Book of Genesis創世記

General Information 一般信息

Genesis, the first book of the Old Testament in the Bible, is so named because it opens with an account of the creation of the world.成因,第一本舊約聖經中,如此命名是因為它會打開一個帳戶的設立世界。 The first 11 chapters, which are heavily indebted to Mesopotamian tradition, trace the gradual expansion of humankind and the development of human culture.第一批11個章節,其中的重債以美索不達米亞的傳統,追踪逐步擴大人類和人類文化的發展。 But they show the ambiguity of this development by incorporating stories about the sin of Adam and Eve and about the Deluge, both of which illustrate humankind's growing alienation from God and one another.但他們表現出的模棱兩可的發展納入故事罪和亞當和夏娃的集水,兩者都說明人類的日益疏遠上帝和彼此。

Following the call of Abraham in chapter 12, this universal outlook appears to be lost; the focus narrows to one man and his family. Yet the traditions about Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and Jacob's 12 sons are linked to the earlier chapters by God's promise to bless the whole world through Abraham's descendants. Furthermore, the Covenant established with Israel through the promise made to Abraham (22:15 - 18) is fundamentally the same as the covenant established with all of humankind through Noah (9:1 - 17).以下的呼籲亞伯拉罕在第12章,這種普遍的前景似乎是失去了;重點縮小到一名男子和他的家人。然而,傳統的關於亞伯拉罕,以撒,雅各,和雅各的12個兒子都與前面幾章上帝的承諾祝福全世界通過亞伯拉罕的子孫。此外,該公約通過建立與以色列作出的承諾,以亞伯拉罕( 22:15 - 18 )基本上是一樣的盟約建立全人類通過諾亞( 9:1 - 17 ) 。

Although Moses has traditionally been considered the author of Genesis, modern scholars generally agree that the book is a composite of at least three different literary strands: J (10th century BC), E (9th century), and P (5th century).雖然摩西歷來被認為是作者的成因,現代學者普遍認為,這本書是一個綜合的,至少三種不同的文學鏈者: J (公元前10世紀) ,電子( 9世紀)和P ( 5世紀) 。 The interpretation of the book has led to many controversies.的解釋,這本書已導致許多爭論。 One of the most difficult problems has been distinguishing historical fact from symbolic narration intended to convey a religious message.一個最困難的問題已被顯著的歷史事實從象徵性的敘事旨在傳達一種宗教訊息。

BELIEVE Religious Information Source web-site相信宗教信息來源
Our List of 2,300 Religious Subjects我們所列出的2300名宗教科目
JJM Roberts JJM羅伯茨

Bibliography 參考書目
H Bloom, Book of J (1990); G von Rad, Genesis: A Commentary (1972); EA Speiser, ed., Genesis (1964); R Youngblood, ed., The Genesis Debate (1986). H布盧姆,圖書的J ( 1990年) ; G馮拉德,成因:評注( 1972年) ;電子藝界斯佩瑟,教育署。 ,成因( 1964年) ; R布拉德,教育署。 ,成因辯論( 1986年) 。

Book of Genesis創世記

Brief Outline簡要概述

  1. The beginning of physical life (1-2)開始體育生活( 1-2 )
  2. The growth of civilization to the Flood (3-8)的增長文明水災( 3月8日)
  3. The descendants of Noah to Abraham (9-11:26)諾亞的後裔,以亞伯拉罕( 9-11:26 )
  4. The history of Abraham and Lot; Ishmael and Isaac; Jacob and Esau; and Joseph and his brethren in Egypt (11:27-50:26)歷史上的亞伯拉罕和地段;伊斯梅爾和Isaac ;雅各和以掃;和約瑟夫和他的兄弟在埃及( 11:27-50:26 )

BELIEVE Editor's Note regarding the next article相信編者的話就下篇文章

The next two articles first appear to be in direct contradiction, where the first says that a "number of authors" wrote Genesis, while the second simply says that Moses did.接下來的兩個條款似乎是第一次直接矛盾,在那裡第一次說, “一些作者寫道: ”成因,而第二只說,摩西沒有。 This fact seems to have caused many Christian writers to become ferociously against the general concept of this first article!這一事實似乎已經造成了許多基督教作家成為強烈反對的一般概念的第一條! However, it seems to us that their reaction might be an "over-reaction".然而,在我們看來,他們的反應可能是“過度反應” 。

Consider the practical issues of that ancient time.考慮到實際問題,這一古老的時間。 At Moses' time (maybe around 1600 BC), there were actually not yet even any organized written languages yet!在摩西的時間(也許公元前1600年左右) ,但實際上沒有任何有組織的甚至語言文字尚未! (They would develop around 400 to 600 years later. Only symbol systems such as Egyptian hieroglyphics yet existed, and they were not languages at all. Worse, they were not capable of expressing sophisticated concepts such as the Sabbath. It would likely take hundreds of picture symbols to express the single sentence, Honor the Sabbath. ) It would be hard to imagine Moses taking the time to carve thousands of picture symbols into blocks of stone, along the lines of the heiroglyphics that existed at that time. So, for very practical reasons, it seems almost certain that (a) Moses was certainly the "author" of the First Five Books of the Bible, but that (b) he did not actually write them down. After all, he was leading a group of people across a desert and in even more dire situations, and had many more urgent things to be dealing with that carving symbols into stones! (它們將發展約400至600年後。只有符號系統,如古埃及象形文字還存在,他們沒有語言了。更糟的是,他們不能夠表達複雜的概念,如安息日。最有可能數百圖片符號表示單句,榮譽的安息日。 )這將是很難想像摩西抽空雕刻成千上萬的圖片符號塊石頭,大致存在著的象形文字在那個時候。 因此,很實際的理由,但幾乎可以肯定的是: ( a )摩西無疑是“作者”第一五本書的聖經,但是, ( b )他實際上並沒有寫下來。畢竟他是領先的一組人全國沙漠和更可怕的情況,並有許多更迫切的事情要處理的雕刻符號變成石頭! (And then carrying large numbers of such stones with them through the desert!) (然後攜帶大量石塊等與他們穿過沙漠! )

So it seems almost certain that Moses (physically) did NOT write down those texts, but instead passed them along orally, in the same way that countless societies before and since have done. By around 1000 BC, written language had developed in the region, including Ancient Hebrew, and it seems clear that people thought it important to then write down, in a permanent form, the words of Moses. 看來,幾乎可以肯定的是摩西(身體)沒有寫下這些文字,而是通過他們沿口頭方式,以同樣的方式,有無數的社會之前和之後所做的。公元前1000年左右,書面語言制定了在該地區,包括古代希伯來,它似乎很清楚,人們認為重要的,然後寫下來,在一個永久形式,摩西的話。 Over the 600-year period between Moses and them (around 30 generations of people) many people had had to memorize and repeat, exactly, all the thousands of words of Moses to the next generation.在600年間摩西與他們(約30幾代人)許多人不得不背誦和重複,準確,所有的千字的摩西給下一代。 They were certainly extremely good at preserving those "oral traditions" but human beings are not perfect.他們當然非常好的維護這些“口述傳統” ,但人並不完美。 And so it seems very reasonable to me that (at least) two SLIGHTLY different oral traditions of Moses' words could easily have existed by thirty generations later in 1000 BC.因此它似乎很合理,我認為(至少)兩個略有不同的口頭傳統的摩西的話很可能已經存在了30後一代在公元前1000年。

It therefore seems reasonable to me that two separate people (around that time) would have written down slightly different texts. One of those people might easily have heard the oral tradition where God was referred to as Elohim, and so he might easily have written down a text that only refers to Elohim.因此,它似乎是合理的,我認為兩個不同的人(約那個時候)將寫下略有不同的文本。之一,這些人可能很容易地聽取了口頭傳統在上帝被稱為耶洛因,因此他可能會很容易地寫下案文只提到耶洛因。 The other might have heard and memorized an oral tradition where God was referred to as Jehovah/Yahweh.其他可能聽說和記憶的口頭傳統在上帝被稱為耶和華/耶和華。 (both of which are in our Bibles today.) (兩者都在我們的聖經今天。 )

Note that this reasoning does NOT ever question or even doubt that Moses was the actual source author of the texts! It is really just noting that humans are not perfect, but that the Scribes of that time each wanted to record EXACTLY what they had been told and memorized. If they knew each other, they might not have been able to figure out which of the two was actually correct, regarding the small details where they seem to slightly disagree. 請注意,這個理由不適以往的問題,甚至懷疑,摩西是作者的實際來源的案文!這是真的只是指出,人類是不是十全十美,但文士的時間記錄每個想什麼,他們被告知和背誦。如果他們彼此認識,他們可能無法弄清楚這兩個實際上是正確的,關於小細節,他們似乎略有分歧。 So both texts were written down and then preserved.因此,兩種文本的寫下來,然後保存。 It seems to me that this reasoning is totally compatible with Moses being the actual author, but that there were two slightly different texts finally written down, and that, for want of an actual name for those Scribes, we tend to call them J and E. In my opinion, to call them "authors" or "writers" is inappropriate, but to see them as Scribes seems to make excellent sense.在我看來,這一理由是完全符合實際的摩西是作者,但有兩個略有不同的文本最後寫下來,而且,由於缺乏實際的名稱是文士,但我們往往把他們稱作J和é 。在我看來,呼籲他們“作者”或“作家”是不恰當的,但看到他們的文士似乎使優秀的意義。

Continue this reasoning a little further and we would have a situation where two slightly different (written) texts of Moses' words were being circulated.繼續這一推理遠一點,我們將有一個情況下,兩個略有不同的(書面)文本摩西'字被分發。 It seems reasonable to think that someone would have decided to combine them.似乎可以合理地認為有人會已決定結合起來。 A logical move would be to select which of the two precise texts was actually correct, but there was no way of knowing that.一個合乎邏輯的舉措將選擇其中的兩個精確的案文實際上是正確的,但沒有辦法知道這一點。 Therefore, the text was threaded together in a manner as it is today, where both texts were therefore included, and which therefore certainly includes whichever happens to be the precisely correct wording.因此,案文緒在一起的方式,因為它是今天,在兩種文本,因此,列入,並因此當然包括兩者恰好是正確的準確的措辭。

We included a portion of the actual Bible text below, along with the way that some analysts have divided it up, alternately, between the nearly identical texts.我們有一部分的實際聖經下文,隨著方式,一些分析家們分成了,另外,幾乎相同的文本。 (Genesis 7 and 8 excellently show the duplication of story and the slight differences.) To look at this from another view, if there is some other explanation, then there needs to be an explanation for why the story is so clearly duplicated in those Bible Verses, as well as why there are slight differences. (創世記第7和第8完美顯示重複的故事,而略有不同。 )來看待這個問題的另一種觀點認為,如果有一些其他的解釋,那麼就需要有一個解釋為什麼這個故事是如此明確地重複這些聖經詩篇,以及為什麼有細微差別。 In this the JEDPR concept seems to provide a logical explanation.在此概念的JEDPR似乎提供了一個合乎邏輯的解釋。

By the way, we encourage that you also read the Genesis presentation from the 1911 Catholic Encyclopedia (nearly 100 years ago) (presented below) which contains an extensive discussion of J, E, D and P, so this is not just a frivolous idea of some recent people.順便說一下,我們鼓勵您閱讀成因還介紹了1911年天主教百科全書(將近100年前) (見下文) ,其中包含了廣泛的討論的J ,英, D和P ,所以這不僅是一種輕率的想法最近的一些人。 The duplication of so many wordings, particularly in Genesis, has had the attention of Biblical scholars for a long time, and the JEDP reasoning has been around for a long time.重複如此多的文字,尤其是在成因,已注意聖經學者很長一段時間,和JEDP推理已經有很長一段時間。 However, the 1911 Catholic Encyclopedia article describes the JEDP concept as eliminating Moses as the actual author, which seems not to be the situation. There seems no doubt whatever that Moses was the source of these texts.然而, 1911年天主教百科全書文章描述JEDP概念消除摩西的實際作者,這似乎不是這種情況。 似乎毫無疑問這是摩西的來源這些文本。

Also included below is the 1906 Genesis article from the Jewish Encyclopedia, which discusses extensively these matters, and even expands them to include additional sources, such as P1, P2 and P3. Many of the other Jewish Encyclopedia articles from a hundred years ago (on other Bible Books) also extensively discuss these subjects.還包括以下是1906年起源文章猶太百科全書,其中廣泛討論這些問題,甚至擴大到包括其他來源,如的P1 , P2和P3 。許多其他猶太百科全書文章一百多年前(上其他聖經書籍)還廣泛地討論這些議題。

Grammatical analysis has shown that the Book of Deuteronomy appears to have been (actually) written down by an early Scribe that was not either J or E, and so a third, D, is suggested.語法分析表明這本書的申命記似乎已經(實際上)寫下的早期雕這不是要么J或E ,所以第三,丁,建議。 The reasoning regarding a fourth source, P, allegedly Priests of several hundred years later, has not been deeply pursued by me, so I can offer no opinion.推理關於四分之一源,磷,據稱神職人員幾百年後,並沒有深刻追求的我,所以我可以提供任何意見。 However, I see great logic in there having been 'R', a redactor (which means editor).然而,我看到了巨大的邏輯有沒有' R '等,一個redactor (這意味著編輯器) 。 Devout Jews by then must have been troubled by the fact that there seemed to be two slightly different texts.虔誠的猶太人則必須已陷入困境的是,似乎有兩個略有不同的文本。 Keep in mind that this was all WAY before any Books were collected to form a Bible or even a Torah.請記住,這是所有前路的任何書籍,收集,形成或什至是聖經律法。 Early Jews were known for being fanatical about details, and so it seems to make sense that a Redactor would (later) combine the J, E, D and P (possibly then still separate accounts) into the "inter-threaded" text that we see today.早期被稱為猶太人被狂熱的細節,所以它似乎有道理,一個Redactor會(後)相結合的J ,英, D和P (可能然後仍然單獨帳戶)到“跨線程化”的文字,我們今天看到的。 Again, I do not see such a Redactor as an "author" but more as a Scribe who attempted to combine two nearly identical texts, and related texts.再說一遍,我沒有看到這樣一個Redactor作為“作者” ,但更象是一個雕誰試圖將兩個幾乎相同的文本,以及相關的文本。

In recent years, there seem to be absolutely ferocious Christian attacks on the JEDP approach. 近年來,似乎有絕對兇猛攻擊基督教的JEDP辦法。 Rather than even trying to see that the words clearly seem to have been written by two separate people (as seems obvious in Genesis 7 or 8 below, if you read each column separately), there appears to just be an assumption that "anything different from what I believe must be an attack!" 而不是甚至希望看到這兩個詞似乎都明確寫的兩個不同的人(如顯然在創世記7個或8個以下,如果您閱讀每個欄另發) ,似乎只是一個假設,即“什麼不同我認為必須有一個攻擊! “ It seems to me that if those Christian counter-attackers could just calm down (and consider my comments here), they might see that there is NO attack on Moses' being the one and only source of those texts, and so most of their criticisms lose all their steam! 在我看來,如果這些基督教反黑客只是平靜下來(我的意見,並考慮在這裡) ,他們可能會看到,沒有任何攻擊摩西是唯一的來源這些法規,因此其大部分的批評失去所有的蒸汽!

In conclusion, I am tempted to think that BOTH of the following two articles are absolutely correct!在結束發言時,我禁不住想,這兩個以下兩個條款是完全正確的! Yes, Moses DID author it so "The author of this Book was Moses."是的,摩西的DID作者如此“的作者這本書是摩西。 ” is absolutely true! However, for logistical reasons, two or more "strands" got eventually written down hundreds of years later.絕對是真的!不過,由於後勤原因,兩個或兩個以上的“鏈”最終寫下了幾百年的時間以後。 I do not really see why this (scholarly) concept is taken as so offensive by so many Christian writers!<我真的不明白為什麼這個(學術)的概念,以便採取攻勢,使許多基督教作家! “

Book of Genesis創世記

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Modern analysis indicates that the book of Genesis (and the other four Books of the Pentateuch) were written by a number of authors who assembled material from three traditions:現代分析表明,這本書的起源(與其他四本書的摩西五)寫的一些作者誰組裝材料從三個傳統:

Two of the additional authors are:兩個額外的作者是:

RE Friedman suggests that when the Assyrians conquered the northern kingdom in 722 BC, many refugees streamed south into Judea, bringing their sacred writing "E" with them.稀土弗里德曼認為,在北部的亞述人征服了英國在722年,許多難民流南到朱迪亞,使自己的神聖寫的“ E ”與他們。 Subsequently, E and J were combined into a single document, referred to as "JE."隨後, E號和J被合併為一個單一的文件,被稱為“日本腦炎” 。

D was written perhaps a century later. D獲得書面也許一個世紀之後。 It was conveniently "discovered" in the temple by the priest Hilkiah in 622 BC, shortly after it was written.這是方便的“發現”在寺廟的牧師Hilkiah在622年後不久,有人寫。 D was then joined with JE. D獲得然後同乙腦。

P was written before the death of King Josiah in 609 BCE, probably during the reign of King Hezekiah.磷書面去世前國王喬賽亞在公元前609 ,可能在國王統治時期Hezekiah 。 It was written as an alternate to JE.這是書面作為替代乙腦。

R combined J, E, P and other documents together into the first four books of the Hebrew Scriptures. R結合J ,電子,磷和其他文件一起進入前四本書的希伯來文聖經。 To this, he added D's writings, the book of Deuteronomy, to complete the Pentateuch.為此,他補充說:德公司的著作,這本書的申命記,完成五經。 By the time that he did the editing, the JE, D and P documents were in wide circulation.的時候,他的編輯,乙腦, D和P文件,廣泛流通。 Each was supported by various factions.每個支持的各派系。 R saw his task as attempting to join these sources together into a more or less cohesive, single document. Friedmann suspects that Ezra was the redactor. R看到他的任務是試圖加入到這些來源在一起或多或少凝聚力,單一的文件。弗里德曼懷疑以斯拉是redactor 。

During the 18th Century, three investigators (Witter, Astruc and Eichhorn) independently concluded that doublets in the Torah were written by two different authors.在18世紀, 3名調查員(惠,阿斯特呂克和艾希霍恩)獨立的結論是,聯中的律法寫的兩個不同的作者。 A doublet is a story that is described twice, as in:阿雙的故事所描述的兩倍,如:

These doublets sometimes appear to contradict each other.這些聯有時似乎相互矛盾。 In most cases, one referred to God as Yahweh while the other used the term Elohim .在大多數情況下,一提到神耶和華而其他使用了耶洛因

During the 19th Century, scholars noticed that there were a few triplets in the Torah.在19世紀,學者發現,有少數三胞胎在律法。 This indicated that a third author was involved.這表明,三分之一的作者參與。 Then, they determined that the book of Deuteronomy was written in a different language style from the remaining 4 books in the Pentateuch (implying a fourth author).然後,他們確定這本書的申命記寫於不同的語言風格從其餘4書籍在摩西五(意味著四分之一作者) 。 Finally, by the end of the 19th Century, liberal scholars reached a consensus that 4 authors and one redactor (editor) had been actively involved in the writing of the Pentateuch.最後,由十九世紀末,自由派學者達成共識, 4作者和一個redactor (編輯)一直積極參與編寫摩西五。

During the 20th Century, academics identified which verses (and parts of verses) were authored by the various writers.在20世紀,學者查明詩句(和部分詩句)是所撰寫的各種作家。 They have also attempted to uncover the names of the authors.他們還試圖揭開姓名的作者。 In 1943, Pope Pius XII issued an encyclical Divino Afflante Spiritu in which he urged academics to study the sources of Biblical texts. 1943年,教宗碧岳十二發出通諭迪維努Afflante Spiritu其中他敦促學者研究的來源聖經文本。 Recent archeological discoveries and new linguistic analysis tools have facilitated the research.最近的考古發現和新的語言分析工具的研究提供了便利。

(BELIEVE Editor's Note:) (相信編者注: )

Moses was quite likely the original source for the information in the first five Books of the Bible, but these various "strands" or (unknown) ancient authors apparently actually wrote down various portions of what we not have as our Bible.摩西是很有可能的原始來源的信息在第一五本書的聖經,但這些不同的“鏈”或(未知)古老的作者顯然實際上寫下各個部分,我們沒有因為我們的聖經。 To give an idea of how these various strands intertwine, the first ten chapters of the King James Authorized Version of the book of Genesis are presented here, with the original authors, according to the modern analyst RE Friedman, indicated in color: J E P R.提供一個了解這些不同的鏈相互交織,前10章的國王詹姆斯授權版本創世記在這裡,與原來的作者,按照現代稀土分析師弗里德曼所指出的顏色者 J ('E' did not contribute to this excerpt.) ( ' é '並不有助於這一摘錄。 )


1 (P) In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth. 1 ( p )在一開始上帝創造了天和地。
2 And the earth was without form, and void; and darkness was upon the face of the deep. 2 ,地球是沒有的形式,無效;和黑暗是各國面臨的深。 And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters. 和精神感動上帝後面對水域。
3 And God said, Let there be light: and there was light. 3 ,上帝說,要有光:有輕。
4 And God saw the light, that it was good: and God divided the light from the darkness. 4 ,上帝看到了光,這是很好的:上帝分為光線的黑暗。
5 And God called the light Day, and the darkness he called Night. 5和上帝稱為輕日,和他所謂的黑暗之夜。 And the evening and the morning were the first day. 和晚上和早上的第一天。
6 And God said, Let there be a firmament in the midst of the waters, and let it divide the waters from the waters. 6 ,上帝說,讓我們有一個蒼穹在一片水域,並讓它的水域劃分的水域。
7 And God made the firmament, and divided the waters which were under the firmament from the waters which were above the firmament: and it was so. 7日和上帝創造了天空,並劃分的水域正在蒼穹的水域高於蒼穹:它是如此。
8 And God called the firmament Heaven. 8 ,上帝要求蒼穹天堂。 And the evening and the morning were the second day. 和晚上和早上的第二天。
9 And God said, Let the waters under the heaven be gathered together unto one place, and let the dry land appear: and it was so. 9 ,上帝說,讓水天上下的是你們聚集一處,讓旱地顯示:它是如此。
10 And God called the dry land Earth; and the gathering together of the waters called he Seas: and God saw that it was good. 10日和上帝稱為地球陸地和聚集的水域稱為他海洋:上帝認為,這是很好的。
11 And God said, Let the earth bring forth grass, the herb yielding seed, and the fruit tree yielding fruit after his kind, whose seed is in itself, upon the earth: and it was so. 11日和上帝說,讓我們的地球帶來草,藥草高產種子和果樹高產水果的客氣後,其種子本身是根據地球的:它是如此。
12 And the earth brought forth grass, and herb yielding seed after his kind, and the tree yielding fruit, whose seed was in itself, after his kind: and God saw that it was good. 12日和地球帶來了草,藥草高產種子後,他的客氣,並產生結果的樹,其種子本身,在他客氣:上帝認為,這是很好的。
13 And the evening and the morning were the third day. 13日晚上和早上的第三天。
14 And God said, Let there be lights in the firmament of the heaven to divide the day from the night; and let them be for signs, and for seasons, and for days, and years: 14上帝說,不要有燈光在蒼穹的天堂分裂每天從晚上,讓他們得到的跡象,以及季節,和天,年:
15 And let them be for lights in the firmament of the heaven to give light upon the earth: and it was so. 15和讓他們得到的燈光在蒼穹的天堂,使光的地球:它是如此。
16 And God made two great lights; the greater light to rule the day, and the lesser light to rule the night: he made the stars also. 16日和上帝兩個偉大的燈;更大的輕統治一天,小光統治夜間:他的星也。
17 And God set them in the firmament of the heaven to give light upon the earth, 17上帝使他們在蒼穹的天堂,使光的地球,
18 And to rule over the day and over the night, and to divide the light from the darkness: and God saw that it was good. 18日和統治白天和夜間,並鴻溝光線的黑暗:上帝認為,這是很好的。
19 And the evening and the morning were the fourth day. 19日晚上和今天上午的第4天。
20 And God said, Let the waters bring forth abundantly the moving creature that hath life, and fowl that may fly above the earth in the open firmament of heaven. 20日和上帝說,讓水域帶來豐富的移動上帝造物的生活,和家禽,可能在地球上空飛行的開放天空的天堂。
21 And God created great whales, and every living creature that moveth, which the waters brought forth abundantly, after their kind, and every winged fowl after his kind: and God saw that it was good. 21日和上帝創造大鯨魚,每個生物的moveth ,其中水域提出了非常之後,實物,每翼家禽的客氣後:上帝認為,這是很好的。
22 And God blessed them, saying, Be fruitful, and multiply, and fill the waters in the seas, and let fowl multiply in the earth. 22日和上帝保佑他們說,是富有成效的,並繁衍,並填寫水域的海洋,讓雞多的地球。
23 And the evening and the morning were the fifth day. 23和晚上和今天上午的第5天。
24 And God said, Let the earth bring forth the living creature after his kind, cattle, and creeping thing, and beast of the earth after his kind: and it was so. 24日和上帝說,讓我們的地球帶來的生物說的客氣後,牛,和爬行的事情,和野獸地球後說的客氣:它是如此。
25 And God made the beast of the earth after his kind, and cattle after their kind, and every thing that creepeth upon the earth after his kind: and God saw that it was good. 25日和上帝創造了動物在地球上的客氣後,和牛的客氣後,每一個事情creepeth經地球後,他客氣:上帝認為,這是很好的。
26 And God said, Let us make man in our image, after our likeness: and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth. 26日,上帝說,讓我們的人在我們的形象,在我們的相似:讓他們有支配權的魚大海,在雞的空氣,和牛,以及所有的地球,並有一切事情creepeth蔓延的地球。
27 So God created man in his own image, in the image of God created he him; male and female created he them. 27人,使他們管理自己的形象,在形象,上帝創造他他;男性和女性創造他它們。
28 And God blessed them, and God said unto them, Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it: and have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over every living thing that moveth upon the earth. 28日和上帝保佑他們,上帝對他們說,是富有成效的,並繁衍,地球和補充,並征服它:和支配權的魚大海,在雞的空氣,每一個生活的事這moveth地上。
29 And God said, Behold, I have given you every herb bearing seed, which is upon the face of all the earth, and every tree, in the which is the fruit of a tree yielding seed; to you it shall be for meat. 29日和上帝說,看哪,我已經給你一切藥草軸承種子,這是各國面臨的所有的地球,每一棵樹,在它的果實的樹高產制;你須肉。
30 And to every beast of the earth, and to every fowl of the air, and to every thing that creepeth upon the earth, wherein there is life, I have given every green herb for meat: and it was so. 30日和每一個野獸地球,並每家禽的空氣,每一個事情creepeth經地球,其中有生命,我給每一個綠色藥草肉:它是如此。
31 And God saw every thing that he had made, and, behold, it was very good. 31和上帝看到一切,他提出,並看哪,這是非常好的。 And the evening and the morning were the sixth day. 和晚上和今天上午的第6天。


(P) 1 Thus the heavens and the earth were finished, and all the host of them. (規劃) 1因此天地結束後,所有的東道國他們。
2 And on the seventh day God ended his work which he had made; and he rested on the seventh day from all his work which he had made. 2並於第七天上帝結束了他的工作,他提出了,他休息了7天就從他的所有工作,這是他的講話。
3 And God blessed the seventh day, and sanctified it: because that in it he had rested from all his work which God created and made. 3 ,上帝保佑的第七天,和神聖的:因為這是他在休息從他的所有工作,上帝創造了。
4 (R) These are the generations of the heavens and of the earth when they were created, (J) in the day that the LORD God made the earth and the heavens, 4 (註冊商標)這是幾代人的天空和地球時,他們會建立, ( j )在一天,上帝使地球和天空,
5 And every plant of the field before it was in the earth, and every herb of the field before it grew: for the LORD God had not caused it to rain upon the earth, and there was not a man to till the ground. 5 ,每個廠的外地前,在地球,每個藥草外地收到增長:為上帝沒有造成它下雨地上,沒有一個人來,直到地面。
6 But there went up a mist from the earth, and watered the whole face of the ground. 6但是,到了霧從地球上,並澆水整個面對地面。
7 And the LORD God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul. 7日和上帝的人組成的塵埃地面,呼吸到他的鼻孔呼吸的生命;和男子成為一個活的靈魂。
8 And the LORD God planted a garden eastward in Eden; and there he put the man whom he had formed. 8日和上帝種植園向東在伊甸園;和在那裡,他把該名男子,他已成立。
9 And out of the ground made the LORD God to grow every tree that is pleasant to the sight, and good for food; the tree of life also in the midst of the garden, and the tree of knowledge of good and evil. 9日和出地面了上帝增長每一棵樹上這是愉快的情景,和良好的食物;生命樹的也正在研究的花園,和樹的知識,善和惡。
10 And a river went out of Eden to water the garden; and from thence it was parted, and became into four heads. 10日和河流走出伊甸園水花園;和再有人分手,並成為分為四個元首。
11 The name of the first is Pison: that is it which compasseth the whole land of Havilah, where there is gold; 11的名字首先是皮鬆:這就是它的compasseth整個土地Havilah ,那裡是黃金;
12 And the gold of that land is good: there is bdellium and the onyx stone. 12日和金的,土地是良好的:有bdellium和瑪瑙石。
13 And the name of the second river is Gihon: the same is it that compasseth the whole land of Ethiopia. 13日和的名字,第二次河流Gihon :同是認為compasseth整個土地埃塞俄比亞。
14 And the name of the third river is Hiddekel: that is it which goeth toward the east of Assyria. 14和名稱第三河Hiddekel :這就是它的goeth向東面的亞述。 And the fourth river is Euphrates. 和第四次幼發拉底河河水。
15 And the LORD God took the man, and put him into the garden of Eden to dress it and to keep it. 15日和上帝了該名男子,並把他的伊甸園穿著它,並保持它。
16 And the LORD God commanded the man, saying, Of every tree of the garden thou mayest freely eat: 16日和上帝命令的人,說的每一棵樹上的花園你mayest自由吃:
17 But of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, thou shalt not eat of it: for in the day that thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die. 17但是,在樹的知識,善和惡,你應該吃的是:對在eatest一天,你有你應該肯定死。
18 And the LORD God said, It is not good that the man should be alone; I will make him an help meet for him. 18日和上帝說,這不是很好,該名男子應單獨;我將讓他的幫助滿足他。
19 And out of the ground the LORD God formed every beast of the field, and every fowl of the air; and brought them unto Adam to see what he would call them: and whatsoever Adam called every living creature, that was the name thereof. 19日和出地面上帝形成的每一個領域的野獸,每雞的空氣;並把他們帶到你們亞當看看他會立即打電話給他們:和任何亞當呼籲每生物,這是人的名字。
20 And Adam gave names to all cattle, and to the fowl of the air, and to every beast of the field; but for Adam there was not found an help meet for him. 20日和亞當給所有牛的名字,和家禽的空氣,每一個野獸的領域;但亞當沒有發現有助於滿足他。
21 And the LORD God caused a deep sleep to fall upon Adam, and he slept: and he took one of his ribs, and closed up the flesh instead thereof; 21日和上帝造成了深度睡眠時下降亞當,他睡:他把他的肋骨,並關閉了肉體而不是人;
22 And the rib, which the LORD God had taken from man, made he a woman, and brought her unto the man. 22和肋骨,這是上帝採取了從人,取得了他一個女人,並把她告訴該名男子。
23 And Adam said, This is now bone of my bones, and flesh of my flesh: she shall be called Woman, because she was taken out of Man. 23亞當說,這是我現在骨骨頭,肉和我的肉身:她應被稱為女人,因為她帶出的人。
24 Therefore shall a man leave his father and his mother, and shall cleave unto his wife: and they shall be one flesh. 24因此,人要離開他的父親和他的母親,並應妻子:和二人成為一體。
25 And they were both naked, the man and his wife, and were not ashamed. 25日和他們兩個人的衣服,該名男子和他的妻子,並沒有感到羞愧。


