos is not contained either in I Cor.我Thess 。 ;州沒有載無論是在我心病。 or Gal.; nomos is not found at all in I Thess.或半乳糖。 ;州沒有發現在所有的I Thess 。 or II Cor.或二心病。 In the same way (with regard to connecting particles) ara, which is not in this Epistle, is not found either in Philipp.以同樣的方式(關於連接粒子)糖,這是不是在這書信,是不是發現無論是在菲利普。 or the first hundred verses of I Cor., a space much longer than the whole of the Epistle; ara oun, which is frequent in Romans, is not met with in I and II Cor.或第一次100詩句我心病。 ,空間遠遠長於整個書信;阿糖胞苷群,這是經常在羅馬,是不符合在第一和第二心病。 and only once in Gal.只有一次,半乳糖。 (See the details of the argument in Abbott and Jacquier.) (見詳細的論點Abbott和Jacquier 。 )

(c) It is objected that the Epistle contains many strange words, nowhere else used by St. Paul. (三)這是反對的書信包含了許多奇怪的話,在其他地方使用的聖保羅。 That, however, is precisely what we should expect in an Epistle of St. Paul.然而,這正是我們應該期望在使徒聖保羅。 Every Epistle written by him contains many words employed by him nowhere else.每一個他寫的書信包含了很多的話由他僱用無處。 Alford gives a list of thirty-two apax legomena in this Epistle, and of these eighteen occur in the second chapter, where the errors are dealt with.奧爾福德給出了清單32 apax legomena本書信,其中18個發生在第二章,那裡的錯誤處理。 The same thing occurs in the earlier Epistles, where the Apostle is speaking of new subjects or peculiar errors, and there apax legomena most abound.同樣的事情發生在早些時候書信,在使徒是新議題的發言或特有的錯誤,並有apax legomena最比比皆是。 This Epistle does not show more than the ordinary proportion of new words and in this respect compares favourably with the genuine II Cor. Furthermore, the compound words found in the Epistle have their analogues in similar passages of the authentic Epistle to the Romans.這書信不顯示超過普通比例的新字,並在這方面比較有利的真正二心病。此外,複合詞的書信中發現有類似及其類似物在段落的真實使徒的羅馬人。 It would be most absurd to bind down to a narrow and set vocabulary a writer of such intellectual vigour and literary versatility as St. Paul.這將是最荒謬的法律約束,以狹隘和一套詞彙等作家的文學知識的活力和靈活性的聖保羅。 The vocabulary of all writers changes with time, place, and subject-matter.的詞彙所有作家的變化時間,地點和主題事項。 Salmon, Mahaffy, and others have pointed out that similar changes of vocabulary occur in the writings of Xenophon, who was a traveller like St. Paul.鮭魚, Mahaffy ,和其他人指出,類似的變化發生在詞彙的著作色諾芬,誰是由像聖保羅。 Compare the earlier and later letters of Lord Acton (edited by Abbot Gasquet) or of Cardinal Newman.比較早,後來信阿克頓勳爵(編輯艾博特加斯凱)或紅衣主教紐曼。

