Epistles to the Corinthians書信的科林蒂安

General Information 一般信息

The two Epistles to the Corinthians in the New Testament were written by Saint Paul from Ephesus, probably in AD 57, to the church he founded at Corinth, a cosmopolitan commercial city in central Greece.這兩個書信的科林蒂安在新約寫的聖保羅從以弗所,大概在公元57歲,他的教會成立於科林斯,一個國際化的商業城市希臘中部。 They were part of a lively exchange (there are references to other correspondence in 1 Corinthians 5:9; 7:1; 2 Corinthians 2:4) in which Paul clarified his teachings, rebuked the Corinthians for erroneous practices, and instructed them in Christian living.他們是活躍的交流(有提及其他信件哥林多前書5點09分; 7:1 ;哥林多後書2時04分) ,其中保羅澄清他的教誨,指責科林蒂安的錯誤做法,並指示他們在基督教生活。 In chapters 1 - 4 of Corinthians, Paul connects true wisdom to the cross of Jesus Christ in opposition to any other teaching the Corinthians may find attractive.章1 - 4哥林多,保羅連接真正的智慧,兩岸耶穌基督在反對任何其他教學的科林蒂安可能會發現有吸引力的。

In chapters 5 - 6 he criticizes their handling of law suits and of a case of sexual immorality.章5 - 6批評他們處理訴訟案件和性道德。 Then in chapters 7 - 15 he answers questions sent to him concerning marriage, Resurrection of the body, eating meat offered to idols, charity, conduct at worship, and the role of spiritual gifts. The Corinthian community was unstructured compared to other Christian churches of the time, and its rapid growth forced Paul to apply Christian beliefs to a variety of problems.然後在章節7 - 15 ,他回答問題送交給他的關於婚姻,復活的身體,吃肉願意偶像,慈善事業,開展在崇拜和精神的作用禮物。的科林斯社會非結構化相對於其他的基督教教堂當時,它的快速增長迫使保羅適用基督教信仰的各種問題。

The text of 2 Corinthians shows that relations between Paul and the Corinthians had deteriorated into open conflict. Most of chapters 1 - 7 reflect past conflict over the Corinthians' behavior, the rejection of Paul's apostolic authority by some, and subsequent reconciliation.的案文哥林多後書之間的關係表明,保羅和科林蒂安已經惡化為公開衝突。大部分章節1 - 7反映了過去的衝突哥林多的行為,反對保羅的使徒權威一些,和隨後的和解。 Chapters 10 - 13 are an even more emotional defense of Paul's life and ministry against adversaries claiming to have authority above Paul's.章節10 - 13是一個更加情緒國防保羅的生活和對對手部聲稱有權上述保羅。 Many scholars think that these chapters are another epistle, because they are so different from the preceding chapters.許多學者認為,這些章節是另一個書信,因為他們是如此不同,前面的章節。 Likewise, chapters 8 and 9 are probably two distinct appeals for contributions to be given to the Jerusalem church.同樣,第8和第9章可能是兩個截然不同的呼籲捐款給予耶路撒冷教堂。 Paul's zeal, strength, closeness to Christ, and feelings for his communities are revealed in 2 Corinthians.保羅的熱情,力量,接近基督,和感情的社區,揭示在哥林多後書。

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Bibliography 參考書目
H Betz, Second Corinthians 8 and 9 (1985); GD Fee, The First Epistle to the Corinthians (1987); J Hering, The Second Epistle of St. Paul to the Corinthians (1958). H貝茨,第二科林蒂安8日和9日( 1985年) ;廣東費,第一使徒的科林蒂安( 1987年) ; J赫凌第二使徒聖保羅的科林蒂安斯( 1958年) 。

Epistles to the Corinthians書信的科林蒂安

Brief Outline簡要概述

First Epistle to the Corinthians第一使徒的科林蒂安

  1. Factions in the Church (1-4)各派教會( 1-4 )
  2. Incestuous marriage (5)亂倫婚姻( 5 )
  3. Disputes of Christians brought before heathen courts (6)爭端的基督教徒法院提交異教徒( 6 )
  4. Phases of the subject of marriage (7)各階段的主題婚姻( 7 )
  5. Meat offered to idols (8-10)肉類向偶像( 8月10日)
  6. Head coverings for women; proper observance of the Lord's Supper (11)頭罩婦女;適當遵守上帝的晚餐( 11 )
  7. Spiritual Gifts (12-14)屬靈的恩賜( 12月14日)
  8. Resurrection of the body (15)復活的身體( 15 )
  9. Collection for the poor of Jerusalem; closing remarks (16)收集為窮人耶路撒冷;閉幕詞( 16 )

Second Epistle to the Corinthians第二使徒的科林蒂安

  1. Some thoughts on the crisis through which the Church had just passed (1-7)幾點思考危機通過教會剛剛通過了( 1-7 )
  2. Collection for the poor (8-9)收集為窮人( 8-9 )
  3. Defense of Paul's Ministry against the attacks of his enemies and a vindication of his apostleship.國防部長保羅部對攻擊他的敵人和他的辯護apostleship 。 (10-13) ( 10月13日)

First Epistle to the Corinth'ians第一使徒的Corinth'ians

Advanced Information 先進的信息

The First Epistle to the Corinthians was written from Ephesus (1 Cor. 16:8) about the time of the Passover in the third year of the apostle's sojourn there (Acts 19:10; 20:31), and when he had formed the purpose to visit Macedonia, and then return to Corinth (probably AD 57).第一使徒的科林蒂安是書面的以弗所( 1心病。十六時08分)左右的時間在逾越節的第三年宗徒有逗留(使徒19:10 ; 20:31 ) ,而當他已形成了目的訪問馬其頓,然後返回到科林斯(大概公元57 ) 。 The news which had reached him, however, from Corinth frustrated his plan.新聞達到了他,然而,從科林斯受挫他的計劃。 He had heard of the abuses and contentions that had arisen among them, first from Apollos (Acts 19:1), and then from a letter they had written him on the subject, and also from some of the "household of Chloe," and from Stephanas and his two friends who had visited him (1 Cor. 1:11; 16:17).他聽說過的虐待和爭論而產生的,其中第一個由阿波羅(使徒19時01分) ,然後從他們的信中寫了他關於這個問題,並從一些“家庭的克洛伊, ”和從Stephanas和他的兩個朋友誰訪問了他( 1心病。 1時11 ; 16:17 ) 。

Paul thereupon wrote this letter, for the purpose of checking the factious spirit and correcting the erroneous opinions that has sprung up among them, and remedying the many abuses and disorderly practices that prevailed. Titus and a brother whose name is not given were probably the bearers of the letter (2 Cor. 2:13; 8:6, 16-18).保羅隨即寫這封信的目的,檢查factious精神和糾正錯誤的意見,已如雨後春筍般冒出來,其中的許多和糾正濫用權力和無序做法普遍存在。提多書和弟弟的名字是沒有可能的旗手信( 2心病。 2時13 ; 8點06 , 16-18 ) 。 The epistle may be divided into four parts: (1.) The apostle deals with the subject of the lamentable divisions and party strifes that had arisen among them (1 Cor. 1-4).在書信可分為四個部分: ( 1 ) 。宗徒涉及主題的可悲司和黨strifes說它們之間出現了( 1心病。 1-4 ) 。 (2.) He next treats of certain cases of immorality that had become notorious among them. ( 2 。 )他未來治療的某些情況下,不道德,它已成為臭名昭著的其中之一。

They had apparently set at nought the very first principles of morality (5; 6).他們顯然化為烏有確定的第一個道德原則( 5 , 6 ) 。 (3.) In the third part he discusses various questions of doctrine and of Christian ethics in reply to certain communications they had made to him. ( 3 。 )的第三部分,他討論了各種問題的學說和基督教倫理在回答某些通信,他們向他提出。 He especially rectifies certain flagrant abuses regarding the celebration of the Lord's supper (7-14).他特別糾正某些公然踐踏有關慶祝活動的主的晚餐( 7月14日) 。 (4.) The concluding part (15; 16) contains an elaborate defense of the doctrine of the resurrection of the dead, which had been called in question by some among them, followed by some general instructions, intimations, and greetings. ( 4 。 )的結束部分( 15 ; 16 )載有詳細的國防理論,死人復活,這是所謂的一些問題,其中其次是一些一般性的指示,暗示,和問候。 This epistle "shows the powerful selfcontrol of the apostle in spite of his physical weakness, his distressed circumstances, his incessant troubles, and his emotional nature.這書信“顯示了強大的selfcontrol宗徒,儘管他身體虛弱,他的處境,他不斷的麻煩,和他的情感的性質。

It was written, he tells us, in bitter anguish, 'out of much affliction and pressure of heart......and with streaming eyes' (2 Cor. 2:4); yet he restrained the expression of his feelings, and wrote with a dignity and holy calm which he thought most calculated to win back his erring children.這是書面的,他告訴我們,在痛苦的痛苦,從痛苦和壓力很大的心......和流眼' ( 2心病。 2:4 ) ;但他的表達,抑制自己的感情,和寫有尊嚴和神聖的平靜,他認為最計算贏回他犯錯誤的孩子。 It gives a vivid picture of the early church......It entirely dissipates the dream that the apostolic church was in an exceptional condition of holiness of life or purity of doctrine." The apostle in this epistle unfolds and applies great principles fitted to guide the church of all ages in dealing with the same and kindred evils in whatever form they may appear.它給出了生動地描述了早期教會......完全消散的夢想,該使徒教會是在特殊條件下的成聖的生命或純度的理論。 “使徒書信展開,在這個偉大原則和適用於裝有指導教堂的所有年齡在處理相同的,類似的罪惡的任何形式,他們可能會出現。

This is one of the epistles the authenticity of which has never been called in question by critics of any school, so many and so conclusive are the evidences of its Pauline origin.這是一個書信的真實性,從未質疑批評,任何學校,這麼多,因此結論是依據其波利娜來源。 The subscription to this epistle states erroneously in the Authorized Version that it was written at Philippi.認購本書信誤國在核准的版本,這是寫在立。 This error arose from a mistranslation of 1 Cor.該錯誤產生於誤譯1心病。 16:5, "For I do pass through Macedonia," which was interpreted as meaning, "I am passing through Macedonia." 16時05分, “對於我穿過馬其頓, ”這是解釋為, “我穿過馬其頓。 ” In 16:8 he declares his intention of remaining some time longer in Ephesus.在16時08分,他宣布,他打算留一些時間更長的以弗所。 After tha, his purpose is to "pass through Macedonia."塔後,他的目的是“通過馬其頓。 ”

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (伊斯頓圖解詞典)

Second Epistle to the Corinth'ians第二使徒的Corinth'ians

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Shortly after writing his first letter to the Corinthians, Paul left Ephesus, where intense excitement had been aroused against him, the evidence of his great success, and proceeded to Macedonia.不久後他的第一個字母書寫的哥林多,保羅離開以弗所,在激烈的刺激,引起了對他的證據,他的巨大成功,並著手馬其頓。 Pursuing the usual route, he reached Troas, the port of departure for Europe.追求通常的路線,他達到Troas ,啟運港的歐洲。 Here he expected to meet with Titus, whom he had sent from Ephesus to Corinth, with tidings of the effects produced on the church there by the first epistle; but was disappointed (1 Cor. 16:9; 2 Cor. 1:8; 2:12, 13).在這裡,他將會見提多書,其中,他已派出由以弗所向科林斯,與消息的影響生產的教會有第一書信,但很失望( 1心病。 16:9 ; 2心病。 1:8 ; 2時12分, 13 ) 。 He then left Troas and proceeded to Macedonia; and at Philippi, where he tarried, he was soon joined by Titus (2 Cor. 7:6, 7), who brought him good news from Corinth, and also by Timothy.然後,他離開Troas ,並著手馬其頓和立,在那裡他tarried ,他很快就加入了提圖斯( 2心病。 7點06分, 7人) ,是誰把他的好消息科林斯,也由蒂莫西。