1 (J) Now the serpent was more subtil than any beast of the field which the LORD God had made. 1款( j )現在蛇更subtil比任何野獸的領域上帝了。 And he said unto the woman, Yea, hath God said, Ye shall not eat of every tree of the garden? 他說,你們的女人,是啊,上帝上帝說,葉不得吃的每一棵樹上的花園?
2 And the woman said unto the serpent, We may eat of the fruit of the trees of the garden: 2 ,女子說,你們的蛇,我們可以吃的水果的樹木的花園:
3 But of the fruit of the tree which is in the midst of the garden, God hath said, Ye shall not eat of it, neither shall ye touch it, lest ye die. 3 ,但果實的樹是在一片的花園,上帝說,葉不得吃它,既不應曄觸摸它,以免葉死亡。
4 And the serpent said unto the woman, Ye shall not surely die: 4 ,蛇說:你們的女人,葉不得肯定死:
5 For God doth know that in the day ye eat thereof, then your eyes shall be opened, and ye shall be as gods, knowing good and evil. 5上帝doth知道,在有一天你們吃,然後你的眼睛應開了,葉應如神,知道善惡。
6 And when the woman saw that the tree was good for food, and that it was pleasant to the eyes, and a tree to be desired to make one wise, she took of the fruit thereof, and did eat, and gave also unto her husband with her; and he did eat. 6 ,當該女子看到,樹良好的食物,這是愉快的眼睛,一棵樹理想,使一個明智的,她的成果時,並沒有吃的,並還對她與她的丈夫,他沒有吃。
7 And the eyes of them both were opened, and they knew that they were naked; and they sewed fig leaves together, and made themselves aprons. 7和他們的眼睛都被打開了,他們知道,他們赤身裸體,他們縫無花果葉在一起,並提出自己的圍裙。
8 And they heard the voice of the LORD God walking in the garden in the cool of the day: and Adam and his wife hid themselves from the presence of the LORD God amongst the trees of the garden. 8 ,他們聽到的聲音,上帝走在花園中的冷的一天:與亞當和他的妻子隱瞞自己的存在上帝之間的樹木的花園。
9 And the LORD God called unto Adam, and said unto him, Where art thou? 9 ,上帝給亞當要求,並說給他,如果你是藝術?
10 And he said, I heard thy voice in the garden, and I was afraid, because I was naked; and I hid myself. 10 ,他說,我聽到你的聲音在花園裡,我很害怕,因為我是赤裸裸的,我躲在自己。
11 And he said, Who told thee that thou wast naked? 11日和他說,他告訴你說,你浪費裸體? Hast thou eaten of the tree, whereof I commanded thee that thou shouldest not eat? 你吃你的樹,信守我命令你說,你shouldest不能吃?
12 And the man said, The woman whom thou gavest to be with me, she gave me of the tree, and I did eat. 12日,該男子說,女人你gavest是我的,她給我的樹,我沒有吃。
13 And the LORD God said unto the woman, What is this that thou hast done? 13日和上帝說,你們的女人,這是什麼是你做什麼? And the woman said, The serpent beguiled me, and I did eat. 與該女子說,蛇受騙我,我沒有吃。
14 And the LORD God said unto the serpent, Because thou hast done this, thou art cursed above all cattle, and above every beast of the field; upon thy belly shalt thou go, and dust shalt thou eat all the days of thy life: 14 ,上帝說:你們的蛇,因為你這樣做,你是詛咒上述所有牛,和上述的每一個領域的野獸;根據你的肚子書你去,你和塵埃必吃所有的日子你的生活:
15 And I will put enmity between thee and the woman, and between thy seed and her seed; it shall bruise thy head, and thou shalt bruise his heel. 15日和我將把你之間的敵意和女人之間,以及你的種子,她的種子;應挫傷你的頭,你應該挫傷他的致命弱點。
16 Unto the woman he said, I will greatly multiply thy sorrow and thy conception; in sorrow thou shalt bring forth children; and thy desire shall be to thy husband, and he shall rule over thee. 女子16 Unto他說,我將大大倍增你的悲傷和你的概念;在悲痛你應該帶來兒童;和你的願望應是你的丈夫,他將統治你。
17 And unto Adam he said, Because thou hast hearkened unto the voice of thy wife, and hast eaten of the tree, of which I commanded thee, saying, Thou shalt not eat of it: cursed is the ground for thy sake; in sorrow shalt thou eat of it all the days of thy life; 17給亞當他說,因為你悔罪你們的聲音,你的妻子,你吃的樹,我命令你說,你應該吃的是:詛咒是為你的酒;在悲痛書你吃的這一切的日子你的生活;
18 Thorns also and thistles shall it bring forth to thee; and thou shalt eat the herb of the field; 18荊棘也和薊不得帶來到你和你應該吃中藥的領域;
19 In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread, till thou return unto the ground; for out of it wast thou taken: for dust thou art, and unto dust shalt thou return. 19在你的臉上汗水書你吃麵包,直到你回到你們的地面;為它浪費了你的行動:對粉塵祢,和你們灰塵書你回來。
20 And Adam called his wife's name Eve; because she was the mother of all living. 20日和亞當呼籲他妻子的名字除夕;因為她的母親,所有的生活。
21 Unto Adam also and to his wife did the LORD God make coats of skins, and clothed them. 21 Unto亞當還和他的妻子沒有上帝使大衣的皮膚,和衣服他們。
22 And the LORD God said, Behold, the man is become as one of us, to know good and evil: and now, lest he put forth his hand, and take also of the tree of life, and eat, and live for ever: 22日和上帝說,看哪,這名男子是成為一個我們知道善和惡的:現在,以免他提出他的手,並考慮的生命樹,和吃飯,永世:
23 Therefore the LORD God sent him forth from the garden of Eden, to till the ground from whence he was taken. 23因此,上帝派他提出從伊甸園,以到地面,他被帶往何處。
24 So he drove out the man; and he placed at the east of the garden of Eden Cherubims, and a flaming sword which turned every way, to keep the way of the tree of life. 24於是,他趕走的人,他排在東部的伊甸園Cherubims和燃燒劍這把各種方式,使道路上的生命樹。


1 (J) And Adam knew Eve his wife; and she conceived, and bare Cain, and said, I have gotten a man from the LORD. 1 ( j )和亞當夏娃知道他的妻子和她的設想,並裸露該隱,並說,我有918名男子從主。
2 And she again bare his brother Abel. 2和她再次暴露他的弟弟亞伯。 And Abel was a keeper of sheep, but Cain was a tiller of the ground. 和Abel是門將的綿羊,但該隱是分蘗地面。
3 And in process of time it came to pass, that Cain brought of the fruit of the ground an offering unto the LORD. 3 ,在進程的時間來傳遞,這該隱帶來的成果,提供給當地的主。
4 And Abel, he also brought of the firstlings of his flock and of the fat thereof. 4和阿貝爾,他還帶來了firstlings了他的羊群和脂肪不足。 And the LORD had respect unto Abel and to his offering: 與上帝的尊重你們阿貝爾和他的產品:
5 But unto Cain and to his offering he had not respect. 5 ,但你們該隱和他的產品,他不尊重。 And Cain was very wroth, and his countenance fell. 和該隱是非常憤怒,他的面容下跌。
6 And the LORD said unto Cain, Why art thou wroth? 6和上帝給該隱說,你為什麼藝術憤怒? and why is thy countenance fallen? 為什麼是你的面容下降?
7 If thou doest well, shalt thou not be accepted? 7如果你doest好,書你不能接受? and if thou doest not well, sin lieth at the door. 如果你沒有得到很好的doest ,黃大仙lieth在門口。 And unto thee shall be his desire, and thou shalt rule over him. 並告訴你,應他的願望,和你應該統治他。
8 And Cain talked with Abel his brother: and it came to pass, when they were in the field, that Cain rose up against Abel his brother, and slew him. 8日和該隱跟他的兄弟亞伯:它來傳遞,當他們在外地工作,這該隱起來反對他的兄弟亞伯,並轉換了。
9 And the LORD said unto Cain, Where is Abel thy brother? 9和上帝給該隱說,哪裡是你的兄弟亞伯? And he said, I know not: Am I my brother's keeper? 他說,我不知道:我是我弟弟的門將?
10 And he said, What hast thou done? 10 ,他說,你做什麼你? the voice of thy brother's blood crieth unto me from the ground. 的聲音,你弟弟的血crieth告訴我從地面。
11 And now art thou cursed from the earth, which hath opened her mouth to receive thy brother's blood from thy hand; 11日和現在最先進的詛咒你從地球上,這上帝打開她的嘴裡得到你弟弟的血從你的手;
12 When thou tillest the ground, it shall not henceforth yield unto thee her strength; a fugitive and a vagabond shalt thou be in the earth. 12當你tillest地面,不得今後產量她告訴你的力量;逃犯和一個流浪漢書你是在地球。
13 And Cain said unto the LORD, My punishment is greater than I can bear. 13日和凱恩說你們的上帝,我的懲罰大於我可以承受。
14 Behold, thou hast driven me out this day from the face of the earth; and from thy face shall I be hid; and I shall be a fugitive and a vagabond in the earth; and it shall come to pass, that every one that findeth me shall slay me. 14看哪,你驅使我離開這一天從地球的表面上;並從你的臉上我應該是藏;和我將逃犯和一個流浪漢的地球,它應成為過去,每一個我應findeth殺死我。
15 And the LORD said unto him, Therefore whosoever slayeth Cain, vengeance shall be taken on him sevenfold. 15耶和華說,給他,因此任何人slayeth該隱,應採取報復他七倍。 And the LORD set a mark upon Cain, lest any finding him should kill him. 與上帝創造了商標後,該隱,否則任何找到他應該殺死他。
16 And Cain went out from the presence of the LORD, and dwelt in the land of Nod, on the east of Eden. 16日和該隱出去的存在的主,和住在睡鄉,東伊甸園。
17 And Cain knew his wife; and she conceived, and bare Enoch: and he builded a city, and called the name of the city, after the name of his son, Enoch. 17該隱知道他的妻子和她的設想,並裸露伊諾克:他builded城市,並呼籲的名稱市的名稱後,他的兒子,伊諾克。
18 And unto Enoch was born Irad: and Irad begat Mehujael: and Mehujael begat Methusael: and Methusael begat Lamech. 18日和你們伊諾克出生Irad :和Irad begat Mehujael :和Mehujael begat Methusael :和Methusael begat拉麥。
19 And Lamech took unto him two wives: the name of the one was Adah, and the name of the other Zillah. 19日和拉麥了兩個妻子告訴他:的名稱,一個是Adah ,以及其他名稱的齊拉。
20 And Adah bare Jabal: he was the father of such as dwell in tents, and of such as have cattle. 20日和Adah裸露的山:他的父親,如住在帳篷裡,和如已牛。
21 And his brother's name was Jubal: he was the father of all such as handle the harp and organ. 21日和他的兄弟的名字是Jubal :他的父親所有,如處理豎琴和器官。
22 And Zillah, she also bare Tubalcain, an instructer of every artificer in brass and iron: and the sister of Tubalcain was Naamah. 22日和齊拉,她還裸露Tubalcain ,一個instructer每個技工黃銅和鐵:和姐姐Tubalcain是Naamah 。
23 And Lamech said unto his wives, Adah and Zillah, Hear my voice; ye wives of Lamech, hearken unto my speech: for I have slain a man to my wounding, and a young man to my hurt. 23拉麥說給他的妻子, Adah和齊拉,聽到自己的聲音;葉妻子拉麥,傾聽告訴我的講話:為我一個人被殺害我傷人,和一名年輕男子到我的傷害。
24 If Cain shall be avenged sevenfold, truly Lamech seventy and sevenfold. 24如果該隱應一箭七倍,真正拉麥70和七倍。
25 And Adam knew his wife again; and she bare a son, and called his name Seth: For God, said she, hath appointed me another seed instead of Abel, whom Cain slew. 25日和亞當知道他的妻子又和她裸露的一個兒子,並呼籲他的名字塞思:上帝,她說,上帝任命我另一個種子不是阿貝爾,其中該隱轉換。
26 And to Seth, to him also there was born a son; and he called his name Enos: then began men to call upon the name of the LORD. 26日和以塞思,他還沒有出生的兒子,他呼籲他的名字埃諾斯:然後開始男子呼籲的名稱主。


1 (R) This is the book of the generations of Adam. 1 (註冊商標) ,這是這本書的幾代亞當。 In the day that God created man, in the likeness of God made he him;在一天,上帝創造的人,在上帝那樣,他提出他;
2 Male and female created he them; and blessed them, and called their name Adam, in the day when they were created. 2男性和女性創造他他們;和祝福他們,並要求他們的名字亞當,在那一天他們被創建。
3 And Adam lived an hundred and thirty years, and begat a son in his own likeness, after his image; and called his name Seth: 3和亞當生活了100和30年,並begat一個兒子在他自己的肖像後,他的形象;並呼籲他的名字塞思:
4 And the days of Adam after he had begotten Seth were eight hundred years: and he begat sons and daughters: 4 ,亞當的日子後,他生塞思是八百年:他begat兒女:
5 And all the days that Adam lived were nine hundred and thirty years: and he died. 5 ,所有的日子裡亞當住了九三〇年:和他的死因。
6 And Seth lived an hundred and five years, and begat Enos: 6和Seth住了100和5年, begat埃諾斯:
7 And Seth lived after he begat Enos eight hundred and seven years, and begat sons and daughters: 7和Seth生活,他begat埃諾斯八零七年和begat兒女:
8 And all the days of Seth were nine hundred and twelve years: and he died. 8 ,所有的日子裡塞思是912年:和他的死因。
9 And Enos lived ninety years, and begat Cainan: 9和eNOS生活九十年,並begat彩:
10 And Enos lived after he begat Cainan eight hundred and fifteen years, and begat sons and daughters: 10和eNOS住他begat彩八一五年,並begat兒女:
11 And all the days of Enos were nine hundred and five years: and he died. 11和所有天的eNOS是九百〇五年:和他的死因。
12 And Cainan lived seventy years, and begat Mahalaleel: 12日和彩住七十年,並begat Mahalaleel :
13 And Cainan lived after he begat Mahalaleel eight hundred and forty years, and begat sons and daughters: 13日和彩生活後,他begat Mahalaleel八百四十年,並begat兒女:
14 And all the days of Cainan were nine hundred and ten years: and he died.所有的14天的彩南都九百一十年:和他的死因。
15 And Mahalaleel lived sixty and five years, and begat Jared: 15和60和Mahalaleel居住五年, begat傑瑞德:
16 And Mahalaleel lived after he begat Jared eight hundred and thirty years, and begat sons and daughters: 16日和Mahalaleel生活,他begat傑瑞德八百三十年,並begat兒女:
17 And all the days of Mahalaleel were eight hundred ninety and five years: and he died.所有的17天的Mahalaleel是890和五年:和他的死因。
18 And Jared lived an hundred sixty and two years, and he begat Enoch: 18日和賈里德居住的100和60兩年,他begat伊諾克:
19 And Jared lived after he begat Enoch eight hundred years, and begat sons and daughters: 19日和賈里德生活後,他begat伊諾克八百年,並begat兒女:
20 And all the days of Jared were nine hundred sixty and two years: and he died. 20和所有的日子傑瑞德是960和二年:和他的死因。
21 And Enoch lived sixty and five years, and begat Methuselah: 21日和埃諾克德住六十和五年, begat瑪土撒拉:
22 And Enoch walked with God after he begat Methuselah three hundred years, and begat sons and daughters: 22日和埃諾克德走神,他begat瑪土撒拉三百年,並begat兒女:
23 And all the days of Enoch were three hundred sixty and five years: 23日,所有的日子伊諾克是360和五年:
24 And Enoch walked with God: and he was not; for God took him. 24日和埃諾克德走神:和他沒有;上帝把他。
25 And Methuselah lived an hundred eighty and seven years, and begat Lamech: 25日和瑪土撒拉住了80和100 7年,並begat拉麥:
26 And Methuselah lived after he begat Lamech seven hundred eighty and two years, and begat sons and daughters: 26日和瑪土撒拉生活,他begat拉麥780和兩年, begat兒女:
27 And all the days of Methuselah were nine hundred sixty and nine years: and he died. 27日,所有的日子裡瑪土撒拉是960和九年:他死亡。
28 And Lamech lived an hundred eighty and two years, and begat a son: 28日和拉麥居住的100和80兩年, begat一個兒子:
29 (J) And he called his name Noah, saying, This same shall comfort us concerning our work and toil of our hands, because of the ground which the LORD hath cursed. 29 ( j )和他呼籲他的名字諾亞說,這也應安慰我們關於我們的工作和辛勤的雙手,因為地面的耶和華上帝詛咒。
30 (R) And Lamech lived after he begat Noah five hundred ninety and five years, and begat sons and daughters: 30 ( R )和拉麥生活後,他begat諾亞590和5年, begat兒女:
31 And all the days of Lamech were seven hundred seventy and seven years: and he died. 31和所有的日子裡拉麥是770 7年:和他的死因。
32 And Noah was five hundred years old: and Noah begat Shem, Ham, and Japheth. 32和諾亞是五百年歲:和諾亞begat閃,火腿,和Japheth 。


1 (J) And it came to pass, when men began to multiply on the face of the earth, and daughters were born unto them, 1 ( j )條和它來傳遞,當男人開始繁殖的地球表面,和女兒的出生給他們,
2 That the sons of God saw the daughters of men that they were fair; and they took them wives of all which they chose. 2 ,上帝的兒子看到了女兒的男子,他們是公正的,他們把他們的妻子,所有這些選擇。
3 And the LORD said, My spirit shall not always strive with man, for that he also is flesh: yet his days shall be an hundred and twenty years. 3和上帝說,我的靈魂不得總是努力與男子的,他也是肉體:沒有他的日子應是100和20年。
4 There were giants in the earth in those days; and also after that, when the sons of God came in unto the daughters of men, and they bare children to them, the same became mighty men which were of old, men of renown. 4有巨人在地球在那些日子裡,並在此之後,當上帝的兒子排在你們的女兒的男人,他們裸露的兒童,他們同樣是強大的男人,這是舊的,男子的名聲。
5 And GOD saw that the wickedness of man was great in the earth, and that every imagination of the thoughts of his heart was only evil continually. 5上帝看到,邪惡的人是偉大的地球,每個想像力的思考他的心被邪惡不斷。
6 And it repented the LORD that he had made man on the earth, and it grieved him at his heart. 6 ,它後悔耶和華,他提出了人類在地球上,而且他在他的悲傷的心。
7 And the LORD said, I will destroy man whom I have created from the face of the earth; both man, and beast, and the creeping thing, and the fowls of the air; for it repenteth me that I have made them. 7耶和華說,我將我摧毀的人創造了從地球的表面上;兩個男子,和野獸,和蔓延的事情,和家禽的空氣;它repenteth我說,我取得了他們。
8 But Noah found grace in the eyes of the LORD. 8但諾亞在寬限期發現心目中的上帝。
9 (P) These are the generations of Noah: Noah was a just man and perfect in his generations, and Noah walked with God. 9 (規劃)這是幾代人的諾亞:諾亞是一個男人和完善公正的幾代人,走到諾亞與上帝。
10 And Noah begat three sons, Shem, Ham, and Japheth. 10日和諾亞begat三個兒子,閃,火腿,和Japheth 。
11 The earth also was corrupt before God, and the earth was filled with violence. 11地球也是腐敗的上帝面前,地球充滿了暴力。
12 And God looked upon the earth, and, behold, it was corrupt; for all flesh had corrupted his way upon the earth. 12日和上帝看著地上,並看哪,這是腐敗的;所有肉已損壞後,他的地球。
13 And God said unto Noah, The end of all flesh is come before me; for the earth is filled with violence through them; and, behold, I will destroy them with the earth. 13日和上帝告訴諾亞說,結束所有的肉體是來到我的地球是充滿暴力,通過他們,以及看哪,我將摧毀它們與地球。
14 Make thee an ark of gopher wood; rooms shalt thou make in the ark, and shalt pitch it within and without with pitch. 14讓你的方舟的Gopher木材;客房必使你的方舟,與書球場內,並沒有與間距。
15 And this is the fashion which thou shalt make it of: The length of the ark shall be three hundred cubits, the breadth of it fifty cubits, and the height of it thirty cubits. 15這是時尚的你應該使它的:的長度方舟應300肘,它的寬度第五十二肘,和它的高度為30肘。
16 A window shalt thou make to the ark, and in a cubit shalt thou finish it above; and the door of the ark shalt thou set in the side thereof; with lower, second, and third stories shalt thou make it. 16一個窗口,必使你的方舟,並在肘書你完成它上面;和門口的方舟你一套書的一方人;較低,第二和第三的故事書你做到這一點。
17 And, behold, I, even I, do bring a flood of waters upon the earth, to destroy all flesh, wherein is the breath of life, from under heaven; and every thing that is in the earth shall die. 17 ,看哪,我,即使我這樣做帶來了大量的水後,地球,銷毀所有的肉體,其中是呼吸的生命,從天堂;和每一點是在地球死。
18 But with thee will I establish my covenant; and thou shalt come into the ark, thou, and thy sons, and thy wife, and thy sons' wives with thee. 18但是,我會與你建立我國盟約;和你應該進入方舟,你和你的兒子,和你的妻子,你兒子的妻子跟你。
19 And of every living thing of all flesh, two of every sort shalt thou bring into the ark, to keep them alive with thee; they shall be male and female. 19日和每一個生活的所有事情的肉體,兩個各種書你帶入方舟,使他們與你還活著,他們將男性和女性。
20 Of fowls after their kind, and of cattle after their kind, of every creeping thing of the earth after his kind, two of every sort shall come unto thee, to keep them alive. 20後一種家禽和牲畜的客氣後,每一個蠕動的事情地球的客氣後,兩名各種須告訴你,讓他們活活燒死。
21 And take thou unto thee of all food that is eaten, and thou shalt gather it to thee; and it shall be for food for thee, and for them. 21日,並採取你告訴你所有的食物吃,和你應該收集到你,它應為你的食物,並為他們。
22 Thus did Noah; according to all that God commanded him, so did he. 22因而諾亞;根據所有,上帝命令他,所以他。


[Note: Chapter 7 and 8 are of particular interest, as the text switches frequently between the two main authors. [注:第7和第8條特別感興趣,因為文字開關頻繁的兩個主要作者。 The Redactor seems to have wanted to preserve both the J and P accounts more or less intact.該Redactor似乎都希望保留的J和P賬戶或多或少完好無損。 As a result, the text is quite repetitious:因此,該文是相當重複:

A slight conflict seems to exist:輕微衝突似乎存在著:

One or more verses from J are followed by one or more verses from P. If you read only the J verses, then you will get a coherent story.一個或多個詩句J其次是一個或多個詩句體育如果你只讀了J詩句,然後你會得到一個連貫的故事。 If you read just the P verses, you will see a consistent but slightly different story.如果您閱讀公正的P詩句,你會看到一個一致的,但略有不同的故事。

Verses by J 詩的J Verses by P and by R 詩的P和由R
1 And the LORD said unto Noah, Come thou and all thy house into the ark; for thee have I seen righteous before me in this generation. 1和上帝告訴諾亞說,來你和你的房子所有的方舟;對你有我看到正義在我前面的這一代。
2 Of every clean beast thou shalt take to thee by sevens, the male and his female: and of beasts that are not clean by two, the male and his female. 2在每一個清潔的野獸你應該考慮到你的七人,男性和他的女性:和野獸不乾淨的兩個,男和他的女性。
3 Of fowls also of the air by sevens, the male and the female; to keep seed alive upon the face of all the earth. 3在雞的空氣也由七人,男性和女性;保持種子活著的面對所有的地球。
4 For yet seven days, and I will cause it to rain upon the earth forty days and forty nights; and every living substance that I have made will I destroy from off the face of the earth. 4尚未七天,我將導致下雨地上四十天和第四十三夜;和每一個生活物質,我已經從我會摧毀了地球表面。
5 And Noah did according unto all that the LORD commanded him. 5和諾亞沒有根據你們所有的耶和華命令他。
6 (R) And Noah was six hundred years old when the flood of waters was upon the earth. 6 ( R )和諾亞是六百年歲時,如潮水般湧來的水是經地球。
7 And Noah went in, and his sons, and his wife, and his sons' wives with him, into the ark, because of the waters of the flood. 7日和諾亞去,和他的兒子,和他的妻子和他的兒子的妻子與他,進入方舟,由於水域洪水。
8 Of clean beasts, and of beasts that are not clean, and of fowls, and of every thing that creepeth upon the earth, 8清潔野獸,和野獸不乾淨,以及家禽,並每一點creepeth經地球,
9 There went in two and two unto Noah into the ark, the male and the female, as God had commanded Noah. 9有去兩個和兩個告訴諾亞方舟到,男和女,因為上帝命令諾亞。
10 And it came to pass after seven days, that the waters of the flood were upon the earth. 10 ,它通過七天後,該水域的洪水是對地球。
11 In the six hundredth year of Noah's life, in the second month, the seventeenth day of the month, the same day were all the fountains of the great deep broken up, and the windows of heaven were opened. 11日在第六百一年挪亞的生命,在第二個月, 17天的一個月,同一天被所有的噴泉大深拆散,和天上的窗戶被打開。
12 And the rain was upon the earth forty days and forty nights. 12日和雨是對地球四十天和40夜。
13 In the selfsame day entered Noah, and Shem, and Ham, and Japheth, the sons of Noah, and Noah's wife, and the three wives of his sons with them, into the ark; 13日在同一日進入挪亞,和大師,和火腿, Japheth ,諾亞的兒子,和諾亞的妻子,妻子和三個兒子與他們的方舟;
14 They, and every beast after his kind, and all the cattle after their kind, and every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth after his kind, and every fowl after his kind, every bird of every sort. 14日,他們和每一個野獸的客氣後,和所有的牛後,實物,每一個蠕動的事情creepeth地球時說的客氣後,每個家禽的客氣後,每一個鳥的每個排序。
15 And they went in unto Noah into the ark, two and two of all flesh, wherein is the breath of life. 15日和他們去告訴諾亞方舟到兩個及兩個所有肉,其中的生活氣息。
16 And they that went in, went in male and female of all flesh, as God had commanded him: 16日和他們說,去,去的男性和女性的所有肉,因為上帝命令他:
16 (Cont'd) and the LORD shut him in. 16 (續)和上帝關閉他英寸
17 And the flood was forty days upon the earth; and the waters increased, and bare up the ark, and it was lift up above the earth. 17和洪水是四十天的地球和水域增加,裸露的方舟,這是提升在地球上空。
18 And the waters prevailed, and were increased greatly upon the earth; and the ark went upon the face of the waters. 18日和水域佔了上風,並大大提高對地球和方舟去後面對水域。
19 And the waters prevailed exceedingly upon the earth; and all the high hills, that were under the whole heaven, were covered. 19日和水域極其普遍的地球和所有的高山區,是根據整個天堂,涵蓋。
20 Fifteen cubits upward did the waters prevail; and the mountains were covered. 20 15肘向上水域沒有佔上風;和覆蓋的山區。
21 And all flesh died that moved upon the earth, both of fowl, and of cattle, and of beast, and of every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth, and every man: 21和所有的肉後死亡,移動地球,這兩種家禽和牲畜,和野獸,和每一個蠕動的事情creepeth的地球,和每個人:
22 All in whose nostrils was the breath of life, of all that was in the dry land, died. 22日全部是在其鼻孔呼吸的生命,這一切是在乾燥的土地,死亡。
23 And every living substance was destroyed which was upon the face of the ground, both man, and cattle, and the creeping things, and the fowl of the heaven; and they were destroyed from the earth: and Noah only remained alive, and they that were with him in the ark. 23每個生活物質是被摧毀後,面對地面,無論男人,和牛,並逐漸外,和家禽的天堂,他們被摧毀地球:和諾亞唯一仍然活著,而且他們這是與他的方舟。
24 And the waters prevailed upon the earth an hundred and fifty days. 24日和水域說服地球的150天。


[Note: Again, we see frequent alterations between J and P. [注:同樣,我們看到經常改建J和體育之間

Verses by J 詩的J Verses by P and by R 詩的P和由R
1 And God remembered Noah, and every living thing, and all the cattle that was with him in the ark: and God made a wind to pass over the earth, and the waters asswaged; 1和上帝記住諾亞,每一個生活的東西,所有的牛是與他一起在方舟:上帝發了風越過地球和水域asswaged ;
2 The fountains also of the deep and the windows of heaven were stopped, 2噴泉還深,天上的窗戶被截停,
2 (Cont'd) and the rain from heaven was restrained; 2 (續)和雨水從天上被凍結;
3 And the waters returned from off the earth continually: 3和水域返回了地球不斷:
3 (Cont'd) and after the end of the hundred and fifty days the waters were abated. 3 (續)和結束後的100和五○天水域被減弱。
4 And the ark rested in the seventh month, on the seventeenth day of the month, upon the mountains of Ararat. 4日和休息的方舟在第7個月,在17日的一個月後,山區的阿拉臘。
5 And the waters decreased continually until the tenth month: in the tenth month, on the first day of the month, were the tops of the mountains seen. 5和水域不斷下降,直到第10個月:在第10個月,在每月的第一天,是上衣的山區看到。
6 And it came to pass at the end of forty days, that Noah opened the window of the ark which he had made: 6 ,通過它來結束時四十天,即打開窗戶諾亞方舟,這是他提出:
7 And he sent forth a raven, which went forth to and fro, until the waters were dried up from off the earth. 7和他派了一個烏鴉,其中提出了往復,直到水域乾涸,由從地球。
8 Also he sent forth a dove from him, to see if the waters were abated from off the face of the ground; 8此外,他發出了一個鴿子從他身上,看看是否有緩解水域從起飛面對地面;
9 But the dove found no rest for the sole of her foot, and she returned unto him into the ark, for the waters were on the face of the whole earth: then he put forth his hand, and took her, and pulled her in unto him into the ark. 9但是,鴿子沒有發現其餘的唯一的她的腳,她回來告訴他的方舟,為水域表面上整個地球:然後他提出了他的手,把她和她的退出你們把他的方舟。
10 And he stayed yet other seven days; and again he sent forth the dove out of the ark; 10日和他下榻的其他七天;並再次提出他的鴿子發出的方舟;
11 And the dove came in to him in the evening; and, lo, in her mouth was an olive leaf pluckt off: so Noah knew that the waters were abated from off the earth. 11和鴿子排在他在傍晚和,羅,在她的嘴是一個橄欖葉pluckt關:使諾亞知道該水域減少從地球起飛。
12 And he stayed yet other seven days; and sent forth the dove; which returned not again unto him any more. 12日和他下榻的其他七天;和發送提出鴿子;而不是再次回到告訴他了。
13 And it came to pass in the six hundredth and first year, in the first month, the first day of the month, the waters were dried up from off the earth: 13日和它來傳遞第六百和第一年,在第一個月的第一天,本月底,該水域乾涸,由從地球:
13 (Cont'd)...and Noah removed the covering of the ark, and looked, and, behold, the face of the ground was dry. 13 (續) ...和諾亞取消涉及的方舟,並期待,而且,看哪,面對地面乾燥。
14 And in the second month, on the seven and twentieth day of the month, was the earth dried. 14日,在第2個月,在7和20日的一個月,是地球乾燥。
15 And God spake unto Noah, saying, 15日和上帝spake告訴諾亞說,
16 Go forth of the ark, thou, and thy wife, and thy sons, and thy sons' wives with thee. 16轉到提出的方舟,你和你的妻子,和你的兒子,你兒子的妻子跟你。
17 Bring forth with thee every living thing that is with thee, of all flesh, both of fowl, and of cattle, and of every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth; that they may breed abundantly in the earth, and be fruitful, and multiply upon the earth. 17帶來的生活與你每一點是跟你,所有的肉體,兩者家禽和牲畜,和每一個蠕動的事情creepeth的地球;他們可能滋生大量的地球,並取得豐碩成果,並乘法的地球。
18 And Noah went forth, and his sons, and his wife, and his sons' wives with him: 18日和諾亞提出了,和他的兒子,和他的妻子和他的兒子的妻子同他:
19 Every beast, every creeping thing, and every fowl, and whatsoever creepeth upon the earth, after their kinds, went forth out of the ark. 19每個野獸,每一個蠕動的東西,每個家禽,和什麼creepeth經地球後,他們的種,他提出離開方舟。
20 And Noah builded an altar unto the LORD; and took of every clean beast, and of every clean fowl, and offered burnt offerings on the altar. 20日和諾亞builded祭壇你們的主,並每清潔野獸,和每一個乾淨的家禽,並提供燔祭的祭壇上。
21 And the LORD smelled a sweet savour; and the LORD said in his heart, I will not again curse the ground any more for man's sake; for the imagination of man's heart is evil from his youth; neither will I again smite any more every thing living, as I have done. 21和上帝聞甜品味;和上帝說,在他的心中,我不會再次詛咒地面任何更多的人的利益;的想像力的人的心是邪惡的,他青年;沒有將我再次撾任何更多的每事情的生活,因為我已經做到。
22 While the earth remaineth, seedtime and harvest, and cold and heat, and summer and winter, and day and night shall not cease. 22雖然地球remaineth , seedtime和收穫,以及嚴寒及酷暑,和夏季和冬季,並日夜不得停止。