(2) Christology ( 2 )基督

It has objected that the exalted idea of Christ presented in the Epistle could not have been written by St. Paul.它反對的崇高思想中提出的基督使徒不可能寫的聖保羅。 In answer to this it will be sufficient to quote the following passage from the genuine Epistle to the Philippians: "Who [Christ Jesus] being in the form of God, thought it not robbery to be equal with God: but emptied himself, taking the form of a servant" (2:6, 7, etc. See Romans 1:3-4; Greek text, 8:3; 1 Corinthians 7:6; 2 Corinthians 8:9; Galatians 4:6, etc.).在回答這一點,將足以引用以下一段從真正的腓利書信: “誰[耶穌基督]正在為形式的上帝,認為這不是搶劫是平等與上帝:但掏空自己,要考慮的形式的僕人“ ( 2點06 , 7 ,等見羅馬書1:3-4 ;希臘文字, 8時03分;哥林多前書7點06分;哥林多後書8點09分;加拉太4點06分,等等) 。 That the Christology of the Epistle does not differ in any essential point from that of St. Paul's other Epistles is seen from an impartial study of these latter.這是基督的使徒沒有區別在任何重要的一點,從聖保羅其他書信是由一個公正的研究這些後者。 The subject has been scientifically worked out by Père Rose (Rev. bibl. 1903), M. Lépin (Jésus Messie, 341), Sanday (Criticism of the Fourth Gospel, lect. vii, Oxford, 1905), Knowling (The Testimony of St. Paul to Christ, London, 1905), Lacey (The Historic Christ, London 1905), etc. Nor can the words (i, 24): I .這個問題已制訂出科學的佩雷玫瑰(修訂bibl 。 1903年)先生Lépin ( Jésus Messie , 341 ) ,桑迪(批判第四福音, lect 。七,牛津, 1905年) , Knowling (的證詞聖保羅基督,倫敦, 1905年) ,萊西(歷史基督,倫敦1905年)等也可以的話(一, 24歲) :我。 . . "fill up those things that are wanting of the sufferings of Christ in my flesh, for his body, which is the church", present any difficulty when it is remembered that he had just said that Christ had reconciled all through the blood of His cross, and that the correct meaning of antanaplero ta hysteremata ton thlipseon tou Christou en te sarki mou hyper tou somatos autou, ho estin he ekklesia is: "I am filling up those Christian sufferings that remain for me to endure for the sake of the Church of Christ", etc. Compare II Cor., i, 5, "For as the sufferings of Christ abound in us" (ta pathemata tou Christou). “填補了這些東西,是希望的痛苦基督在我的肉體,對他的身體,這是教會” ,目前的任何困難時,想起他剛才說,基督已通過核對所有的血液他的十字架,而正確的含義antanaplero大hysteremata噸thlipseon頭Christou恩特sarki謀超頭somatos autou ,何estin他ekklesia是: “我很填補這些基督教的痛苦,我仍然要忍受為了教會基督“等比較二心病。 ,我日, 5日, ”作為基督的苦難在我們的很多“ (大pathemata頭Christou ) 。

(3) Errors dealt with ( 3 )錯誤處理

The objection under this heading need not detain us long.在反對本項下不需要我們長期扣留。 Some years ago it was frequently asserted that the errors combated in this Epistle were Gnostic errors of the second century, and that the Epistle was therefore written many years after St. Paul's death.幾年前,有人斷言,頻繁的錯誤,打擊在這一書信被諾斯底錯誤的第二個世紀,而且書信,因此寫了許多年之後聖保祿死亡。 But this opinion is now considered, even by the most advanced critics, as exploded and antiquated.但這個意見是現在認為,即使是最先進的批評,因為爆炸和陳舊。 Nobody can read the writings of these Gnostics without becoming convinced that terms employed by them were used in a quite different sense from that attached to them in the Epistle.沒有人可以閱讀這些著作成為Gnostics不相信,他們僱用的條款中使用了完全不同的意義上說,重視從他們的書信。 Baur himself appears to have had considerable misgivings on the point.鮑爾本人似乎已經有相當疑慮的問題。 The errors of Judaic Gnosticism, condemned in the Epistle, were quite embryonic when compared with the full-blown Greek Gnosticism of the second century (see Lightfoot, Coloss., etc.).錯誤的猶太諾斯替主義,譴責的書信,是相當胚胎比較,全套希臘諾斯替主義的第二個世紀(見娜萊, Coloss 。等) 。