Under the influence of the feelings awakened in his mind by the favourable report which Titus brought back from Corinth, this second epistle was written. It was probably written at Philippi, or, as some think, Thessalonica, early in the year AD 58, and was sent to Corinth by Titus.的影響下的感情在他心裡喚醒了有利的報告,其中提多書帶回從科林斯,這第二次書信寫。這可能是寫在立,或如有些人認為,塞薩洛尼卡,早在公元58年,並被送往科林斯的提圖斯。 This letter he addresses not only to the church in Corinth, but also to the saints in all Achaia, ie, in Athens, Cenchrea, and other cities in Greece.這封信,他不僅涉及到教會在科林斯,而且在所有的聖亞該亞,即在雅典, Cenchrea ,和其他城市在希臘。 The contents of this epistle may be thus arranged:- (1.) Paul speaks of his spiritual labours and course of life, and expresses his warm affection toward the Corinthians (2 Cor. 1-7).的內容,這可能會因此書信安排: - ( 1 。 )保羅談到他的精神過程中的勞動和生活,並表示熱烈的感情對科林蒂安( 2心病。 1-7 ) 。 (2.) He gives specific directions regarding the collection that was to be made for their poor brethren in Judea (8; 9). ( 2 。 )他給特定的指示就收集這是必須作出的窮人兄弟在朱迪亞( 8 ; 9 ) 。 (3.) He defends his own apostolic claim (10-13), and justifies himself from the charges and insinuations of the false teacher and his adherents. ( 3 。 )他捍衛自己的使徒索賠( 10月13日) ,並證明自己的指控和含沙射影的虛假老師和他的追隨者。

This epistle, it has been well said, shows the individuallity of the apostle more than any other. "Human weakness, spiritual strength, the deepest tenderness of affection, wounded feeling, sternness, irony, rebuke, impassioned self-vindication, humility, a just self-respect, zeal for the welfare of the weak and suffering, as well as for the progress of the church of Christ and for the of the church of Christ and for the spiritual advancement of its members, are all displayed in turn in the course of his appeal."這書信,它已得到很好的說,顯示了individuallity宗徒超過其他任何。 “人類的弱點,精神力量,最深切的溫柔的感情,受傷的感覺,嚴厲,諷刺,訓斥,慷慨激昂的自我辯護,謙遜,一個只是自尊,熱情的福利弱者和苦難,以及所取得的進展基督教會和教會的基督和精神提高其成員,都顯示在打開的當然他的上訴。 “ Lias, Second Corinthians.黑侏羅統,第二科林蒂安。 Of the effects produced on the Corinthian church by this epistle we have no definite information.產生的影響的科林斯教會本書信我們沒有明確的信息。 We know that Paul visited Corinth after he had written it (Acts 20: 2, 3), and that on that occasion he tarried there for three months.我們知道,保羅訪問科林斯後,他寫了它(使徒20 : 2 , 3 ) ,而且在那個場合,他tarried有3個月。 In his letter to Rome, written at this time, he sent salutations from some of the principal members of the church to the Romans.在他的信中,以羅馬,寫在這個時候,他派出打招呼的一些主要成員的羅馬教會。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (伊斯頓圖解詞典)

Epistles to the Corinthians書信的科林蒂安

Catholic Information 天主教新聞


St. Paul Founds the Church at Corinth創建的聖保祿教堂科林斯

St. Paul's first visit to Europe is graphically described by St. Luke (Acts 16-18).聖保祿首次訪問歐洲的生動描述了聖盧克(使徒16日至18日) 。 When he reached Troas, at the northwest corner of Asia Minor, on his second great missionary journey in company with Timothy and Silvanus, or Silas (who was a "prophet" and had the confidence of The Twelve), he met St. Luke, probably for the first time.當他達到Troas ,在西北角的小亞細亞,他的第二個偉大的傳教之旅公司與霍震霆和Silvanus ,或西拉斯(誰是“先知” ,並且有信心,有12個) ,他會見了聖盧克,也許是第一次。 At Troas he had a vision of "a man of Macedonia standing and beseeching him, and saying: Pass over in to Macedonia and help us." In response to this appeal he proceeded to Philippi in Macedonia, where he made many converts, but was cruelly beaten with rods according to the Roman custom. After comforting the brethren he travelled southward to Thessalonica, where some of the Jews "believed, and of those that served God, and of the Gentiles a great multitude, and of noble women not a few. But the Jews, moved with envy, and taking unto them some wicked men of the vulgar sort set the city in an uproar. . . And they stirred up the people and the rulers of the city hearing these things. But the brethren immediately sent away Paul and Silas by night to Ber£a. Who, when they were come thither, went into the synagogue of the Jews, and many of them believed, and of honourable women that were Gentiles and of men not a few."在Troas他的遠見“的人的地位和馬其頓懇求他,他說: 1986年在馬其頓和幫助我們。 ”為了響應這一呼籲,他接著立在馬其頓,他提出了許多轉換,但殘酷毆打棒按照羅馬的習俗。後安慰兄弟他前往南塞薩洛尼卡,一些猶太人“認為,和那些服務的上帝,和一個偉大的外邦人眾多,和崇高的婦女也有不少。但是,猶太人,感動與羨慕,並考慮對他們有些邪惡的男人的粗俗的排序確定的城市一片嘩然。 。 。他們激起了人民和統治者的城市聽到這些事情。但是,兄弟立即派出保羅和西拉離開夜間將BER £答:是誰,當他們來到那兒,走進了一座猶太教堂的猶太人,其中許多人認為,和在座的婦女被外邦人和男人沒有幾個。 “ But unbelieving Jews from Thessalonica came to Ber£a "stirring up and troubling the multitude".但不信的猶太人從塞薩洛尼卡來到英鎊小蘗鹼的“煽動和令人不安的眾多” 。 "And immediately the brethren sent away Paul to go to the sea; but Silas and Timothy remained there. And they that conducted Paul brought him as far as Athens" -- then reduced to the position of an old university town. “ ,並立即被送走的兄弟保羅去大海;但西拉和提摩太仍然存在。而且他們說,保羅給他進行盡可能雅典” -然後減少的立場舊大學城。 At Athens he preached his famous philosophical discourse in the Areopagus.在雅典他鼓吹他的著名哲學話語中的Areopagus 。 Only a few were converted, amongst these being St. Dionysius the Areopagite.只有少數幾個被轉換,在這些被街狄奧尼修斯的Areopagite 。 Some of his frivolous hearers mocked him.他的一些輕率的聽眾嘲笑他。 Others said that that was enough for the present; they would listen to more another time.其他人說,這是不夠本;他們將聽取更多的其他時間。

He appears to have been very disappointed with Athens He did not visit it again, and it is never mentioned in his letters.他似乎已經非常失望,他沒有雅典再次訪華,這是從來沒有提到在他的信件。 The disappointed and solitary Apostle left Athens and travelled westwards, a distance of forty-five miles, to Corinth, then the capital of Greece.失望和孤獨的使徒離開雅典,前往向西,距離45英里,以科林斯,然後是資本的希臘。 The fearful scourging at Philippi coming not very long after he had been stoned and left for dead at Lystra, together with his ill-treatment by the Jews, as described in 2 Corinthians, must have greatly weakened him.在可怕的scourging在立不很長的未來,他已經離開投擲石塊和死亡Lystra ,連同他的虐待猶太人中所描述的哥林多後書,必須大大削弱他。 As we are not to suppose that he, any more than his Master, was miraculously saved from pain and its effects, it was with physical pain, nervousness, and misgiving that the lonely Apostle entered this great pagan city, that had a bad name for profligacy throughout the Roman world.正如我們不能假設他,任何超過他的主人,是奇蹟般地免遭痛苦和其影響,它與身體疼痛,緊張,和疑慮的孤獨使徒異教徒進入這一偉大的城市,有一個壞名字揮霍整個羅馬世界。 To act the Corinthian was synonymous with leading a loose life.採取行動的科林斯是同義詞領導一個寬鬆的生活。 Corinth, which had been destroyed by the Romans, was re-established as a colony by Julius Cesar 46 BC, and made the capital of the Roman Province of Achaia by Augustus.科林斯,這摧毀了羅馬人,是重新確立作為殖民地的朱利葉斯愷撒公元前46 ,並在首都羅馬省的亞該亞的奧古斯都。 It was built on the southern extremity of the isthmus connecting the mainland with the Morea, and was on the great line of traffic between East and West.這是建立在最南端地峽連接內地與Morea ,並就大線的交通東方與西方之間。 Its two magnificent harbours, one at each side of the isthmus, were crowded with shipping and were the scenes of constant bustle and activity.它的兩個宏偉的港口,一個在每一側地峽,被擁擠的運輸和人的場面不斷喧鬧和活動。 Corinth was filled with Greeks, Romans, Syrians, Egyptians, and Jews, many of the last having lately come from Rome on account of their expulsion by Claudius; and its streets were thronged by tens of thousands of slaves.科林斯充滿了希臘人,羅馬人,敘利亞人,埃及人,猶太人,許多過去在最近來自羅馬到其驅逐克勞迪烏斯;及其街上擠滿了成千上萬的奴隸。 Crowds, too, came from all parts every four years to be present at the Isthmian games.擁擠的人群,也來自各地區每四年向出席Isthmian遊戲。 On the summit of the hill to the south of the city was the infamous temple of Venus, with its thousand female devotees dedicated to a life of shame.關於首腦會議的山以南的城市是臭名昭著的廟金星,其千女信徒,致力於生活的恥辱。

It was to this centre of traffic, excitement, wealth, and vice that St. Paul came, probably about the end of AD 51; and here he spent upwards of eighteen months of his Apostolic career.這是這個中心的交通,興奮,財富,和副主席的聖保祿來了,大概年底公元51 ;在這裡,他花了18個月以上的使徒,他的職業生涯。 He took up his residence with two Christian Jews, Aquila and his wife Priscilla (refugees from Rome), because they were of the same trade as himself.他拿起他的住所與兩名基督教猶太人,雕和他的妻子普里西拉(難民從羅馬) ,因為它們是同行業作為自己。 Like all Jews he had learnt a trade in his youth, and in their house he supported himself by working at this trade, viz., that of tentmaker, as he had determined not to receive any support from the money-loving Corinthians.像所有的猶太人,他學到了貿易在他的青年,並在他們的房子,他支持自己的工作在這個貿易,即。 ,即tentmaker ,因為他已經決定不接受任何形式的支持從資金愛好科林蒂安。 He began by preaching in the synagogue every Sabbath; "and he persuaded the Jews and the Greeks".他首先在猶太教堂講道每安息日“和他說服猶太人和希臘人” 。 Of this period he says that he was with them "in weakness, and fear, and much trembling".這一時期,他說,他與他們“的弱點,和恐懼,很多顫抖。 ” The ill-usage he had received was still fresh in his memory, as, writing a month or two later to the Thessalonians, he recalls how he had been "shamefully treated at Philippi".虐待使用他收到仍然記憶猶新,因為,寫一,兩個月後的撒羅,他記得他曾是“可恥治療立” 。 But when he was joined by Silas and Timothy, who brought him pecuniary aid from Macedonia, he became more bold and confident, and "was earnest in testifying to the Jews that Jesus is the Christ. But they gainsaying and blaspheming, he shook his garments and said to them: "Your blood be upon your own heads; I am clean: from henceforth I will go unto the Gentiles." He then began to preach in the house of Titus Justus, adjoining the synagogue. Crispus, the ruler of the synagogue, and his family, and several of the Corinthians were converted and baptized. Amongst these were Caius, Stephanas, and his household, and the house of Fortunatus and Achaicus, "the firstfruits of Achaia" (1 Corinthians 1:14, 1:16, 16:15). The growing opposition of the Jews, however, and the wicked state of the city had a depressing influence upon him; but "the Lord said to Paul in the night, by a vision: Do not fear, but speak; and hold not thy peace, because I am with thee; and no man shall set upon thee to hurt thee; for I have much people in this city.但是,當他也加入了西拉斯和提摩太,是誰把他從馬其頓接濟,他變得更加大膽和自信, “是認真的作證對猶太人說,耶穌是基督。但他們否認和褻瀆,他搖搖服裝和對他們說: “你的血是根據自己的首長,我清潔:從今以後,我會去給外邦人。 ”然後,他開始鼓吹在眾議院的提圖斯賈斯特斯,毗鄰的猶太教堂。克里斯,統治者的猶太教堂,和他的家人,和幾個科林蒂安被轉換和洗禮。其中有凱厄斯, Stephanas ,和他的家庭,和眾議院的福圖納圖斯和Achaicus “的firstfruits的亞該亞” (哥林多前書1點14分, 1 : 16日, 16:15 ) 。日益反對猶太人,但是,與邪惡的國家的城市有一個令人沮喪的影響他,但“上帝說,保羅在黑夜裡,由一個遠景:不要害怕,但發言;並沒有你的和平,因為我跟你和任何人後,你定要傷害你,因為我有很多人在這個城市。 And he stayed there a year and six months, teaching among them the word of God" (Acts 18:9-11). Many were converted; some of them noble, wealthy, and learned, but the great majority neither learned, nor powerful, nor noble (1 Corinthians 1:26). During this long period the Faith was planted not only in Corinth but in other portions of Achaia, especially in Cenchreæ, the eastern port. At length the unbelieving Jews, seeing the ever-increasing crowd of Christians frequenting the house of Titus Justus, next door to their synagogue, became furious, and rose up with one accord and dragged St. Paul before the newly-appointed Proconsul of Achaia, Gallio, the brother of Seneca (AD 54). Gallio, perceiving that it was a question of religion, refused to listen to them. The crowd, seeing this and supposing that it was a dispute between Greeks and Jews, fell upon the ring-leader of the latter (Sosthenes, who succeeded Crispus as ruler of the synagogue) and gave him a sound beating in the very sight of the judgment seat; but Gallio pretended not to notice. His treatment must have cowed the Jews, and St. Paul "stayed yet many days". Cornely is of opinion that at this time he made his journey as far as Illyricum, and that his first visit to them "in sorrow" was when he returned. Others with greater probability place it later. St Paul, at last taking leave of the brethren, travelled as far as Ephesus with Priscilla and Aquila. Leaving them there he went on to Jerusalem and came back by Antioch, Galatia, and Phrygia, where he confirmed all the disciples. After having thus traversed the "upper coasts" he returned to Ephesus, which he made his head-quarters for nearly three years. It was towards the end of that period that the First Epistle was written.他在那裡呆了1年零6個月,它們之間的教學上帝的話, “ (使徒18:9-11 ) 。許多人轉換;其中一些人的崇高,富裕,和教訓,但絕大多數沒有經驗,也沒有強大的,也不崇高(哥林多前書1時26分) 。在這漫長的時期,信仰是種植不僅在科林斯,但在其他部分的亞該亞,特別是在Cenchreæ ,東部港口。詳細信猶太人,看到日益增多的人群基督教徒經常眾議院提圖斯賈斯特斯,隔壁的猶太教堂,成為憤怒,並上升了一個協議,並拖累聖保祿前新任Proconsul的亞該亞,加利奧的兄弟塞涅卡(公元54 ) 。加利奧,認為這是一個問題,宗教,拒絕聽取他們的意見。人群,看到這一點,並假設這是一個爭執希臘人和猶太人,落在環領導人後者( Sosthenes ,誰成功地克里斯作為統治者在猶太教堂) ,給他一個健全的毆打非常忽視審判席;但加利奧裝作沒有看見。他的待遇必須嚇倒猶太人,和聖保祿“住然而,許多天” 。 Cornely認為是在這個時候,他取得了他的旅程至於伊利裡庫姆,這是他第一次訪問他們“悲哀”是他回來了。其他地方有更大的概率以後。聖保祿,最後離開的弟兄們,前往遠作為以弗所與普里西拉和雕。使他們有他耶路撒冷和回來的安提阿,加拉提亞,和Phrygia ,在那裡他確認了所有的弟子。因此走過之後的“上層海岸” ,他回到以弗所,他提出他的頭部四分之三近三年。這是朝著這個時期結束時,第一書信寫。