1 (P) And God blessed Noah and his sons, and said unto them, Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth. 1 ( P )和上帝保佑諾亞和他的兒子,並表示對他們,是富有成效的,並繁衍,並補充地球。
2 And the fear of you and the dread of you shall be upon every beast of the earth, and upon every fowl of the air, upon all that moveth upon the earth, and upon all the fishes of the sea; into your hand are they delivered. 2和害怕你和你的恐懼,應根據每個野獸的地球,並根據每個家禽的空氣,所有的moveth的地球,並呼籲所有的魚在海中;到你的手,他們交付。
3 Every moving thing that liveth shall be meat for you; even as the green herb have I given you all things. 3每一個移動的事情活著應肉類為您;即使綠色藥草給你我所有的東西。
4 But flesh with the life thereof, which is the blood thereof, shall ye not eat. 4 ,但肉體的生命時,這是血時,應葉不吃。
5 And surely your blood of your lives will I require; at the hand of every beast will I require it, and at the hand of man; at the hand of every man's brother will I require the life of man. 5 ,當然你的血液你的生命,我會要求;在手的每一個野獸,我會要求,並在手的人;在手的每一個男人的兄弟,我會要求人類生活的。
6 Whoso sheddeth man's blood, by man shall his blood be shed: for in the image of God made he man. 6 Whoso sheddeth人的血液中,他的血的人應予以說明:在上帝的形象,取得了他的人。
7 And you, be ye fruitful, and multiply; bring forth abundantly in the earth, and multiply therein. 7日和您,你們卓有成效的,並乘;帶來大量的地球,並有繁殖。
8 And God spake unto Noah, and to his sons with him, saying, 8 ,上帝告訴諾亞spake ,以及他的兒子跟他說,
9 And I, behold, I establish my covenant with you, and with your seed after you; 9日和我,看哪,我建立我的盟約,你和你的種子後,您;
10 And with every living creature that is with you, of the fowl, of the cattle, and of every beast of the earth with you; from all that go out of the ark, to every beast of the earth. 10日和每一個生物是與你的雞,對牛,和每一個野獸地球與您;從所有走出方舟,每野獸地球。
11 And I will establish my covenant with you; neither shall all flesh be cut off any more by the waters of a flood; neither shall there any more be a flood to destroy the earth. 11日和我將建立與你我的公約;既不應所有肉被切斷任何更多的水域洪水;既不須有更多的是一個洪水摧毀地球。
12 And God said, This is the token of the covenant which I make between me and you and every living creature that is with you, for perpetual generations: 12日和上帝說,這是象徵性的盟約,我讓我和你之間,每個生物是你,為Perpetual後代:
13 I do set my bow in the cloud, and it shall be for a token of a covenant between me and the earth. 13我為我設置弓在雲,它應為象徵性的公約之間的我和地球。
14 And it shall come to pass, when I bring a cloud over the earth, that the bow shall be seen in the cloud: 14並應成為過去,當我把一個陰影地球,即弓應看到雲:
15 And I will remember my covenant, which is between me and you and every living creature of all flesh; and the waters shall no more become a flood to destroy all flesh. 15日和我會記住我的公約,這是我和你之間和每一個生物所有的肉體和水域不得不再成為洪水摧毀所有的肉體。
16 And the bow shall be in the cloud; and I will look upon it, that I may remember the everlasting covenant between God and every living creature of all flesh that is upon the earth. 16日和船頭應在雲,我都會利用它,我可能還記得公約之間的永恆的上帝,每個生物的肉是所有的地球。
17 And God said unto Noah, This is the token of the covenant, which I have established between me and all flesh that is upon the earth. 17上帝告訴諾亞說,這是象徵性的盟約,我雙方之間已確立的我和所有的肉體是根據地球。
18 (J) And the sons of Noah, that went forth of the ark, were Shem, and Ham, and Japheth: and Ham is the father of Canaan. 18 ( j )和諾亞的兒子,前往規定的方舟,是大師,和火腿, Japheth :和火腿是迦南的父親。
19 These are the three sons of Noah: and of them was the whole earth overspread. 19這是三個兒子的諾亞:與人是整個地球蔓延。
20 And Noah began to be an husbandman, and he planted a vineyard: 20日和諾亞開始是一個husbandman ,他種植的葡萄園:
21 And he drank of the wine, and was drunken; and he was uncovered within his tent. 21日和他喝的酒,是醉酒,他被發現在他的帳篷。
22 And Ham, the father of Canaan, saw the nakedness of his father, and told his two brethren without. 22日和火腿,迦南的父親,看到了赤裸的他的父親,並告訴他的兩個兄弟沒有。
23 And Shem and Japheth took a garment, and laid it upon both their shoulders, and went backward, and covered the nakedness of their father; and their faces were backward, and they saw not their father's nakedness. 23閃和Japheth了服裝,並把它取決於他們的肩上,又落後,涵蓋了赤裸的父親和他們的臉被落後,他們認為不是他們的父親的裸體。
24 And Noah awoke from his wine, and knew what his younger son had done unto him. 24日和挪亞醒來,他的葡萄酒,並知道他的小兒子給他做了。
25 And he said, Cursed be Canaan; a servant of servants shall he be unto his brethren. 25日和他說,詛咒是迦南;一個僕人的僕人,他是應給他的兄弟。
26 And he said, Blessed be the LORD God of Shem; and Canaan shall be his servant. 26日,他說,祝福是上帝的閃;和迦南應他的僕人。
27 God shall enlarge Japheth, and he shall dwell in the tents of Shem; and Canaan shall be his servant. 27上帝的應擴大Japheth ,他將睡在帳篷裡的閃;和迦南應他的僕人。
28 (R) And Noah lived after the flood three hundred and fifty years. 28 ( R )和諾亞生活,大洪水過後三百五十零年。
29 And all the days of Noah were nine hundred and fifty years: and he died. 29日和所有的日子諾亞被九百五十年:和他的死因。

CHAPTER 10第10章

1 (R) Now these are the generations of the sons of Noah, Shem, Ham, and Japheth: (P) and unto them were sons born after the flood. 1 (註冊商標)現在這些後代的兒子諾亞,閃,火腿,和Japheth : ( P )和對他們的兒子出生後的洪水。
2 The sons of Japheth; Gomer, and Magog, and Madai, and Javan, and Tubal, and Meshech, and Tiras. 2的兒子Japheth ; Gomer ,和瑪各,和Madai ,和爪哇,和輸卵管,並Meshech ,並提拉斯。
3 And the sons of Gomer; Ashkenaz, and Riphath, and Togarmah. 3和的兒子Gomer ; Ashkenaz ,並Riphath ,和Togarmah 。
4 And the sons of Javan; Elishah, and Tarshish, Kittim, and Dodanim. 4和的兒子賈範; Elishah ,並Tarshish , Kittim ,並Dodanim 。
5 By these were the isles of the Gentiles divided in their lands; every one after his tongue, after their families, in their nations. 5通過這些島的外邦人劃分他們的土地;每個人都在他的舌頭,在他們的家庭,在他們國家。
6 And the sons of Ham; Cush, and Mizraim, and Phut, and Canaan. 6和的兒子火腿; Cush ,並Mizraim和Phut ,並迦南。
7 And the sons of Cush; Seba, and Havilah, and Sabtah, and Raamah, and Sabtecha: and the sons of Raamah; Sheba, and Dedan. 7和的兒子Cush ;施,和Havilah ,並Sabtah ,並Raamah ,並Sabtecha :和兒子Raamah ;什巴,和德丹。
8 (J) And Cush begat Nimrod: he began to be a mighty one in the earth. 8 ( j )和Cush begat尼姆羅德:他開始是一個強大的一個地球。
9 He was a mighty hunter before the LORD: wherefore it is said, Even as Nimrod the mighty hunter before the LORD. 9他是一個偉大的獵人擺在耶和華面前:這是何故說,即使在強大的獵人尼姆羅德前主。
10 And the beginning of his kingdom was Babel, and Erech, and Accad, and Calneh, in the land of Shinar. 10月初,他被英國巴貝爾和Erech ,並Accad ,並Calneh ,在示拿的土地。
11 Out of that land went forth Asshur, and builded Nineveh, and the city Rehoboth, and Calah, 11個土地去提出Asshur ,並builded尼納瓦,和城市裡霍博斯,並Calah ,
12 And Resen between Nineveh and Calah: the same is a great city. 12日和雷森之間尼尼微和Calah :同是一個偉大的城市。
13 And Mizraim begat Ludim, and Anamim, and Lehabim, and Naphtuhim, 13日和Mizraim begat Ludim ,並Anamim ,並Lehabim ,並Naphtuhim ,
14 And Pathrusim, and Casluhim, (out of whom came Philistim,) and Caphtorim. 14 Pathrusim ,並Casluhim , (出人來到Philistim , )和Caphtorim 。
15 And Canaan begat Sidon his firstborn, and Heth, 15日和迦南begat西頓他頭,並Heth ,
16 And the Jebusite, and the Amorite, and the Girgasite, 16和Jebusite和亞摩利人,和Girgasite ,
17 And the Hivite, and the Arkite, and the Sinite, 17和Hivite ,和Arkite ,和Sinite ,
18 And the Arvadite, and the Zemarite, and the Hamathite: and afterward were the families of the Canaanites spread abroad. 18和Arvadite ,和Zemarite ,和Hamathite :和事後被家屬的迦南傳播海外。
19 And the border of the Canaanites was from Sidon, as thou comest to Gerar, unto Gaza; as thou goest, unto Sodom, and Gomorrah, and Admah, and Zeboim, even unto Lasha. 19日和邊境的迦南是從西頓,因為你要Gerar倫理學,給加沙;為你goest ,你們所多瑪和蛾摩拉,和Admah ,和Zeboim ,甚至給拉薩。
20 (P) These are the sons of Ham, after their families, after their tongues, in their countries, and in their nations. 20 (規劃)這些都是咸的兒子後,他們的家庭,在他們的母語,在他們的國家,並在自己的國家。
21 (J) Unto Shem also, the father of all the children of Eber, the brother of Japheth the elder, even to him were children born. 21 ( J )條Unto閃另外,父親的所有兒童的韋伯的兄弟Japheth老,甚至他的子女。
22 (P) The children of Shem; Elam, and Asshur, and Arphaxad, and Lud, and Aram. 22 (規劃)的兒童閃;伊拉姆和Asshur ,並Arphaxad和Lud ,和亞蘭。
23 And the children of Aram; Uz, and Hul, and Gether, and Mash. 23日,孩子們的亞蘭;烏茲,和豪,並Gether和混搭。
24 (J) And Arphaxad begat Salah; and Salah begat Eber. 24 ( j )條和Arphaxad begat薩拉赫蘇;和Salah begat韋伯。
25 And unto Eber were born two sons: the name of one was Peleg; for in his days was the earth divided; and his brother's name was Joktan. 25日和你們韋伯出生的兩個兒子:一個名稱是皮萊格;在他的日子是地球分成;和他的兄弟的名字是Joktan 。
26 And Joktan begat Almodad, and Sheleph, and Hazar-maveth, and Jerah, 26日和Joktan begat Almodad ,並Sheleph和哈扎爾- maveth ,並Jerah ,
27 And Hadoram, and Uzal, and Diklah, 27日和Hadoram ,並Uzal ,並Diklah ,
28 And Obal, and Abimael, and Sheba, 28日和Obal ,並Abimael ,和巴,
29 And Ophir, and Havilah, and Jobab: all these were the sons of Joktan. 29日和奧菲爾和Havilah和Jobab :所有這些都是兒子Joktan 。
30 And their dwelling was from Mesha, as thou goest unto Sephar a mount of the east. 30日和他們的住宅是由Mesha ,因為你goest你們Sephar一山以東。
31 (P) These are the sons of Shem, after their families, after their tongues, in their lands, after their nations. 31 (規劃)這些大師的兒子後,他們的家庭,在他們的母語,在他們的土地後,他們的國家。
32 These are the families of the sons of Noah, after their generations, in their nations: and by these were the nations divided in the earth after the flood. 32這是家庭的兒子諾亞,在他們的後代,在他們國家:和這些國家分為地球後的洪水。


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The five books of Moses were collectively called the Pentateuch, a word of Greek origin meaning "the five-fold book."的五本書的摩西被統稱為摩西五,一個字的希臘血統的意義“的5倍的書。 ” The Jews called them the Torah, ie, "the law."猶太人稱他們的律法,即“法律。 ” It is probable that the division of the Torah into five books proceeded from the Greek translators of the Old Testament.很可能,該司的律法成五本書從希臘譯員舊約。 The names by which these several books are generally known are Greek.在這些名字的幾本書通常稱作是希臘。 The first book of the Pentateuch (qv) is called by the Jews Bereshith, ie, "in the beginning", because this is the first word of the book.第一本書的摩西五( qv )被稱作是猶太人Bereshith ,即“在開始時” ,因為這是第一個字的書籍。 It is generally known among Christians by the name of Genesis, ie, "creation" or "generation," being the name given to it in the LXX.這是一般人都知道,基督徒的名稱起源,即“創造”或“代”的名稱被賦予它在LXX 。 as designating its character, because it gives an account of the origin of all things.作為指定的性質,因為它敘述的起源一切事物。 It contains, according to the usual computation, the history of about two thousand three hundred and sixty-nine years.它包含,根據通常的計算,歷史上關於2369年。

Genesis is divided into two principal parts.成因分為兩個主要部分。 The first part (1-11) gives a general history of mankind down to the time of the Dispersion.第一部分( 1月11日)給出了一般人類歷史上到時間上的分散。 The second part presents the early history of Israel down to the death and burial of Joseph (12-50).第二部分介紹了以色列歷史上月初到死亡和埋葬約瑟夫( 12-50 ) 。 There are five principal persons brought in succession under our notice in this book, and around these persons the history of the successive periods is grouped, viz., Adam (1-3), Noah (4-9), Abraham (10-25:18), Isaac (25:19-35:29), and Jacob (36-50).有5個主要繼承者帶來了我們的通知,根據這本書,並圍繞著這些人的歷史,連續組合,即。亞當( 1-3 ) ,諾亞( 4-9 ) ,林肯( 10月25日: 18 ) ,伊薩克( 25:19-35:29 )和雅各布( 36至50 ) 。 In this book we have several prophecies concerning Christ (3:15; 12:3; 18:18; 22:18; 26:4; 28:14; 49:10).在這本書中,我們有幾個預言關於基督( 3:15 ; 12點03 ; 18:18 ; 22:18 ; 26:4 ; 28:14 ; 49:10 ) 。 The author of this book was Moses.的作者,這本書是摩西。 Under divine guidance he may indeed have been led to make use of materials already existing in primeval documents, or even of traditions in a trustworthy form that had come down to his time, purifying them from all that was unworthy; but the hand of Moses is clearly seen throughout in its composition.神聖的指導下,他可能確實已導致利用的材料中已經存在的原始文件,甚至是一個值得信賴的傳統的形式,已下降到他的時間,淨化他們的一切是不值得;但另一方面是摩西清楚地看到整個在其組成。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (伊斯頓圖解詞典)

Genesis Chapter 1創世記第1章

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From: Home Bible Study Commentary by James M. Gray 來自:主頁聖經研究評論詹姆斯M灰色


Creation of Heaven and Earth創作天地

v. 1 Here are three facts.五, 1這裡有三個事實。 What was done?是什麼做什麼? Who did it?誰做的? When did it occur?它是什麼時候發生? There are two words that require explanation, "created" and "beginning."有兩個詞,需要解釋, “創造”和“開始。 ” Does the former mean that heaven and earth were created out of nothing?難道前意味著天地創造出什麼? The word ("bara," in Hebrew) does not necessarily mean that, but its peculiar use in this chapter suggests that it means that here. It occurs three times, here in v. 1, at the introduction of life on the fifth day, and at the creation of man on the sixth day. Elsewhere, where only transformations are meant, another word ("asah" in Hebrew) is used, translated "made." "Bara" (created) is thus reserved for marking the introduction of each of the three great spheres of existence, the world of matter, of animal life and of spirit, all three of which, though intimately associated, are distinct in essence, and constitute all the universe known to us.這個詞( “巴拉” ,在希伯來文)並不一定意味著,但其獨特的使用在本章中表明,它意味著在這裡。 它發生的3倍,在五, 1 ,在引進上的生命的第5天,並在創造人類的第6天。其他地方,只有變革的目的,一個字( “ asah ”在希伯來文)使用,轉化“的講話。 巴拉” (創建) ,因此保留標記引進每個領域的三個偉大的存在,世界上的問題,動物的生活和精神,所有三個,雖然密切相關,在本質上是不同的,和所有的宇宙構成我們知道。

Professor Guyot adds that whenever the simple form of "bara" is used in the Bible it always refers to work made by God and never by man.瞿岳教授補充說,只要簡單的形式的“巴拉”中使用的聖經它總是提到上帝所作的工作,決不是男人。 These considerations, with others, justify the statement that "created" here means created out of nothing.這些因素,與他人一起,證明聲明說: “創建”在這裡是指創造出什麼。 But when was the "beginning"?但是,當是“開始” ? The margin indicates a period about 4,000 years before Christ, but these marginal notes are not part of the divine text, but the work of uninspired minds and therefore open to debate. Should science ultimately determine on millions of years ago as the period of the creation there is nothing in this verse of the Bible it would contradict.差值表明一個時期約公元前四千年,但這些旁注不屬於神聖的文字,但工作平庸的思想和開放,因此辯論。 如果科學最終決定對數百萬年前的期間內設立有沒有在這詩句聖經將矛盾。

Making Day製作日

vv.弗拉基米爾弗拉基米羅維奇。 2-5 What was the condition of inert matter as represented in verse 2? 2月5日是什麼條件的惰性問題所代表的詩句2 ? The first verb "was" has sometimes been translated "became."第一個動詞“是”有時被翻譯“成了。 ” Read it thus and you get the idea that originally the earth was otherwise than void and waste, but that some catastrophe took place resulting in that state. This means, if true, that a period elapsed between verses 1 and 2, long enough to account for the geological formations of which some scientists speak, and a race of pre-Adamite men of which others speculate.閱讀它,你會得到這樣的想法最初是在地球以外的無效和浪費,但有些災難發生在該國造成的。這就意味著,如果屬實,這一段時間間隔1和第2款的詩句,長到足以帳戶在地質構造,其中一些科學家說,和比賽前的裸體男子別人猜測。 It suggests too that the earth as we now know it may not be much older than tradition places it.這表明,地球也因為我們現在知道它可能不會有太大以上傳統地點。

The word "earth" in this verse, however, must not be understood to mean our globe with its land and seas, which was not made till the third day, but simply matter in general, that is, the cosmic material out of which the Holy Spirit organized the whole universe, including the earth of to-day.用“地球”在這一詩句,但是,絕不能被理解為指我們的地球陸地和海洋,這是不言,直到第三天,而只是一般的問題,也就是說,宇宙的物質,其中的聖靈有組織整個宇宙,包括地球上的一天。 "And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters." “的精神,感動上帝後面對水域。 ” "Moved upon" means brooded over as a bird on its nest. “搬遷後”是指brooded成為鳥類的巢。 "Waters" means not the oceans and seas as we know them, but the gaseous condition of the matter before spoken of. “水”是指沒有海洋,因為我們都知道他們,但氣態條件面前的問題談到了。 The Spirit of God moved "upon" the waters, and not "inside of" them, showing that God is a personal Being separate from His work.聖靈感動“後”的水域,而不是“內部”他們,這表明上帝是個人作為獨立於他的工作。 As the result of this brooding, what appeared?由於這一沉思,似乎?

We need not suppose that God spake just as a human being speaks, but the coming forth of light out of thick darkness would have seemed to a spectator as the effect of a divine command (Ps. 33:6-9).我們不需要假設上帝spake就像一個人說話,但在未來的光提出了將厚黑暗似乎觀眾的效果,神的命令( Ps. 33:6-9 ) 。 On the natural plane of things vibration is light or produces light, which illustrates the relation between the moving of the Spirit upon inert matter and the effect it produced.對自然的事情飛機振動輕或生產輕,這說明之間的關係的精神移動時惰性物質和產生的影響。 "And God called the light day." “上帝稱為輕一天。 ” The Hebrew word "yom," translated "day," is used in five different senses in the first two chapters of Genesis.希伯來文單詞“贖罪” ,翻譯“一天” ,是用在五個不同的感官在頭兩章的成因。 Here it means light without reference to time.這意味著在這裡沒有提到鑑於時間。 Later in the same verse it means the period covered by "the evening and the morning" mentioned, the exact duration of which we do not know.後來在同一詩句這意味著所涵蓋的期間“晚上和今天上午”提到的,確切的時間,我們不知道。

At verse 14 it stands for what we know as 24 hours, at verse 16 it means the light part of the day of 24 hours, and at 2:4 the whole period during which the heaven and the earth were created.在詩14它所代表我們所知道的24個小時,在16日這意味著詩鑑於部分一天24小時,並在2時04分整個期間,天上的,地上創建。 All this bears on the question whether creation was wrought in 6 days of 24 hours or 6 day-periods of unknown length; and it will be seen that one does not necessarily contradict the Bible if he believes the latter.所有這一切都關係到能否創造造成6天的24小時或6天的時間不明的長度,它可以看到一個並不一定矛盾的聖經,如果他認為後者。 When we recall that days of 12 and 24 hours were altogether excluded before the appearance of the sun on the fourth day, the latter hypothesis receives the stronger confirmation.當我們還記得,天的第12和24小時內共排除出現之前太陽對第四天,後者假說得到更有力的確認。

Making Heaven決策天堂

vv.弗拉基米爾弗拉基米羅維奇。 6-8 What does God call forth in verse 6? 6-8什麼是上帝的要求提出的詩句6 ? "Firmament" might be translated by "expanse." “蒼天”可能是翻譯的“大片” 。 What was it to divide? Notice that according to our definition of "waters" this means a separation of the gaseous matter into which light had now come.是什麼分裂?請注意,根據我們的定義的“水” ,這意味著分離氣體問題納入其中輕了現在。 What did God call this expanse?什麼上帝稱之為廣闊? "Heaven" here means not simply the atmosphere around the earth but the greater chamber of immensity where the sun, moon and stars are located. “天”在這裡不單單是指環繞地球大氣層,但更大的商會巨大的太陽,月亮和星星的位置。 In connection with this read Psalm 148, and notice that there are "waters," that is, gaseous matter above the heaven of which this verse speaks, and that the "waters" below it include the clouds of our atmosphere as well as the oceans and seas we navigate.在這方面閱讀詩篇148 ,並通知有“水” ,即氣態事項以上的天堂這詩說,而且“水”包括在其下方的雲層,我們的氣氛以及海洋和海洋我們瀏覽。

Making Earth and Seas使地球和海洋

vv.弗拉基米爾弗拉基米羅維奇。 9-13 What command goes forth from God on the third day (v. 9)? 9月13日什麼命令不用來回上帝第三天(五9 ) ? What did He call the result (v. 10)?他怎麼要求的結果(五10 ) ? Heaven, or the firmament, had divided the cosmic or gaseous matter on the second day.天堂,或者蒼穹,已分為宇宙或氣態事項第二天。 Motion was now everywhere, and gravition and chemical forces tended to concentrate this matter under the firmament around particular centres, one of which became our globe.運動是現在隨處可見, gravition和化學趨向於集中力量對這一問題進行蒼穹各地特別是中心,其中之一是我們的地球。 A cooling process set in, shrinking and folding its surface into great wrinkles, the shrinking of some parts furnishing basins for oceans or seas and the projection of other parts bringing continents into view.設置一個冷卻的過程中,縮小和折疊成偉大其表面皺紋,萎縮的某些部分提供盆地海洋或海洋和投影的其他部分將大陸納入觀點。 Thus would astronomers and geologists comment on these verses.因此,將天文學家和地質學家對這些詩句。 But another work than the formation of the globe was accomplished on this day (vv. 11, 12).但另一位工作比成立了全球已經完成在這一天( vv. 11日, 12日) 。 A principle superior to matter begins to govern its particles, and they assume new forms. What does the earth put forth?優越的原則問題開始,以管理其粒子,它們承擔新的形式。什麼是地球的提出? Which came first, the plant or the seed?其中第一,植物或種子? "The plant is not yet life," says Guyot, "but the bridge between matter and life." “植物的生活還不是說, ”瞿岳“ ,但之間的橋樑和生活問題。 ”

Making Lights使燈

vv.弗拉基米爾弗拉基米羅維奇。 14-19 What command went forth on the fourth day? 14-19什麼命令提出了第四天? For what six purposes were these lights made (v. 14, 15)?為六個目的是取得這些燈(五, 14 , 15 ) ? What discrimination is made between the two greater lights (v. 16)?什麼歧視了兩國之間的更大燈(五16 ) ? Where were the lights placed (v. 17)?哪裡有燈放在(五17 ) ? What special purpose of their making is emphasized in verses 17 and 18?有什麼特殊用途的決策是強調在17日和18日的詩句? It is well to keep in mind that light itself was made on the first day, and that these "lights" of the fourth day were (so to speak) light-holders.大家都記住,根據自己寫了第一天,而且這些“香江”的第四天了(這麼說)輕人。 It is of course unnecessary to state how they divide the day from the night, and in what sense they are for signs and seasons, as every one knows the first result is secured by the daily rotation of the earth among them on its own axis, and the second by its annual revolution around the sun.這當然是必要的國家他們是如何劃分的一天晚上,和在什麼意義上它們的標誌和季節,因為每個人都知道的第一個結果是有擔保的日常地球自轉它們之間就其本身的軸,第二次在其年度革命周圍的陽光。 It is presumable that originally their light was merged in that of the earth's own outer covering of light, and that as her luminous envelope disappeared they became visible, and she came to depend on them for both light and heat.這是presumable最初合併了它們的光線在這地球的自己的外殼的光,而且因為她的明亮的信封消失了,他們成為看得見,她來到取決於他們對光和熱。

Creating Animal Life建立動物生命

vv.弗拉基米爾弗拉基米羅維奇。 20-25 What is the command of verse 20? 20-25什麼是指揮的詩句20 ? The "waters" here referred to are our oceans and seas.在“水”在這裡所指的是我們的海洋。 The Revised Version corrects the misapprehension that "fowl" came forth from the water.經修訂的文本糾正誤解說, “雞”出來的水。 What word in verse 21 indicates that we have now entered on a new sphere of existence?什麼字詩21日指出,我們現在已經進入一個新的領域存在? What was the nature of the blessing on the fish and fowl (v. 22)?是什麼性質的祝福的魚和雞(五22 ) ? What was the further work of creation on this day (v. 24, 25)?是什麼工作,進一步建立在這一天(五, 24 , 25 ) ?

It is interesting to note: (a) that this peopling of the water, the air and the land is in the precise order indicated by the science of geology; (b) that the plant life of the third day was the preparation for the animal life of the fifth day; (c) that the plant is now in the animal shaped into new forms, and subservient to higher functions than it could ever perform by itself; (d) that two powers which place the animal on a higher platform than the lower grades of existence are sensation, by which it perceives the world around it, and will, by which it reacts upon it. This is life, and is not the result of chemical elements left to themselves, but the effect of previously existing life. 值得注意的是: (一) ,這peopling水,空氣和土地的確切為了表明科學地質; ( b )該植物生命的第三天,是籌備工作的動物生活中的第5天; ( c )該植物正處於動物形成新的形式,並屈從於更高的功能比以往任何時候都可以執行的本身; ( d )在兩個地方權力的動物更高的平台上比低年級的存在的感覺,其中看待周圍的世界,並且將其中的反應行動。這就是生活,而不是由於化學元素留給自己,而且以前的影響現有的生活。 In other words, the Bible and science agree in declaring that "spontaneous generation is an untenable hypothesis," and life only begets life.換言之,聖經和科學同意在宣布“自發生成了一個站不住腳的假設, ”與生命只有產生的生活。

Creating Man創建人

vv.弗拉基米爾弗拉基米羅維奇。 26-31 What word in verse 26 suggests more than one person in the Godhead? 26-31什麼字詩26表明不止一人在神體? What dignity is given to man above every other work of creation?什麼尊嚴,是考慮到上述所有其他人的工作創造? What dignity in his position?什麼尊嚴,他的立場? What word in verse 27 shows that in his creation we have entered another new sphere of existence?什麼字詩27表明,在他的創作已經進入另一個新的領域的存在? What blessing is bestowed on man in verse 28?什麼祝福是賦予男子詩28 ? How does it differ from that bestowed on the lower animals?它如何不同於賦予較低的動物? What provision has God made for the sustenance of man and beast?什麼規定上帝為生計的人與野獸?