(4) Similarity to Ephesians ( 4 )相似,以以弗所

The principal objection to the Epistle is its great similarity to Ephesians. Davidson stated that out of 155 verses in the latter Epistle 78 were identical with Colossians.主要的反對書信是偉大相似以弗所。戴維森指出,從155詩句後者書信78相同的歌羅西書。 De Wette held that Ephesians was but a verbose amplification of Colossians.者Wette認為,以弗所只是一個詳細擴增歌羅西書。 Baur thought Ephesians the superior letter, and Renan asked how can we suppose the Apostle spending his time in making a bald transcription of himself.鮑爾認為以弗所上級的信,和雷南維問我們如何才能假設使徒支出的時間,使禿頂轉錄自己。 But as Dr. Salmon pointed out, an Apostle might write a circular letter, that is, he might send to different places letters couched in identical words.但是,隨著三文魚博士指出,一個使徒可能寫通函,也就是說,他可能會傳送到不同的地方信件措辭相同的話。 Many theories have been elaborated to explain these undoubted resemblances.許多理論闡述了解釋這些無疑相似之處。 Ewald maintained that the substance was St. Paul's, while the composition was left to Timothy.埃瓦爾德主張的實質是聖保祿,而組成留待蒂莫西。 Weiss and Hitzig had recourse to a theory of interpolations. Weiss和希齊格求助於理論插值。 But the theory that has gained the greatest amount of notoriety is that of HJ Holtzmann.但是,這一理論已獲得最大數量的惡名是黃建忠Holtzmann 。 In his "Kritik der Epheser- und Kolosser-Briefe" (1872) he instituted a most elaborate and exhaustive comparison between the two Epistles.在他的“批判Epheser ,與Kolosser ,書信” ( 1872年) ,他制定了最詳盡的闡述和比較兩種書信。 He took a number of passages which seemed to prove the priority of Ephesians and an equal number which were just as conclusive that Colossians was the earlier.他採取了一些段落,似乎要證明的優先權以弗所和同等數量的,只是作為最後定論的歌羅西書是較早。 The natural conclusion would be that all these similarities were due to the same author writing and dispatching these Epistles at one and the same time.自然的結論是,所有這些相似之處是由於作者寫作和調度這些書信在同一時間。 But Holtzmann's explanation was quite different.但是Holtzmann的解釋完全不同。 He supposed that St. Paul wrote a short epistle to the Colossians.他假定聖保祿寫了簡短的書信向歌羅西書。 From the study of this epistle a later writer composed the Epistle to the Ephesians.從本研究的書信以後作家的書信組成的以弗所。 Then taking St. Paul's short Epistle to the Colossians he made interpolations and additions to it from his own composition to the Ephesians and thus built up our present Epistle to the Ephesians, and that with such success that the thing was never suspected until the nineteenth century.然後考慮聖保祿短期書信向歌羅西書他插值和補充它自己組成的以弗所,從而建立了我國目前的以弗所書信,而且這種成功的事情是從來沒有懷疑,直到19世紀。 This intricate and complicated theory did not gain a single adherent, even amongst the most advanced critical school.這種錯綜複雜的理論沒有得到一個單一的粘附,即使是最先進的關鍵上學。 Hilgenfeld rejected it in 1873; but its best refutation is von Soden's detailed criticism of 1885. Hilgenfeld拒絕它於1873年,但最好的反駁是馮索登的詳細批評, 1885年。 He held that only about eight verses could be regarded as interpolations.他認為,只有約8詩句可視為插值。 Sanday in Smith's "Dict. of the Bible" (I, 625) pointed out that von Soden's lines of demarcation were purely imaginary, and Pfleiderer showed the inconsistency involved in his rejection of these verses.桑迪在史密斯的“快譯通。聖經” (一, 625 )指出,馮索登的分界線純粹是虛構的,和弗萊德爾顯示不一致參與了他的拒絕這些經文。 The results of these criticisms and of further study convinced von Soden, in 1891, that the whole Epistle was genuine, with the exception of a single verse -- a verse now generally held to be genuine.結果,這些批評,並進一步研究相信馮索登,於1891年,整個書信是真正的,除了單一的詩句-一個詩現在普遍被認為是真實的。 In 1894 Jülicher stated that the best solution was to admit the authenticity of both Epistles, though he speaks more hesitatingly in "Encyc. Bibl."在1894年Jülicher指出,最好的辦法是承認的真實性都書信,但他講的更多的猶豫“ Encyc 。 Bibl 。 ” 1889. 1889年。 J. Weiss made an abortive attempt to resuscitate Holtzmann's moribund theory in 1900.學者魏斯取得企圖恢復Holtzmann的奄奄一息的理論在1900年。