Authenticity of the Epistles真實性書信

Little need be said on this point.沒有必要說在這一點上。 The historical and internal evidence that they were written by St. Paul is so overwhelmingly strong that their authenticity has been frankly admitted by every distinguished writer of the most advanced critical schools.在歷史上和內部的證據表明,他們寫的聖保祿是如此壓倒性的強大,他們的真實性已坦承的每一個傑出的作家最先進的關鍵學校。 They were contained in the first collections of St. Paul's Epistles, and were quoted as Scripture by early Christian writers.他們被載於第一收藏聖保祿書信,並引述聖經的早期基督教作家。 They were referred to as authorities by the early heretics and translated into many languages in the middle of the second century.他們被稱為當局早日異端,並譯成多種文字在中東的第二個世紀。 The unique personality of St. Paul is impressed upon their every page.獨特的個性留下深刻印象聖保祿是他們的每一個網頁。 Baur, the rationalistic founder of the Tübingen School, and his followers, held the two to the Corinthians, Galatians, and Romans to be unassailable.鮑爾,理性創始人圖賓根大學,和他的追隨者,兩國舉行的科林蒂安,加拉太,和羅馬人是無懈可擊的。 One or two hypercritical writers, of little weight, brought some futile objections against them; but these were scarcely meant to be taken seriously; they were refuted and brushed aside by such an ultra writer as Kuenen.一個或兩個挑眼作家,小重量,帶來了一些徒勞的反對他們,但這些人幾乎意味著必須認真對待,他們反駁和漠視了這樣一個超作家作為Kuenen 。 Schmiedel, one of the most advanced modern critics, says (Hand-Kommentar, Leipzig, 1893, p. 51) that unless better arguments can be adduced against them the two Epistles must be acknowledged to be genuine writings of St. Paul. Schmiedel ,一個最先進的現代批評,說(手Kommentar ,萊比錫, 1893年,第51頁) ,除非更好的論據可以對他們提出的兩個書信必須承認是真正的著作聖保羅。 The Second Epistle was known from the very earliest times. There is a trace of it in that portion of "The Ascension of Isaiah" which dates back to the first century (Knowling, "The Testimony of St. Paul to Christ", p. 58; Charles, "The Ascension of Isaiah", pp. 34, 150).第二使徒被稱為從最早次。有微量在這部分“升天以賽亞”可以追溯到第一世紀( Knowling “的證詞聖保羅基督” ,第58 ;查爾斯, “升天的以賽亞書” ,頁。 34 , 150 ) 。 It was known to St. Polycarp, to the writerof the Epistle to Diognetus, to Athenagoras, Theophilus, the heretics Basilides and Marcion.它被稱為聖波利卡普,向writerof的書信,以Diognetus ,以那哥拉,西奧菲勒的異端巴西里德和馬吉安。 In the second half of the second century it was so widely used that it is unnecessary to give quotations.在下半年的第二個世紀就這樣廣泛使用,這是不必要的,使報價。


Why Written為什麼書面

During the years that St. Paul was at Ephesus he must have frequently heard from Corinth, as it was distant only 250 miles, and people were constantly passing to and fro.在這幾年裡,聖保羅是以弗所,他必須經常聽到科林斯,因為它只有250英里遠,人們經常通過來回。 A ship sailing at the rate of four miles an hour would cover the distance in three days, though on one unpropitious occasion it took Cicero over a fortnight (Ep. vi, 8, 9).船舶航行的速度四英里一個小時將用於遠距離的三天,但有時在一個unpropitious了西塞羅超過兩週( Ep.六,八,九) 。 By degrees the news reached Ephesus that some of the Corinthians were drifting back into their former vices.由度的消息傳到以弗所,一些漂流回到科林蒂安被納入其前惡習。 Alford and others infer from the words of II Cor., xii, 20, 21; xiii, 1, "Behold this is the third time that I come to you", that he made a flying visit to check these abuses.奧爾福德和他人推斷的話,二心病。 ,第十二章, 20 , 21 ;十三, 1 , “看哪,這是第三次,我到你們這裡來” ,他訪問了飛行檢查這些侵權行為。 Others suppose that this coming meant by letter.其他假設,這意味著未來的信。 Be this as it may, it is generally held that he wrote them a brief note (now lost) telling them "not to associate with fornicators", asking them to make collection for the poor brethren at Jerusalem, and giving them an account of his intention of visiting them before going on to Macedonia, and of returning to them again from that place.是這樣,因為它可能會,人們普遍認為,他寫他們的簡要說明(現在失去了)告訴他們“不要聯繫fornicators ” ,要求他們作出收集窮人兄弟在耶路撒冷,並給予他一個帳戶探訪他們的意圖,然後再對馬其頓,並返回他們再從那個地方。 News which he heard later from the household of Chloe and others made him change his plan, and for this he was accused by his enemies of want of steadiness of purpose (2 Corinthians 1:17).他聽到消息後從家庭的Chloe和其他使他改變自己的計劃,為此他被指控他的敵人希望的穩定的目的(哥林多後書1點17分) 。 The accounts which he received caused him great anxiety.賬戶收到造成他極大的不安。 Abuses, bickerings, and party strife had grown up amongst them.虐待, bickerings ,黨紛爭長大其中。 The party cries were: "I am of Paul; I am of Apollo [Apollos]; I am of Cephas; I am of Christ."黨的呼聲是: “我的保羅,我的阿波羅[阿波羅] ;我Cephas ;我基督。 ” These parties, in all likelihood, originated as follows: During St. Paul's circular tour from Ephesus to Jerusalem, Antioch, Galatia, Phrygia, and back to Ephesus, "a certain Jew, named Apollo, born at Alexandria, an eloquent man, came to Ephesus, one mighty in the scriptures, and being fervent in spirit, spoke, and taught diligently the things that are of Jesus, knowing only the baptism of John."這些締約方,在所有的可能性,源於如下:在聖保祿從以弗所圓遊覽耶路撒冷,安提阿,加拉提亞, Phrygia ,並回到以弗所, “有一定的猶太人,為Apollo ,出生在亞歷山大,雄辯的人,來到到以弗所,一個強大的經文,並熱切的精神,以和勤奮學習的事情是耶穌,只知道約翰的洗禮。 “ Priscilla and Aquila fully instructed him in the Christian Faith.普里西拉和雕充分指示他的基督教信仰。 In accordance with his desire he received letters of recommendation to the disciples at Corinth.按照他的願望,他收到的建議門徒科林斯。 "Who, when he was come, helped them very much who had believed. For with much vigor he convinced the Jews openly, shewing by the scriptures that Jesus is the Christ" (Acts 18:27-28). “是誰,當時他來了,幫助他們非常相信誰了。對於大部分的活力,他相信猶太人公開, shewing了經文,耶穌是基督” (使徒行18:27-28 ) 。 He remained at Corinth about two years, but, being unwilling to be made the centre of strife, he joined St.他仍然在科林斯兩年左右,但不願作鬥爭的中心,他加入街 Paul at Ephesus.保羅在以弗所。 From the inspired words of St. Luke, no mean judge, we may take it that in learning and eloquence Apollo was on a par with the greatest of his contemporaries, and that in intellectual powers he was not inferior to Jews like Josephus and Philo.從激勵的話聖盧克,法官不意味著,我們可能會認為在學習和口才阿波羅是在標準桿與他同時代的最偉大的,在知識的權力,他並不遜色猶太人像約瑟夫和斐羅。 He is likely to have known the latter, who was a prominent member of the Jewish community in his native city of Alexandria, and had died only fourteen years before; and his deep interest in Holy Scripture would certainly have led him to study the works of Philo.他很可能已經知道後者,誰是一個重要成員的猶太人社區在他的祖國的亞歷山大市,並已死亡只有十四年前,和他的濃厚的興趣聖經肯定會導致他的作品研究斐羅。 The eloquence of Apollo, and his powerful applications of the Old Testament to the Messias, captivated the intellectual Greeks, especially the more educated.阿波羅的口才,他的強大的應用程序,舊約的弭賽亞,著迷的智力希臘人,特別是更多的教育。 That, they thought, was true wisdom. ,他們認為,是真正的智慧。 They began to make invidious comparisons between him and St. Paul who on account of his experience at Athens, had purposely confined himself to what we should call solid catechetical instruction.他們開始以比較反感他和聖保祿誰考慮到他的經驗在雅典,有故意局限於自己,我們應該呼籲堅實理指示。 The Greeks dearly loved to belong to some particular school of philosophy; so the admirers of Apollo laid claim to a deeper perception of wisdom and boasted that they belonged to the Christian school of the great Alexandrian preacher.希臘人十分喜愛屬於某些特殊學校的理念;所以崇拜者阿波羅奠定索賠更深印象的智慧和自豪,他們屬於基督教學校的偉大亞歷山大佈道者。 The majority, on the other hand, prided themselves on their intimate connection with their Apostle.多數,另一方面,他們的自豪與他們親切使徒。 It was not zeal for the honour of their teachers that really prompted either of these parties, but a spirit of pride which made them seek to put themselves above their fellows, and prevented them from humbly thanking God for the grace of being Christians.這不是熱情的榮譽的教師,真正促使這兩個當事方,但自豪的精神使他們設法將自己置於高於研究員,並阻止他們謙虛地感謝上帝的恩典是基督徒。 About this time there came from the East some who had possibly heard St. Peter preach.大約在這個時候,有來自東方的一些有可能是誰聽到聖彼得說教。 These regarded the others as their spiritual inferiors; they themselves belonged to Cephas, the Prince of the Apostles.這些被別人當作自己的精神低人一等;他們本身屬於Cephas ,王子的使徒。 Commentators are of opinion that this party spirit did not go so deep as to constitute formal schism or heresy.評論家認為這黨性並沒有如此之深,已構成正式分裂或異端。 They all met together for prayer and the celebration of the Sacred Mysteries; but there were hot disputes and many breaches of fraternal charity.他們都開會的祈禱和慶祝活動的神聖之謎,但有許多熱點糾紛和違反兄弟慈善機構。 The Fathers mention only three parties; but the text obviously implies that there was another party the members of which said, "I am of Christ".父親只提三個政黨,但文字顯然意味著有另一方的成員說: “我是耶穌” 。 This view is now held by several Catholics, and by many non-Catholics.這種觀點現在一些天主教徒舉行,和許多非天主教徒。 What was the nature of this party it is difficult to determine. It has been suggested that a few of those who were specially endowed with spiritual gifts, or charismata, boasted that they were above the others, as they were in direct communication with Christ.是什麼性質,這個黨就難以確定。有人認為,其中的一些誰賦予了特殊的精神禮物,或charismata ,吹噓,他們高於其他人,因為他們直接溝通與基督。 Another explanation is that they had seen Christ in the flesh, or that they claimed to follow His example in their reverence for the Law of Moses.另一個解釋是,他們看到基督的肉身,或者說他們聲稱遵循他的榜樣的崇敬的摩西律法。 At any rate, the statement, "I am of Christ", seemed to make Christ a mere party name, and to imply that the others were not Christians in the genuine and perfect sense of the word.無論如何,聲明說, “我的基督” ,似乎使基督只是黨的名稱,意味著其他人不能在真正的基督徒和完善意義上的。