Note: (a) that the consultation in the Godhead regarding man's creation foreshadows the New Testament doctrine of the Trinity; (b) that the "image of God" may mean the trinity in man represented by body, soul and spirit (2:7; 1 Thess. 5:23), but especially that moral image suggested in Colossians 3:10; (c) that the dominion of man over the lower creation has in some measure been lost through sin, but will be restored again in Christ (Psalm 8); (d) that the creation of matter, of life and of man are three distinct creations out of nothing, and that God's action in them is direct, hence evolution from one into the other is impossible.注: ( a )該協商神體關於人的創造預示著新約全書理論三一; (二)認為, “上帝的形象”可能意味著三位一體的人所代表的機構,靈魂和精神( 2時07 ; 1 Thess 。 5點23 ) ,但特別是道德形象的建議歌羅西書3:10 ; ( c )該人的統治下建立了在一定程度上已經失去通過罪惡,但將在基督再次恢復(詩篇8 ) ; (四) ,建立的問題,生命和人是三個不同的創作無中生有,而且上帝的行動,他們是直接的,因此從一個演變成其他是不可能的。 There may be evolution within any one of these systems of existence considered by itself, but this is different from that other evolution which would make man the descendant of an ape and rule God out of the universe which He made.有可能是進化的其中任何一項制度的存在本身考慮,但是這是不同於其他的演變,使男子的後裔猿和法治上帝了宇宙,他的講話。

Questions 1.問題1 。 What does "create" probably mean in this chapter, and why do you think so?什麼是“製造”可能意味著在這一章,為什麼你是這樣想的? 2. 2 。 When may "the beginning" have been?當可“開始”已? 3. 3 。 What does "earth" mean in verse 2? 4.什麼是“地球”是指在詩2 ? 4 。 What word in verse 2 opposes pantheism by showing God to be a Person?什麼字詩2反對泛神論的顯示上帝是一個人? 5. 5 。 If the creation days were not limited to 24 hours, why do you think so?如果建立天並不限於24小時,你為什麼這樣認為? 6. 6 。 What does "heaven" of the second day stand for?什麼是“天堂”第二天立場? 7. 7 。 What two works were accomplished on the third day?什麼兩個工程完成第三天? 8. 8 。 What two powers in the animal define life? 9.什麼兩個大國在動物界定生活? 9 。 Quote Colossians 3:10.報價歌羅西書3:10 。 10. 10 。 How would you distinguish between a rationalistic and a possibly Biblical evolution?你會如何區分理性和聖經可能演變?


Advanced Information 先進的信息

"In the beginning" God created, ie, called into being, all things out of nothing. “一開始”上帝創造,即所謂的形成,一切事物都是無中生有。 This creative act on the part of God was absolutely free, and for infinitely wise reasons.這一創造性的行為的一部分,上帝是絕對自由,以及無限英明的原因。 The cause of all things exists only in the will of God.事業的一切只存在於上帝的意志。 The work of creation is attributed (1) to the Godhead (Gen. 1:1, 26); (2) to the Father (1 Cor. 8:6); (3) to the Son (John 1:3; Col. 1:16, 17); (4) to the Holy Spirit (Gen. 1:2; Job 26:13; Ps. 104:30).創建工作的原因是( 1 )神體(將軍1:1 , 26 ) ; ( 2 )父( 1心病。 8時06分) ; ( 3 )子(約1:3 ;中校。 1:16 , 17 ) ; ( 4 )聖靈(將軍1:2 ;就業26:13 ;聚苯乙烯。 104:30 ) 。 The fact that he is the Creator distinguishes Jehovah as the true God (Isa. 37:16; 40:12, 13; 54:5; Ps. 96:5; Jer. 10:11, 12). The one great end in the work of creation is the manifestation of the glory of the Creator (Col. 1:16; Rev. 4:11; Rom. 11:36).一個事實,即他是造物主的區別耶和華真神( Isa. 37:16 ; 40:12 , 13人; 54:5 ;聚苯乙烯。 96:5 ;哲。 10:11 , 12 ) 。在一個偉大的目的,工作的創新是體現的榮耀造物主(上校1:16 ;牧師4點11分;光盤。 11時36分) 。

God's works, equally with God's word, are a revelation from him; and between the teachings of the one and those of the other, when rightly understood, there can be no contradiction.上帝的作品,同樣與上帝的話,是他的啟示和教誨之間的一個與其他時,正確地理解,就不會有矛盾。 Traditions of the creation, disfigured by corruptions, are found among the records of ancient Eastern nations. (See ACCAD.) A peculiar interest belongs to the traditions of the Accadians, the primitive inhabitants of the plains of Lower Mesopotamia.傳統的創造,毀容的腐敗,被發現的記錄古代東歐國家。 (見ACCAD 。 )的特殊利益屬於傳統的Accadians ,原始居民的下美索不達米亞平原。 These within the last few years have been brought to light in the tablets and cylinders which have been rescued from the long-buried palaces and temples of Assyria.這些在過去幾年中已揭示了在這片和氣瓶已經獲救的長期埋宮殿和廟宇的亞述。 They bear a remarkable resemblance to the record of Genesis.他們承擔了顯著的相似性的記錄的成因。


Catholic Information 天主教新聞

The Book of Genesis prepares the reader for the Pentateuchal legislation; it tells us how God chose a particular family to keep His Revelation, and how He trained the Chosen People to fulfil its mission.在創世記準備讀者的Pentateuchal立法;它告訴我們如何選擇特定的上帝家庭保住自己的啟示,以及他如何訓練選定的人民完成其使命。 From the nature of its contents the book consists of two rather unequal parts; cc.從性質,這本書的內容包括兩個部分,而不平等;循環。 i-xi present the features of a general history, while cc.一喜本的特點,一般的歷史,同時抄送。 xii-1 contain the particular history of the Chosen People.第十二- 1包含特定歷史的選民。 By a literary device, each of these parts is subdivided into five sections differing in length.由文學設備,其中每個部分又分為五個部分不同的長度。 The sections are introduced by the phrase elleh tholedhoth (these are the generations) or its variant zeh sepher toledhoth (this is the book of the generations).這幾節所介紹的詞組elleh tholedhoth (這是幾代人)或其變體zeh sepher toledhoth (這是本書的後代) 。 "Generations", however, is only the etymological meaning of the Hebrew toledhoth; in its context the formula can hardly signify a mere genealogical table, for it is neither preceded nor followed by such tables. “世代” ,然而,僅僅是詞源學意義上的希伯來文toledhoth ;在其範圍內的公式很難意味著僅僅家譜表,因為它既不是先也不其次是這種表。 As early Oriental history usually begins with genealogical records, and consists to a large extend of such records, one naturally interprets the above introductory formula and its variant as meaning, "this is the history" or "this is the book of the history."早東洋史學通常始於系譜紀錄,並包括大量延長這些記錄,一個自然的解釋上述介紹公式及其變式的意義, “這是歷史上”或“這是本書的歷史。 ” History in these phrases is not to be understood as a narrative resting on folklore, as Fr.歷史在這些詞組是不被理解為敘事休息民俗神父。 Von Hummelauer believes ("Exegetisches zur Inspirationsfrage, Biblische Studien", Freiburg, 1904, IX, 4, pp. 26-32); but as a record based on genealogies. Moreover, the introductory formula often refers back to some principal feature of the preceding section, thus forming a transition and connection between the successive parts.馮Hummelauer認為( “ Exegetisches楚Inspirationsfrage , Biblische Studien ” ,弗賴堡, 1904年,九, 4 ,頁。 26-32 ) ;但作為一個創紀錄的基礎上族譜。此外,介紹公式常常提到回到一些主要特徵前一節,從而形成一個過渡和銜接的連續部分。 Gen., v, 1, eg, refers back to Gen., ii, 7 sqq.; vi, 9 to v, 29 sqq.將軍,五, 1 ,例如,是指回到將軍,二, 7 sqq 。 ;六,九至五, 29 sqq 。 and vi, 8; x, 1 to ix, 18, 19, etc. Finally, the sacred writer deals very briefly with the non-chosen families or tribes, and he always considers them before the chosen branch of the family.和第六, 8 ;十, 1至第九, 18 , 19 ,等最後,神聖的作家非常簡短的配套與非選擇家庭或部族,而他也總是認為他們面前的選擇處的家庭。 He treats of Cain before he speaks of Seth; similarly, Cham and Japhet precede Sem; the rest of Sem's posterity precedes Abraham; Ismael precedes Isaac; Esau precedes Jacob. Bearing in mind these general outlines of the contents and the literary structure of Genesis, we shall easily understand the following analytical table.他對待他的該隱談到塞思;同樣,湛和鈺先掃描電鏡;其餘的SEM的後代之前亞伯拉罕;伊斯梅爾先艾薩克;以掃先雅各布。銘記著這些普通大綱的內容和文學結構的成因,我們將很容易理解下面的分析表。

Introduction (Genesis 1:1-2:3) -- Consists of the Hexaemeron; it teaches the power and goodness of God as manifested in the creation of the world, and also the dependence of creatures on the dominion of the Creator.導言(創世記1:1-2:3 ) -由Hexaemeron ;它教導的權力和善良的上帝,表現在創造的世界,同時也依賴動物的統治造物主。

General History (2:4-11:26) -- Man did not acknowledge his dependence on God. Hence, leaving the disobedient to their own devices, God chose one special family or one individual as the depositary of His Revelation.通史( 2:4-11:26 ) -人不承認他的依賴上帝。因此,讓不聽話自己的設備,上帝選擇了一個特殊的家庭或個人的保管人他的啟示。

History of Heaven and Earth (2:4-4:26) -- Here we have the story of the fall of our first parents, ii, 5-iii, 24; of the fratricide of Cain, iv, 1-16; the posterity of Cain and its elimination, iv, 17-26.歷史天地( 2:4-4:26 ) -在這裡,我們有故事,我們的第一個秋天的父母,二,五至三, 24 ;的自相殘殺的該隱,四, 1月16日的後世的該隱和消除,四, 17日至26日。

History of Adam (5:1-6:8) -- The writer enumerates the Sethites, another line of Adam's descendants, v, 1-32, but shows that they too became so corrupt that only one among them found favour before God, vi, 1-8.史亞當( 5:1-6:8 ) -作者列舉了Sethites ,另一行亞當的後裔,五, 1-32 ,但結果表明,他們也變得如此腐敗,只有一個有利於它們之間找到上帝面前,六, 1月8日。

History of Noah (6:9-9:29) -- Neither the Deluge which destroyed the whole human race excepting Noah's family, vi, 11-viii, 19, nor God's covenant with Noah and his sons, viii, 20-ix, 17, brought about the amendment of the human family, and only one of Noah's sons was chosen as the bearer of the Divine blessings, ix, 18-29.歷史上的諾亞( 6:9-9:29 ) -無論是洪水摧毀全人類除外諾亞家庭,六, 11八, 19 ,也不上帝的盟約與諾亞和他的兒子,八, 20九, 17 ,使該修正案的人類大家庭,和只有一個諾亞的兒子被選為旗手神聖祝福,九, 18-29 。

History of the Sons of Noah (10:1-11:9) -- The posterity of the non-chosen sons, x, 1-32, brought a new punishment on the human race by its pride, xi, 1-9.歷史上的兒子諾亞( 10:1-11:9 ) -對後代的非選擇的兒子,第十, 1-32 ,帶來了新的懲罰人類的驕傲,十一, 1月9日。

History of Sem (11:10-26) -- The posterity of Sem is enumerated down to Thare the father of Abraham, in whose seed all the nations of the earth shall be blessed.歷史的SEM ( 11:10-26 ) -對後代的SEM是下降到Thare列舉的父親亞伯拉罕,其種子在所有國家的地球應祝福。

Special History (11:27-50:26) -- Here the inspired writer describes the special Providence watching over Abraham and his offspring which developed in Egypt into a large nation.特殊的歷史( 11:27-50:26 ) -在這裡,筆者介紹了靈感特別靜宜看亞伯拉罕和他的後代在埃及的發展成一個大國。 At the same time, he eliminates the sons of Abraham who were not children of God's promise.與此同時,他消除了兒子亞伯拉罕誰沒有孩子上帝的承諾。 This teaches the Israelites that carnal descent from Abraham does not suffice to make them true sons of Abraham.這教導以色列人認為肉體後裔亞伯拉罕不足以使他們真正的兒子亞伯拉罕。

History of Thare (11:27-25:11) -- This section tells of the call of Abraham, his transmigration into Chanaan, his covenant with God, and His promises.歷史Thare ( 11:27-25:11 ) -本節講述了亞伯拉罕的呼籲,他移居到Chanaan ,他與上帝的盟約,他的諾言。

History of Ismael (25:12-28) -- This section eliminates the tribes springing from Ismael.史伊斯梅爾( 25:12-28 ) -此部分消除了部落雨後春筍般從伊斯梅爾。

History of Isaac (25:19-35:29 -- Here we have the history of Isaac's sons, Esau and Jacob.史艾薩克( 25:19-35:29 -在這裡,我們有歷史的艾薩克的兒子,以掃和雅各。

History of Esau (36:1-37:1) -- The sacred writer gives a list of Esau's posterity; it does not belong to the number of the Chosen People.歷史上以掃( 36:1-37:1 ) -賦予的神聖作家的名單以掃的後代,它不屬於一些選民。

History of Jacob (37:2-50:26) -- This final portion of Genesis tells of the fate of Jacob's family down to the death of the Patriarch and of Joseph.史雅各布( 37:2-50:26 ) -這最後一部分成因講述了命運的雅各布的家人到死亡的主教和約瑟夫。

What has been said shows a uniform plan in the structure of Genesis, which some scholars prefer to call "schematism".所說的話顯示出一個統一的計劃結構的成因,一些學者更願意稱之為“ schematism ” 。 (i) The whole book is divided into ten sections. (一)整本書分為10個部分。 (ii) Each section is introduced by the same formula. (二)每一節都介紹了同樣的公式。 (iii) The sections are arranged according to a definite plan, the history of the lateral genealogical branches always preceding that of the corresponding part of the main line. (三)款安排按照一個明確的計劃,歷史上的橫向家譜分行總是前的相應部分的主線。 (iv) Within the sections, the introductory formula or the title is usually followed by a brief repetition of some prominent feature of the preceding section, a fact duly noted and explained by as early a writer as Rhabanus Maurus (Comment. In Gen., II, xii; PG, CVII, 531-2), but misconstrued by our recent critics into an argument for a diversity of sources. (四)在章節,介紹公式或標題通常隨後簡要介紹重複一些突出的特點,前一節,充分注意到一個事實,並解釋,最早的作家作為Rhabanus毛魯斯( Comment.在將軍,二,第十二章;指引, CVII , 531-2 ) ,但我們最近的誤解批評成一個論據來源多樣性。 (v) The history of each Patriarch tells of the development of his family during his lifetime, while the account of his life varies between a bare notice consisting of a few words or lines, and a more lengthy description. (五)的歷史告訴每一宗主教的發展他的家人在他的一生,而考慮到他的生命之間的裸通知組成的幾句話或線路,更長時間的描述。 (vi) When the life of the Patriarch is given more in detail, the account usually ends in an almost uniform way, indicating the length of his life and his burial with his ancestors (cf. ix, 29; xi, 32; xxv, 7; xxxv, 28; xlvii, 28). (六)當生活的主教給出更詳細的帳戶通常結束在一個幾乎統一的方式,表明了他的生命長度和他的葬禮,他的祖先(見九, 29 ;十一32 ;二十五, 7 ;三十五, 28 ;四十七, 28 ) 。 Such a definite plan of the book shows that it was written with a definite end in view and according to preconceived arrangement.這樣一個明確的計劃書表明,這是一個明確的書面結束期,並根據既定安排。 The critics attribute this to the final "redactor" of the Pentateuch who adopted, according to their views, the genealogical framework and the "schematism" from the Priestly Code.批評者認為這最後“ redactor ”誰的摩西五獲得通過,根據他們的意見,家譜框架和“ schematism ”從祭司碼。 The value of these views will be discussed later; for the present, it suffices to know that a striking unity prevails throughout the Book of Genesis (cf. Kurtrz, "Die Einheit der Genesis", Berlin, 1846; Delattre, "Plan de la Genèse" in "Revue des quest. hist.", July, 1876; XX, pp. 5-43; Delattre, "Le plan de la Genese et les generations du ciel et de la terre" in "La science cath.", 15 Oct., 1891, V, pp. 978-89; de Broglie, "Etude sur les genealogies bibliques" in "Le congres scientif. internat. des catholiques de 1888", Paris, 1889, I, pp. 94-101; Julian, "Etude critique sur la composition de la Genese", Paris, 1888, pp. 232-50).的價值,這些意見將在後面討論,就目前來說,只要知道,一個驚人的團結全國各地普遍創世記(參見Kurtrz , “模具之成因統一” ,柏林, 1846年; Delattre , “計劃德拉薩Genèse “中的”雜誌的追求。歷史。 “ , 7月, 1876年;第XX頁。 5-43 ; Delattre , ”樂計劃德拉薩Genese等萊幾代杜天空等德拉薩地球“中的”香格里拉科學蛋白酶。 “ 10月15日, 1891年,第五頁。 978-89 ;德布羅意, “練習bibliques要件族譜”中的“樂大會堂scientif 。 internat 。萬天主教西元1888年” ,巴黎, 1889年,我頁。 94-101 ;朱利安, “練習拉河畔批判組成德拉薩Genese ” ,巴黎, 1888年,頁。 232-50 ) 。


The contents of the Pentateuch furnish the basis for the history, the law, the worship, and the life of the Chosen People of God.的內容,摩西五提供的基礎,歷史,法律,宗教,以及所選擇的生活在天主的子民。 Hence the authorship of the work, the time and manner of its origin, and its historicity are of paramount importance.因此,作者的工作,時間和方式的起源,它的歷史性是至關重要的。 These are not merely literary problems, but questions belonging to the fields of history of religion and theology.這些不僅是文學問題,但問題屬於該領域的歷史宗教和神學。 The Mosaic authorship of the Pentateuch is inseparably connected with the question, whether and in what sense Moses was the author or intermediary of the Old-Testament legislation, and the bearer of pre-Mosaic tradition.鑲嵌作品的摩西五是密不可分的問題,無論在何種意義摩西是作者或中介的老全書立法,並持證前馬賽克傳統。 According to the trend of both Old and New Testament, and according to Jewish and Christian theology, the work of the great lawgiver Moses is the origin of the history of Israel and the basis of its development down to the time of Jesus Christ; but modern criticism sees in all this only the result, or the precipitate, of a purely natural historical development.據趨勢新舊新約全書,根據猶太教和基督教神學的工作是偉大的立法者摩西的起源,歷史,以色列和根據其發展到耶穌基督的時間,但現代批評認為,只有在所有這一切的結果,或沉澱物,純自然的歷史發展。 The question of the Mosaic authorship of the Pentateuch leads us, therefore, to the alternative, revelation or historical evolution; it touches the historical and theological foundation of both the Jewish and the Christian dispensation.的問題,花葉作者的摩西五導致我們,因此,作為替代,啟示或歷史演變;它涉及的歷史和神學的基礎,雙方的猶太教和基督教分配。 We shall consider the subject first in the light of Scripture; secondly, in the light of Jewish and Christian tradition; thirdly, in the light of internal evidence, furnished by the Pentateuch; finally, in the light of ecclesiastical decisions.我們應考慮這個問題首先是根據聖經;其次,根據猶太教和基督教傳統;第三,根據內部的證據,所提供的摩西五;最後,在根據教會的決定。


It will be found convenient to divide the Biblical evidence for the Mosaic authorship of the Pentateuch into three parts: (1) Testimony of the Pentateuch;這將是發現方便分裂聖經證據花葉著作權的摩西五分為三個部分: ( 1 )證言摩西五;

(2) Testimony of the other Old-Testament books; (3) Testimony of the New Testament. ( 2 )證明其他舊全書書籍; ( 3 )鑑定的新約。

(1) Witness of the Pentateuch ( 1 )證人的摩西五

The Pentateuch in its present form does not present itself as a complete literary production of Moses.在摩西五以其目前的形式並不本本身作為一個完整的文學生產摩西。 It contains an account of Moses' death, it tells the story of his life in the third person and in an indirect form, and the last four books do not exhibit the literary form of memoirs of the great lawgiver; besides, the expression "God said to Moses" shows only the Divine origin of the Mosaic laws but does not prove that Moses himself codified in the Pentateuch the various laws promulgated by him.它包含一個帳戶的摩西死亡,它講述了他的生命中的第三人,並以間接的形式,並在過去四年的書籍沒有展示的文學形式的回憶錄偉大立法者;此外,表達“上帝摩西說: “只顯示的神源是鑲嵌法,但並不能證明自己編纂摩西五經中的各種法律頒布的他。 On the other hand, the Pentateuch ascribes to Moses the literary authorship of at least four sections, partly historical, partly legal, partly poetical.另一方面,賦予了摩西五經的文學作品,至少四個部分,這部分是歷史,部分法律,部分詩意。 (a) After Israel's victory over the Amalecites near Raphidim, the Lord said to Moses (Exodus 17:14): "Write this for a memorial in a book, and deliver it to the ears of Josue." ( a )在以色列的勝利, Amalecites近Raphidim ,主說,摩西(出17:14 ) : “寫這本為紀念在一本書,並提供它的耳朵若蘇埃。 ” This order is naturally restricted to Amalec's defeat, a benefit which God wished to keep alive in the memory of the people (Deuteronomy 25:17-19).這自然是為了限制Amalec的失敗,受益上帝希望保持在記憶的人(申命記25:17-19 ) 。 The present pointing of the Hebrew text reads "in the book", but the Septuagint version omits the definite article. Even if we suppose that the Massoretic pointing gives the original text, we can hardly prove that the book referred to is the Pentateuch, though this is highly probable (cf. von Hummelauer "Exodus et Leviticus", Paris, 1897, p. 182; Idem, "Deuteronomium", Paris, 1901, p. 152; Kley, "Die Pentateuchfrage", Munster, 1903, p. 217).本指著希伯來文寫著“在這本書” ,但七十版本忽略了定冠詞。即使我們假設Massoretic指著使原來的案文,我們很難證明這本書提到的是摩西五,儘管這是極有可能(見馮Hummelauer “出埃及記和利未記” ,巴黎, 1897年,第182頁;同上, “ Deuteronomium ” ,巴黎, 1901年,第152頁; Kley , “模具Pentateuchfrage ” ,明斯特, 1903年,第217 ) 。 (b) Again, Ex., xxiv, 4: "And Moses wrote all the words of the Lord." (二)同樣,惠。 , 24 , 4 : “摩西寫的話,所有的主。 ” The context does not allow us to understand these words in an indefinite manner, but as referring to the words of the Lord immediately preceding or to the so-called "Book of the Covenant", Ex., xx-xxiii.的範圍內不允許我們理解這句話的是無限期的方式,但它是指用上帝緊接或所謂的“圖書的公約” ,當然。 ,二十,二十三。 (c) Ex., xxxiv, 27: "And the Lord said to Moses: Write thee these words by which I have made a covenant both with thee and with Israel." (三)前。 ,三十四, 27 : “耶和華對摩西說:你寫這些話的,我提出了兩個公約,並與你同以色列。 ” The next verse adds: "and he wrote upon the tables the ten words of the covenant."下次詩說: “和他寫的表的十個字的規定。 ” Ex., xxxiv, 1, 4, shows how Moses had prepared the tables, and Ex., xxxiv, 10-26, gives us the contents of the ten words.當然。 ,三十四, 1 , 4 ,顯示了如何編寫了摩西的桌子,和前。 ,三十四, 10月26日,使我們的內容十個字。 (d) Num., xxxiii, 1-2: "These are the mansions of the children of Israel, who went out of Egypt by their troops under the conduct of Moses and Aaron, which Moses wrote down according to the places of their encamping." (四)序號。 ,三十三, 1月2日: “這是紅樓夢的兒童以色列,誰走出埃及其部隊的行為摩西和亞倫,這摩西寫下根據地方的encamping 。 “ Here we are informed that Moses wrote the list of the people's encampments in the desert; but where it this list to be found?在這裡,我們被告知,摩西寫名單的人的營地在沙漠中,但如果此列表中可以找到? Most probably it is given in Num., xxxiii, 3-49, or the immediate context of the passage telling of Moses' literary activity; there are, however, scholars who understand this latter passage as referring to the history of Israel's departure from Egypt written in the order of the people's encampments, so that it would be our present Book of Exodus.這是最有可能提供數。 ,三十三, 3-49 ,或立即背景下,通過講述了摩西的文學活動;但是,也有學者誰明白這一點後,它是指通過以色列歷史上離開埃及寫在該命令的人的營地,因此,它將成為我們本書出走。 But this view is hardly probable; for its assumption that Num., xxxiii, 3-49, is a summary of Exodus cannot be upheld, as the chapter of Numbers mentions several encampments not occurring in Exodus.但這種觀點是很難有可能;其前提是序號。 ,三十三, 3-49 ,是一個總結出不能得到維護,因為該章中提到的幾個營地號碼不發生在出走。

Besides these four passages there are certain indications in Deuteronomy which point to the literary activity of Moses.除了這四個段落有一些跡象表明這一點在申命記的文學活動的摩西。 Deut., i, 5: "And Moses began to expound the law and to say"; even if the "law" in this text refer to the whole of the Pentateuchal legislation, which is not very probable, it shows only that Moses promulgated the whole law, but not that he necessarily wrote it. Practically the entire Book of Deuteronomy claims to be a special legislation promulgated by Moses in the land of Moab: iv, 1-40; 44-49; v, 1 sqq.; xii, 1 sqq. Deut 。 ,我, 5 : “摩西開始闡述法律,並表示” ;即使“法律”這個文本是指整個Pentateuchal立法,這是不太可能的,它表明只有摩西頒布整個法律,但不是說,他一定寫。實際上,整本書的申命記聲稱是一個特殊的立法頒布的摩西在土地莫阿布:四, 1-40 ; 44-49 ;五, 1 sqq 。 ;十二1 sqq 。 But there is a suggestion of writing too: xvii, 18-9, enjoins that the future kings are to receive a copy of this law from the priests in order to read and observe it; xxvii, 1-8, commands that on the west side of the Jordan "all the words of this law" be written on stones set up in Mount Hebal; xxviii, 58, speaks of "all the words of this law, that are written in this volume" after enumerating the blessings and curses which will come upon the observers and violators of the law respectively, and which are again referred to as written in a book in xxix, 20, 21, 27, and xxxii, 46, 47; now, the law repeatedly referred to as written in a book must be at least the Deuteronomic legislation.但是有一個建議,寫太多: 17 , 18-9 ,責成,未來的國王收到了一份來自該法的祭司,以便閱讀和遵守它;二十七, 1月8日,命令,在西約旦一側的“所有的話,該法”是寫在石頭山設立Hebal ;二十八, 58歲,說的是“所有的話,這一法律,這是寫在這卷”之後列舉的祝福和詛咒的會後,觀察員和違反法律的分別,並再次被稱為寫的一本書,第29 , 20 , 21 , 27 ,和三十二,第四十六條,第四十七條,現在,法律一再稱為寫圖書必須至少Deuteronomic立法。 Moreover, xxxi, 9-13 states, "and Moses wrote this law", and xxxi, 26, adds, "take this book, and put it in the side of the ark. . .that it may be there for a testimony against thee"; to explain these texts as fiction or as anachronisms is hardly compatible with the inerrancy of Sacred Scripture.此外,三十一, 9月13日國家“ ,並寫了這個摩西法” ,並三十一, 26歲,說: “考慮這本書,並把它放在一邊,方舟。 。 。 ,它可能是有一個證詞對你“ ;解釋這些文本小說或過時很難符合無誤的聖經。 Finally, xxxi, 19, commands Moses to write the canticle contained in Deut., xxxii, 1-43.最後,第31 ,第19 ,命令摩西寫頌歌載於Deut 。 ,三十二, 1-43 。

The Scriptural scholar will not complain that there are so few express indications in the Pentateuch of Moses' literary activity; he will rather be surprised at their number.在聖經學者不會抱怨說,有這麼幾個明確跡象表明在摩西五經的文學活動,他將感到吃驚,而他們的人數。 As far as explicit testimony for its own, at least partial, authorship is concerned, the Pentateuch compares rather favourably with many other books of the Old Testament.至於明確的證詞為自己的,至少是部分,作者而言,五經比較有利,而與其他許多書籍舊約。

(2) Witness of other Old-Testament Books ( 2 )證人的其他老聖經書籍

(a) Josue.-The narrative of the Book of Josue presupposes not merely the facts and essential ordinances contained in the Pentateuch, but also the law given by Moses and written in the book of the law of Moses: Jos., i, 7-8; viii, 31; xxii, 5; xxiii, 6. (一) Josue. ,說明部分圖書的前提不僅是若蘇埃的事實和基本條例載於五經,而且所提供的法律和書面摩西的書摩西律法:聖何塞,我7 -8 ;八, 31 ; 22 , 5 ;二十三, 6 。 Josue himself "wrote all these things in the volume of the law of the Lord" (xxiv, 26).若蘇埃他寫道: “所有這些事情中的體積法勳爵” ( 24 , 26 ) 。 Prof. Hobverg maintains that this "volume of the law of the Lord" is the Pentateuch ("Über den Ursprung des Pentateuchs" in "Biblische Zeitschrift", 1906, IV, 340); Mangenot believes that it refers at least to Deuteronomy (Dict. de la Bible, V, 66).教授Hobverg堅持認為,這種“體積法的上帝”是五經( “尤伯杯2007萬Pentateuchs起源”中的“ Biblische雜誌” , 1906年,四, 340 ) ; Mangenot認為,它是指至少在申命記(快譯通。德拉薩聖經,五, 66 ) 。 At any rate, Josue and his contemporaries were acquainted with a written Mosaic legislation, which was divinely revealed.無論如何,若蘇埃和他同時代的人熟悉的書面花葉立法,這是上天顯示。

(b) Judges; I, II Kings.-In the Book of Judges and the first two Books of Kings there is no explicit reference to Moses and the book of the law, but a number of incidents and statements presuppose the existence of the Pentateuchal legislation and institutions. (二)法官;一,二Kings. ,在書中法官和兩本書的第一個國王沒有明確提到摩西和圖書的法律,但一些事件和報表以存在的Pentateuchal立法和機構。 Thus Judges, xv, 8-10, recalls Israel's delivery from Egypt and its conquest of the Promised Land; Judges, xi, 12-28, states incidents recorded in Num., xx, 14; xxi, 13,24; xxii, 2; Judges, xiii, 4, states a practice founded on the law of the Nazarites in Num., vi, 1-21; Judges, xviii, 31, speaks of the tabernacle existing in the times when there was no king in Israel; Judges, xx, 26-8 mentions the ark of the covenant, the various kinds of sacrifices, and the Aaronic priesthood.因此,法官,十五, 8月10日,回顧以色列提供來自埃及和其征服樂土;法官,十一, 12月28日,國家中記錄的事件數量。 ,第XX號,第14 ; 21 , 13,24 , 22 , 2法官, 13日, 4日,國家做法的基礎上的法律Nazarites在序號。 ,六, 1月21日,法官, 18 , 31 ,談到幕中存在的時候,沒有國王在以色列;法官,二十, 26-8提到約櫃,各種犧牲,和Aaronic鐸。 The Pentateuchal history and laws are similarly presupposed in 1 Samuel 10:18; 15:1-10; 10:25; 21:1-6; 22:6 sqq.; 23:6-9; 2 Samuel 6.該Pentateuchal歷史和法律是同樣的先決條件在撒母耳記上10:18 ; 15:1-10 ; 10:25 ; 21:1-6 ; 22時零六sqq 。 ; 23:6-9 ;撒母耳記下6 。