Whilst Holtzmann's facts are incontestable, and only go to prove the community of authorship, his explanation (in which he seems to have lost faith) is rejected by scholars as artificial and unreal.雖然Holtzmann的事實是不容置疑的,只有去證明國際社會的作者,他的解釋(他似乎已經失去了信心)被拒絕的學者人工和虛幻。 It affords no explanation of many things connected with these Epistles.它使沒有解釋許多事情與這些書信。 It does not explain how the early Christians allowed a genuine letter of St. Paul to become completely lost without trace or mention, for the sake of two forgeries of much later date.它沒有解釋如何早日讓一個真正的基督徒的信聖保祿成為完全喪失無踪或提到,為了兩個偽造的更晚的日期。 Each Epistle, taken by itself, shows such unity and connection of argument and language, that if the other were not in existence no one would have suspected the slightest degree of interpolation.每個書信,採取的本身,表明這種團結和連接的論點和語言,如果對方不存在任何人都不會有絲毫懷疑的插值。 The parts rejected as interpolations break the unity of argument and flow of ideas.部分否決插值打破統一的論點,並交流思想。 Why should a forger, capable of writing the bulk of both Epistles, take the trouble to interpolate verses and half of his own production from one Epistle into the other, and that in quite a different connection?為什麼偽造,能寫的大部分都書信,採取的麻煩插值一半的詩句和他自己的生產從一書信成其他,而且在完全不同的方面? Besides, as Principal Salmond observes, there is not a dull sameness of style in both Epistles.此外,作為主要薩爾蒙德指出,不存在一個相同的沉悶風格在書信。 Ephesians is round, full, rhythmical; Colossians more pointed, logical and concise.以弗所是圓的,充分,有節奏;歌羅西書更指出,邏輯和簡潔。 Ephesians has several references to the Old Testament; Colossians only one.以弗所已多次提到舊約;歌羅西書只有一個。 There are different new words in each, and there are whole passages in the one and nothing like them found in the other.有不同的新詞在每一個,也有整個段落沒有一個和他們一樣的其他發現。

The expressions supposed to have come from Colossians occur quite naturally in Ephesians, but by no means in the same context and connection, and vice versa. As Holtzmann's hypothesis has completely broken down, his study of the Epistles shows such close relationship between them that there can be only one other possible explanation: that both are the genuine writings of one man, and that man was St. Paul.為了表達來自歌羅西書發生在以弗所很自然,但絕不是在同樣的背景和連接,反之亦然。作為Holtzmann的假設已經完全崩潰,他的研究表明這種書信密切它們之間的關係,有只能有一個其他可能的解釋:這兩個是真正的著作的一個人,這名男子被聖保羅。 Paley, who wrote his "Horæ Paulinæ" in 1790, set forth this side of the argument long before these objections were thought of; and the fact that he can still be quoted, without qualification, in this connection, is the best proof of the futility of all such objections.佩利,誰寫下了“ Horæ Paulinæ ”在1790年的規定,這方面的爭論早在這些反對意見被認為是和事實,他仍可以被引用,沒有資格在這方面,是最好的證明所有這些都是徒勞的反對。 He says (Horæ Paulinæ, London, 1790, 215):他說, ( Horæ Paulinæ ,倫敦, 1790年, 215 ) :

Whoever writes two letters or discourses nearly upon the same subject and at no great distance of time but without any express recollection of what he had written before will find himself repeating some sentences in the very order of the words in which he had already used them; but he will more frequently find himself employing some principal terms, with the order inadvertently changed, or with the order disturbed by the intermixture of other words and phrases expressive of ideas rising up at the time, or in many instances repeating not single words, nor yet whole sentences, but parts and fragments of sentences. Of all these varieties the examination of our two epistles will furnish plain examples, and I should rely on this class of instances more than on the last, because although an impostor might transcribe into a forgery entire sentences and phrases, yet the dislocation of words, the partial recollection of phrases and sentences, the intermixture of new terms and new ideas with terms and ideas before used, which will appear in the examples that follow, and which are the natural products of writing produced under the circumstances in which these epistles are represented to have been composed -- would not, I think, have occurred to the invention of a forger, nor, if they had occurred would they have been so easily executed.誰寫的兩封信後或話語幾乎同一主題和在沒有太大的距離,但沒有任何明示的回憶,他寫了前將發現自己在重複一些句子的順序的話,他已經用他們;但他發現自己更經常採用的一些主要條款,但為了無意中更改,或與秩序不安合金其他單詞和短語表達思想升起的時候,或在許多情況下重複不是單一的話,也不但整個句子,但零件和碎片的判決。在所有這些品種的檢查,我們將提供兩個書信平原的例子,我要依靠本級以上的情況下的最後的,因為儘管騙子可能抄錄成一個偽造整個句子和詞組,但脫位的話,部分記憶的短語和句子,該合金的新的條款及條件的新思路和想法與前使用,這將出現在下面的例子,它是天然產品的書面形式的情況下產生的,這些書信的代表已組成-不,我認為,已經發生的發明偽造,也不,如果他們發生了,他們會一直這麼容易執行。 This studied variation was a refinement in forgery which I believe did not exist, or if we can suppose it to have been practised in the instances adduced below, why, it may be asked, was not the same art exercised upon those which we have collected in the preceding class?這是一個變化研究完善,偽造,我認為根本不存在,或者,如果我們可以假設它已經實行的情況下提出以下,因此,它可能會問,是不是同一藝術行使那些我們已經收集前級?