St. Paul, hearing of this state of things, sent Timothy together with Erastus (probably the "treasurer of the city" of Corinth - Romans 16:23) round by Macedonia, to put things in order.聖保祿,聽證會這個國家的東西,發出一道伊拉斯塔斯蒂莫(可能是“庫市”的科林斯-羅馬書16:23 )輪馬其頓,把東西秩序。 Soon after they left, Stephanas and other delegates came with a letter from the Corinthians.他們離開後不久, Stephanas和其他代表的信中附帶的科林蒂安。 This letter contained some self-glorification and requested the Apostle to give a solution to several serious difficulties which they proposed to him; but it made no mention of their shortcomings.這封信載有一些自我美化,並要求給予使徒解決一些嚴重的困難,他們向他提出,但它沒有提及自己的缺點。 By this time he had become fully aware of the grave state of affairs amongst them.這個時候,他已經充分意識到了嚴重的事態其中。 Besides party strife, some made light of sins of impurity. One man had gone to the extent of marrying his stepmother, his father being still alive, a crime unheard of amongst the pagans.除了黨的紛爭,一些輕的罪孽作出的雜質。一個人去結婚的程度,他的繼母,他的父親還活著的,聞所未聞的犯罪之間的異教徒。 So far were they from showing horror that they treated him in a friendly manner and allowed him to be present at their meetings.到目前為止,他們表現出恐懼,他們對他在友好的方式,並允許他出席的會議。 As matters were too pressing to wait for the arrival of Timothy, St. Paul at once wrote the First Epistle to the Corinthians and sent it by Titus about Easter AD 57.正如事項過於緊迫,等待抵達蒂莫,聖保祿在曾經寫道第一使徒的科林蒂安和發送的提圖斯約復活節公元57 。

Importance of the First Epistle重要性第一使徒

This is generally regarded as the greatest of the writings of St. Paul by reason of the magnificence and beauty of its style and the variety and importance of its contents.這被普遍認為是最偉大的著作聖保羅因的輝煌和美麗的風格和種類和重要性,其內容。 So splendid is its style that it has given rise to the conjecture that St. Paul took lessons in oratory at Ephesus; but this is highly improbable. St.如此輝煌的是它的風格,它已使人們猜測,聖保祿了教訓演講以弗所;但是,這是極不可能。街 Paul's was not the type of eloquence to be moulded by mechanical rules; his was the kind of genius that produces literature on which rules of rhetoric are based.保羅的不是類型的口才是模壓機械規則;他是什麼樣的文學天才,生產上的規則為基礎的言辭。 If the Corinthians were impressed by the eloquence of Apollo, they could not help feeling, when they heard and read this Epistle, that here was an author capable of bearing comparison not only with Apollo, but with the best that they could boast in Greek literature, of which they were so justly proud.如果科林蒂安留下了深刻的印象雄辯的阿波羅,他們不能幫助的感覺,當他們聽到和讀到這書信,在這裡是一個作者能夠同時比較不僅與Apollo ,但最好的,他們可以擁有在希臘文學,其中,他們是如此理由為此感到驕傲。 Scholars of all schools are loud in its praise.學者的所有學校在其響亮的讚揚。 The striking similes, figures of speech, and telling sentences of the Epistle have passed into the literatures of the world. Plummer, in Smith's "Dict. of the Bible", says that chapters xiii and xv are among the most sublime passages, not only in the Bible, but in all literature. But this Epistle is great not only for its style but also for the variety and importance of its doctrinal teaching.突出明喻,修辭格,並告訴判決的書信已經過去了納入文獻的世界。盧默,在史密斯的“快譯通。聖經”說,第十三章和第十五是最崇高的通道,不僅在聖經,而且在所有文學作品。但是,這是偉大的書信不僅為它的風格,而且對品種和重要性,其理論教學。 In no other Epistle does St. Paul treat of so many different subjects; and the doctrines which are touched upon (in many eases only incidentally) are important as showing what he and Silvanus, a disciple and trusted delegate of the older Apostles, taught the early Christians.在沒有其他書信不聖保祿治療如此眾多的不同的主題和理論,是涉及(在許多病例只有極個別)很重要,因為顯示了他和Silvanus ,弟子,並相信代表團的老年人使徒,教早期基督徒。 In some of his letters he had to defend his Apostolate and the freedom of Christians from the Law of Moses against heretical teachers; but be never had to defend himself against his bitterest enemies, the judaizers, for his teaching on Christ and the principal points of doctrine contained in these two Epistles, the obvious reason being that his teaching must have been in perfect harmony with that of The Twelve.在他的一些信件,他必須捍衛他的使徒和自由的基督徒從摩西律法反對邪教教師;而是從來沒有為自己辯護的敵人對他的痛苦,該judaizers ,他對耶穌和教學的主要點理論載於這兩個書信,明顯的原因是,他的教學必須是完美和諧與十二。 He distinctly states in ch.他明顯的國家,在CH 。 xv, 11, "For whether I, or they [The Twelve Apostles], so we preach, and so you have believed."十五, 11日, “對於我是否,或者他們[十二門徒] ,所以我們說教,所以你相信。 ”

Divisions of the First Epistle司第一使徒

Instead of giving a formal summary of the contents of the Epistle, it may be more useful to give the teaching of the Apostle, in his own words, classified under various heads, following, in general, the order of the Creed.而不是給一個正式的內容摘要的書信,可能是更有益的,使教學中的使徒,在他自己的話說,歸入不同的頭,下面的,總的說來,這一秩序的信仰。 With regard to arrangement, it may be stated, in passing, that the Epistle is divided into two parts.關於安排,可以說,在過去,該書信分為兩部分。 In the first six chapters he rebukes them for their faults and corrects abuses: (1) He shows the absurdity of their divisions and bickerings; (2) deals with the scandalous case of incest; (3) their lawsuits before pagans; and (4) the want of sufficient horror of impurity in some of them.今年前6章,他指責他們的錯誤並糾正侵權行為: ( 1 )他顯示了自己的荒唐的分歧和bickerings ; ( 2 )涉及亂倫醜聞案件; ( 3 )其訴訟之前異教徒;和( 4 )缺乏足夠恐怖的雜質在其中的一些。 In the second part (the remaining ten chapters) he solves the difficulties which they proposed to him and lays down various regulations for their conduct.在第二部分(其餘10章) ,他解決了困難,他們向他提出,並規定了各項規章制度的行為。 He deals with questions relating to (1) marriage, (2) virginity, (3) the use of things offered to idols, (4) proper decorum in church and the celebration of the Eucharist, (5) spiritual gifts, or Charismata, (6) the Resurrection, (7) the collections for the poor of Jerusalem.他涉及的有關問題( 1 )婚姻, ( 2 )處女( 3 )使用的東西提供給偶像, ( 4 )適當的禮儀,教會和慶祝聖體, ( 5 )屬靈的恩賜,或Charismata , ( 6 )復活, ( 7 )的集合為窮人耶路撒冷。

Its Teaching其教學

God the Father (passim)父神(各處)

"Yet there is but one God, the Father, of whom are all things, and we unto him; and one Lord Jesus Christ, by whom are all things and we by him" (viii, 6). Compare II Cor., xiii, 13: "The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, and the charity of God, and the communication of the Holy Ghost be with you all." “然而,只有一個上帝的父親,其中的所有東西,我們告訴他,一個主耶穌基督的人是一切事物,我們由他” (八, 6 ) 。比較二心病。 ,十三, 13 : “恩典,我們的主耶穌基督,和慈善的上帝,和溝通的聖靈與你同在所有。 ” (Bengel, quoted by Bernard, calls this an egregium testimonium to the Blessed Trinity.) (本格爾引用伯納德,要求這是一個egregium testimonium三位一體的祝福。 )

Jesus Christ耶穌基督

(1) "Grace to you and peace from God our Father, and from the Lord Jesus Christ" (i, 3). ( 1 ) “格雷斯你與和平的上帝我們的父親,從主耶穌基督” (一, 3 ) 。 "You are called unto the fellowship of his Son, Jesus Christ our Lord" (i, 9). “你是所謂的金給他的兒子,我們的主耶穌基督” (一, 9 ) 。 "Christ the power of God and the wisdom of God" (i, 24). “基督上帝的力量和智慧的上帝” (一, 24 ) 。 "We speak the wisdom of God in a mystery, a wisdom which is hidden, which God ordained before the world, unto our glory, which none of the princes of this world knew; for if they had known it, they would never have crucified the Lord of glory" (ii, 7, 8). “我們講的智慧,上帝的一個謎,一個智慧是隱藏的,上帝祝在世界面前,給我們的光榮,這沒有王子這個世界知道,因為如果他們知道,他們可能永遠都釘在十字架上上帝的榮耀“ (二, 7 , 8 ) 。 "But you are washed, but you are sanctified, but you are justified in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ and the Spirit of our God" (vi, 11 -- see also i, 2, 4, 7, 9 13; iii, 5, 11; vi, 11; xii, 4-6). “可是你是洗,但你是聖潔的,但你是正當的名義,我們的主耶穌基督的精神,我們的上帝” (六, 11 -又見一, 2 , 4 , 7 , 9月13日;三, 5日, 11日;六,第11條;十二, 4月6日) 。 (2) "The word of the cross to them that are saved is the power of God" (i, 18). ( 2 ) “這個詞的跨向他們得救是上帝的力量” (一, 18 ) 。 "We preach Christ crucified, unto them that are called Christ the power of God and the wisdom of God" (i, 23, 24). "But of him are you in Christ Jesus, who of God is made unto us wisdom, and justice, and sanctification and redemption" (i, 30). “我們宣揚基督釘在十字架上,這是對他們所謂的基督上帝的力量和智慧的上帝” (一, 23 , 24 ) 。 “但他是你在基督耶穌裡,誰是上帝給我們的智慧,和正義和神聖和贖回“ (一, 30 ) 。 "For I judged myself not to know any thing among you, but Jesus Christ, and him crucified" (ii, 3). “對於我斷定我不知道你們中間的任何東西,但耶穌基督,並他釘在十字架上” (二,三) 。 "For Christ our pasch is sacrificed" (v, 7). “看在上帝的pasch是犧牲” (五,七) 。 "For you are bought with a great price" (vi, 20 - cf. i, 13, 17; vii, 23; viii, 11, 12.) (3) The following passage probably contains fragments of an early creed: "The gospel which I preached to you, which also you have received. . . . For I delivered unto you first of all, which I also received: how that Christ died for our sins, according to the scriptures: and that he was buried, and that he rose again the third day, according to the scriptures: and that he was seen by Cephas; and after that by the eleven. Then was he seen by more than five hundred brethren at once: of whom many remain until this present, and some are fallen asleep. After that, he was seen by James, then by all the apostles. And last of all, he was seen also by me, as by one born out of due time" (xv, 1-8). “對於你是買了一個巨大的價格” (六, 20 -比照。我, 13 , 17 ;七, 23歲;八, 11 , 12 。 ) ( 3 )下列段落可能包含片段早日信條是: “在宣講福音,我給你,其中還您已經收到。 。 。 。因為我交付你們首先,我還收到了:如何基督為我們的罪死,根據聖經:和他埋葬,他再次上升的第三天,根據聖經:和,他是被Cephas ;和之後,由11 。當時他看到超過500兄弟一次:其中許多仍然直到目前,和有些人睡著了。在此之後,他被認為詹姆斯,然後由所有的使徒。而最後,他也看到,我作為一個誕生於適當的時候“ (十五, 1月8日) 。 "Have not I seen Christ Jesus our Lord?" “沒有我看到我們的主耶穌基督? ” (ix, 1). (九, 1 ) 。 "And if Christ be not risen again, then is our preaching vain, and your faith is also vain" (xv, 14). “如果沒有基督再次上升,然後是我們的說教徒勞的,和你的信仰也是徒勞” (十五14 ) 。 "But now Christ is risen from the dead, the first fruits of them that sleep" (xv, 20 - cf. vi, 14). “但現在基督從死裡復活了,第一個成果,他們的睡眠” ( 15 , 20 -比照。六, 14 ) 。 (4) "Waiting for the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ" (i, 7). ( 4 ) “等的到來,我們的主耶穌基督” (一, 7 ) 。 "That the spirit may be saved in the day of our Lord Jesus Christ" (v, 5). “的精神可能會保存在一天我們的主耶穌基督” (五, 5 ) 。 "He that judgeth me is the Lord. Therefore judge not before the time; until the Lord come, who both will bring to light the hidden things of darkness, and will make manifest the counsels of the hearts; and then shall every man have praise from God" (iv, 4, 5). “他說, judgeth我是上帝。因此法官在此之前的時間;直到主來了,誰都將揭示隱藏的黑暗的東西,並會體現了律師的心,然後將每個人都稱讚來自上帝“ (四, 4 , 5 ) 。