(c) 1 and 2 Kings.-The last two Books of Kings repeatedly speak of the law of Moses. (三)第1和第2 Kings. ,最後兩本書的國王多次談到摩西律法。 To restrict the meaning of this term to Deuteronomy is an arbitrary exegesis (cf. 1 Kings 2:3; 10:31); Amasias showed mercy to the children of the murderers "according to that which is written in the book of the law of Moses" (2 Kings 14:6); the sacred writer records the Divine promise of protecting the Israelites "Only if they will observe to do all that I have commanded them according to the law which my servant Moses commanded them" (2 Kings 21:8).限制的含義,這個詞來申命記是一個任意的註釋(見列王紀上2時03分; 10時31分) ; Amasias表明憐憫的兒童的兇手“根據該寫這本書的法律摩西“ (列王紀下14點06分) ;神聖作家記錄神聖承諾保護以色列人”只有當他們將遵守盡一切,我已命令他們根據法律,我的僕人摩西指揮他們“ (列王紀下21 : 8 ) 。 In the eighteenth year of the reign of Josias was found the book of the law (2 Kings 22:8, 11), or the book of the covenant (2 Kings 23:2), according to which he conducted his religious reform (2 Kings 23:10-24), and which is identified with "the law of Moses" (2 Kings 23:25).早在十八歲的統治Josias發現這本書的法律(列王紀下22時08分, 11人) ,或本書的盟約(列王紀下23點零二分) ,根據了他的宗教改革( 2國王23:10-24 ) ,並確定這是與“摩西律法” (列王紀下23:25 ) 。 Catholic commentators are not at one whether this law-book was Deuteronomy (von Hummelauer, "Deuteronomium", Paris, 1901, p. 40-60, 83-7) or the entire Pentateuch (Clair, "Les livres des Rois", Paris, 1884, II, p. 557 seq.; Hoberg, "Moses und der Pentateuch", Frieburg, 1905, p. 17 seq.; "uber den Ursprung des Pentateuchs" in "Biblische Zeitschrift", 1906, IV, pp. 338-40).天主教評論家不是一個是否本法書是申命記(馮Hummelauer , “ Deuteronomium ” ,巴黎, 1901年,第40-60 , 83-7 )或整個摩西五(克萊爾, “沙漠之里弗羅伊斯” ,巴黎, 1884 ,二,第557頁起。 ;霍貝格, “摩西五經之和” , Frieburg , 1905年,第17頁以下。 “尤伯杯2007萬Pentateuchs起源”中的“ Biblische雜誌” , 1906年,四頁。 338 -40 ) 。

(d) Paralipomenon.-The inspired writer of Paralipomenon refers to the law and the book of Moses much more frequently and clearly. (四) Paralipomenon. ,作家的靈感Paralipomenon是指法律和這本書的摩西更頻繁和明確。 The objectionable names and numbers occurring in these books are mostly due to transcribers.不良的姓名和號碼出現在這些圖書主要是由於謄寫。 The omission of incidents which would detract from the glory of the Israelite kings or would not edify the reader is not detrimental to the credibility or veracity of the work. Otherwise one should have to place among works of fiction a number of biographical or patriotic publications intended for the young or for the common reader.遺漏的事件將影響到光榮的以色列人國王或不會陶冶讀者不會損害的信譽或真實性的工作。否則應該有一個地方的小說作品中的一些傳記或愛國出版物年輕或為了共同的讀者。 On their part, the modern critics are too eager to discredit the authority of Paralipomena.對他們而言,現代的批評太急於詆毀權威Paralipomena 。 "After removing the account of Paralipomena", writes de Wette (Beitrage, I, 135), "the whole Jewish history assumes another form, and the Pentateuchal investigations take another turn; a number of strong proofs, hard to explain away, for the early existence of the Mosaic books have disappeared, the other vestiges of their existence are placed in a different light." “在取消帳戶Paralipomena ” ,寫入日Wette ( Beitrage ,我, 135 ) , “整個猶太歷史承擔的另一種形式,和Pentateuchal調查,再反過來;了一些強有力的證據,很難解釋了,為早期存在的馬賽克書籍已經消失,其他殘餘的存在被安置在不同的光。 “ A glance at the contents of Parlipomenon suffices to explain the efforts of de Witte and Wellhausen to disprove the historicity of the books.一瞥的內容,足以解釋Parlipomenon的努力日維特和豪森駁斥了歷史性的書籍。 Not only are the genealogies (1 Chronicles 1-9) and the descriptions of worship traced after the data and laws of the Pentateuch, but the sacred writer expressly points out their conformity with what is written in the law of the Lord (1 Chronicles 16:40), in the law of Moses (2 Chronicles 23:18; 31:3), thus identifying the law of the Lord with that written by Moses (cf. 2 Chronicles 25:4).不僅是族譜(歷代誌上1月9日)和說明崇拜追查後,數據和法律的五經,但神聖的作家明確指出其符合什麼是書面的法律勳爵(歷代誌上16 : 40 ) ,在摩西律法(歷代誌下23:18 ; 31:3 ) ,從而確定的法律與主寫的摩西(參見歷代誌下25:4 ) 。 The reader will find similar indications of the existence and the Mosaic origin of the Pentateuch in I Par., xxii, 12 seq.; II Par., xvii, 9; xxxiii, 4; xxxiv, 14; xxv, 12.讀者會發現類似的跡象的存在和馬賽克起源於我的摩西五桿。 , 22 , 12起。 ;二桿。 ,十七, 9 ;三十三, 4 ;三十四, 14 ;二十五, 12 。 By an artificial interpretation, indeed, the Books of Paralipomenon may be construed to represent the Pentateuch as a book containing the law promulgated by Moses; but the natural sense of the foregoing passages regards the Pentateuch as a book edited by Moses.由人工解釋,事實上,圖書的Paralipomenon可能被解釋為代表了摩西五是出版了一本書的法律頒布的摩西;但自然意義上的上述段落關於摩西五為一本書主編的摩西。

(e) I, II Esdras.-The Books of Esdras and Nehemias, too, taken in their natural and commonly accepted sense, consider the Pentateuch as the book of Moses, not merely as a book containing the law of Moses. (五)一,二Esdras. ,帳簿埃斯德拉斯和Nehemias ,也採取了它們的自然和普遍接受的意義上說,考慮到五經的書摩西,而不僅僅是一本書,載摩西律法。 This contention is based on the study of the following texts: I Esd., iii, 2 sqq.; vi, 18; vii, 14; II Esd., i, 7 sqq.; viii, 1, 8, 14; ix, 3; x, 34, 36; xiii, 1-3.這一論點的依據是研究下列文本:我可持續發展教育。 ,三, 2 sqq 。 ;六, 18 ;第七章,第14條;二可持續發展教育。 ,我7 sqq 。 ;八, 1 , 8 , 14 ;九, 3 ;十, 34 , 36 ;第十三1-3 。 Graf and his followers expressed the view that the book of Moses referred to in these texts is not the Pentateuch, but only the Priestly Code; but when we keep in mind that the book in question contained the laws of Lev., xxiii, and Deut., vii, 2-4; xv, 2, we perceive at once that the book of Moses cannot be restricted to the Priestly Code.格拉夫和他的追隨者認為,這本書的摩西中提到的這些文本不是摩西五,但只有祭司碼;但是,當我們記住這本書載有問題的法律列夫。 ,二十三,並Deut 。 ,七, 2月4日;十五, 2 ,我們認為在這本書後,摩西不能僅限於在祭司碼。 To the witness of the historical books we may add II Mach., ii, 4; vii, 6; Judith, viii, 23; Ecclus., xxiv, 33; xlv, 1-6; xlv, 18, and especially the Preface of Ecclus.對證人的歷史書籍,我們可以添加二馬赫。 ,二, 4 ;七, 6 ;朱迪,八, 23 ; Ecclus 。 , 24 , 33 ;第四十五, 1月6日;第四十五, 18 ,特別是序Ecclus 。

(f) Prophetic Books.-Express reference to the written law of Moses is found only in the later Prophets: Bar., ii, 2, 28; Dan., ix, 11, 13; Mal., iv, 4. ( F )的先知Books. ,明確提到的書面摩西律法是發現,只有在後來先知:酒吧。 ,二, 2 , 28 ;丹。 ,第九章, 11 , 13 ;條。 ,四, 4 。 Among these, Baruch knows that Moses has been commanded to write the law, and though his expressions run parallel to those of Deut., xxviii, 15, 53, 62-64, his threats contain allusions to those contained in other parts of the Pentateuch. The other Prophets frequently refer to the law of the Lord guarded by the priests (cf. Deuteronomy 31:9), and they put it on the same level with Divine Revelation and the eternal covenant of the Lord.其中,巴魯克知道摩西已寫入命令的法律,儘管他的表現形式並行的那些Deut 。 ,二十八, 15 , 53 , 62-64 ,他的威脅含有暗示那些載於其他地區的摩西五。其他先知經常提到的法律,主守衛的祭司(參見申命記31:9 ) ,他們把它放在同樣的水平與天啟和永恆的盟約的上帝。 They appeal to God's covenant, the sacrificial laws the calendar of feasts, and other laws of the Pentateuch in such a way as to render it probable that a written legislation formed the basis of their prophetic admonitions (cf. Hosea 8:12), and that they were acquainted with verbal expressions of the book of the law.他們呼籲上帝的盟約,犧牲法律的日曆節日,和其他法律的摩西五以這樣一種方式,以使其有可能形成書面立法的基礎上他們的預言告誡(見何西阿8點12分) ,和他們熟悉的口頭表達的這本書的法律。 Thus in the northern kingdom Amos (iv, 4-5; v, 22 sqq.) and Isaias in the south (i, 11 sqq.) employ expressions which are practically technical words for sacrifice occurring in Lev., i-iii; vii, 12, 16; and Deut., xii, 6.因此,在英國北部阿摩司(四, 4月5日;五, 22 sqq 。 )和伊薩亞南部(一, 11 sqq 。 )僱用表現是技術的話幾乎犧牲發生在列夫。 ,一至三;七, 12 , 16 ;和Deut 。 ,第十二章, 6 。

(3) Witness of the New Testament ( 3 )證人的新約全書

We need not show that Jesus and the Apostles quoted the whole of the Pentateuch as written by Moses.我們沒有必要表明,耶穌和使徒引述整個五經書面的摩西。 If they attributed to Moses all the passages which they happen to cite, if they ascribe the Pentateuch to Moses whenever there is question of its authorship, even the most exacting critics must admit that they express their conviction that the work was indeed written by Moses.如果他們由於摩西的所有通道,他們舉出發生,如果他們賦予了摩西五摩西只要有問題,其著作權,即使是最苛刻的批評者也必須承認,他們表示相信,工作確實是寫的摩西。 When the Sadducees quote against Jesus the marriage law of Deut., xxv, 5, as written by Moses (Matthew 22:24; Mark 12:19; Luke 20:28), Jesus does not deny the Mosaic authorship, but appeals to Ex., iii, 6, as equally written by Moses (Mark 12:26; Matthew 22:31; Luke 20:37).當撒都該人對耶穌回复婚姻法Deut 。 , 25日, 5日,作為撰寫的摩西(馬太22:24 ;馬克12點19分;路加福音20:28 ) ,耶穌並不否認花葉著作權,但呼籲惠。 ,三,六,同樣寫的摩西(馬克12時26分;馬修22:31 ;路加福音20:37 ) 。 Again, in the parable of Dives and Lazarus (Luke 16:29), He speaks of "Moses and the prophets", while on other occasions He speaks of "the law and the prophets" (Luke 16:16), thus showing that in His mind the law, or the Pentateuch, and Moses are identical.再次,在寓言富豪和拉撒路(路加福音16時29分) ,他談到了“摩西和先知” ,而在其他場合,他說的是“ ,是律法和先知” (路加福音16:16 ) ,從而表明,在他的記憶法,或摩西五,和摩西是相同的。 The same expressions reappear in the last discourse addressed by Christ to His disciples (Luke 24:44-6; cf. 27): "which are written in the law of Moses, and in the prophets, and in the psalms concerning me".同樣的表情出現在過去的話語處理基督門徒(路加福音24:44-6 ;比照。二十七日)說: “這是寫在摩西律法,並在先知,並在關於我的詩篇” 。 Finally, in John, v, 45-7, Jesus is more explicit in asserting the Mosaic authorship of the Pentateuch: "There is one that accuseth you, Moses. . .for he wrote of me. But if you do not believe his writings, how will you believe my words?"最後,在美國,五, 45-7 ,耶穌是更明確地主張著作權的馬賽克的摩西五: “我們是一個accuseth你,摩西。 。 。為他寫的我。但是,如果你不相信他的著作,您將如何相信我的話? “ Nor can it be maintained that Christ merely accommodated himself to the current beliefs of his contemporaries who considered Moses as the author of the Pentateuch not merely in a moral but also in the literary sense of authorship.也不能被認為基督只是住自己目前的信仰誰認為他同時代的作家摩西的摩西五不僅在道義上,而且在文學意義上的作者。 Jesus did not need to enter into the critical study of the nature of Mosaic authorship, but He could not expressly endorse the popular belief, if it was erroneous.耶穌並不需要進入關鍵研究的性質花葉作者,但他沒有明確贊同普遍認為,如果是錯誤的。

The Apostles too felt convinced of, and testified to, the Mosaic authorship. "Philip findeth Nathanael, and saith to him: We have found him of whom Moses in the law, and the prophets did write."使徒們也認為深信,並證明,著作權的馬賽克。 “菲利普findeth拿,和saith對他說:我們已經找到了他的人摩西的法律,和先知沒有寫。 ” St. Peter introduces a quotation from Deut., xviii, 15, with the words: "For Moses said" (Acts 3:22).聖彼得介紹引自Deut 。 , 18 , 15 ,改為: “對摩西說: ” (使徒3點22分) 。 St. James and St.聖雅各福群和街 Paul relate that Moses is read in the synagogues on the Sabbath day (Acts 15:21; 2 Corinthians 3:15).保羅說,摩西是涉及閱讀的猶太教堂的安息日(使徒15時21分;哥林多後書3:15 ) 。 The great Apostle speaks in other passages of the law of Moses (Acts 13:33; 1 Corinthians 9:9); he preaches Jesus according to the law of Moses and the Prophets (Acts 28:23), and cites passages from the Pentateuch as words written by Moses (Romans 10:5-8; 19).偉大的使徒談到其他段落中的摩西律法(使徒13:33 ;哥林多前書9時09分) ;他鼓吹耶穌根據摩西律法和先知(使徒28:23 ) ,並列舉了摩西五通道作為文字的摩西(羅馬書10:5-8 ; 19 ) 。 St. John mentions the canticle of Moses (Revelation 15:3).聖約翰提到頌歌摩西(啟示錄15:3 ) 。


The voice of tradition, both Jewish and Christian, is so unanimous and constant in proclaiming the Mosaic authorship of the Pentateuch that down to the seventeenth century it did not allow the rise of any serious doubt.傳統的聲音,無論猶太教和基督教,是如此一致,不斷在宣布馬賽克作者的摩西五是到17世紀它不允許任何崛起的嚴重懷疑。 The following paragraphs are only a meagre outline of this living tradition.以下各段僅是微薄的大綱此生活的傳統。

(1) Jewish Tradition ( 1 )猶太傳統

It has been seen that the books of the Old Testament, beginning with those of the Pentateuch, present Moses as the author of at least parts of the Pentateuch. The writer of the Books of Kings believes that Moses is the author of Deuteronomy at least.人們看到,圖書舊約,首先是摩西五,本摩西的作者至少部分摩西五。作家的書國王認為,摩西是作者申命記至少。 Esdras, Nehemias, Malachias, the author of Paralipomena, and the Greek authors of the Septuagint Version consider Moses as the author of the whole Pentateuch.埃斯德拉斯, Nehemias , Malachias的作者Paralipomena ,和希臘作者七十版本考慮摩西的作者整個摩西五。 At the time of Jesus Christ and the Apostles friend and foe take the Mosaic authorship of the Pentateuch for granted; neither our Lord nor His enemies take exception to this assumption.當時耶穌和使徒朋友和敵人採取馬賽克作者的摩西五是理所當然的;既不我們的上帝,也沒有他的敵人採取例外,這一假設。 In the first century of the Christian era, Josephus ascribes to Moses the authorship of the entire Pentateuch, not excepting the account of the lawgiver's death ("Antiq. Jud.", IV, viii, 3-48; cf. I Procem., 4; "Contra Apion.", I, 8).在二十一世紀的公元,約瑟夫賦予摩西作者整個摩西五,不除外到立法者的死亡( “ Antiq 。珠德。 ” ,四,八, 3-48 ;比照。我Procem 。 , 4 , “康特拉阿皮翁。 ”一, 8 ) 。 The Alexandrian philosopher Philo is convinced that the entire Pentateuch is the work of Moses, and that the latter wrote a prophetic account of his death under the influence of a special divine inspiration ("De vita Mosis", ll. II, III in "Opera", Geneva, 1613, pp. 511, 538).哲學家斐洛的亞歷山大相信,整個摩西五是工作的摩西,後者寫了預言到他去世的影響下,一個特別神聖的啟示( “者維Mosis ” ,當地僱員。二,三在“歌劇院“ ,日內瓦, 1613年,頁。 511 , 538 ) 。 The Babylonian Talmud ("Baba-Bathra", II, col. 140; "Makkoth", fol. IIa; "Menachoth", fol. 30a; cf. Vogue, "Hist. de la Bible et de l'exegese biblique jusqua'a nos jours", Paris, 1881, p. 21), the Talmud of Jerusalem (Sota, v, 5), the rabbis, and the doctors of Israel (cf. Furst, "Der Kanon des Alten Testaments nach den Überlieferungen im Talmud und Midrasch", Leipzig, 1868, pp. 7-9) bear testimony to the continuance of this tradition for the first thousand years.巴比倫塔木德( “巴巴- Bathra ” ,二,山口。 140 ; “ Makkoth ” ,下載。國際投資協定“ ; Menachoth ” ,下載。 30A的;比照。時尚, “組織胺。德拉薩聖經與法國exegese biblique jusqua ' 1我jours “ ,巴黎, 1881年,第21頁) ,在耶路撒冷的猶太法典(索塔,五, 5 ) ,猶太教,和醫生的以色列(參見弗斯特, ”明鏡加隆萬老聖經nach旦Überlieferungen即時塔爾穆德與Midrasch “ ,萊比錫, 1868年,頁。 7-9 )證明的延續了這一傳統的第一一千多年。 Though Isaac ben Jasus in the eleventh century and Abenesra in the twelfth admitted certain post-Mosaic additions in the Pentateuch, still they as well as Maimonides upheld its Mosaic authorship, and did not substantially differ in this point from the teaching of R. Becchai (thirteenth cent.), Joseph Karo, and Abarbanel (fifteenth cent.; cf. Richard Simon, "Critique de la Bibl. des aut. eccles. de E. Dupin", Paris, 1730, III, pp. 215-20).雖然伊薩克本Jasus於11世紀和Abenesra在某些第十二屆承認後花葉增加在五經,但他們以及邁蒙尼德堅持花葉著作權,並沒有實質性不同,這一點從教學中的河Becchai (第十三左右。 ) ,約瑟夫卡羅和Abarbanel (第十五左右。 ;比照。理查德西蒙, “批判Bibl 。沙漠引渡。埃克勒斯。日體育Dupin ” ,巴黎, 1730年,三,頁。 215-20 ) 。 Only in the seventeenth century, Baruch Spinoza rejected the Mosaic authorship of the Pentateuch, pointing out the possibility that the work might have been written by Esdras ("Tract. Theol.-politicus", c. viii, ed. Tauchnitz, III, p. 125).只有在十七世紀,巴魯克斯賓諾莎拒絕馬賽克著作權的摩西五,指出的可能性,這項工作可能已經寫的埃斯德拉斯( “道。 Theol.政治論” ,角八,教育署。 Tauchnitz ,三,磷。 125 ) 。 Among the more recent Jewish writers several have adopted the results of the critics, thus abandoning the tradition of their forefathers.在最近的幾個猶太人作家已經通過的結果,評論家,從而放棄了他們祖先的傳統。

(2) Christian Tradition ( 2 )基督教傳統

The Jewish tradition concerning the Mosaic authorship of the Pentateuch was brought in to the Christian Church by Christ Himself and the Apostles.猶太傳統的馬賽克著作權的五經被帶到基督教的耶穌和使徒。 No one will seriously deny the existence and continuance of such a tradition from the patristic period onward; one might indeed be curious about the interval between the time of the Apostles and beginning of the third century.沒有人會認真地否認存在和繼續存在這樣一個傳統的教父期間起;人們可能確實是好奇之間的間隔時間的使徒和年初三世紀。 For this period we may appeal to the "Epistle of Barnabus" (x, 1-12; Funk, "Patres apostol.", 2nd ed., Tübingen, 1901, I, p. 66-70; xii, 2-9k; ibid., p. 74-6), to St. Clement of Rome (1 Corinthians 41:1; ibid., p. 152), St. Justin ("Apol. I", 59; PG, VI, 416; I, 32, 54; ibid., 377, 409; "Dial.", 29; ibid., 537), to the author of "Cohort. Ad Graec."在此期間我們可能會呼籲“使徒Barnabus ” (十, 1月12日;克, “ Patres apostol 。 ”第2版。 ,蒂賓根大學, 1901年,我,第66-70 ;十二, 2 - 9k ;同上。 ,第74-6 ) ,聖克萊門特的羅馬(哥林多前書41:1 ;同上。 ,第152頁) ,聖賈斯汀( “ Apol 。一” , 59 ;前列腺素,六, 416 ,我, 32 , 54 ;同上。 , 377 , 409 ; “撥號。 ” 29 ;同上。 , 537 ) ,作者的“隊列。廣告Graec 。 ” (9, 28, 30, 33, 34; ibid., 257, 293, 296-7, 361), to St. Theophilus ("Ad Autol.", III, 23; ibid., 1156; 11, 30; ibid., 1100), to St. Irenæus (Cont. haer., I, ii, 6; PG, VII, 715-6), to St. Hippolytus of Rome ("Comment. In Deut.", xxxi, 9, 31, 35; cf. Achelis, "Arabische Fragmente etc.", Leipzig, 1897, I, 118; "Philosophumena", VIII, 8; X, 33; PG, XVI, 3350, 3448), to Tertullian of Carthage (Adv. Hermog., XIX; PL, II, 214), to Origen of Alexandria (Contra. Cels., III, 5-6; PG, XI, 928; etc.), to St. Eusthatius of Antioch (De engastrimytha c. Orig., 21; PG, XVIII, 656); for all these writers, and others might be added, bear witness to the continuance of the Christian tradition that Moses wrote the Pentateuch. ( 9 , 28 , 30 , 33 , 34 ;同上。 , 257 , 293 , 296-7 , 361 ) ,聖奧菲勒斯( “廣告Autol 。 ” ,三, 23 ;同上。 , 1156年; 11 , 30 ;同上。 , 1100年) ,聖Irenæus (續haer 。 ,一,二, 6 ;指引,第七, 715-6 ) ,聖西波呂羅馬( “評論。在Deut 。 ”三十一, 9 , 31 , 35 ;比照。 Achelis , “ Arabische Fragmente等” ,萊比錫, 1897年,我, 118 ; “ Philosophumena ” ,八, 8 ;十, 33 ;指引,十六, 3350 , 3448 ) ,以良的迦太基( Adv. Hermog 。 ,十九;光致發光,二, 214 ) ,以奧利亞歷山大( Contra.細胞。 ,三, 5月6日;指引,十一, 928等) ,聖Eusthatius的安提阿(者engastrimytha角原始。 , 21 ;前列腺素,十八, 656 ) ;所有這些作家,和其他可添加,見證繼續基督教傳統,寫了摩西五經。 A list of the later Fathers who bear witness to the same truth may be found in Mangenot's article in the "Dict. de la Bible" (V, 74 seq.).的名單後父親誰見證相同的事實中可以找到Mangenot的文章在“快譯通。德拉薩聖經” (五, 74歲以下。 ) 。 Hoberg (Moses und der Pentateuch, 72 seq.) has collected the testimony for the existence of the tradition during the Middle Ages and in more recent times.霍貝格(摩西五經之和, 72起。 )已收集的證詞存在的傳統在中世紀,在更近的時候。

But Catholic tradition does not necessarily maintain that Moses wrote every letter of the Pentateuch as it is today, and that the work has come down to us in an absolutely unchanged form.但是,天主教的傳統,並不一定認為摩西寫每信摩西五象今天,該工作已下降到我們絕對不變的形式。 This rigid view of the Mosaic authorship began to develop in the eighteenth century, and practically gained the upper hand in the nineteenth.這種僵硬鑑於馬賽克作者開始發展在18世紀,切實佔上風19 。 The arbitrary treatment of Scripture on the part of Protestants, and the succession of the various destructive systems advanced by Biblical criticism, caused this change of front in the Catholic camp.任意對待聖經的一部分新教徒,並繼承了各種先進的破壞性系統聖經批評,造成這一變化的戰線天主教營地。 In the sixteenth century Card.在16世紀卡。 Bellarmine, who may be considered as a reliable exponent of Catholic tradition, expressed the opinion that Esdras had collected, readjusted, and corrected the scattered parts of the Pentateuch, and had even added the parts necessary for the completion of the Pentateuchal history (De verbo Dei, II, I; cf. III, iv).貝拉明,誰可被視為一個可靠的指數,天主教的傳統,認為埃斯德拉斯收集,調整,並糾正了分散部分摩西五,甚至增加了部分必要的完成Pentateuchal歷史(者動詞上帝,二,一;比照。三,四) 。 The views of Génebrard, Pereira, Bonfrere, a Lapide, Masius, Jansenius, and of other notable Biblicists of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries are equally elastic with regard to the Mosaic authorship of the Pentateuch.意見Génebrard ,佩雷拉,邦弗雷雷,一個Lapide ,麥西斯, Jansenius ,和其他顯著Biblicists的16和17世紀也同樣彈性關於花葉作者的摩西五。 Not that they agree with the contentions of our modern Biblical criticism; but they show that today's Pentateuchal problems were not wholly unknown to Catholic scholars, and that the Mosaic authorship of the Pentateuch as determined by the Biblical Commission is no concession forced on the Church by unbelieving Bible students.不是他們同意爭論我們現代聖經批評;但它們表明,今天的Pentateuchal問題沒有完全陌生的天主教學者和作者的馬賽克的摩西五所確定的聖經委員會沒有讓步強迫教會問題的不信聖經學生。


The possibility of producing a written record at the time of Moses is no longer contested.可能生成書面記錄的時候,摩西已不再有爭議。 The art of writing was known long before the time of the great lawgiver, and was extensively practised both in Egypt and Babylon.寫作的藝術被稱為之前很久的時候,偉大的立法者,並廣泛實行在埃及和巴比倫。 As to the Israelites, Flinders Petrie infers from certain Semitic inscriptions found in 1905 on the Sinaitic peninsula, that they kept written accounts of their national history from the time of their captivity under Ramses II.至於以色列人,弗林德斯皮特里推斷某些猶太人題詞於1905年發現的Sinaitic半島,他們隨時書面帳戶本國的歷史,他們被關押的時間下拉美西斯二世。 The Tell-el-Amarna tablets show the language of Babylon was in a way the official language at the time of Moses, known in Western Asia, Palestine, and Egypt; the finds of Taanek have confirmed this fact.該告訴埃及阿瑪爾納片顯示的語言,巴比倫是一種官方語言的時候,摩西,已知在西亞,巴勒斯坦和埃及的認定的Taanek證實了這一事實。 But it cannot be inferred from this that the Egyptians and Israelites employed this sacred or official language among themselves and in their religious documents (cf. Benzinger, "Hebraische Archaologie", 2nd ed., Tübingen, 1907, p. 172 sqq.).但是,它不能作為推斷這是埃及人和以色列人僱用這個神聖或它們之間的官方語言,並在其宗教文件(參見Benzinger , “ Hebraische Archaologie ” ,第2版。 ,蒂賓根大學, 1907年,第172頁sqq 。 ) 。 It is not merely the possibility of writing at the time of Moses and the question of language that confronts us here; there is the further problem of the kind of written signs used in the Mosaic documents.它不僅是書面的可能性時,摩西和問題的語言,使我們在這裡有進一步的問題,什麼樣的書面標誌用於花葉文件。 The hieroglyphic and cuneiform signs were widely employed at that early date; the oldest inscriptions written in alphabetical characters date only from the ninth century BC But there can hardly be any doubt as to the higher antiquity of alphabetic writing, and there seems to be nothing to prevent our extending it back to the time of Moses.象形文字和楔形文字的標誌,廣泛採用該早日生效;最古老的碑文寫的字母字符到目前為止,只有從公元前9世紀,但就不可能有疑問,較高的文物的拼音文字,似乎是沒有防止我們的延長回到時間的摩西。 Finally, the Code of Hammurabi, discovered in Susa in 1901 by the French expedition funded by Mr. And Mrs. Dieulafoy, shows that even in pre-Mosaic times legal enactments were committed to, and preserved in, writing; for the Code antedates Moses some five centuries, and contains about 282 regulations concerning various contingencies in the civic life.最後,漢謨拉比法典,在蘇薩發現於1901年由法國資助的探險先生和夫人杜氏,結果表明,即使在預花葉次法令承諾,並保存在,寫作;守則antedates摩西大約5個世紀,並載有大約282名各種突發法規的公民生活。

Thus far it has been shown negatively that an historic and legal document claiming to be written at the time of Moses involves no antecedent improbability of its authenticity.迄今為止,它已被證明是一種消極的歷史和法律文件,聲稱是書面的時候,摩西不涉及先行不大可能的真實性。 But the internal characteristics of the Pentateuch show also positively that the work is at least probably Mosaic.但是,內部特徵的摩西五顯示了積極的,這項工作至少是可能馬賽克。 It is true that the Pentateuch contains no express declaration of its entire Mosaic authorship; but even the most exacting of critics will hardly require such testimony.的確,摩西五載沒有明確宣布其整個花葉著作權;但即使是最苛刻的批評者就很難要求這些證詞。 It is practically lacking in all other books, whether sacred or profane.這實際上是缺乏所有其他的書籍,不論是神聖的或褻瀆。 On the other hand, it has already been shown that four distinct passages of the Pentateuch are expressly ascribed to the authorship of Moses.另一方面,它已經表明,四個不同的段落的摩西五是明確歸因於作者的摩西。 Deut., xxxi, 24-9, is especially noted; for it knows that Moses wrote the "words of this law in a volume" and commanded it to be placed in the ark of the covenant as a testimony against the people who have been so rebellious during the lawgiver's life and will "do wickedly" after his death. Deut 。 ,三十一, 24-9 ,特別指出,因為它知道,摩西寫了“的話本法數額” ,並命令它放在約櫃的證詞對人民誰已這樣叛逆在立法者的生命,將“做壞透”在他死後。 Again, a number of legal sections, though not explicitly ascribed to the writing of Moses, are distinctly derived from Moses as the lawgiver.同樣,一些法律部門,雖然沒有明確賦予的書面摩西,明顯來自摩西作為立法者。 Besides, many of the Pentateuchal laws bear evidence of their origin in the desert; hence they too lay an indirect claim to Mosaic origin.此外,許多Pentateuchal法律承擔證明其原產地在沙漠中,因此他們也奠定了間接聲稱花葉來源。 What has been said of a number of Pentateuchal laws is equally true of several historical sections.所說的一些Pentateuchal同樣的法律的若干歷史章節。 These contain in the Book of Numbers, for instance, so many names and numbers that they must have been handed down in writing. Unless the critics can bring irrefutable evidence showing that in these sections we have only fiction, they must grant that these historical details were written down in contemporary documents, and not transmitted by mere oral tradition. Moreover, Hommel ("Die altisraelitische Überlieferung in inschriftlicher Beleuchtung", p. 302) has shown that the names in the lists of the Book of Numbers bear the character of the Arabian names of the second millennium before Christ, and can have originated only in the time of Moses, though it must be admitted that the text of certain portions, eg, Num., xiii, has suffered in its transmission.這些包含在這本書中的數字,例如,如此眾多的名字和號碼,他們必須一直流傳下來的書面。除非批評可以帶來不可辯駁的證據顯示,在這些路段,我們只有小說,他們必須承認,這些歷史的細節寫在當代的文件,而不是僅僅通過口頭傳播的傳統。此外,霍梅爾( “模具altisraelitische Überlieferung在inschriftlicher Beleuchtung ” ,第302頁)表明,名單中的名字的圖書數承擔的性質阿拉伯名字公元前第二個千年,可以只在起源時,摩西,但必須承認,案文的某些部分,例如數。 ,十三,受到在其傳播。 We need not remind the reader that numerous Pentateuchal laws and data imply the conditions of a nomadic life of Israel.我們需要提醒讀者,許多Pentateuchal法律和數據意味著條件游牧生活以色列。 Finally, both the author of the Pentateuch and its first readers must have been more familiar with the topography and the social conditions of Egypt and with the Sinaitic peninsula than with the land of Chanaan.最後,作者的五經和它的第一讀者必須是比較熟悉的地形和社會條件的埃及和比Sinaitic半島的土地Chanaan 。 Cf., eg, Deut., viii, 7-10; xi, 10 sqq.比照。 ,例如Deut 。 ,八, 7月10日;十一, 10 sqq 。 These internal characteristics of the Pentateuch have been developed at greater length by Smith, "The Book of Moses or the Pentateuch in its Authorship, Credibility, and Civilisation", London, 1868; Vigouroux, "La Bible et les decouvertes modernes", 6th ed., Paris, 1896, I, 453-80; II, 1-213, 529-47, 586-91; Idem, "Les Livres Saints et la critique rationaliste", Paris, 1902, III, 28-46, 79-99, 122-6; Heyes, "Bibel und Ægypten", Munster, 1904, p.這些內部特徵的摩西五已經制定更詳細的史密斯, “這本書或摩西五經的作者,信譽,文明之光” ,倫敦, 1868年; Vigouroux , “香格里拉聖經與法國decouvertes現代” ,第6版。 ,巴黎, 1896年,我, 453-80 ;二, 1-213 , 529-47 , 586-91 ;同上, “法國和法語圖書聖徒批判rationaliste ” ,巴黎, 1902年,三, 28-46 , 79 - 99 , 122-6 ; Heyes , “聖經和Ægypten ” ,穆斯特, 1904年,第 142; Cornely, "Introductio specialis in histor. Vet. Test. libros", I, Paris, 1887, pp. 142 ; Cornely , “引的特別histor 。獸醫。試驗。 libros ” ,我,巴黎, 1887年,頁。 57-60; Poole, "Ancient Egypt" in "Contemporary Review", March, 1879, pp. 57-60 ;普爾, “古埃及”在“當代評論” , 3月, 1879年,頁。 757-9. 757-9 。