He then goes on to illustrate all these points by numerous examples taken from all parts of these Epistles.他接著說明了所有這些問題所採取的許多例子來自全國各地的這些書信。

Publication information Written by Cornelius Aherne.出版信息作者哥尼流阿赫尼。 Transcribed by Vernon Bremberg.轉錄的弗農Bremberg 。 Dedicated to the Cloistered Dominican Nuns of the Monastery of the Infant Jesus, Lufkin, Texas The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume IV.致力於與世隔絕多米尼加修道院修女的嬰兒耶穌,拉夫金,得克薩斯州的天主教百科全書,第四卷。 Published 1908.發布時間1908年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat. Nihil Obstat 。 Remy Lafort, Censor.雷米Lafort ,審查。 Imprimatur.認可。 +John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰M法利,大主教紐約


ST.意法半導體。 JEROME, Ep. JEROME ,內啡肽。 cxxi, Ad Algas., q. cxxi ,廣告Algas 。 ,問: x in Opera (Venice, 1766), I Pt. X在歌劇院(威尼斯, 1766年) ,我鉑。 I, 878; CORNELY, Introd.一, 878 ; CORNELY , Introd 。 (Paris, 1897), III; SALMON, Intro. (巴黎, 1897年) ,第三章;鮭魚,介紹。 to New Test.以新的考驗。 (London, 1897); JACQUIER, Histoire des Livres du Nouveau Test. (倫敦, 1897年) ; JACQUIER ,史圖書杜新試驗。 (Paris, 1906), I; ESTIUS, Commentarius (Mainz, 1844); BISPING, Erklärung der Briefe an die Eph., Philip., Kol. (巴黎, 1906年) ,我; ESTIUS , Commentarius (美茵茨, 1844年) ; BISPING , Erklärung之書信一死厄。菲利普。 ,科爾。 (Münster, 1855); MCEVILLY, Exposition (Dublin, 1860); ALFORD, New Test. Critical and Exegetical Commentary (London, 1856); ELLICOTT, Critical and Grammatical Comm. (明斯特, 1855 ) ; MCEVILLY ,博覽會(都柏林, 1860年) ;奧爾福德,新的考驗。關鍵和訓詁評(倫敦, 1856年) ; ELLICOTT ,關鍵和語法通信。 (London, 1857); LIGHTFOOT, Colossians and Philemon (London, 1879); IDEM, Dissertations on the Apostolic Age (London, 1875); SANDAY in SMITH, Dict. (倫敦, 1857年) ;娜萊,歌羅西書和腓利門書(倫敦, 1879年) ;同上,論文使徒時代(倫敦, 1875年) ;桑迪在史密斯,快譯通。 of the Bible (London, 1893); VON SODEN, Die Briefe an die Kolosser, etc. (Leipzig, 1893); SALMOND, Ephesians; PEAKE, Colossians in Exp.聖經(倫敦, 1893年) ;馮SODEN ,模具書信的死亡Kolosser等(萊比錫, 1893年) ;薩爾蒙德以弗所書; PEAKE ,歌羅西書在進出口。 Greek Test. (London, 1903).希臘試驗。 (倫敦, 1903年) 。 One of the best books on the subject is ABBOTT, Ephesians and Colossians.其中最好的書是關於這一主題的雅培,以弗所和歌羅西書。 See also The International Critical Commentary, ed.又見國際的評論,教育署。 CLARK (Edinburgh, 1907); HORT, Judaic Christianity (London, 1898).克拉克(愛丁堡, 1907年) ;園藝,猶太基督教(倫敦, 1898年) 。

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