The Holy Ghost聖靈

"Now there are diversities of graces, but the same Spirit; and there are diversities of ministries, but the same Lord; and there are diversities of operations, but the same God" (xii, 4-6). “現在有不同的青睞,但本著同樣的精神;並有多樣性的部委,但同樣的上帝;有不同的行動,但同樣的上帝” (十二, 4月6日) 。 "But to us God hath revealed them, by his Spirit. The Spirit searcheth all things, yea, the deep things of God . . . the things that are of God no man knoweth, but the Spirit of God" (ii, 10, 11 -- cf. ii, 12-14, 16). “但我們發現他們上帝,他的精神。精神searcheth一切,是啊,深的東西上帝。 。 。的事情,是上帝沒有人knoweth ,但聖靈” (二, 10 , 11 -比照。二, 12月14日, 16 ) 。 "Know you not, that you are the temple of God, and that the Spirit of God dwelleth in you?" “知道你不是,你是上帝的聖殿,並聖靈dwelleth在嗎? ” (iii, 16). (三16 ) 。 "But you are washed, but you are sanctified . . . in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, and the Spirit of our God" (vi, 11). “可是你是洗,但你是聖潔的。 。 。的名義,我們的主耶穌基督的精神,我們的上帝” (六, 11 ) 。 "Or know you not, that your members are the temple of the Holy Ghost, who is in you, whom you have from God; and you are not your own? . . . Glorify and bear God in your body" (vi, 19, 20). “也不知道你不是,你的成員都廟的聖靈,誰是你的人你有上帝和你不是你自己的? 。 。 。榮耀和承擔上帝在你的身體” (六, 19 , 20 ) 。 "But all these things one and the same Spirit worketh, dividing to every one according as he will" (xii, 11). "For in one Spirit were we all baptized unto one body" (xii, 13). “但是,所有這些事情,並以同樣的精神worketh ,劃分到每一個按照他的意志” (第十二章, 11條) 。 “對於在一個精神是我們所有的洗禮給一個機構” (十二,十三) 。 "Yet by the Spirit he speaketh mysteries" (xiv, 2). “然而,他的精神speaketh謎” (十四, 2 ) 。

The Holy Catholic Church羅馬天主教會

"The head of every man is Christ" (11:3). “負責人每個人都是基督” ( 11點03分) 。


"Is Christ divided?" “是基督分成? ” (i, 13). (一, 13 ) 。 "Now I beseech you, brethren, by the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, that you all speak the same thing, and that there be no schisms among you; but that you be perfect in the same mind, and in the same judgment" (i, 10). “現在,我求求你,兄弟,叫我們的主耶穌基督,你都講同樣的事情,而且沒有分裂你們中間,但你必須在同一個完美的心,在相同的判決” (一, 10 ) 。 He devotes four chapters to the reprehension of their divisions, which did not really amount to anything constituting formal schism or heresy.他用四個章節的非難他們的分歧,這並沒有真正達到什麼構成正式分裂或異端。 They met in common for prayer and the participation of the Blessed Eucharist.他們會見了在共同祈禱和參與有福聖體。 "Know you not that you [the Christian body] are the temple of God . . . but if any man violate the temple of God [by pulling it to pieces], him shall God destroy. For the temple of God is holy, which you are" (iii, 16, 17). “知道你不是說你[基督教機構]是廟神。 。 。但是,如果任何人違背了上帝的聖殿[拉動它件] ,他應上帝摧毀。對於廟神是神聖的,這你是“ (三, 16 , 17 ) 。 "For as the body is one, and hath many members, and all the members of the body, whereas they are many, yet are one body, so also is Christ. For in one Spirit were we all baptized into one body, whether Jews or Gentiles, whether bond or free" (xii, 12, 13). “因為身體是一個,和上帝的許多成員,和所有成員的身體,而他們有很多,但有一個機構,所以也有基督。對於一個精神是我們大家都洗成一個機構,無論是猶太人或外邦人,無論是債券或自由“ ( 12 , 12 , 13 ) 。 [Here follows the allegory of the body and its members, xii, 14-25.] "Now you are the body of Christ, and members of member" (xii, 27). "And God hath set some in the church; first apostles, secondly prophets . . . Are all apostles?" [此處如下的寓言體及其成員,十二, 14日至25日。 ] “現在你是基督的身體,和成員的成員” (第十二章, 27條) 。 “與上帝建立教會的一些人士;第一使徒,第二先知。 。 。是否所有使徒? “ (xii, 28-31). (十二, 28-31 ) 。 "For God is not the God of dissension, but of peace: as also I teach in all the Churches of the saints" (xiv, 33). “上帝不是上帝的糾紛,但和平:這也是我教的基督教協進會在所有的聖人” ( 14 , 33 ) 。 "I have sent you Timothy, who is my dearest son and faithful in the Lord, who will put you in mind of my ways, which are in Christ Jesus: as I teach everywhere in every church" (iv, 17). “我已經給您發送霍震霆,誰是我最親愛的兒子和忠實的主,誰會將你記住我的方式,這是在基督耶穌裡:正如我在世界各地都教教堂” (四, 17 ) 。 "But if any man seem to be contentious, we have no such custom, nor the church of God" (xi, 16). “但是,如果任何人似乎是有爭議的,我們沒有這樣的習慣,也不是天主的教會” (十一, 16 ) 。 "The gospel which I preached to you . . . and wherein you stand; by which also you are [being] saved, if you hold fast after the manner I preached unto you, unless you have believed in vain" (xv, 1-2). “我的福音宣講給您。 。 。 ,並在其中你站在;其中還您是[被]保存,如果你堅守的方式後,我鼓吹你們,除非你相信徒勞” (十五, 1 - 2 ) 。 "For whether I, or they [The Twelve Apostles], so we preach, and so you have believed" (xv, 11). “對於我是否,或者他們[十二門徒] ,所以我們說教,所以你相信” (十五11 ) 。 "The churches of Asia salute you" (xvi, 19). “教會的亞洲向你致敬” ( 16 , 19 ) 。

Old Testament Types舊約類型

"Now all these things happened to them in figure: and they are written for our correction" (10:11). “現在,所有這些事情發生在他們身上的數字:他們為我們的書面更正” ( 10:11 ) 。


"What will you? shall I come to you with a rod; or in charity, and in the spirit of meekness?" “什麼你願意嗎?我到你們這裡來了桿;或慈善機構,並在溫順的精神? ” (iv, 21). (四, 21 ) 。 "Now concerning the collections. . . . as I have given order to the churches of Galatia, so do ye also" (xvi, 1). “現在的收藏。 。 。 。因為我已經為了教會的加拉提亞,所以你們也要” ( 16 , 1 ) 。

Power of excommunication電力絕罰

"I indeed, absent in body, but present in spirit, have already judged, as though I were present, him that hath so done. In the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, you being gathered together, and my spirit, with the power of our Lord Jesus Christ, to deliver such a one to Satan for the destruction of the flesh, that the spirit may be saved" (v, 3-5). “我確實沒有在機構,但目前的精神,已經判斷,因為雖然我人出席,他說,上帝這樣做。的名義我們的主耶穌基督,你正聚集在一起,和我的精神,與電力我們的主耶穌基督,提供這樣的一個撒旦摧毀肉體,精神可能保存“ (五, 3月5日) 。

Jews and pagans exempt from Church's jurisdiction猶太人和異教徒免受教會的管轄權

"For what have I to do to judge them that are without . . . For them that are without, God will judge" (5:12-13). “什麼我做判斷他們都沒有。 。 。對於他們是不,上帝會審判” ( 5:12-13 ) 。


"For the temple of God is holy, which you are" (iii, 17). “對於廟神是神聖的,而你是” (三, 17 ) 。 "Know you not that your bodies are the members of Christ" (vi, 15). “知道你沒有,你的機構的成員基督” (六, 15 ) 。 "Your members are the temple of the Holy Ghost . . . Glorify and bear God in your body" (vi, 19, 20 -- cf. vi, 11, etc.). “貴會會員廟的聖靈。 。 。榮耀和承擔上帝在你的身體” (六, 19 , 20 -比照。六, 11等) 。


"God is faithful, who will not suffer you to be tempted above that which you are able, but will make also with temptation issue, that you may be able to bear it" (x, 13). “上帝是信實的,誰不會受到誘惑你將上述那您就可以,但也將與誘惑的問題,你可以忍受了, ” (十, 13 ) 。 "Grace be to you . . ." “格雷斯是給您。 。 。 ” (i, 3). (一, 3 ) 。 "But by the grace of God, I am what I am; and his grace in me hath not been void, but I have laboured more abundantly than all they: yet not I, but the grace of God with me" (xv, 10). “但是,上帝的恩典,我就是我和他的恩典在我上帝沒有無效,但我有更多的非常艱苦,他們比所有:還沒有我,但上帝的恩典與我” ( 15 , 10 ) 。

Virtuous life necessary for salvation良性生活所必需的救贖

"Know you not that the unjust shall not possess the kingdom of God? Do not err: neither fornicators, nor idolaters, nor adulterers, nor the effeminate . . . nor thieves, nor covetouss, nor drunkards, . . . shall possess the kingdom of God" (vi, 9, 10). “知道你不會,不公正不得擁有神的國?不要錯誤:既不fornicators ,也不拜偶像的,也不姦淫,也不是effeminate 。 。 。也沒有小偷,也不covetouss ,也不醉鬼, 。 。 。應具備王國上帝“ (六,九,十) 。 This, like a dominant note, rings clear through all the Epistles of St.這就像一個主導注意到,戒指明確所有的書信聖 Paul as in the teaching of his Divine Master.保羅作為教學中的他主。 "But I chastise my body, and bring it into subjection: lest perhaps when I have preached to others, I myself should become a castaway" (ix, 27). “但我懲罰我的身體,並使其遭受:以免也許當我宣揚他人的,我本人應該成為廢棄物” (九27 ) 。 "Wherefore he that thinketh himself to stand, let him take heed lest he fall" (x, 12). “何故,他說, thinketh自己的立場,讓他注意,以免他屬於” (十, 12 ) 。 "Therefore, my beloved brethren, be ye steadfast and unmoveable; always abounding in the work of the Lord, knowing that your labour is not in vain in the Lord" (xv, 58). “因此,我親愛的弟兄們,是你們堅定和unmoveable ;總是豐厚的工作,上帝知道你的勞動是沒有白費的上帝” (十五58 ) 。 "Watch ye, stand fast in the faith, do manfully, and be strengthened" (xvi, 13). “觀賞葉,堅守的信念,做manfully ,並得到加強” ( 16 , 13 ) 。 "Do all to the glory of God" (x, 31). “難道所有的榮耀神” (十, 31 ) 。 "Be without offence to the Jews, and to the Gentiles, and to the church of God" (x, 32). “沒有對猶太人的罪行,並外邦人,和天主的教會” (十, 32 ) 。 "Be ye followers of me as I am of Christ" (xi, 1). “請你們為我的追隨者,我的基督” (十一, 1 ) 。