In accordance with the voice of the triple argument thus far advanced for the Mosaic authorship of the Pentateuch, the Biblical Commission on 27 June, 1906, answered a series of questions concerning this subject in the following way:根據聲音的三重論點迄今先進的馬賽克著作權的五經,聖經委員會關於1906年6月27日,回答了一系列問題,這一問題的方式如下:

(1) The arguments accumulated by the critics to impugn the Mosaic authenticity of the sacred books designated by the name Pentateuch are not of such weight as to give us the right, after setting aside numerous passages of both Testaments taken collectively, the continuous consensus of the Jewish people, the constant tradition of the Church, and internal indications derived from the text itself, to maintain that these books have not Moses as their author, but are compiled from sources for the greatest part later than the Mosaic age. ( 1 )論點所積累批評家非難花葉真實性神聖的書籍指定的名稱摩西五沒有這種重量給我們的權利,在撇開許多段落都聖經採取集體,連續共識猶太人民,不斷的傳統,教會,和內部的跡象來自文字本身,以保持這些書籍沒有摩西作為其作者,而且是從來源的最大部分不遲於花葉年齡。

(2) The Mosaic authenticity of the Pentateuch does not necessarily require such a redaction of the whole work as to render it absolutely imperative to maintain that Moses wrote all and everything with his own hand or dictated it to his secretaries; the hypothesis of those can be admitted who believe that he entrusted the composition of the work itself, conceived by him under the influence of Divine inspiration, to others, but in such a way that they were to express faithfully his own thoughts, were to write nothing against his will, were to omit nothing; and that finally the work thus produced should be approved by the same Moses, its principal and inspired author, and published under his name. ( 2 )花葉真實性摩西五並不一定需要這樣的編輯整個工作使其絕對必須保持這一摩西寫道,一切都與他自己的手或口述給他的秘書;的假設這些可必須承認誰相信他委託組成的工作本身,他所設想的影響下,神聖的靈感,給他人,但以這樣一種方式,他們忠實地表達自己的想法,寫了什麼對他的意志,省略了什麼;和最後的工作應該是這樣生產批准同摩西,其本金和激勵作者和出版他的名字。

(3) It may be granted without prejudice to the Mosaic authenticity of the Pentateuch, that Moses employed sources in the production of his work, ie, written documents or oral traditions, from which he may have drawn a number of things in accordance with the end he had in view and under the influence of Divine inspiration, and inserted them in his work either literally or according to their sense, in an abbreviated or amplified form. ( 3 )可給予不損害花葉真實性摩西五,即摩西受聘來源生產中所做的工作,即書面文件或口頭傳統,他從那裡可以得出一些事情根據為此,他已經考慮和的影響下,神聖的靈感,並插入他們在工作中也確實或根據自己的感覺,在一個縮寫或擴增形式。

(4) The substantial Mosaic authenticity and integrity of the Pentateuch remains intact if it be granted that in the long course of centuries the work has suffered several modifications, as; post-Mosaic additions either appended by an inspired author or inserted into the text as glosses and explanations; the translation of certain words and forms out of an antiquated language into the recent form of speech; finally, wrong readings due to the fault of transcribers, which one may investigate and pass sentence on according to the laws of criticism. ( 4 )大量馬賽克真實性和完整性的摩西五不變,如果給予,在長期的世紀工作就經受了好幾次修改,如;後花葉增加或者附加的啟發作者或插入文本掩蓋和解釋;翻譯某些詞和形式的陳舊的語言到最近形式的講話,最後,由於錯誤讀數的過錯謄寫,其中一個調查和判決的法律根據的批評。

The post-Mosaic additions and modifications allowed by the Biblical Commission in the Pentateuch without removing it from the range of substantial integrity and Mosaic authenticity are variously interpreted by Catholic scholars.後花葉補充和修訂所允許的聖經中的摩西五委員會而不刪除它的範圍從大量的完整性和真實性是不同的馬賽克解釋天主教學者。

(1) We should have to understand them in a rather wide sense, if we were to defend the views of von Hummelauer or Vetter. ( 1 )我們應該理解他們在一個相當廣泛的意義上說,如果我們要維護的意見,馮Hummelauer或Vetter 。 This latter writer admits legal and historical documents based on Mosaic tradition, but written only in the times of the Judges; he places the first redaction of the Pentateuch in the time of the erection of Solomon's temple, and its last redaction in the time of Esdras.後者作家承認的法律和歷史文獻的基礎上鑲嵌的傳統,但只寫在他的時代,法官,他的第一個地方的五經編輯的時候,勃起的所羅門聖殿,並在其最後編輯時間埃斯德拉斯。 Vetter died in 1906, the year in which the Biblical Commission issued the above Decree; it is an interesting question, whether and how the scholar would have modified his theory, if time had been granted him to do so. Vetter死於1906年,在這一年中的聖經委員會發表了上述法令,這是一個有趣的問題,是否和如何修改的學者將他的理論,如果時間已給予他這樣做。

(2) A less liberal interpretation of the Decree is implied in the Pentateuchal hypotheses advanced by Hobert ("Moses und der Pentateuch; Die Pentateuch Frage" in "Biblische Studien", X, 4, Freiburg, 1907; "Erklarung des Genesis", 1908, Freiburg, IL), Schopfer (Geschichte des Alten Testamentes, 4th ed., 226 sqq.), Hopfl ("Die hohere Bibelkritik", 2nd ed., Paderborn, 1906), Brucker ("L'eglise et la critique", Paris, 1907, 103 sqq.), and Selbst (Schuster and Holzammer's "Handbuch zur Biblischen Geschichte", 7th ed., Freiburg, 1910, II, 94, 96). ( 2 )少從寬解釋法令是隱含在Pentateuchal假設先進的Hobert ( “摩西五經之和; Frage模具五經”中的“ Biblische Studien ” ,第十,第4 ,弗賴堡, 1907年; “ Erklarung之起源” 1908年,弗萊堡,白細胞介素) , Schopfer (史老Testamentes ,第4版。 , 226 sqq 。 ) Hopfl ( “模具hohere Bibelkritik ” ,第2版。 ,帕德博恩, 1906 ) , Brucker ( “歐萊雅埃格利斯與香格里拉批判” ,巴黎, 1907年, 103 sqq 。 )和自身( Schuster和Holzammer的“手冊Biblischen史論” ,第七版。 ,弗賴堡, 1910年,二, 94 , 96 ) 。 The last-named writer believes that Moses left a written law-book to which Josue and Samuel added supplementary sections and regulations, while David and Solomon supplied new statutes concerning worship and priesthood, and other kings introduced certain religious reforms, until Esdras promulgated the whole law and made it the basis of Israel's restoration after the Exile.過去命名的作家認為,摩西留下了書面法律書籍的若蘇埃和Samuel補充和規章的補充部分,而大衛和所羅門提供新的章程和有關禮拜牧師和其他國王介紹了某些宗教的改革,直到整個埃斯德拉斯頒布法律並使其根據以色列的恢復後,流亡國外。 Our present Pentateuch is, therefore, an Esdrine edition of the work.我們目前的五經,因此,一個Esdrine版的工作。 Dr. Selbst feels convinced that his admission of both textual changes and material additions in the Pentateuch agrees with the law of historical development and with the results of literary criticism.博士自我感覺相信,他承認這兩個文本的修改和補充材料中的五經同意的法律和歷史發展的結果,文學批評。 Historical development adapts laws and regulations to the religious, civil, and social conditions of successive ages, while literary criticism discovers in our actual Pentateuch peculiarities of words and phrases which can hardly have been original, and also historical additions or notices, legal modifications, and signs of more recent administration of justice and of later forms of worship.適應歷史發展的法律和規章的宗教,民間,社會條件的歷屆年齡,而文學批評發現在我們的實際摩西五特點的單詞和詞組難以被原始,也是歷史上增加或通知,法律的修改,和最近的跡象,司法行政和後來形式的崇拜。 But Dr. Selbst believes that these peculiarities do not offer a sufficient basis for a distinction of different sources in the Pentateuch.但醫生認為,這些自身的特點沒有提供足夠的基礎,區分不同來源的摩西五。

(3) A strict interpretation of the words of the Decree is implied in the views of Kaulen (Einleitung, n. 193 sqq.), Key ("Die Pentateuchfrage, ihre Geschichte un ihre System", Munster, 1903), Flunk (Kirchenlexicon, IX, 1782 sqq.), and Mangenot ("L'authenticite mosaique du Pentateuque", Paris, 1907; Idem, "Dict. de la Bible", V, 50-119. With the exception of those portions that belong to the time after the death of Moses, and of certain accidental changes of the text due to transcribers, the whole of the Pentateuch is the work of Moses who composed the work in one of the ways suggested by the Biblical Commission. Finally, there is the question as the theological certainty of the thesis maintaining the Mosaic authenticity of the Pentateuch. ( 3 )嚴格解釋的話是暗示的法令的意見Kaulen (導論,北路193 sqq 。 ) ,關鍵詞( “模具Pentateuchfrage , ihre史聯合國ihre系統” ,明斯特, 1903年) ,失敗( Kirchenlexicon ,九, 1782年sqq 。 )和Mangenot ( “歐萊雅authenticite mosaique杜Pentateuque ” ,巴黎, 1907年;同上, “快譯通。德拉薩聖經” ,五, 50-119 。除部分屬於時間去世後摩西,以及某些意外更改的文字,由於謄寫,整個摩西五是工作的組成摩西誰的工作方法之一聖經所建議的委員會。最後,還有一個問題作為神學確定性論文保持花葉真實性摩西五。

(1) Certain Catholic scholars who wrote between 1887 and 1906 expressed their opinion that the thesis in question is not revealed in Scripture nor taught by the Church; that it expresses a truth not contained in Revelation, but a tenet which may be freely contested and discussed. ( 1 )某些天主教學者誰寫的1887年和1906年表示,他們認為,論文中的問題是,沒有發現在聖經也不教教堂,它表達了真理中不包含的啟示,而是一個宗旨可以自由爭論和討論。 At that time, ecclesiastical authority had issued no pronouncement on the question.在那個時候,教會當局沒有發出聲明問題上。

(2) Other writers grant that the Mosaic authenticity of the Pentateuch is not explicitly revealed, but they consider it as a truth revealed formally implicitly, being derived from the revealed formulae not by a syllogism in the strict sense of the word, but by a simple explanation of the terms. ( 2 )其他作者給予的馬賽克真實性摩西五是沒有明確透露,但他們認為這是一個事實表明正式含蓄,被來自顯示公式不是一個三段論在嚴格意義上的文字,但由簡單的解釋條款。 The denial of the Mosaic authenticity of the Pentateuch is an error, and the contradictory of the thesis maintaining the Mosaic authenticity of the Pentateuch is considered erronea in fide (cf. Mechineau, "L'origine mosaique du Pentateuque", p. 34).剝奪花葉真實性摩西五是一個錯誤,而且矛盾的命題保持花葉真實性摩西五是erronea在真誠(參見Mechineau , “歐萊雅起源mosaique杜Pentateuque ” ,第34頁) 。

(3) A third class of scholars considers the Mosaic authenticity of the Pentateuch neither as a freely debatable tenet, nor as a truth formally implicitly revealed; they believe it has been virtually revealed, or that it is inferred from revealed truth by truly syllogistic deduction. ( 3 )第三類學者認為,花葉真實性摩西五既不作為一個有爭議的自由的宗旨,也作為一個真相正式含蓄地表明,他們認為它實際上已被發現,或者說這是推斷揭示真理的真正三段論扣除。 It is, therefore, a theologically certain truth, and its contradictory is a rash (temeraria) or even erroneous proposition (cf. Brucker, "Authenticite des livres de Moise" in "Etudes", March, 1888, p. 327; ibid., January, 1897, p. 122-3; Mangenot, "L'authenticité mosaïque du Pentateuque", pp. 267-310.因此,一個神學某些事實,其矛盾的是皮疹( temeraria ) ,甚至錯誤的主張(見Brucker , “ Authenticite萬里弗日莫伊茲”中的“練習曲” , 3月, 1888年,第327頁;同上。 1月, 1897年,第122-3 ; Mangenot , “歐萊雅authenticité mosaïque杜Pentateuque ” ,頁。 267-310 。

Whatever effect the ecclesiastical decision concerning the Mosaic authenticity of the Pentateuch may have had, or will have, on the opinion of students of the Pentateuchal question, it cannot be said to have occasioned the conservative attitude of scholars who wrote before the promulgation of the Decree.無論教會決定作用的馬賽克真實性摩西五可能有或將有的意見,學生的Pentateuchal問題,不能說已經引起了保守態度的學者誰寫之前頒布的法令。 The following list contains the names of the principal recent defenders of Mosaic authenticity: Hengstenberg, "Die Bucher Moses und Aegypten", Berlin, 1841; Smith, "The Book of Moses or the Pentateuch in its Authorship, Credibility, and Civilisation", London, 1868; C. Schobel, "Demonstration de l'authenticite du Deuteronome", Paris, 1868; Idem, "Demonstration de l'authenticite mosaique de l'Exode", Paris, 1871; Idem, "Demonstration de l'authenticite mosaique du Levitique et des Nombres", Paris, 1869; Idem, "Demonstration de l'authenticite de la Genese", Paris, 1872; Idem, "Le Moise historique et la redaction mosaique du Pentateuque", Paris, 1875; Knabenbauer, "Der Pentateuch und die unglaubige Bibelkritik" in "Stimmen aus Maria-Laach", 1873, IV; Bredenkamp, "Gesetz und Propheten", Erlangen, 1881; Green, "Moses and the Prophets", New York, 1883; Idem, "The Hebrew Feasts", New York, 1885; Idem, "The Pentateuchal Question" in "Hebraica", 1889-92; Idem, "The Higher Criticism of the Pentateuch", New York, 1895; Idem, "The Unity of the Book of Genesis", New York, 1895; C. Elliot, "Vindication of the Mosaic Authorship of the Pentateuch", Cincinnati, 1884; Bissel, "The Pentateuch, its Origin and Structure", New York, 1885; Ubaldi, "Introductio in Sacram Scripturam", 2nd ed., Rome, 1882, I, 452- 509; Cornely, "Introductio specialis in historicos VT libros", Paris, 1887, pp.下面的列表包含的姓名,最近的主要捍衛者的馬賽克真實性:亨斯, “模具與Aegypten布赫爾摩西” ,柏林, 1841年;史密斯, “這本書或摩西五經的作者,信譽,文明之光” ,倫敦, 1868 ;角Schobel , “示範法國authenticite杜Deuteronome ” ,巴黎, 1868年;同上, “示範法國authenticite mosaique法國Exode ” ,巴黎, 1871年;同上, “示範法國authenticite mosaique杜Levitique等沙漠Nombres “ ,巴黎, 1869年;同上, ”示範法國authenticite德拉薩Genese “ ,巴黎, 1872年;同上, ”樂莫伊茲歷史等香格里拉編輯mosaique杜Pentateuque “ ,巴黎, 1875年; Knabenbauer , ”明鏡摩西五與死亡unglaubige Bibelkritik “中的” Stimmen澳大利亞瑪麗亞Laach “ , 1873年,第四;登坎普”法則與Propheten “埃爾蘭根, 1881年;綠色, ”摩西和先知“ ,紐約, 1883年;同上, ”希伯來節日“ ,紐約, 1885年;同上, ”該Pentateuchal提問“ , ” Hebraica “ , 1889年至1892年;同上, ”上批評五經“ ,紐約, 1895年;同上, ”團結的創世記“ ,紐約, 1895年;角艾略特, “報復的馬賽克著作權的五經” ,辛辛那提, 1884年; Bissel說: “摩西五,其來源和結構” ,紐約, 1885年; Ubaldi , “引Sacram Scripturam ” ,第2版。 ,羅馬, 1882年,我, 452 - 509 ; Cornely , “引historicos特別在佛蒙特州libros ” ,巴黎, 1887年,頁。 19-160; Vos, "Mosaic Origin of the Pentateuchal Codes", London, 1886; Bohl, "Zum Gesetz und zum Zeugniss", Vienna, 1883; Zah, "Erneste Blicke in den Wahn der modernen Kritik des AT", Gutersloh, 1893; Idem, "Das Deuteronomium", 1890; Idem, "Israelitische und judische Geschichte", 1895; Rupprecht, "Die Anschauung der kritischen Schule Wellhausens vom Pentateuch", Leipzig, 1893; Idem, "Das Rathsel des Funfbuches Mose und seine falsche Losung", Gutersloh, 1894; Idem, "Des Rathsels Losung order Beitrage zur richtigen Losung des Pentateuchrathsels", 1897; Idem, "Die Kritik nach ihrem Recht uknd Unrecht", 1897; "Lex Mosaica, or the Law of Moses and the Higher Criticism" (by Sayce, Rawlinson, Trench, Lias, Wace, etc.), London, 1894; Card. 19-160 ;沃斯, “馬賽克起源Pentateuchal守則” ,倫敦, 1886年;博爾, “ Zum法則與zum Zeugniss ” ,維也納, 1883年; Zah , “ Erneste Blicke在2007 Wahn現代批判之在” ,居特斯洛, 1893年;同上, “達斯Deuteronomium ” , 1890年;同上, “ Israelitische與judische史” , 1895年;魯普雷希特, “模具之kritischen直觀學派Wellhausens論五經” ,萊比錫, 1893年;同上, “達斯Rathsel萬Funfbuches摩西和他的falsche Losung “ ,居特斯洛, 1894年;同上, ”輔Rathsels Losung秩序Beitrage楚richtigen Losung萬Pentateuchrathsels “ , 1897年;同上, ”模具批判nach ihrem法uknd不法“ , 1897年; ”的Lex Mosaica ,或摩西律法和更高批判“ (由Sayce ,羅林森,麟趾,黑侏羅統, Wace ,等等) ,倫敦, 1894年;卡。 Meignan, "De L'Eden a Moise", Paris, 1895, 1-88; Baxter, "Sanctuary and Sacrifice", London, 1896; Abbé de Broglie, "Questions bibliques", Paris, 1897, pp. Meignan , “法國伊甸園1莫伊茲” ,巴黎, 1895年1-88 ;巴克斯特的“庇護和犧牲” ,倫敦, 1896年;布沙尼德布羅意, “問題bibliques ” ,巴黎, 1897年,頁。 89-169; Pelt, "Histoire de l'AT", 3rd ed., Paris, 1901, I, pp. 89-169 ;佩爾特, “法國史的” ,第3版。 ,巴黎, 1901年,我頁。 291-326; Vigouroux, "Les Livres Saints et la critique ratioinaliste", Paris, 1902, III, 1-226; IV, 239-53, 405-15; Idem, "Manuel biblique", 12th ed., Paris, 1906, I, 397-478; Kley, "Die Pentateuchfrage, ihre Geschichte und ihre Systeme", Munster, 1903; Hopfl, "Die hohere Bibelkritik", Paderborn, 1902; Thomas, "The Organic Unity of the Pentateuch", London, 1904; Wiener, "Studies in Biblical Law", London, 1904; Rouse, "The Old Testament in New Testament Light", London, 1905; Redpath, "Modern Criticism and the Book of Genesis", London, 1905; Hoberg, "Moses und der Pentateuch", Freiburg, 1905; Orr, "The Problem of the Old Testament considered with reference to Recent Criticism", London, 1906. 291-326 ; Vigouroux , “法國圖書聖徒等批判ratioinaliste香格里拉” ,巴黎, 1902年,三, 1-226 ;四, 239-53 , 405-15 ;同上, “曼努埃爾biblique ” ,第12版。 ,巴黎, 1906年,我, 397-478 ; Kley , “模具Pentateuchfrage , ihre歷史與ihre制” ,明斯特, 1903 ; Hopfl , “模具hohere Bibelkritik ” ,帕德博恩, 1902年;托馬斯“的有機統一的五經” ,倫敦, 1904年;維納, “聖經研究法” ,倫敦, 1904年;勞斯, “舊約中新約全書光” ,倫敦, 1905年;雷德帕思, “現代的批判和創世記” ,倫敦, 1905年;霍貝格, “摩西與德國五經“ ,弗賴堡, 1905年;奧爾,他說: ”問題舊約審議提到最近批評“ ,倫敦, 1906年。


A detailed account of the opposition to the Mosaic authorship of the Pentateuch is neither desirable nor necessary in this article.詳細介紹了反對花葉著作權的摩西五既不可取,也不需要在這一條。 In itself it would form only a noisome history of human errors; each little system has had its day, and its successors have tried their best to bury it in hushed oblivion.它本身只是一個形式有礙人類歷史錯誤;每個小系統也有一天,它的繼任者已經盡力埋葬在寂靜遺忘。 The actual difficulties we have to consider are those advanced by our actual opponents of today; only the fact that the systems of the past show us the fleeting and transitory character of the actual theories now in vogue can induce us to briefly enumerate the successive views upheld by the opponents of the Mosaic authorship.的實際困難,我們必須要考慮的是通過我們的實際先進反對者今天,只有這樣一個事實,即系統過去查看我們的短暫和過渡性質的實際現在流行的理論能誘導我們簡要列舉堅持連續意見由反對花葉作者。

(1) Abandoned Theories ( 1 )被遺棄的理論

The views advanced by the Valentinian Ptolemy, the Nazarites, Abenesra, Carlstadt, Isaac Peyrerius, Baruch Spinoza, Jean Leclerc are sporadic phenomena. Not all of them were wholly incompatible with the Mosaic authorship as now understood, and the others have found their answer in their own time.-With the work of John Astrue, published in 1753, began the so-called Hypothesis of Documents which was further developed by Eichhorn and Ilgen.該意見提出瓦倫蒂安托勒密的Nazarites , Abenesra , Carlstadt ,艾薩克Peyrerius ,巴魯克斯賓諾莎,讓勒克萊爾是零星的現象。不是所有的人完全不符合著作權的馬賽克像現在的理解,和其他人發現自己的答案自己time. ,隨著工作的約翰Astrue ,發表於1753年,開始了所謂的假說文件進一步發展了艾希霍恩和Ilgen 。 But the works of the suspended priest, Alexander Geddes, published in 1792 and 1800, introduced the Hypothesis of Fragments, which in its day was elaborated and championed by Vater, de Wette (temporarily at least), Berthold, Hartmann, and von Bohlen.但是,工程暫停神父,亞歷山大格迪斯,出版於1792年和1800年,介紹了假設的碎片,這一天是在其制定並倡導壺腹部,日Wette (至少暫時) ,貝特霍爾德,哈特曼和馮波倫。 This theory was soon confronted by, and had to yield to the Hypothesis of Complements or Interpolations which numbered among its patrons Kelle, Ewald, Stahelin, Bleek, Tuch, de Wette, von Lengerke, and for a brief period also Franz Delitzsch.這一理論很快就面臨著,並已取得的假說補或插值其中編號之間的顧客凱萊,埃瓦爾德,斯斯塔埃林, Bleek , Tuch ,日Wette ,馮Lengerke ,和一個短暫的時期內還弗蘭茲德里。 The theory of interpolations again had hardly found any adherents before Gramberg (1828), Stahelin (1830), and Bleek (1831) returned to the Hypothesis of Documents, proposing it in a somewhat modified form.插值理論的再次幾乎沒有發現任何信徒面前Gramberg ( 1828 ) ,斯斯塔埃林( 1830 ) ,和Bleek ( 1831年)返回假設的文件,提出它在一種經略加修改的形式。 Subsequently, Ewald, Knobel, Hupfeld, Noldeke, and Schrader advanced each a different explanation of the documentary hypothesis.隨後,埃瓦爾德,克諾貝爾,霍普菲, Noldeke和施拉德先進的每一個不同的解釋紀錄片假說。 But all of these are at present only of an historical interest.但是,所有這些都是目前唯一的一個歷史的興趣。

(2) Present Hypothesis of Documents ( 2 )現假設文件

A course of religious development in Israel had been proposed by Reuss in 1830 and 1834, by Vatke in 1835, and by George in the same year.課程在以色列的宗教發展提出了Reuss在1830年和1834年,由Vatke於1835年,和喬治在同一年。 In 1865-66 Graf took up this idea and applied it to the literary criticism of the Hexateuch; for the critics had begun to consider the Book of Josue as belonging to the preceding five books, so that the collection formed a Hexateuch instead of a Pentateuch. The same application was made by Merx in 1869.格拉夫在1865年至1866年了這一想法,並適用於它的文學批評的Hexateuch ;的批評已開始考慮書若蘇埃屬於前5本書,以便收集形成了Hexateuch不是摩西五。同一申請是由Merx於1869年。 Thus modified the documentary theory continued in its development until it reached the state described in the translation of the Bible by Kautzsch (3rd ed., with Introduction and Annotations, Tübingen, 1908 sqq.).因此,修改的文件在其理論繼續發展,直至達到國家中所描述的翻譯聖經的Kautzsch (第3版。 ,以介紹和說明,圖賓根, 1908年sqq 。 ) 。 In itself there is nothing against the assumption of documents written by Moses; but we cannot ascribe with certainty anything of our literary remains to the hands of the Hebrew lawgiver.這本身沒有什麼危害擔任撰寫的文件摩西;但我們不能歸咎於任何肯定我們的文學仍然掌握在希伯萊立法者。 The beginning of written accounts must be placed towards the end of the time of Judges; only then were fulfilled the conditions which must precede the origin of a literature properly so called, ie, a general acquaintance with the art of writing and reading, stationary settlement of the people, and national prosperity.年初書面帳目必須放置在接近年底時法官的時間才得到滿足的條件,必須先來源的文學所謂正確,即一般熟人與藝術的書寫和閱讀,平穩解決人民和國家的繁榮。 What then are the oldest literary remains of the Hebrews?那麼什麼是最古老的文學仍然希伯來書? They are the collections of the songs dating from the heroic time of the nation, eg, the Book of the Wars of the Lord (Numbers 21:14), the Book of the Just (Joshua 10:12 sqq.), the Book of Songs (1 Kings 8:53; cf. Budde, "Geschichte der althebr. Literature", Leipzig, 1906, 17).他們收藏的歌曲約會時間從英雄的民族,如圖書的戰爭勳爵(民數記21:14 ) ,這本書的正義(約書亞10:12 sqq 。 ) ,這本書的首歌曲(列王紀上8點53分;比照。布德, “史althebr 。文學” ,萊比錫, 1906年, 17歲) 。 The Book of the Covenant (Exodus 20:24-23:19) too must have existed before the other sources of the Pentateuch. The oldest historical work is probably the book of the Yahwist, designated by J, and ascribed to the priesthood of Juda, belonging most probably to the ninth century BC圖書盟約(出20:24-23:19 )也必須有之前就存在的其他來源的摩西五。最古老歷史的工作,可能是本書的Yahwist指定的J和歸因於鐸的猶大,屬於最有可能在公元前9世紀

Akin to this is the Elohim document, designated by E, and written probably in the northern kingdom (Ephraim) about a century after the production of the Yahweh document.類似於這是耶洛因文件,指定的E和書面可能是在英國北部(埃弗拉伊姆)約在一個多世紀後的生產耶和華文件。 These two sources were combined by a redactor into one work soon after the middle of the sixth century.這兩個來源所合併成一個工作redactor後不久,中東第六世紀。 Next follows the law-book, almost entirely embodied in our actual Book of Deuteronomy, discovered in the temple 621 BC, and containing the precipitate of the prophetic teaching which advocated the abolition of the sacrifices in the so- called high places and the centralization of worship in the temple of Jerusalem.下一步如下法律書籍,幾乎完全體現在我們的實際書申命記,發現了公元前621廟,並載有沉澱的預言教學主張廢除犧牲在所謂的高的地方和集中禮拜寺耶路撒冷。 During the Exile originated the Priestly Code, P, based on the so-called law of holiness, Lev., xvii-xxvi, and the programme of Ezechiel, xl-xlviii; the substance of P was read before the post-exilic community by Esdras about 444 BC (Nehemiah 8-10), and was accepted by the multitude.在流亡的祭司碼起源,磷的基礎上,所謂的法律的聖德,列夫。 ,十七,二十六,該方案的Ezechiel ,儀-四十八;的P物質前宣讀後放逐社會公元前約444埃斯德拉斯(尼希米記8月10日) ,並接受了眾多。 History does not tell us when and how these divers historical and legal sources were combined into our present Pentateuch; but it is generally assumed that there was an urgent call for a compilation of the tradition and pre-exilic history of the people.歷史上並沒有告訴我們何時和如何這些潛水員的歷史和法律的來源合併為我們目前的摩西五;但一般認為,迫切要求彙編傳統和前放逐人民歷史。 The only indication of time may be found in the fact that the Samaritans accepted the Pentateuch as a sacred book probably in the fourth century BC Considering their hatred for the Jews, one must conclude that they would not have taken this step, unless they had felt certain of the Mosaic origin of the Pentateuch.唯一顯示時間可能會發現這樣一個事實,即撒瑪利亞接受了摩西五書作為一項神聖的可能是在公元前四世紀的考慮他們的仇恨猶太人,我們必須得出結論,他們就不會採取這一步驟,除非他們認為某些馬賽克起源摩西五。 Hence a considerable time must have intervened between the compilation of the Pentateuch and its acceptance by the Samaritans, so that the work of combining must be placed in the fifth century.因此,在相當一段時期內必須進行干預之間的彙編摩西五和接受撒瑪利亞,這樣結合起來的工作必須放置在五世紀。 It is quite generally agreed that the last redactor of the Pentateuch completed his task with great adroitness.這是很普遍認為,在過去的五經redactor完成他的任務十分精明。 Without altering the text of the older sources, he did all within man's power to fuse the heterogeneous elements into one apparent (?) whole, with such success that not only the Jews after the fourth century BC, but also the Christians for many centuries could maintain their conviction that the entire Pentateuch was written by Moses.在不改變舊的案文的來源,但他所有的人的權力,融合成一個異質因素明顯( ? )整體而言,這種成功,不僅對猶太人在公元前四世紀,而且為許多世紀基督徒可能保持它們的信念,即整個五經的作者是摩西。