Resurrection of the body and life everlasting復活的身體和生命永恆

"For God hath raised up the Lord, and he will raise us up also by his power" (vi, 14). “對上帝提出了上帝,他將提高我們的行動也受到他的權力” (六, 14 ) 。 "And as in Adam all die, so also in Christ all shall be made alive." "For star differeth from star in glory. So also is the resurrection of the dead. It is sown in corruption, it shall rise in incorruption. It is sown in dishonour, it shall rise in glory." “ ,是在亞當裡眾人都死,所以在基督裡眾人也應還活著。 ” “星differeth從明星的輝煌。所以也是,死人復活。這是播種的腐敗,它應上升廉政建設。它播下的是恥辱,它應上升的榮耀。 “ "Behold, I tell you a mystery. We shall all indeed rise again." “看哪,我告訴你是個謎。我們都應確實再次上升。 ” "In a moment, in the twinkling of an eye, at the last trumpet: for the trumpet shall sound, and the dead shall rise again incorruptible." “在一個時刻,在剎那間,在最後小號:應為小號聲,和死者應再次上升清廉。 ” (See all of ch. xv.) "We see now through a glass in a dark manner; but then face to face. Now I know in part; but then I shall know even as I am known" (xiii, 12). (查看所有的CH 。十五。 ) “我們現在看到通過玻璃在黑暗的方式;但面對面。現在我知道的部分,但當時我知道,即使我知道” ( 13 , 12 ) 。


"Were you baptized in the name of Paul?" “你的名受洗,保羅? ” (i, 13). (一, 13 ) 。 "I baptized also the household of Stephanus" (I, 16). “我的家庭也受洗的Stephanus ” (一, 16 ) 。 "For in one Spirit were we all baptized into one body" (xii, 13). “對於在一個精神是我們大家都洗成一個機構” (十二,十三) 。 "But you are washed [apelousasthe] but you are sanctified, but you are justified in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, and the Spirit of our God" (vi, 11). “可是你是洗[ apelousasthe ] ,但你是聖潔的,但你是正當的名義,我們的主耶穌基督的精神,我們的上帝” (六, 11 ) 。


"The chalice of benediction, which we bless, is it not the communion of the blood of Christ? And the bread, which we break, is it not the partaking of the body of the Lord? . . . But the things which the heathens sacrifice, they sacrifice to devils . . . You cannot drink the chalice of the Lord and the chalice of devils" (x, 16-21). “該杯的祝福,我們祝福,是不是的共融基督的血嗎?麵包,我們打破,是不是該partaking身體的上帝? 。 。 。但是,事情的異教徒犧牲,他們犧牲德弗爾斯。 。 。你不能喝了杯勳爵和聖杯的魔鬼“ (十, 16-21 ) 。 "For I have received of the Lord that which also I delivered unto you, that the Lord Jesus, the same night in which he was betrayed, took bread, and giving thanks, said: Take ye, and eat: this is my body . . . In like manner also the chalice; etc. . . . Therefore whosoever shall eat this bread, or drink the chalice of the Lord unworthily, shall be guilty of the body and of the blood of the Lord. . . . For he that eateth and drinketh unworthily eateth and drinketh judgment to himself, not discerning the body of the Lord" (xi, 23-29). “對於我收到勳爵說,這也我發表你們,是主耶穌,在同一天晚上,他背叛了麵包,並感謝,說:以葉,吃:這是我的身體。 。 。同樣也杯等。 。 。因此,任何人不得吃麵包,喝了杯或上帝unworthily ,即屬身體和血液的上帝。 。 。 。因為他說, eateth和drinketh unworthily eateth和drinketh判斷自己,而不是挑剔的身體上帝“ (十一, 23日至29日) 。 On the words of consecration see the two able articles by Dr.關於奉獻的話可以看到這兩個條款博士 AR Eagar in "The Expositor", March and April, 1908.阿Eagar在“ Expositor ” , 3月和4月, 1908年。


Its use.其使用。 Marriage good, but celibacy better.良好的婚姻,但單身更好。 -- The marriage of divorced persons forbidden. -結婚,離婚的人被禁止的。 -- Second marriage allowed to Christians; but single state preferable for those who have the gift from God. -第二次婚姻讓基督徒,但單一的國家最好的那些誰也來自上帝的禮物。 (vii, 1-8.) Pauline Dispensation: a Christian is not bound to remain single if his pagan partner is unwilling to live with him (vii, 12-15). (第七章, 1月8日。 )波利娜配方:基督教不受留單異教,如果他的合作夥伴,不願與他生活(七, 12月15日) 。


It is not wrong to marry; but preferable to remain single -- St. Paul's example -- "He that giveth his virgin in marriage doth well; and he that giveth her not doth better. (vii, 25-40.)這不是錯誤的結婚,但最好保持單一-聖保祿例如- “他說,美屬維爾京giveth他doth以及在婚姻中,他說, giveth她沒有doth更好。 (七, 25-40 。 )

Principles of moral theology原則的道德神學

In ch.在CH 。 vii; and following chapters St. Paul solves several difficult cases of conscience, some of them of a very delicate nature, falling under what we should now call the tractatus de sexto (sc. præcepto decalogi).七;及以下各章聖保祿解決一些困難的情況下良心,其中一些人的一個非常微妙的性質,屬於我們現在應該稱之為tractatus日sexto ( sc. præcepto decalogi ) 。 He would, doubtless, have preferred to be free from the necessity of having to enter into such disagreeable subjects; but as the welfare of souls required it, he felt it incumbent upon him, as part of his Apostolic office, to deal with the matter.他希望,毫無疑問,希望免於必須要有進入這種令人不快的問題;但是,隨著社會福利的靈魂需要它,他覺得有責任,他的一部分,他的使徒辦事處,以解決有關問題。 It is in the same spirit that pastors of souls have acted ever since.這是本著同樣的精神,牧師的靈魂行事至今。 If so many difficulties arose in a few years in one town, it was inevitable that numerous complicated cases should occur in the course of centuries amongst peoples belonging to every degree of barbarism and civilization; and to these questions the Church was rightly expected to give a helpful answer; hence the growth of moral theology.如果如此眾多的困難中出現了幾年的一個小鎮,它是不可避免的,許多複雜的案件發生過程中,數百年的民族歸屬感,以每度的野蠻和文明,以及這些問題是正確的教會預計將有用的答案,因此,經濟增長的道德神學。


The Second Epistle was written a few months after the First, in which St. Paul had stated that he intended to go round by Macedonia.第二書信寫幾個月後,第一,在聖保羅說,他打算去輪馬其頓。 He set out on this journey sooner than he had anticipated, on account of the disturbance at Ephesus caused by Demetrius and the votaries of Diana of the Ephesians.他開始對這個征途早於他的預期,考慮到的干擾所造成的以弗所德梅和愛好者的戴安娜的以弗所。 He travelled northwards as far as Troas, and after waiting some time for Titus, whom he expected to meet on his way back from Corinth, whither he had carried the First Epistle, he set sail for Macedonia and went on to Philippi.他前往北至於Troas後,等待一段時間,提圖斯,他將會見他返回途中科林斯,何處他進行第一使徒,他出航的馬其頓和接著立。 Here he met Titus and Timothy.他在這裡會見了提圖斯和蒂莫西。 The news that Titus brought him from Corinth was for the most part of a cheering character.提圖斯的消息,使他從科林斯是大部分的歡呼性質。 The great majority were loyal to their Apostle.絕大多數人忠於自己的使徒。 They were sorry for their faults; they had obeyed his injunctions regarding the public sinner, and the man himself had deeply repented.他們遺憾的斷層;他們服從他的命令就公開罪人,和他本人已深深懺悔。 We hear no more of the parties of Paul, Apollo, and Cephas, though the letter appears to contain one reference to the fourth party.我們沒有聽到更多的締約方保羅,阿波羅,和Cephas ,但這封信似乎包含一個參考的第四次黨。 His friends, who had expected a visit from himself, were deeply grieved at his not coming as he had promised; a few who were his enemies, probably judaizers, sought to take advantage of this to undermine his authority by discovering in this a clear proof of fickleness of mind and instability of purpose; they said that his unwillingness to receive support betrayed want of affection; that he used threatening language when at a safe distance, but was in fact a coward who was mild and conciliating when present; that they were foolish to let themselves be led by one who made the rather enormous pretension to be an Apostle of Christ, when he was nothing of the kind, and was in reality, both naturally and supernaturally, inferior to men they could name.他的朋友,誰曾預計從自己的訪問,是他深感悲痛不來,因為他答應;一些誰是他的敵人,很可能judaizers ,試圖利用這一破壞他的權威的發現在這一個明確的證明在變化無常的心態和不穩定的目的;他們說,他不願意背叛希望得到支持的感情; ,他用威脅性語言時,在安全距離,但實際上是一個懦夫誰是輕度和調解時,本; ,他們愚蠢的讓自己領導的一個誰作出了相當巨大的驕傲是一個基督的使徒,他沒有任何的那種,而且在現實生活中,都自然和超自然,男尊女卑他們的名字。 This news filled the soul of St. Paul with the deepest emotion.這條消息的靈魂充滿聖保羅與最深切的情感。 He purposely delayed in Macedonia, and sent them this Epistle to prepare them better for his coming and to counteract the evil influence of his opponents.他在馬其頓故意拖延,並把他們送到這個書信讓他們做好準備,更好地為他的未來和抵制邪教的影響力的對手。 It was sent by Titus and two others, one of whom, it is almost certain, was St. Luke.這是發出的提圖斯,另外兩名,其中一人,幾乎可以肯定,是聖盧克。 The circumstances under which the Epistle was written can be best gathered from the text itself.在何種情況下書信寫最能收集到的文字本身。 We can easily imagine the effect produced when it was read for the first time to the assembled Christians at Corinth, by Titus, or in the sonorous tones of the Evangelist St. Luke.我們可以很容易地想像產生的影響時,閱讀首次向組裝基督徒在科林斯,由提圖斯,或在鏗鏘的傳播者鈴聲聖盧克。 The news that their great Apostle had sent them another letter rapidly spread through the city; the previous one had been such a masterly production that all were eager to listen to this.這一消息,他們的偉大的使徒派出他們的另一封信中迅速蔓延的城市;前一個已經如此精湛的生產,所有渴望聆聽了這一點。 The great bulk of the expectant congregation were his enthusiastic admirers, but a few came to criticize, especially one man, a Jew, who had recently arrived with letters of recommendation, and was endeavouring to supplant St. Paul.偉大的大部分是他的期望眾熱心的崇拜者,但有幾個來批評,尤其是一個人,一個猶太人,誰最近抵達的推薦信,並正在努力取代聖保羅。 He said he was an Apostle (not of The Twelve, but of the kind mentioned in the Didache).他說,他是一個使徒(而不是12個,但提到的那種在十二使徒遺訓) 。 He was a man of dignified presence, as he spoke slightingly of St. Paul's insignificant appearance.他是一位有尊嚴的存在,因為他以slightingly聖保羅微不足道的外觀。 He was skilled in philosophy and polished in speech, and he insinuated that St. Paul was wanting in both.他熟練的哲學和拋光的講話,他暗示說,聖保羅是想在這兩個。 He knew little or nothing of St. Paul except by hearsay, as he accused him of want of determination, of cowardice, and unworthy motives, things belied by every fact of St. Paul's history.他知道很少或沒有聖保羅除非傳聞,因為他指責他想要的決心,膽怯,和不配動機,掩蓋事情的每一個事實聖保祿歷史。 The latter might terrify others by letters, but he would not frighten him.後者可能恐嚇他人信件,但他不會嚇唬他。 This man comes to the assembly expecting to be attacked and prepared to attack in turn.這名男子來到大會預計將受到攻擊,並準備攻擊反過來。 As the letter is being read, ever and anon small dark clouds appear on the horizon; but when, in the second part, the Epistle has quieted down into a calm exhortation to almsgiving, this man is congratulating himself on his easy escape, and is already picking holes in what he has heard.如該信正在閱讀,任何時候都和小烏雲立刻出現在地平線上,但當時,在第二部分中,書信已經下降到quieted平靜告誡救濟,這名男子是祝賀,他本人很容易逃脫,是已經採摘洞聽聽他的意見。 Then, suddenly as upon the army of Sisara, the storm breaks upon him; lightnings strike, thunder upbraids.然後,突然成為各國軍隊的Sisara ,風暴爆發後,他雷電襲擊,雷電upbraids 。 He is beaten down by the deluge, and his influence is swept out of existence by the irresistible torrent.他是打下來的洪水,他的影響力席捲了存在的不可阻擋的洪流。 At any rate, he is never heard of again.無論如何,他從來沒有聽說過一次。 These two Epistles as effectively destroyed St. Paul's opponents at Corinth, as the Epistle to the Galatians annihilated the judaizers in Asia Minor.這兩個書信作為有效摧毀聖保祿對手在科林斯,作為書信的加拉太全軍覆沒的judaizers小亞細亞。


This Epistle, though not written with the same degree of care and polish as the First, is more varied and spontaneous in style.這書信,雖然不是書面的相同程度的照料和波蘭第一,是更為豐富和自然的風格。 Erasmus says that it would take all the ingenuity of a skilled rhetorician to explain the multitude of its strophes and figures.伊拉斯謨說,它將採取一切聰明才智的熟練修辭學家解釋眾多的strophes和數字。 It was written with great emotion and intensity of feeling, and some of its sudden outbursts reach the highest levels of eloquence. It gives a deeper insight than any other of his writings into the character and personal history of St. Paul.這是書面滿懷深情和強度的感覺,而且它的一些突然爆發,達到最高水平的口才。它提供了更深入的了解比任何其他的他的著作的性質和個人歷史的聖保羅。 With Cornely, we may call it his "Apologia pro Vitâ Suâ", a fact which makes it one of the most interesting of the writings of the New Testament.與Cornely ,我們可以稱之為他的“縱容親簡歷蘇阿” ,這使其中一種最有趣的著作的新約。 Erasmus described it as follows: "Now it bubbles up as a limpid fountain; soon it rushes down as a roaring torrent carrying all before it; then it flows peacefully and gently along. Now it widens out as into a broad and tranquil lake. Yonder it gets lost to view, and suddenly reappears in quite a different direction, when it is seen meandering and winding along, now deflecting to the right, now to the left; then making a wider loop and occasionally doubling back upon itself.伊拉茲馬斯描述如下: “現在是泡沫作為清澈噴泉;一旦藺作為一個咆哮洪流攜帶所有收到;那麼流動和平並輕輕沿。現在擴大到了作為一個廣泛和寧靜的湖泊。那邊它得到了查看,並突然重新出現在完全不同的方向,當它被視為沿蜿蜒曲折的,現在轉移到正確的,現在要離開,然後使更廣泛的循環,偶爾一倍回到自我。

Divisions of the Epistle司的書信

It consists of three parts.它由三部分組成。 In the first of these (chapters i to vii, incl.), after (1) introduction, (2) the Apostle shows that his change of plan is not due to lightness of purpose but for the good of the people, and his teaching not mutable; (3) he did not wish to come again in sorrow.在第一個(第一至第七章,包括。 ) ,後( 1 )導言, ( 2 )使徒表明,他改變計劃是不是由於亮度的目的,而是為人民的利益,他的教學不可更改; ( 3 )他不希望再來的悲傷。 The repentant sinner, the cause of his sorrow, to be now reconciled.該懺悔的罪人,他的事業的悲痛,到現在調和。 (4) His great affection for them. ( 4 )他的感情了。 (5) He does not require, like others, letters of recommendation. ( 5 ) ,他並不需要與其他國家一樣,推薦信。 They, as Christians, are his commendatory letters.他們作為基督徒,是他的讚美的信件。 (6) He writes with authority, not on account of arrogance, but because of the greatness of the ministry with which he was entrusted, as compared with the ministry of Moses. ( 6 )他寫的權力,沒有相應的囂張氣焰,但由於偉大部,使他被委託,而與該部的摩西。 Those who refuse to listen have the veil over their hearts, like the carnal Jews.那些拒絕聽取誰的面紗了他們的心,就像肉體的猶太人。 (7) He endeavours to please Christ Who showed His love by dying for all, and will reward His servants. ( 7 )他的努力,請表現出了基督的愛的渴望,並且將獎勵他的僕人。 (8) Moving exhortation. ( 8 )移動告誡。

The second part (chapters viii and ix) relates to the collections for the poor Christians at Jerusalem.第二部分(第八和第九章)涉及的集合為窮人基督徒在耶路撒冷。 (1) He praises the Macedonians for their ready generosity in giving out of their poverty. ( 1 )他讚揚馬其頓的準備慷慨地給了他們的貧困。 He exhorts the Corinthians to follow their example in imitation of Christ Who, being rich, became poor for our sakes. (2) He sends Titus and two others to make the collections and to remove all grounds of calumny that he was enriching himself.他敦促科林蒂安以他們為榜樣的模仿基督,正在豐富,成為窮人對我們的酒。 ( 2 )他將和另外兩名提多書使收藏和消除所有理由的誹謗,他豐富自己。 (3) He has boasted of them in Macedonia that they began before others. ( 3 )他吹噓他們在馬其頓,他們之前就開始等。 (4) A man shall reap in proportion as he sows. ( 4 )一個人應獲得的比例,他母豬。 God loves the cheerful giver and is able to repay.上帝喜歡開朗贈與和能夠償還。 Giving not only relieves the poor brethren but causes thanksgiving to God and prayers for benefactors.給予不僅減輕窮人的兄弟,但原因感恩上帝和祈禱恩人。

The third part (last four chapters) is directed against the pseudo-Apostles.第三部分(最後四個章節)針對偽使徒。 (1) He is bold towards some who think he acts from worldly motives. ( 1 )他是大膽的一些誰認為他的行為從世俗動機。 He has powerful arms from God for humbling such and punishing their disobedience.他具有強大的武器從上帝卑微如和懲罰不服從。 Some say he terrifies by letters which are weighty and strong; but has bodily presence is weak, and his speech contemptible". Let such a one understand that such as he is in his Epistle, so will he be when present. (2) He will not pretend, as they do, to be greater than he is, nor wilt he exalt himself by other men's labours. (3) He asks pardon for talking like a worldly-minded man. It is to counteract the influence of the pseudo-Apostles. He jealously guards the Corinthians lest they be deceived as Eve was by the serpent. (4) If the new-comers brought them anything better in the way of religion, he could understand their submission to their dictatorship. (5) He is not inferior to those superlative Apostles. If his speech is rude, his knowledge is not. He humbled himself amongst them, and did not exact support in order to gain them. The false Apostles profess a like disinterestedness; but they are deceitful workmen transforming themselves into Apostles of Jesus Christ. And no wonder: for Satan transformed himself into an angel of light, and they imitate their master. They make false insinuations against the Apostle. (6) He, too, will glory a little (speaking like a foolish worldly person, in order to confound them). They boast of natural advantages. He is not inferior to them in any; but he far surpasses them in his sufferings for the propagation of the Gospel, in his supernatural gifts, and in the miraculous proofs of his Apostleship at Corinth, "in all patience, in signs, and wonders, and mighty deeds". The Corinthians have all that other Churches had except the burden of his support. He asks them to pardon him that injury. Neither he nor Titus nor any other of his friends over-reached them. He writes thus lest he should come again in sorrow. He threatens the unrepentant.有人說他恐懼的信件是沉重和強大;但身體存在薄弱,他的講話可鄙“ 。讓這樣的人理解,如他是在他的書信,所以當他將成為本。 ( 2 )他不會假裝,因為他們這樣做了,要大於他的,也不枯萎,他發揚自己的其他男人的勞動。 ( 3 )他要求赦免的交談就像一個世俗的想法的人。這是抵制的影響,偽使徒。嫉妒看守他的科林蒂安以免他們被欺騙的夏娃被蛇的。 ( 4 )如果新的多家使他們沒有更好的方式宗教,他能理解其提交給他們的獨裁統治。 ( 5 )他是不低於高級使徒。如果他的講話是粗魯的,他的知識是沒有。他謙卑自己當中,並沒有確切的支持,以便獲得它們。假使徒信奉同樣無私,但他們是騙人的工人轉變到耶穌基督的使徒。也難怪:撒旦轉化為自己變成一個天使的光線,並模仿他們的主人。他們作出虛假含沙射影對使徒。 ( 6 )他也將榮耀一點(就像一個愚蠢的發言世俗的人,為了混淆它們) 。他們擁有的自然優勢。他是不低於他們在任何;但他遠遠超過他們在他的痛苦傳播福音,在他的超自然的禮物,並在奇蹟般的證明他Apostleship在科林斯, “在所有的耐心,在標誌,奇事,和強大的事蹟。 ”都在哥林多教會了,其他的負擔,除非他的支持。他問他們赦免他,傷害。沒有他,也不提圖斯或任何其他的朋友,達成他們。因此,他寫道,以免他應該再來在悲痛之中。他威脅執迷不悟。

Unity of the Second Epistle統一的第二次書信

Whilst the Pauline authorship is universally acknowledged, the same cannot be said for its unity.雖然波利娜作者是舉世公認的,同樣不能說的團結。 Some critics hold that it consists of two Epistles, or portion of Epistles, by St. Paul; that the first nine chapters belong to one Epistle, and the last four to another.一些批評者認為,它包括兩個書信或書信的一部分,由聖保祿;第一九章同屬一個書信,並在過去4到另一個。 As these two sections are held to have been written by St. Paul, there appears to be nothing in this view that can be said to be in opposition to the Catholic doctrine of inspiration.這兩個部分,被認定為聖保祿寫的,似乎有什麼看法,即在這可以說是在反對天主教教義的啟發。 But the hypothesis is very far from being proved.但假設是非常遠沒有證明。 Nay more, on account of the arguments that can be alleged against it, it can scarcely be regarded as probable.奈多,考慮到的論據,可以指控,它幾乎可以被看作是可能的。 The principal objection against the unity of the Epistle is the difference of tone in the two sections.主要反對的團結書信不同的語調在兩節。 This is well stated and answered by the Catholic scholar Hug ("Introduction", tr. by Wait, London, 1827 p. 392): "It is moreover objected how different is the tone of the first part, mild, amiable, affectionate, whereas the third part is severe, vehement, and irrespectively castigatory. But who on this account would divide Demosthenes' oration De Coronâ into two parts, because in the more general defence placidity and circumspection predominate while on the other hand, in abashing and chastising the accuser, in the parallel between him and Æschines, words of bitter irony gush out impetuously and fall like rain in a storm."這是很好的說明,並回答了天主教學者擁抱( “導言” ,文。的等待,倫敦, 1827年第392 ) : “這是多麼不同此外反對的調子是第一部分,溫和,和藹,親切,而第三部分是嚴重的,激烈的,而且無論castigatory 。但是誰在這個帳戶將鴻溝德摩斯梯'演講者電暈分為兩部分,因為在更寬泛的辯護placidity和謹慎為主,而另一方面,在abashing和900的原告在平行他與Æschines ,心酸的諷刺話湧出衝動和秋季如雨的風暴。 “ This argument is referred to with approval by Meyer, Cornely, and Jacquier.這種說法是指經批准的邁耶, Cornely和Jacquier 。 Others save explained the difference of tone by supposing that when the first nine chapters were finished fresh news of a disagreeable kind arrived from Corinth, and that this led St. Paul to add the last four chapters.其他節省解釋的差異基調的假設,當第一九章完了新鮮消息令人不快的實物抵達科林斯,這導致聖保羅添加過去四個章節。 In the same way the parenthetical section (vi, 14, vii, 2), which seems to have been inserted as an afterthought, can be explained.以同樣的方式在括號第(六, 14日,第七章, 2 ) ,這似乎已插入作為一種事後的,可以加以解釋。 It was added, according to Bernard, to prevent a misconception of the expression used in vi, 11, 13, "our heart is enlarged . . . be you also enlarged", which in the OT had the bad meaning of being too free with infidels.有人補充說,根據伯納德,防止誤解的表達中使用六, 11 , 13 , “我們的核心是擴大。 。 。是你還擴大” ,其中在加時賽有壞的含義過於自由的異教徒。 St. Paul's manner of writing has also to be taken into account.聖保祿書面方式也必須考慮到。 In this, as in his other Epistles he speaks as a preacher who now addresses one portion of his congregation, now another, as if they were the only persons present, and that without fear of being misunderstood.在此,因為在他的其他書信,他說作為一個佈道者地址誰現在他的一個部分眾,現在另一個,彷彿他們是唯一在場的人,而且不用擔心會被誤解。 Dr. Bernard thinks that the difference of tone can be sufficiently accounted for on the supposition that the letter was written at different sittings, and that the writer was in a different mood owing to ill-health or other circumstances.伯納德博士認為,不同的音調可以得到充分的佔的假設,該信寫在不同的開庭,這是作者在不同的心情,由於健康狀況不佳或其他情況。 The other objections brought against the unity of the Epistle are ably refuted by the same author, whose argument may be briefly summarized as follows: the last section, it is said, begins very abruptly, and is loosely connected with the previous one by the particle de.其他異議提起的團結書信是幹練地駁斥了作者的論點可以概括如下:最後一節,這是說,首先非常突然,而且是鬆散的聯繫與前一項的粒子日。 But there are several other instances in the Epistles of St. Paul where transition is made in precisely the same way.但是,還有其他一些情況的書信聖保祿在轉型中的恰恰是同樣的方式。 On the last part, it is objected, people in open rebellion are denounced, whereas that is not the case in the first portion. Still, there is clear reference in the first section to persons who accused him of being fickle, arrogant, brave at a distance, etc. One of the strongest arguments against the integrity is that there are several verses in the first nine chapters which seem to presuppose an equal number of passages in the second, and the contention is that the last section is a portion of an earlier Epistle.在最後一部分,這是反對,人們都在公開譴責叛亂,而事實並非如此,第一部分。儘管如此,有明確提到的第一部分中的人誰指責他是變化無常的,傲慢的,勇敢的距離等其中一支最強大的論點,反對的完整性是,有幾個詩句第一九章這似乎預示同等數目的通道在第二,和爭論的是,最後一節的一部分是一個早些時候書信。 But on closer examination of each passage this connection is seen to be only apparent.但在仔細審查每一個通道這方面被認為是唯一明顯。 On the other hand, there are at least as many passages in the last part which clearly and unmistakably look back to and presuppose verses in the first.另一方面,至少有許多段落的最後一部分是明確無誤地回頭看看,並以詩第一。 It is remarkable, moreover, that the only extant fragments of the supposed two Epistles should fit so well.值得注意的是,此外,這是唯一現存的碎片假定兩個書信應適合這麼好。 It has also been urged that the First Epistle is not "painful" enough to account for statements in the Second.也有人呼籲,第一使徒不是“痛苦”足以解釋報表在第二。 But a close examination of i, 11, 14; ii, 6; iii, 1, 2, 3, 4, 18; iv, 8, 9, 10, 18, 19; v, etc., of the First Epistle, will show that this objection is quite unfounded.但是,仔細研究我, 11 , 14 ;二, 6 ;三, 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 18 ;四, 8 , 9 , 10 , 18 , 19 ;五等,第一書信,將結果表明,該異議是非常沒有根據的。 The linguistic unity between the two portions of the Epistle is very great; and many examples can be given to show that the two sections were always integral portions of one whole.語言之間的團結兩個部分書信很大;和許多例子可以給予表明,兩節都是不可分割的一個整體部分。 The evidence afforded by early manuscripts, translations, and quotations points strongly in the same direction.所提供的證據早期手稿,譯本,並幫點強烈的方向是一致的。