(3) Deficiencies of the Critical Hypothesis ( 3 )有缺陷的關鍵假設

As several Pentateuchal critics have endeavoured to assign the last redaction of the Pentateuch to more recent dates, its placement in the fifth century may be regarded as rather favourable to conservative views.正如一些批評者一直在努力Pentateuchal指派最後編輯的摩西五,以更近的日期,其位置在第五世紀可能會被視為相當有利的保守觀點。 But it is hard to understand why the patrons of this opinion should not agree in considering Esdras as the last editor.但很難理解為什麼顧客的意見不應該同意在考慮埃斯德拉斯作為最後的編輯器。 Again, it is quite certain that the last editor of the Pentateuch must have notably preceded its acceptance on the part of the Samaritans as a sacred book; bit is it probably that the Samaritans would have accepted the Pentateuch as such in the fourth century BC, when the national and religious opposition between them and Jews was well developed?再次,這是很肯定地說,最後的編輯特別是摩西五之前必須接受的一部分撒瑪利亞為一個神聖的書籍;位是它可能是撒瑪利亞會接受了摩西五等在公元前四世紀,在民族和宗教對立,他們和猶太人已經十分發達? Is it not more probable that the mixed nation of Samaria received the Pentateuch through the priest sent to them from Assyria?這難道不是更可能是混合的國家薩馬利亞收到摩西五通過神父向他們發送從亞述? Cf.比照。 2 Kings 17:27.列王紀下17時27分。 Or again, as this priest instructed the Samaritan population in the law of the god of the country, is it not reasonable to suppose that he taught them the Pentateuchal law which the ten tribes carried with them when they separated from Juda?或再次,因為這神父指示撒瑪利亞人口的法律,上帝的國,是不是合理的假設,他教他們Pentateuchal法律進行的10個部落與他們分開時,猶大? At any rate, the fact that the Samaritans accepted as sacred only the Pentateuch, but not the Prophets, leads us to infer that the Pentateuch existed among the Jews before a collection of the prophetic writings was made, and that Samaria chose its sacred book before even Juda placed the works of the Prophets on the same level with the work of Moses.無論如何,這樣一個事實,即撒瑪利亞接納為神聖只有五經,但不是先知,使我們推斷,摩西五猶太人之間存在之前收集的預言著作寫了,而且薩馬利亞選擇其聖書之前甚至猶大放在工作的先知在同一水平上的工作,摩西。 But this natural inference finds no favour among the critics; for it implies that the historical and legal traditions codified in the Pentateuch, described the beginning, and not the end, of Israel's religious development.但是,這自然推理認為,沒有贊成的批評,因為它意味著,歷史和法律傳統中的摩西五編,介紹了剛剛開始,不是結束,以色列的宗教發展。 The view of Israel's religious development prevalent among the critics implies that the Pentateuch is later than the Prophets, and that the Psalms are later than both.以色列認為的宗教發展中普遍存在的批評意味著摩西五晚於先知,而且詩篇是不遲於兩個。 After these general considerations, we shall briefly examine the main principles, the methods, the results, and the arguments of the critical theory.在這些一般性的考慮,我們將簡要地審查的主要原則,方法,結果和論點的批判理論。

(a) Principles of the Critics (一)原則批評

Without pretending to review all the principles involved in the theories of the critics, we draw attention to two: the historical development of religion, and the comparative value of internal evidence and tradition.沒有假裝審查所有參與的原則理論的批評,我們提請大家注意兩個:歷史發展的宗教,和相對值的內部證據和傳統。

(i) The theory of the historical evolution of Israelitic religions leads us from Mosaic Yahwehism to the ethical monotheism of the Prophets, from this to the universalist conception of God developed during the Exile, and from this again to the ossified Phariseeism of later days. (一)理論的歷史演變Israelitic宗教使我們從花葉Yahwehism的道德一神教的先知,從這一概念的普遍性上帝流亡期間制定,並從這個再次僵化Phariseeism後來天。 This religion of the Jews is codified in our actual Pentateuch, but has been fictitiously projected backwards in the historical books into the Mosaic and pre-prophetic times. The idea of development is not a purely modern discovery.這一宗教的猶太人是編纂在我們的實際摩西五,但一直fictitiously預計倒退的歷史書籍的花葉和前預言次。發展的想法是不是一個純粹的現代發現。 Meyer ("Der Entwicklungsgedanke bei Aristoteles", Bonn, 1909) shows that Aristotle was acquainted with it; Gunkel ("Weiterbildung der Religion", Munich, 1905, 64) maintains that its application to religion is as old as Christianity, and that St.邁耶( “明鏡Entwicklungsgedanke北亞里士多德” ,波恩, 1909 )表明,亞里士多德是熟悉它;貢克爾( “ Weiterbildung之宗教” ,慕尼黑, 1905年, 64歲)堅持認為,它適用於宗教一樣古老基督教,和意法半導體。 Paul has enunciated this principle; Diestel ("Geschichte des AT in der chrislichen Kirche", Jena, 1869, 56 sqq.), Willmann ("Geschichte des Idealismus", 2nd ed., II, 23 sqq.), and Schanz ("Apologie des Christentums", 3rd ed. II, 4 sqq., 376) find the same application in the writings of the Fathers, though Hoberg ("Die Forschritte der bibl. Wissenschaften", Freiburg, 1902, 10) grants that the patristic writers often neglect the external forms which influenced the ideas the Chosen People.保羅已經闡明了這一原則; Diestel ( “史中的chrislichen在教堂” ,耶拿, 1869年, 56 sqq 。 ) ,維爾曼( “史唯心主義” ,第2版。 ,二, 23 sqq 。 )和坎茲( “辯護萬基督教“ ,第3版。二, 4 sqq 。 , 376 )找到同一申請的著作中的父親,但霍貝格( ”模具Forschritte之bibl 。學問“ ,弗賴堡, 1902年, 10 )贈款教父作家往往忽視了外部形式的思想影響的選民。 The Fathers were not fully acquainted with profane history, and were more concerned about the contents of Revelation than about its historical development.父親沒有完全熟悉褻瀆歷史,並更關注啟示的內容比其歷史發展。 Pesch ("Glaube, Dogmen und geschichtliche Thatsachen" in "Theol. Zeitfragen", IV, Freiburg, 1908, 183) discovers that St. Thomas, too, admits the principle of development in his "Summa" (II-II, Q. i, a. 9, 10; Q. ii, a. 3; etc.).佩施( “信仰, Dogmen與geschichtliche Thatsachen ”中的“ Theol 。 Zeitfragen ” ,四,弗賴堡, 1908年, 183 )發現,聖托馬斯也承認,發展的原則,在他的“神學” (二,二,問:我答: 9日, 10日;問:二A 3 ;等等) 。 But the Catholic conception of this principle avoids two extremes:但是,天主教的概念這一原則避免兩個極端:

the theory of degeneracy, based on the teaching of the early Lutheran theologians (cf. Giesebrecht, "Die Degradationshypothese und die altl. Geschichte", Leipzig, 1905; Steude, "Entwicklung und Offenbarung", Stuttgart, 1905, 18 sqq.);簡的理論基礎上,教學中的早期路德神學(參見Giesebrecht , “模具Degradationshypothese與模具altl 。史” ,萊比錫, 1905年; Steude , “ Entwicklung與啟示” ,斯圖加特, 1905年, 18 sqq 。 ) ;

the theory of evolution which dissolves all truth and history into purely natural development to the exclusion of everything supernatural.理論的演變溶解一切的真理和歷史到純粹的自然的發展,排除一切超自然。

It is this latter extreme that is advocated by the Biblical critics.正是這種極端後者是聖經所主張的批評。 Their description of the early religion of Israel is contradicted by the testimony of the oldest Prophets whose authority is not questioned by them.他們描述了早期宗教的以色列是矛盾的證詞,最古老的預言,其權威是不能質疑他們。 These inspired seers know of the fall of Adam (Hosea 6:7), the call of Abraham (Isaiah 29:23; Micah 7:20), the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrha (Hosea 11:8; Isaiah 1:9; Amos 4:11), the history of Jacob and his struggle with the angel (Hosea 12:2 sqq.), Israel's exodus from Egypt and dwelling in the desert (Hosea 2:14; 7:16; 11:1; 12:9, 13; 13:4, 5; Amos 2:10; 3:1; 9:7), the activity of Moses (Hosea 12:13; Micah 6:4; Isaiah 63:11-12), a written legislation (Hosea 8:12), and a number of particular statutes (cf. Kley, "Die Pentateuchfrage", Munster, 1903, 223 sqq.). Again, the theory of development is more and more contradicted by the results of historical investigation.這些靈感的預言家知道秋天亞當(何西阿6點07 ) ,要求亞伯拉罕(以賽亞書29:23 ;米卡7時20分) ,銷毀所多瑪和Gomorrha (何西阿11時08 ;以賽亞1點09 ;阿莫斯納曼4時11分) ,歷史上的雅各布和他的鬥爭與天使(何西阿12:2 sqq 。 ) ,以色列的流亡埃及和居住在沙漠中(何西阿2時14 ; 7時16分; 11時零一分; 12時09分, 13人; 13時04分, 5個;阿莫斯納曼2時10 ; 3:1 ; 9時07分) ,活動的摩西(何西阿12:13 ;米卡六點04 ;以賽亞書63:11-12 ) ,書面立法(何西阿八時12分) ,以及一些特別的章程(見Kley , “模具Pentateuchfrage ” ,明斯特, 1903年, 223 sqq 。 ) 。同樣,理論的發展是越來越多的矛盾的結果,歷史調查。 Weber ("Theologie und Assyriologie im Streit um Babel und Bibel", Leipzig, 1904, 17) points out that the recent historical results imply decadence rather than development in ancient oriental art, science, and religion; Winckler ("Religionsgeschichtler und geschichtl. Orient", Leipzig, 1906, 33) considers the evolutionary view of the primitive state of man as false, and believes that the development theory has, at least, been badly shaken, if not actually destroyed by recent Oriental research (cf. Bantsch, "Altorientalischer und israelitischer Monothesismus", Tübingen, 1906).韋伯( “神學與Assyriologie即時通訊漫嗯巴貝爾和聖經” ,萊比錫, 1904年, 17歲)指出,最近的歷史結果意味著頹廢,而不是發展的古代東方藝術,科學和宗教; Winckler ( “ Religionsgeschichtler與geschichtl 。東方“ ,萊比錫, 1906年, 33歲)認為,進化觀點,原始狀態的男子為false ,並認為,發展理論,至少被嚴重動搖,如果不是實際上摧毀了最近東方研究(參見Bantsch ” Altorientalischer與israelitischer Monothesismus “ ,圖賓根, 1906年) 。 Köberle ("Die Theologie der Gegenwart", Leipzig, 1907, I, 2) says that the development theory has exhausted itself, reproducing only the thoughts of Wellhausen, and deciding particular questions not in the light of facts, but according to the postulates of the theory. Köberle ( “模具之當代神學” ,萊比錫, 1907年,一,二)說,發展理論已用盡本身,音響唯一的想法豪森,並決定具體問題沒有根據的事實,但根據假設的這一理論。 Finally, even the rationalistic writers have thought it necessary to replace the development theory by another more in agreement with historical facts.最後,即使是理性的作家都認為有必要,以取代發展理論的另一種更符合歷史事實。 Hence Winckler ("Ex Oriente lux", Leipzig, 1905- 6; Idem, "Der Alte Orient", III, 2-3; Idem, "Die babylonische Geisteskultur in ihren Beziehungen zur Kulturentwicklung der Menschheit" in "Wissenschaft und Bildung", Leipzig, 1907; cf. Landersdorfer in "Historisch-Politische Blatter", 1909, 144) has originated the theory of pan-Babelism according to which Biblical religion is conceived as a conscious and express reaction against the Babylonian polytheistic state religion.因此Winckler ( “惠東方勒克斯” ,萊比錫, 1905年- 6 ;同上, “明鏡老東方” ,三, 2月3日;同上, “模具babylonische Geisteskultur在ihren Beziehungen楚Kulturentwicklung之Menschheit ”中的“科學與修養” ,萊比錫, 1907年;比照。 Landersdorfer在“歷史,政治的布拉特” , 1909年, 144 )源於理論的泛Babelism其中聖經宗教被認為是有意識的反應,並表示對巴比倫多神教國教。 It was not the common property of Israel, but of a religious sect which was supported in Babylon by certain monotheistic circles irrespective of nationality.這不是共同財產,以色列,而是一個教派對此表示支持在巴比倫的某些一神教界無論其國籍如何。 This theory has found powerful opponents in Budde, Stade, Bezold, Köberle, Kugler, Wilke, and others; but it has also a number of adherents.這一理論已經發現強大對手的布德,體育場, Bezold , Köberle ,庫格勒,維爾克等;但也有不少信徒。 Though wholly untenable from a Christian point of view, it shows at least the weakness of the historical development theory.雖然完全站不住腳從基督教的觀點來看,這表明至少薄弱的歷史發展理論。

(ii) Another principle involved in the critical theory of the Pentateuch supposes that the internal evidence of literary criticism is of higher value than the evidence of tradition. (二)另一個原則參與批判理論的摩西五假設的內部證據的文學批評具有較高的價值比傳統的證據。 But thus far the results of excavations and historical research have been favourable to tradition rather than to internal evidence.但迄今發掘的成果和歷史的研究已經有利於傳統,而不是內部的證據。 Let the reader only remember the case of Troy, Tiryns, Mycenae, and Orchomenos (in Greece); the excavations of the English explorer Evans in Crete have shown the historical character of King Minos and his labyrinth; Assyrian inscriptions have re-established the historical credit of King Midas of Phrygia; similarly, Menes of Thebes and Sargon of Agade have been shown to belong to history; in general, the more accurate have been the scientific investigations, the more clearly have they shown the reliability of even the most slender traditions.讓讀者只記得特洛伊的情況下,梯林斯,邁錫尼和奧爾霍邁諾斯(希臘) ;挖掘英語總管埃文斯在克里特表明,歷史特點和他的國王米諾斯迷宮;亞述銘文重新建立的歷史信貸的國王邁達斯的Phrygia ;同樣,美尼斯底比斯和薩爾貢的Agade已被證明屬於歷史,總體而言,更準確的科學已調查,更清楚地表明,他們的可靠性,即使是最微弱的傳統。 In the field of New-Testament criticism the call "back to tradition" has begun to be heeded, and has been endorsed by such authorities as Harnack and Deissmann.領域中的新舊約批評呼籲“回到傳統”已開始得到重視,並已通過這種當局哈爾納克和Deissmann 。 In the study of the Old Testament too there are unmistakable signs of a coming change.在這項研究中舊約也有明確的跡象表明,未來的變化。 Hommel ("Die altisrealitische Überlieferung in inschriftlicher Beleuchtung", Munich, 1897) maintains that Old- Testament tradition, both as a whole and in its details, proves to be reliable, even in the light of critical research.霍梅爾( “模具altisrealitische Überlieferung在inschriftlicher Beleuchtung ” ,慕尼黑, 1897 )堅持認為,舊全書傳統,無論作為一個整體,在其詳細信息,被證明是可靠的,即使在光線的關鍵研究。 Meyer ("Die Entstehung des Judentums", Halle, 1896) comes to the conclusion that the foundations of the critical Pentateuchal theory are destroyed, if it can be proved that even part of the impugned Hebrew tradition is reliable; the same writer proves the credibility of the sources of the Books of Esdras (cf. "Grundriss der Geographie und Geschichte des alten Orientes", Munich, 1904, 167 sqq.).邁耶( “模具Entstehung萬Judentums ” ,哈雷, 1896年)得出結論的基礎的關鍵Pentateuchal理論被銷毀,如果能夠證明,即使部分指責希伯來傳統是可靠的;同一作家的信譽證明的來源的書埃斯德拉斯(參見“ Grundriss德國地理學與史老Orientes ” ,慕尼黑, 1904年, 167 sqq 。 ) 。 SA Fries has been led by his critical studies, and without being influenced by dogmatic bias, to accept the whole traditional view of the history of Israel.公司薯條一直由他的批判性研究,並沒有受到教條偏見,接受傳統觀點整個以色列歷史上。 Cornill and Oettli express the conviction that Israel's traditions concerning even its earliest history are reliable and will withstand the bitterest attacks of criticism; Dawson (cf. Fonck, "Kritik und Tradition im AT" in "Zeitschrift fur katholische Theologie", 1899, 262-81) and others apply to tradition the old principle which has been so frequently misapplied, "magna est veritas, et praevalebit"; Gunkel ("Religionsgeschichtliche Volksbucher", II, Tübingen, 1906, 8) grants that Old-Testament criticism has gone a little too far, and that many Biblical traditions now rejected will be re-established. Cornill和歐特列表示相信,以色列的傳統,其最早的關於歷史甚至是可靠的和能夠承受預定的激烈攻擊批評;道森(參見Fonck , “批判與傳統即時在”中“雜誌天主教神學” , 1899年, 262 - 81 )和其他適用於傳統的舊的原則,已經經常誤用, “大預測船級社等praevalebit ” ;貢克爾( “ Religionsgeschichtliche Volksbucher ” ,二,圖賓根, 1906年, 8 )贈款,舊全書批評了一有點遠,而且許多聖經傳統現在拒絕將重新建立。

(b) Critical Method (二)關鍵方法

The falsehood of the critical method does not consist in the use of criticism as such, but in its illegitimate use.謊言的重要方法並不使用的批評,而是在其非法使用。 Criticism became more common in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries; at the end of the eighteenth it was applied to classical antiquity.批判變得更加常見於十六世紀和十七世紀;年底第十八這是適用於古代。 Bernheim ("Lehrbuch der historischen Methode", Leipzig, 1903, 296) believes that by this means alone history first became a science.伯恩海姆( “教科書之historischen方法” ,萊比錫, 1903年, 296頁)認為,以這種方式本身的歷史第一次成為科學。 In the application of criticism to the Bible was are limited, indeed, by the inspiration and the canonicity of its books; but there is an ample field left for our critical investigations (Pesch, "Theol. Zeitfragen", III, 48).在批評中的應用的聖經是有限的,事實上,靈感和正規的書籍,但有充足的外地留給我們的重要調查(佩施, “ Theol 。 Zeitfragen ” ,第三章, 48條) 。

Some of the principal sins of the critics in their treatment of Sacred Scripture are the following:一些主要的罪過的批評,他們的待遇聖經如下:

They deny everything supernatural, so that they reject not merely inspiration and canonicity, but also prophecy and miracle a priori (cf. Metzler, "Das Wunder vor dem Forum der modernen Geschichtswissenschaft" in "Katholik", 1908, II, 241 sqq.).他們否認一切超自然的,因此,他們拒絕不僅僅是靈感和正規,而且還預言與奇蹟先驗(參見梅茨勒, “達斯奇蹟的VOR DEM的論壇現代Geschichtswissenschaft ”中的“ Katholik ” , 1908年,二, 241 sqq 。 ) 。

They seem to be convinced a priori of the credibility of non-Biblical historical documents, while they are prejudiced against the truthfulness of Biblical accounts.他們似乎都相信先驗的信譽非聖經的歷史文件,同時對他們有偏見的真實性聖經帳戶。 (Cf. Stade, "Geschichte Israel's", I, 86 seq., 88, 101.) Depreciating external evidence almost entirely, they consider the questions of the origin, the integrity, and the authenticity of the sacred books in the light of internal evidence (Encycl. Prov. Deus, 52). (參見體育場, “歷史以色列的” ,我, 86起。 , 88 , 101 。 )貶值的外部證據幾乎完全,他們考慮問題的來源,完整性,真實性和神聖的書籍,根據內部證據( Encycl.省。殺出, 52 ) 。

They overestimate the critical analysis of the sources, without considering the chief point, ie, the credibility of the sources (Lorenz, "Die Geschichtswissenschaft in ihren Hauptrichtungen und Aufgaben", ii, 329 sqq.). Recent documents may contain reliable reports of ancient history.他們高估了批判性分析的來源,而不考慮行政點,即信譽的來源(洛倫茲, “模具Geschichtswissenschaft的ihren Hauptrichtungen與Aufgaben ” ,二, 329 sqq 。 ) 。最近的文件中可能包含的可靠報告古代歷史。 Some of the critics begin to acknowledge that the historical credibility of the sources is of greater importance than their division and dating (Stark, "Die Entstehung des AT", Leipzig, 1905, 29; cf. Vetter, "Tübinger theologische Quartalschrift", 1899, 552).

The critical division of sources is based on the Hebrew text, though it is not certain how far the present Massoretic text differs from that, for instance, followed by the Septuagint translators, and how far the latter differed form the Hebrew text before its redaction in the fifth century BC Dahse ("Textkritische Bedenken gegen den Ausgangspunkt der heutigen Pentateuchkritik" in "Archiv fur Religionsgeschichte", VI, 1903, 305 sqq.) shows that the Divine names in the Greek translation of the Pentateuch differ in about 180 cases from those of the Hebrew text (cf. Hoberg, "Die Genesis", 2nd ed., p. xxii sqq.); in other words and phrases the changes may be fewer, but it would be unreasonable to deny the existence of any.關鍵司的來源是基於希伯來文字,但我們並不一定多遠本Massoretic不同於文本,例如,其次是譯本翻譯的程度,以及不同形式後者希伯來文字之前,編輯在公元前五世紀Dahse ( “ Textkritische Bedenken葛根旦Ausgangspunkt德國當代Pentateuchkritik ”中的“檔案館毛皮Religionsgeschichte ” ,六, 1903年, 305 sqq 。 )表明,神聖的名字,在希臘的翻譯五經不同約180例從這些希伯來文(見霍貝格, “模具起源” ,第2版。 ,第22 sqq 。 ) ;在其他單詞和短語的變化可能會減少,但它是不合理的否認存在任何。 Again, it is antecedently probable that the Septuagint text differs less from the Massoretic than from the ante-Esdrine text, which must have been closer to the original.再次,這是先行可能是不同的譯本文字較少從Massoretic不是從產前Esdrine文字,它必須已經接近原來的。 The starting point of literary criticism is therefore uncertain. It is not an inherent fault of literary criticism that it was applied to the Pentateuch after it had become practically antiquated in the study of Homer and the Nibelungenlied (cf. Katholik, 1896, I, 303, 306 sqq.), nor that Reuss considered it as more productive of difference of opinion than of results (cf. Katholik, 1896, I, 304 seq.), nor again that Wellhausen thought it had degenerated into childish play.起點文學批評因此,不確定的。這不是一個固有的過錯文學批評,這是適用於摩西五後,它已成為幾乎陳舊的研究荷馬和龍根之歌(參見Katholik , 1896年,我303 , 306 sqq 。 ) ,也不是Reuss認為,隨著越來越多的生產性的意見分歧,而不是結果(參見Katholik , 1896年,我, 304起。 ) ,也再次表明豪森認為它已墮落為幼稚的發揮。 Among Bible students, Klostermann ("Der Pentateuch", Leipzig, 1893), Konig ("Falsche Extreme im Gebiete der neueren Kritik des AT", Leipzig, 1885; "Neueste Prinzipien der alt. Kritik", Berlin, 1902; "Im Kampfe um das AT", Berlin, 1903), Bugge ("Die Hauptparabeln Jesu", Giessen, 1903) are sceptical as to the results of literary criticism, while Orelli ("Der Prophet Jesaja", 1904, V), Jeremias ("Das alte Testament im Lichte des Alten Orients", 1906, VIII), and Oettli ("Geschichte Israels", V) wish to insist more on the exegesis of the text than on the criss-cross roads of criticism.在聖經學生, Klostermann ( “明鏡五經” ,萊比錫, 1893年) ,柯尼格( “ Falsche至尊之neueren即時Gebiete批判之在” ,萊比錫, 1885年; “最新Prinzipien河畔轉氨酶。批判” ,柏林, 1902年“進出口Kampfe這個東西在“ ,柏林, 1903年) ,布格( ”模具Hauptparabeln耶穌“ ,吉森, 1903年)是懷疑的結果,文學批評,而Orelli ( ”明鏡Jesaja先知“ , 1904年,五) ,赫雷米亞斯( ”達斯老約萬老即時Lichte方向“ , 1906年,八) ,和歐特列( ”以色列的歷史“ ,五)要堅持更多關於註釋的文字比對縱橫交錯的道路的批評。 G. Jacob ("Der Pentateuch", Göttingen, 1905) thinks that the past Pentateuchal criticism needs a thorough revision; Eerdmans ("Die Komposition der Genesis", Giessen, 1908) feels convinced that criticism has been misled into wrong paths by Astrue.灣雅各布( “明鏡五經” ,哥廷根, 1905年)認為,過去Pentateuchal批評需要徹底修訂; Eerdmans ( “模具Komposition之成因” ,吉森, 1908年)認為相信,批評被誤導到錯誤的路徑的Astrue 。 Merx expresses the opinion that the next generation will have to revise backwards many of the present historico-literary views of the Old Testament ("Religionsgeschichtliche Volksbucher", II, 1907, 3, 132 sqq.). Merx表示認為,下一代將不得不修改倒退許多本歷史,文學觀舊約( “ Religionsgeschichtliche Volksbucher ” ,二, 1907年, 3 , 132 sqq 。 ) 。

(c) Critical Results (三)重大成果

Here we must distinguish between the principles of criticism and its results; the principles of the historical development of religion, for instance, and of the inferiority of tradition to internal evidence, are not the outcome of literary analysis, but are its partial basis.在這裡,我們必須區分的原則,批評,其結果;的原則,歷史發展的宗教,例如,和自卑感傳統內部的證據,沒有結果的文學分析,但其部分基礎。 Again, we must distinguish between those results of literary criticism which are compatible with the Mosaic authenticity of the Pentateuch and those that contradict it.再次,我們必須區分這些成果的文學批評是符合花葉真實性摩西五和那些違背它。 The patrons of the Mosaic authorship of the Pentateuch, and even the ecclesiastical Decree relating to this subject, plainly admit that Moses or his secretaries may have utilized sources or documents in the composition of the Pentateuch; both admit also that the sacred text has suffered in its transmission and may have received additions, in the form of either inspired appendices or exegetical glosses.顧客的馬賽克著作權的五經,甚至宗教法令有關這一問題,顯然承認,他的秘書摩西或可能利用源或文件組成的摩西五;都承認還神聖案文中所受它的傳輸和可能已收到補充的形式,要么靈感附錄或訓詁粉飾。 If the critics, therefore, can succeed in determining the number and the limits of the documentary sources, and of the post-Mosaic additions, whether inspired or profane, they render an important service to the traditional tenet of Pentateuchal authenticity.如果批評,因此,可以成功地確定的數量和範圍的文件來源,並後的馬賽克增加,無論是啟發或褻瀆,他們提供服務的一個重要的傳統宗旨Pentateuchal真實性。 The same must be said with regard to the successive laws established by Moses, and the gradual fidelity of the Jewish people to the Mosaic law.同樣必須指出的是關於連續法律設立的摩西,並逐步高保真的猶太人民的摩西律法。 Here again the certain or even probable results of sane literary and historical criticism will aid greatly the conservative commentator of the Pentateuch.在這方面,某些甚至可能結果理智的文學和歷史的批評將有助於大大保守評論員的摩西五。 We do not quarrel with the legitimate conclusions of the critics, if the critics do not quarrel with each other.我們不吵架的合法結論的批評,如果批評不互相爭吵。 But they do quarrel with each other. According to Merx (loc. cit.) there is nothing certain in the field of criticism except its uncertainty; each critic proclaims his views with the greatest self-reliance, but without any regard to the consistency of the whole.但他們互相爭吵。根據Merx (如上。 )沒有任何某些領域中的批評,但它的不確定性;每個評論家宣稱他的意見最大的自力更生,但沒有任何方面的一致性整個。 Former views are simply killed by silence; even Reuss and Dillmann are junk-iron, and there is a noticeable lack of judgment as to what can or cannot be known. Hence the critical results, in as far as they consist merely in the distinction of documentary sources, in the determination of post-Mosaic materials, eg, textual changes, and profane or inspired additions, in the description of various legal codes, are not at variance with the Mosaic authenticity of the Pentateuch.前意見只是被沉默;甚至Reuss和Dillmann是垃圾鐵,並有明顯的缺乏判斷力什麼可以或不可以被稱為。因此,關鍵的結果,至於他們在於區別文件來源,在確定後鑲嵌材料,如文字的變化,褻瀆或啟發補充,在描述中的各種法律法規,沒有不符合花葉真實性摩西五。 Nor can an anti-Mosaic character be pointed out in the facts or phenomena from which criticism legitimately infers the foregoing conclusions; such facts or phenomena are, for instance, the change of the Divine names in the text, the use of certain words, the difference of style, the so-called double accounts of really, not merely apparently, identical events; the truth of falsehood of these and similar details does not directly affect the Mosaic authorship of the Pentateuch.也不能反馬賽克性質必須指出的事實或現象從批評合法推斷上述結論;這些事實或現象,例如,改變名稱的神聖案文中,使用某些也就是說,不同的風格,所謂的雙重帳目真的,而不僅僅是顯然,相同的活動;真相的謊言,這些和類似的細節並不直接影響到花葉著作權的摩西五。 In which results then does criticism clash with tradition?在這種結果那麼批評同傳統? Criticism and tradition are incompatible in their views as to the age and sequence of the documentary sources, as to the origin of the various legal codes, and as to the time and manner of the redaction of the Pentateuch.批評與傳統相抵觸的意見的年齡和序列的文件來源,為原產地的各種法律法規,並以的時間和方式編輯的摩西五。

(i) Pentateuchal Documents.-As to the age and sequence of the various documents, the critics do not agree. (一) Pentateuchal Documents. ,至於年齡和序列的各種文件,批評不同意。 Dillmann, Kittel, Konig, and Winckler place the Elohist, who is subdivided by several writers into the first, second, and third Elohist, before the Yahwist, who also is divided into the first and second Yahwist; but Wellhausen and most critics believe that the Elohist is about a century younger than the Yahwist. Dillmann ,基特爾,柯尼格和Winckler把Elohist ,誰細分成幾個作家的第一,第二和第三Elohist之前, Yahwist ,誰也分為第一和第二Yahwist ;但豪森和大多數評論家認為,在Elohist約一個世紀更年輕Yahwist 。 At any rate, both are assigned to about the ninth and eight centuries BC; both too incorporate earlier traditions or even documents.無論如何,都被分配到的第九和公元前8世紀;既過於納入較早的傳統,甚至文件。