There is nothing in either Epistle which enables us to say what was the precise nature of the organization of the Church at Corinth.中沒有任何可以書信,使我們可以說是什麼確切性質的組織,教會在科林斯。 In I Cor., xii, 28, we read: "And God indeed hath set some in the church; first apostles, secondly prophets, thirdly doctors; after that [the gift of] miracles; then the graces [charismata] of healings, helps, governments [or wise counsels], kinds of tongues, interpretations of speeches. Are all apostles? . . . Are all workers of miracles? Have all the grace of healing?"在I心病。 ,第十二章,第28 ,我們讀到: “與上帝上帝確實設置一些在教堂;第一使徒,第二先知,第三醫生;後, [禮物]奇蹟;然後青睞[ charismata ]的healings ,幫助,各國政府[或明智律師] ,種語言,解釋發言。是否所有使徒? 。 。 。是所有工人的奇蹟?所有的恩典癒合? “ From the whole context it is clear that this passage is nothing else than an enumeration of extraordinary gifts, and that it has no bearing whatsoever on church government.從整個背景很清楚,這一段是沒有別的比列舉特別禮物,它已經沒有任何影響,所教堂政府。 The word apostle is probably used here in its broad sense, not as meaning the Apostles of Jesus Christ, but the apostles of the Church.使徒一詞用在這裡可能是在其廣泛的意義,而不是指的是耶穌基督的使徒,但使徒的教會。 If it is meant to include the former, then the reference is not to their ruling power, but to their supernatural gifts, upon which the whole argument turns.如果用意是包括前,然後在此提到的是不是自己的執政權力,但他們超自然的禮物,在此基礎上把整個論點。 St. Paul thanked God that he spoke with all their tongues Barnabas is called an apostle (Acts 14:4, 13).聖保祿感謝上帝,他以與所有舌頭巴拿巴被稱為使徒(使徒十四時04 , 13 ) 。 In II Cor., viii, 23, St. Paul calls his messengers "the apostles of the churches". (Compare Romans 16:7; Revelation 2:2.) The Didache, or "Teaching of the Twelve Apostles", which is probably a work of the first century, has the statement that if an apostle remains till the third day claiming support, he is to be regarded as a false prophet.在二心病。 ,八, 23日,聖保羅呼籲他的信使“使徒的教會” 。 (比較羅馬書十六時07分;啟示二點零二。 )的十二使徒遺訓,或“教學中的十二門徒” ,這是可能是工作的第一個世紀,已經聲明,如果使徒仍然直到第三天聲稱支持,他被視為是一種虛假的先知。 It also says that every true teacher and true prophet is worthy of his support; and it gives one of the rules for detecting a false prophet.它還說,每一個真正的老師,真正的先知是值得他的支持,它使一個規則檢測假先知。 "Prophets and doctors" are referred to in Acts, xiii, 1. “先知和醫生”中提到的行為,十三, 1 。 It is extremely probable that St. Paul had organized the Church at Corinth during his long stay there as carefully as he had previously done in Galatia ("and when they had ordained to them priests in every church" -- Acts 14:22) and in Ephesus "wherein the Holy Ghost hath placed you bishops" -- Acts, xx, 7, 28).這是極為可能聖保羅舉辦了教會在科林斯長期滯留在那裡的仔細,因為他以前所做的加拉提亞( “時,他們已經向他們祝聖司鐸在每一個教會” -行為14:22 )和在以弗所“ ,其中聖靈上帝把你主教” -的行為,第XX號, 7 , 28 ) 。 We have these statements on the authority of the author of the Acts, now admitted, even by Harnack, to be St. Luke, the companion of the Apostle.我們對這些聲明的權威,作者的行為,現在承認,即使是哈爾納克,將聖盧克,同伴宗徒。 St. Paul had spent six or eight times as long at Corinth as he had at Philippi, yet we find him writing to the latter place: "Paul and Timothy . . . to all the saints in Christ Jesus who are at Philippi, with the bishops and deacons" (Philippians 1:1 -- cf. 1 Thessalonians 5:12).聖保祿花了6個或8倍,只要在科林斯,因為他在立,但我們發現他寫信給後者的位置: “保羅和蒂莫西。 。 。所有的聖人,在基督耶穌裡誰是立,與主教和執事“ (腓1:1 -比照。帖撒羅尼迦前書5點12 ) 。 The principal office of the bishops and deacons was, according to the Didache, to consecrate the Blessed Eucharist.主要辦事處的主教和執事是,根據十二使徒遺訓,以神聖的祝福彌撒。 It is only by accident, as it were, on account of abuses, that St. Paul speaks, in the First Epistle, of the form of consecration used at Corinth, and which is substantially the same as that given in the Gospels.它只是偶然的,因為它是,由於被濫用,這聖保祿說,在第一書信的形式奉獻使用科林斯,這是大致相同,由於在福音中。 Had the abuses not arisen, it seems clear that he would not have referred to the Eucharist.有沒有出現侵犯,它似乎很清楚,他就不會提到了聖體聖事。 He says nothing of it in the Second Epistle.他說,沒有它的第二次書信。 In that case there would not be wanting those who would have loudly asserted that the Corinthians "knew nothing of it", and, by implication, that the Apostle's mind had not yet developed to that extent.在這種情況下,就不會有希望那些誰應大聲斷言,科林蒂安“一無所知它” ,並暗示,這使徒的頭腦還沒有發展到這個程度。 But as he speaks so clearly we may take it as certain, too, that the ministers of the Eucharist were the same as in other places.但是他講得很清楚,我們可能認為這是肯定的,也該部長聖體是相同的其他地方。 There is no evidence that it was ever consecrated without a bishop or priest.沒有任何證據表明,這是以往任何時候都神聖沒有主教或神父。 These, with the deacons, were the regular ministers in each place, under the immediate jurisdiction of the Apostles of Jesus Christ.這些,與執事,是經常部長,在每個地方的直接管轄下的耶穌基督的使徒。 From all this we may conclude that the Church in Achaia was as regularly organized as the earlier Churches of Galatia, Ephesus, and the neighbouring Province of Macedonia, or as in the Church of Crete (Tit., i, 5).從所有這一切,我們可以得出這樣的結論:在亞該亞教會是作為定期組織早先教會加拉提亞,以弗所,和鄰近的馬其頓共和國,或在教會的克里特島( Tit. ,我, 5 ) 。 There were "bishops" (which word certainly meant priests and perhaps also our modern bishops) and deacons.有“主教” (這當然意味著神職人員一詞,或許也是我們現代主教)和執事。 Later on, Timothy, and Titus, and others were appointed over these "bishops", priests, and deacons, and were monarchical bishops in the modern sense of the word.後來,霍震霆和提圖斯,和其他被任命這些“主教” ,司鐸和執事,並君主主教在現代意義上的。 Other such bishops succeeded the Apostles.其他如主教成功使徒。

Publication information Written by Cornelius Aherne.出版信息作者哥尼流阿赫尼。 Transcribed by Vernon Bremberg.轉錄的弗農Bremberg 。 Dedicated to the Cloistered Dominican Nuns of the Monastery of the Infant Jesus, Lufkin, Texas. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume IV.致力於與世隔絕多米尼加修道院修女的嬰兒耶穌,拉夫金,得克薩斯州。天主教百科全書,第四卷。 Published 1908.發布時間1908年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat. Nihil Obstat 。 Remy Lafort, Censor.雷米Lafort ,審查。 Imprimatur.認可。 +John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰M法利,大主教紐約


The usual Introductions such as CORNELY, JACQUIER, SALMON, BELSER, ZAHN; BERNARD, Second Corinthians in Expositor's Greek Testament (London, 1903); FINDLAY, First Epistle to the Corinthians in Exp.通常的介紹,如CORNELY , JACQUIER ,鮭魚, BELSER , ZAHN ;伯納德第二科林蒂安在Expositor的希臘全書(倫敦, 1903年) ;芬德利第一使徒的科林蒂安在進出口。 Gr.石墨。 Test.測試。 (London, 1900); RICKABY, Romans, Corinthians, Galatians (London, 1898); KENNEDY, Second and Third Corinthians (London, 1900); ALFORD, The Greek Test. (倫敦, 1900年) ; RICKABY ,羅馬人,哥林多前書,加拉太(倫敦, 1898年) ;肯尼迪,第二和第三科林蒂安(倫敦, 1900年) ;奧爾福德,希臘試驗。 (London, 1855), II; ROBERTSON in HASTINGS, Dict. (倫敦, 1855年) ,第二章;羅伯遜在黑斯廷斯,快譯通。 of the Bible; Lives of St. Paul by FARRAR, CONYBEARE and HOWSON, LEWIN, FOUARD; MCEVILLY, An Exposition of the Epistles of St.聖經;生活聖保祿的FARRAR ,科尼比爾和豪森, LEWIN , FOUARD ; MCEVILLY ,博覽會的書信聖 Paul (3rd ed., Dublin, 1875) CORNELY, Commentarius (Paris, 1890).保羅(第3版。 ,都柏林, 1875年) CORNELY , Commentarius (巴黎, 1890年) 。 See also the commentaries of ESTIUS, BISPING, MAIER, LOCH, REISCHL, DRACH, STEENKISTE. The critical commentary of SCHMIEDEL, Die Briefe an die Korinther in Hand Kommentar (Leipzig, 1893); LIGHTFOOT, Biblical Essays, Notes on Epistles of St. Paul (notes on seven chapters of First Cor. -- London, 1895); ROBERTSON, Corinthians in The International Critical Commentary (Cambridge, 1908).又見評注ESTIUS , BISPING , MAIER湖, REISCHL , DRACH , STEENKISTE 。關鍵評SCHMIEDEL ,模具書信中的死亡Korinther手Kommentar (萊比錫, 1893年) ;娜萊,聖經散文,書信筆記聖保羅(附註七個章節的第一心病。 -倫敦, 1895年) ;羅伯遜科林蒂安國際的評論(劍橋, 1908年) 。

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