All critics appear to agree as to the composite character of Deuteronomy; they admit rather a Deuteronomist school than single writers.所有批評似乎同意作為綜合性質的申命記;他們承認而是Deuteronomist學校比單一作家。 Still, the successive layers composing the whole book are briefly designated by D1, D2, D3, etc. As to the character of these layers, the critics do not agree: Montet and Driver, for instance, assigned to the first Deuteronomist cc.儘管如此,層層撰寫全書簡要指定的D1和D2中,維生素D3等作為的性質這些層,批評不同意: Montet和驅動程序,例如,分配給第一Deuteronomist毫升。 i-xxi; Kuenen, Konig, Reuss, Renan, Westphal ascribe to DN, iv, 45-9, and v-xxvi; a third class of critics reduce D1 to xii, 1-xxvi, 19, allowing it a double edition: according to Wellhausen, the first edition contained i, 1-iv, 44; xii-xxvi; xxvii, while the second comprised iv, 45-xi, 39; xii-xxvi; xxviii-xxx; both editions were combined by the redactor who inserted Deuteronomy into the Hexateuch.一至二十一; Kuenen ,柯尼格, Reuss ,雷南維,韋斯特法賦予的DN ,四, 45-9 ,和V - 26 ;第三類批評減少D1至十二, 1 - 26 , 19 ,允許其雙重版本:據威爾浩,首版載我一至四, 44 ; 12 - 26 ;二十七,而第二個組成四, 45喜, 39歲; 12 - 26 ;二十八,三十;兩種版本相結合的redactor誰申命記插入到Hexateuch 。 Cornill arranges the two editions somewhat differently. Cornill安排兩個版本略有不同。 Horst considers even cc. xii-xxvi as a compilation of pre-existing elements, gathered together without order and often by chance.克勒認為,即使抄送。第十二- 26作為彙編預先存在的要素聚集和無秩序往往是偶然的。 Wellhausen and his adherents do not wish to assign to D1 a higher age than 621 BC, Cornill and Bertholet consider the document as a summary of the prophetic teaching, Colenso and Renan ascribe it to Jeremias, others place its origin in the reign of Ezechias or Manasses, Klostermann identifies the document with the book read before the people in the time of Josaphat, while Kleinert refers it back to the end of the time of the Judges. The Deuteronomist depends on the two preceding documents, J and E, both for his history land his legislation; the historical details not found in these may have been derived from other sources not known to us, and the laws not contained in the Sinaitic legislation and the decalogue are either pure fiction or a crystallization of the prophetic teaching.威爾浩和他的追隨者不想指派為D1更高的年齡超過621年, Cornill和Bertholet審議該文件的摘要預言教學,科倫索和雷南維賦予它赫雷米亞斯,其他地方起源於在位埃澤希亞甚或Manasses , Klostermann確定該文件與圖書閱讀的人面前時,約薩法特,而萊內特指它的結尾的時候,法官。該Deuteronomist取決於前兩個文件, J和英文,對他的他的歷史的土地立法的歷史資料中找不到這些可能是來自其他來源的不知道,我們的法律中不包含的Sinaitic立法和十誡不是純粹的小說或結晶先知教學。

Finally, the Priestly Code, P, is also a compilation: the first stratum of the book, both historical and legal in its character, is designated by P1 or P2; the second stratum is the law of holiness, H or Lev., xvii-xxvi, and is the work of a contemporary of Ezechiel, or perhaps of the Prophet himself (H, P2, Ph); besides, there are additional elements springing rather from a school than from any single writer, and designated by Kunen as P3, P4, P5, but by other critics as Ps and Px.最後,祭司碼,磷,也是一個彙編:第一層的書籍,無論在歷史上和法律上的性質,是指定的P1或P2的;第二層是法律的神聖, H或列夫。 ,十七第二十六,是工作的一種當代的Ezechiel ,或者自己的先知(高,二,博士) ;此外,還有其他因素雨後春筍般從一所學校,而不是從任何單一的作家,並指定由丘嫩的小三, P - 4級,小五,而是由其他的批評作為PS和酶。 Bertholet and Bantsch speak of two other collections of laws: the law of sacrifices, Lev., i-vii, designated as Po; and the law of purity, Lev., xi-xv, designated as Pr. Bertholet和Bantsch發言的另外兩個收藏的法律:法律的犧牲,列夫。 ,一至七,指定為寶;和法律的純潔性,列夫。 ,西十五,被指定為镨。 The first documentary hypothesis considered PN as the oldest part of the Pentateuch; Duston and Dillmann place it before the Deuteronomic code, but most recent critics regard it as more recent than the other documents of the Pentateuch, and even later than Ezech., xliv, 10-xlvi, 15 (573-2 BC); the followers of Wellhausen date the Priestly Code after the return from the Babylonian Captivity, while Wildeboer places it either after or towards the end of the captivity.第一個假說認為偽紀錄片作為最古老的部分摩西五; Duston和Dillmann置於前Deuteronomic代碼,但最近的批評者認為這是更近的比其他文件摩西五,甚至晚於Ezech 。 ,四十四, 10四十六, 15 ( 573-2公元前) ;的追隨者豪森日期祭司碼返回後從巴比倫圈養,而Wildeboer的地方,要么在或接近尾聲的囚禁。 The historical parts of the Priestly Code depend on the Yahwistic and the Elohistic documents, but Wellhausen's adherents believe that the material of these documents has been manipulated so as to fit it for the special purpose of the Priestly Code; Dillmann and Drive maintain that facts have not been invented or falsified by P, but that the latter had at hand other historical documents besides J and E. As to the legal part of P, Wellhausen considers it as an a priori programme for the Jewish priesthood after the return from the captivity, projected backwards into the past, and attributed to Moses; but other critics believe that P has systematized the pre-exilic customs of worship, developing then, and adapting them to the new circumstances.歷史部分祭司碼取決於Yahwistic和Elohistic文件,但豪森的信徒認為,這些文件材料已被操縱,以適應它的特殊用途的祭司碼; Dillmann和驅動保持這一事實沒有發明或偽造的P ,但後者在手其他歷史文件除了J和大腸桿菌作為法律的一部分磷,豪森認為這是一個先驗方案猶太祭司返回後從被關押,預計倒退到過去,由於摩西;但其他批評者認為磷已系統化前放逐海關的禮拜,然後發展,並使之適應新的情況。

What has been said clearly shows that the critics are at variance in many respects, but they are at one in maintaining the post- Mosaic origin of the Pentateuchal documents.所說的話清楚地表明,批評者有差異在許多方面,但他們是在一個在維護後馬賽克起源Pentateuchal文件。 What is the weight of the reasons on which they base their opinion?什麼是體重的原因的基礎上,他們自己的看法?

The conditions laid down by the critics as prerequisites to literature do not prove that the sources of the Pentateuch must be post-Mosaic.所定的條件,該批評的先決條件,以文學沒有證明的來源必須是摩西五後花葉。 The Hebrew people had lived for, at least, two hundred years in Egypt; besides, most of the forty years spent in the desert were passed in the neighbourhood of Cades, so that the Israelites were not longer a nomadic people.希伯來人的生活了,至少二百年在埃及;此外,大多數四十年花費在沙漠中通過了在附近的Cades ,使以色列人不再是游牧人。 Whatever may be said of their material prosperity, or of their proficiency in writing and reading, the above-mentioned researches of Flinders Petrie show that they kept records of their national traditions at the time of Moses.可以說,不管他們的物質繁榮,或者他們的能力,寫作及閱讀,上述研究的弗林德斯皮特里表明,他們完全可以保持記錄他們的民族傳統的時候,摩西。

If the Hebrew contemporaries of Moses kept written records, why should not the Pentateuchal sources be among these documents?如果希伯來語同時代摩西保持書面記錄,為什麼不應該的來源之一Pentateuchal這些文件? It is true that in our actual Pentateuch we find non-Mosaic and post- Mosaic indications; but, then, the non-Mosaic, impersonal style may be due to a literary device, or to the pen of secretaries; the post-Mosaic geographical and historical indications may have crept into the text by way of glosses, or errors of the transcribers, or even inspired additions.的確,在我們的實際摩西五我們發現非馬賽克和後花葉的跡象,但是,然後,非馬賽克,非個人的風格,可能是由於文學設備,或以筆的秘書;後花葉地理和歷史的跡象可能已經悄悄進入文字的方式掩飾,或錯誤的謄寫,甚至啟發補充。 The critics cannot reject these suggestions as mere subterfuges; for they should have to grant a continuous miracle in the preservation of the Pentateuchal text, if they were to deny the moral certainty of the presence of such textual changes.批評不能拒絕這些建議只是託辭;對他們應給予持續的奇蹟在維護Pentateuchal文字,如果他們否認道德確定性的存在,例如文字的變化。

But would not the Pentateuch have been known to the earlier Prophets, if it had been handed down from the time of Moses?但不會對摩西五已經知道先前的先知,如果它已經流傳下來的時間摩西? This critical exception is really an argument e silentio which is very apt to be fallacious, unless it be most carefully handled.這一重要的例外是真正的論點é silentio非常容易荒謬的,除非它是最認真的處理。 Besides, if we keep in mind the labour involved in multiplying copies of the Pentateuch, we cannot be wrong in assuming that they were very rare in the interval between Moses and the Prophets, so that few were able to read the actual text.此外,如果我們記住勞動力參與乘以副本五經,我們不能是錯誤的假設,它們是非常罕見的間隔摩西和先知,所以很少有人能讀的實際文本。 Again, it has been pointed out that at least one of the earlier Prophets appeals to a written mosaic law, and that all appeal to such a national conscience as presupposes the Pentateuchal history and law.同樣,已經指出,至少有一個早期先知呼籲書面鑲嵌法,所有呼籲這樣一個民族良知的前提是Pentateuchal歷史和法律依據。 Finally, some of the critics maintain the J views the history of man and of Israel according to the religious and the moral ideas of the Prophets; if there be such an agreement, why not say that the Prophets write according to the religious and moral ideas of the Pentateuch?最後,一些批評意見,保持了J人類歷史上和以色列根據宗教和道德觀念的預言,如果有這樣的協議,為什麼不說,根據先知寫的宗教和道德觀念在摩西五?

The critics urge the fact that the Pentateuchal laws concerning the sanctuary, the sacrifices, the feasts, and the priesthood agree with different stages of post-Mosaic historical development; that the second stage agrees with the reform of Josias, and the third with the enactments enforced after the time of the Babylonian Exile.批評者敦促這一事實,即Pentateuchal法律關於庇護,該犧牲的節日,並鐸同意不同階段後花葉歷史發展的第二階段同意改革Josias ,第三與法規強迫的時間之後的巴比倫流亡。 But it must be kept in mind that the Mosaic law was intended for Israel as the Christian law is intended for the whole world; if then 1900 years after Christ the greater part of the world is still un-Christian, it is not astonishing that the Mosaic law required centuries before it penetrated the whole nation.但必須記住,這是摩西律法的目的是為以色列的基督教法律的目的是對整個世界;如果然後一千九百年基督之後,更大的世界的一部分仍然是聯合國的基督徒,這是不令人驚訝的摩西律法規定百年前侵入整個國家。 Besides, there were, no doubt, many violations of the law, just as the Ten Commandments are violated today without detriment to their legal promulgation.此外,還有,毫無疑問,許多違反法律的,正如十誡受到侵犯今天不損害其法律施行。 Again there were times of religious reforms and disasters as there are periods of religious fervour and coldness in the history of the Christian Church; but such human frailties do not imply the non-existence of the law, either Mosaic or Christian.再有時間的宗教改革和有災害時期的宗教熱情和冷漠歷史上的基督教會,但這種人類弱點並不意味著不存在法律,無論是馬賽克或基督教。 As to the particular laws in question, it will be found more satisfactory to examine them more in detail.至於具體的法律問題,這將是找到更令人滿意的審查更詳細說明。

(ii) Pentateuchal Codes.-The critics endeavour to establish a triple Pentateuchal code: the Book of the Covenant, Deuteronomy, and the Priestly Code. Instead of regarding this legislation as applying to different phases in the forty years' wandering in the desert, they consider it as agreeing with three historical stages in the national history. (二) Pentateuchal Codes. -評論家努力建立一個三Pentateuchal代碼:該書的盟約,申命記,和祭司碼。相反的就這一立法為適用於不同階段的四十年'遊蕩在沙漠中,他們認為這是同意三個歷史階段中的國家的歷史。 As stated above, the main objects of this triple legislation are the sanctuary, the feast, and the priesthood.正如上文所述,主要對象是本三重立法聖殿,節日,和祭司。

(a) The Sanctuary (一)保護區

At first, so the critics say, sacrifices were allowed to be offered in any place where the Lord had manifested his name (Exodus 20:24-6); then the sanctuary was limited to the one place chosen by God (Deuteronomy 12:5); thirdly, the Priestly Code supposes the unity of sanctuary, and prescribes the proper religious rites to be observed.起初,因此批評者認為,犧牲被允許可在任何地方,體現了上帝的名字(出20:24-6 ) ;然後聖殿僅限於一個地方選擇的上帝(申命記12點05分) ;第三,祭司碼假設的團結,庇護所,並規定適當的宗教儀式得到遵守。 Moreover, the critics point out historical incidents showing that before the enforcement of the Deuteronomic law sacrifices were offered in various places quite distinct from the resting place of the ark.此外,批評者指出,歷史事件表明,在執行該法的犧牲Deuteronomic提供了在不同地方截然不同的安息之地的方舟。 What do the defenders of the Mosaic authorship of the Pentateuch answer?什麼捍衛花葉著作權的摩西五答案嗎? First, as to the triple law, it points to three different stages in Israel's desert life: before the erection of the tabernacle at the foot of Mt.首先,作為法律的三倍,它分三個不同階段,以色列的沙漠生活:前豎立在會幕山山腳。 Sinai, the people were allowed to erect altars and to offer sacrifices everywhere provided the name of the Lord had been manifested; next, after the people had adored the golden calf, and the tabernacle had been erected, sacrifice could be offered only before the tabernacle, and even the cattle killed for consumption had to be slaughtered in the same place, in order to prevent a relapse into idolatry; finally, when the people were about to enter the promised land, the last law was abolished, being then quite impossible, but the unity of sanctuary was kept in the place which God would choose.西奈半島,人們被允許建造祭壇和祭祀各地提供的名稱上帝已經表現;明年,在人民愛戴的金牛犢,以及幕已經豎立,犧牲可只提供前幕,甚至死亡的牛消費不得不宰殺在同一地點,以防止重新陷入偶像崇拜;最後,當人即將進入樂土,過去的法律被廢除,被當時很不可能,但團結的避難所被保存在的地方,上帝會選擇。 Secondly, as to the historical facts urged by the critics, some of them are caused by direct Divine intervention, miracle or prophetic inspiration, and as such are fully legitimate; others are evidently violations of the law, and are not sanctioned by the inspired writers; a third class of facts may be explained in one of three ways:其次,作為歷史事實敦促批評,其中一些人所造成的直接神的介入,奇蹟或先知的啟示,因此是完全合法的;其他顯然違反法律,不認可的啟發作家;第三類事實可以解釋的三種方式之一:

Poels ("Le sanctuaire de Kirjath Jeraim", Louvain, 1894; "Examen critique de l'histoire du sanctuaire de l'arche", Louvain, 1897) endeavours to prove that Gabaon, Masphath, and Kiriath-Jarim denote the same place, so that the multiplicity of sanctuaries is only apparent, not real. Poels ( “樂sanctuaire日Kirjath Jeraim ” ,盧萬, 1894年; “考試法國批判史杜sanctuaire法國凱旋門” ,盧萬, 1897年)的努力,以證明Gabaon , Masphath ,並Kiriath - Jarim指同一個地方,這樣的多重保護區是唯一明顯的,而不是真實的。

Van Hoonacker ("Le Lieu du culte dans la legislation rituelle des Hebreux" in "Musceeon", April-Oct., 1894, XIII, 195-204, 299- 320, 533-41; XIV, 17-38) distinguishes between private and public altars; the public and national worship is legally centralized in one sanctuary and around one altar, while private altars may be had for domestic worship.凡Hoonacker ( “樂寮杜culte立法中的香格里拉rituelle萬Hebreux ”中的“ Musceeon ” , 4至10月, 1894年,十三, 195-204 , 299 - 320 , 533-41 ;第十四17-38 )區分私營和公共祭壇;公眾和國家崇拜是集中在一個法律庇護和一個祭壇周圍,而私人神壇可能已為國內崇拜。

But more commonly it is admitted that before God had chosen the site of national sanctuary, it was not forbidden by law to sacrifice anywhere, even away from the place of the ark.但更常見的是承認,上帝面前選擇了網站的國家庇護,這不是法律所禁止的任何犧牲,甚至遠離地點方舟。 After the building of the temple the law was not considered so stringent as to bind under all circumstances.經過建設的寺法律不被視為非常嚴格的約束,在任何情況下。 Thus far then the argument of the critics is not conclusive.迄今為止然後論點的批評是沒有定論。

(b) The Sacrifices (二)的犧牲

According to the critics, the Book of the Covenant enjoined only the offering of the first-fruits and the first-born of animals, the redemption of the first-born of men, and a free-will offering on visiting the sanctuary (Ex., xxii, 28-9; xxiii, 15, [Heb., xxiii, 19]); Deuteronomy more clearly defines some of these laws (xv, 19-23; xxvi, 1-11), and imposes the law of tithes for the benefit of the poor, the widows, the orphans, and the Levites (xxvi, 12-5); the Priestly Code distinguishes different kinds of sacrifices, determines their rites, and introduces also incense offering.據批評,這本書的盟約責成只提供第一水果和第一出生的動物,贖回第一出生的男子,和自由將提供庇護的訪問(例如: , 22 , 28-9 , 23 , 15 , [河北。 , 23 , 19 ] ) ;申命記一些更清楚地界定這些法律(十五, 19日至23日; 26 , 1月11日) ,並強制法的什一稅的有利於窮人,寡婦,孤兒,和利( 26 , 12月5日) ;的祭司碼區分不同種類的犧牲,確定它們的儀式,並介紹了也香提供。 But history hardly bears out this view: as there existed a permanent priesthood in Silo, and later on in Jerusalem, we may safely infer that there existed a permanent sacrifice.但是,歷史很難證明了這一觀點:由於存在一個常設鐸在筒倉,以及後來在耶路撒冷,我們可以推斷,安全存在著一個永久的犧牲。 The earliest prophets are acquainted with an excess of care bestowed on the sacrificial rites (cf. Amos 4:4, 5; 5:21-22, 25; Hosea passim).最早的先知熟悉過多照顧賦予的祭祀(參見阿莫斯納曼4點04 , 5 ; 5:21-22 , 25 ;何西阿各處) 。 The expressions of Jeremias (vii, 21-3) may be explained in the same sense.表達的赫雷米亞斯(七, 21-3 )可以解釋在同樣的意義。 Sin offering was known long before the critics introduce their Priestly Code (Osee, iv, 8; Mich., vi, 7; Ps., xxxix [xl], 7; 1 Kings, iii, 14).黃大仙提供被稱為早在介紹他們的祭司批評典( Osee ,四, 8 ;密歇根州,六,七;聚苯乙烯。 ,三十九[儀] , 7 ;列王紀上,三, 14 ) 。 Trespass offering is formally distinguished from sin offering in 2 Kings 13:16 (cf. 1 Samuel 6:3-15; Isaiah 53:10).侵入提供正式區別於黃大仙提供的列王紀下13時16分(見撒母耳記上6:3-15 ;以賽亞書53:10 ) 。 Hence the distinction between the different kinds of sacrifice is due neither to Ezekiel 45:22-5, nor to the Priestly Code.因此,區分不同類型的犧牲是由於既不厄澤克爾45:22-5 ,也不向祭司碼。

(c) The Feasts (三)節日

The Book of the Covenant, so the critics tell us, knows only three feasts: the seven-days feast of the azymes in memory of the exodus form Egypt, the feast of the harvest, and that of the end of the harvest (Exodus 23:14-7); Deuteronomy ordains the keeping of the feasts at the central sanctuary adds to Pasch to the feast of the azymes, places the second feast seven weeks after the first, and calls the third, "feast of tabernacles", extending its duration to seven days (Deuteronomy 16:1-17); the Priestly Code prescribes the exact ritual for five feasts, adding the feast of trumpets and of atonement, all of which must be kept at the central sanctuary.圖書的盟約,所以批評告訴我們,只知道三個節日: 7天的節日,以紀念azymes外流形式埃及,節日的收成,而年底的收成(出埃及記23 :14 - 7 ) ;申命記ordains保存的節日在中央聖殿增加Pasch的盛宴的azymes ,地方第二次盛宴七週之後的第一,並呼籲第三, “住棚節” ,擴大其期限為7天(申命記16:1-17 ) ;守則規定的祭司的確切儀式五個節日,增加節日的喇叭和贖罪,所有這一切都必須保持在中央聖殿。 Moreover, history appears to endorse the contention of the critics: Judges, xxi, 19 knows of only one annual feast in Silo; 1 Samuel 1:3, 7, 21 testifies that the parents of Samuel went every year to Silo to the sanctuary; Jeroboam I established in his kingdom one annual feast similar to that celebrated in Jerusalem (1 Kings 12:32-3); the earliest Prophets do not mention the names of the religious feasts; the Pasch is celebrated for the first time after the discovery of Deuteronomy (2 Kings 23:21-3); Ezechiel knows only three feasts and a sin offering on the first day of the first and the seventh month.此外,歷史上似乎贊同論點的批評:法官, 21 , 19知道的只有一個年度盛宴在筒倉;撒母耳記上1:3 , 7,21證明,父母的塞繆爾了每年筒倉的庇護;耶羅波安我設立一個在他的英國年度盛宴類似慶祝活動在耶路撒冷(列王紀上12:32-3 ) ;最早預言沒有提及姓名的宗教節日;的Pasch慶祝後首次發現申命記(列王紀下23:21-3 ) ; Ezechiel知道只有3個傳統節日和一種罪過提供的第一天,第一屆和第7個月。 But here again, the critics use the argument e silentio which is not conclusive in this case.但是,在這裡再次批評使用的論點é silentio這是不是決定性的在這種情況下。 The feast of atonement, for instance, is not mentioned in the Old Testament outside the Pentateuch; only Josephus refers to its celebration in the time of John Hyrcanus or Herod.節日贖罪,例如,沒有提到舊約以外的摩西五;只有約瑟夫指慶祝時代的約翰Hyrcanus或希律王。 Will the critics infer from this, that the feast was not kept throughout the Old Testament?將批評這一推斷,該節日是沒有跟上整個舊約? History does not record facts generally known.歷史不會記錄事實,一般人都知道。 As to the one annual feast mentioned in the early records, weighty commentators are of opinion that after the settlement of the people in the promised land, the custom was gradually introduced of going to the central sanctuary only once a year.作為一個年度盛宴中所提到的早期記錄,重大評論員的意見,在解決人民的樂土,自定義是逐步推行的去中央避難所只有每年一次。 This custom prevailed before the critics allow the existence of the Deuteronomic law (1 Kings 12:26-31), so that the latter cannot have introduced it.這種風俗前的批評允許存在的Deuteronomic法(列王紀上12:26-31 ) ,使後者不能引進。 Isaias (xxix, 1; xxx, 29) speaks of a cycle of feasts, but Osee, xii, 9 alludes already to the feast of tabernacles, so that its establishment cannot be due to the Priestly Code as the critics describe it. Ezechiel (xlv, 18-25) speaks only of the three feasts which had to be kept at the central sanctuary.伊薩亞(第29屆, 1 ;三十, 29歲)講一個週期的節日,但Osee ,第十二章,第9的意思已經向住棚節,因此,它的設立不能由於祭司碼作為批評家描述。 Ezechiel (第四十五, 18-25 )僅三個節日必須加以中央避難所。

(d) The Priesthood (四)鐸

The critics contend that the Book of the Covenant knows nothing of an Aaronitic priesthood (Exodus 24:5); that Deuteronomy mentions priests and Levites without any hierarchical distinction and without any high priest, determines their rights, and distinguishes only between the Levite living in the country and the Levite attached to the central sanctuary; finally, that the Priestly Code represents the priesthood as a social and hierarchical institution, with legally determined duties, rights, and revenues.評論家認為,此書的盟約一無所知的Aaronitic鐸(出埃及記24:5 ) ;申命記提到的司鐸和利沒有任何等級的區分,沒有任何大祭司,確定他們的權利,以及之間的區別只生活在列國家和利未連接到中央聖殿;最後,祭司源代碼鐸作為一種社會和分級機構,依法確定的職責,權利和收入。 This theory is said to be borne out by the evidence of history.這一理論被認為是證實了歷史上的證據。 But the testimony of history points in the opposite direction.但是,歷史的證詞指出了相反的方向。 At the time of Josue and the early Judges, Eleazar and Phinees, the son and nephew of Aaron, were priests (Numbers 26:1; Deuteronomy 10:6; Joshua 14:1 sqq.; 22:13, 21; 24:33; Judges 20:28).當時若蘇埃和早期法官,埃萊亞薩和Phinees的兒子和侄子亞倫,是祭司(民數記26:1 ;申命記10時06分;約書亞14點零一sqq 。 ; 22點13分, 21 ; 24:33法官: 20:28 ) 。 From the end of the time of Judges to Solomon, the priesthood was in the hands of Heli and his descendants (1 Samuel 1:3 sqq.; 14:3; 21:1; 22:1) who sprang from Ithamar the younger son of Aaron (1 Chronicles 24:3; cf. 1 Samuel 22:29; 14:3; 2:7 sqq.).月底的時候法官所羅門鐸在手中的合力和他的後代(撒母耳記上1:3 sqq 。 ; 14點03分, 21時01 ; 22時01分)從Ithamar誰跳的小兒子艾倫(歷代誌上24:3 ;比照。撒母耳記上22:29 ; 14點03分; 2點07分sqq 。 ) 。 Solomon raised Sadoc, the son of Achitob, to the dignity of the high priesthood, and his descendants held the office down to the time of the Babylonian Captivity (2 Samuel 8:17; 15:24 sqq.; 20:25; 1 Kings 2:26, 27, 35; Ezekiel 44:15); that Sadoc too was of Aaronic descent is attested by I Par., vi, 8.所羅門提出Sadoc的兒子Achitob ,尊嚴高級牧師和他的後代廳舉行下跌的時間巴比倫圈養(撒母耳記下8時17 ; 15:24 sqq 。 ; 20:25 ;列王紀上2點26分, 27 , 35 ;厄澤克爾44:15 ) ;這Sadoc也是出身的Aaronic證明了我標準桿。 ,六, 8 。 Besides the Books of Josue and Paralipomenon acknowledge the distinction between priests and Levites; according to 1 Samuel 6:15, the Levites handled the ark, but the Bethsamites, the inhabitants of a priestly city (Joshua 21:13-6), offered sacrifice. A similar distinction is made in 2 Samuel 15:24; 1 Kings 8:3 sq.; Isaiah 66:21. Van Hoonacker ("Les pretres et les levites dans le livre d'Ezechiel" in "Revue biblique", 1899, VIII, 180-189, 192-194) shows that Ezechiel did not create the distinction between priests and Levites, but that supposing the traditional distinction in existence, he suggested a divisions in to these classes according to merit, and not according to birth (xliv, 15-xlv, 5).除了圖書承認若蘇埃和Paralipomenon之間的區別祭司和利;根據撒母耳記上6:15 ,該處理的方舟利,但Bethsamites ,居民的祭司市(約書亞21:13-6 ) ,提供了犧牲。類似的區別是在撒母耳記下15:24 ;列王紀上八時03平方米;以賽亞書66:21 。範Hoonacker ( “法國之利pretres等中的樂德Ezechiel書”中的“雜誌biblique ” , 1899年,八, 180-189 , 192-194 )表明, Ezechiel沒有創造的區別祭司和利,但假設的傳統區別的存在,他建議這些部門在班級根據成績,而不是根據出生(四十四, 15第四十五, 5 ) 。 Unless the critics simply set aside all this historical evidence, they must grant the existence of an Aaronitic priesthood in Israel, and its division into priests and Levites, long before the D and P codes were promulgated according to the critical theory. It is true that in a number of passages persons are said to offer sacrifice who are not of Aaronitic descent: Judges, vi, 25 sqq.; xiii, 9; 1 Samuel 7:9; 10:8; 13:9; 2 Samuel 6:17; 24:25; 1 Kings 8:5, 62; etc. But in the first place, the phrase "to offer sacrifice" means either to furnish the victim (Leviticus 1:2, 5) or to perform the sacrificial rite; the victim might be furnished by any devout layman; secondly, it would be hard to prove that God committed the priestly office in such a way to Aaron and his sons as not to reserve to himself the liberty of delegating in extraordinary cases a non-Aaronite to perform the priestly functions.除非批評只是擱置所有這一切的歷史證據,他們必須給予存在Aaronitic鐸在以色列,其劃分為祭司和利,早在D和P碼頒布了根據批判理論。誠然,在一些段落的人說,向犧牲誰不是Aaronitic後裔:法官,六, 25 sqq 。 ;第十三9 ;撒母耳記上7時09分; 10時08分; 13點09分;撒母耳記下6點17分; 24:25 ;列王紀上八時05 , 62 ;等等,但擺在首位,把“提供的犧牲”是指提供受害者(利未記1:2 , 5 )或履行其祭天;受害者可能是所提供的任何虔誠的門外漢;其次,就難以證明上帝的祭司辦事處致力於以這樣一種方式來亞倫和他的兒子不準備金,以自己的自由,授權在特殊情況下,非Aaronite執行在牧師的職能。

(iii) Pentateuchal Redaction.-The four documentary sources of the Pentateuch thus far descried were combined not by any one individual; critics require rather three different stages of combination: first, a Yahwistic redactor RXX or RX combined J and E with a view of harmonizing them, and adapting them to Deuteronomic ideas; this happened either before or after the redaction of D. Secondly, after D had been completed in the sixth century BC, a redactor, or perhaps a school of redactors, imbued with the spirit of D combined the documents JE into JED, introducing however the modifications necessary to secure consistency. (三) Pentateuchal Redaction. ,這四個文件來源的摩西五迄今descried合併不是由任何一個個人;批評需要而三個不同階段的結合:第一, Yahwistic redactor RXX或RX結合J和E與檢視協調,並適應他們Deuteronomic觀念;這一事件發生之前或之後編輯4第二,在D在完成了公元前6世紀,一個redactor ,或者一所學校的編纂,充滿精神的D合併後的文件乙腦納入JED介紹但是必要的修改,以確保一致性。 Thirdly, a last redactor RX imbued with the letter and the spirit of P, combined this document with JED, introducing again the necessary changes. The table of nations in Gen., xiv was according to Kunen added by this last redactor.第三,去年redactor收發充滿的文字和精神的P ,結合本文件與JED ,介紹了必要的修改。該表中的各將軍,十四是根據丘嫩說的這最後redactor 。

At first sight, one is struck by the complex character of this theory; as a rule, truth is of a more simple texture.乍一看,是深刻的複雜性理論;作為一項規則,事實是一個更為簡單的紋理。 Secondly, one is impressed by the unique nature of the hypothesis; antiquity has nothing to equal it.其次,留下了深刻的印象之一是性質獨特的假說;古代無關等於它。 Thirdly, if one reads or studies the Pentateuch in the light of this theory, one is impressed by the whimsical character of the redactor; he often retained what should have been omitted, and omitted what should have been retained.第三,如果一個內容或研究了摩西五根據這個理論,一個是下了深刻的印象異想天開性質redactor ;他常常保留應該被省略,省略哪些應該被保留下來。 The critics themselves have to take refuge, time and time again, in the work of the redactor, in order save their own views of the Pentateuch.批評者本身必須採取避難,一次又一次,工作中的redactor ,為了挽救自己的看法的摩西五。 A recent writer does not hesitate to call the complex redactor ein genialer Esel.最近筆者就毫不猶豫地要求複雜redactor艾因genialer Esel 。 Fourthly, a truth-loving, straightforward reader is naturally shocked by the literary fictions and forgeries, the editorial changes and subterfuges implied in the critical theory of the Pentateuchal documents and redaction.第四,真理愛好,直截了當讀者自然感到震驚的是文學小說和偽造,編輯修改和託辭隱含在批判理論的Pentateuchal文件和編輯。 The more moderate critics endeavour to escape this inconvenience: some appeal to the difference between the ancient and the modern standard of literary property and editorial accuracy; others practically sanctify the means by the end.較溫和的批評努力擺脫這種不便:一些呼籲之間的差異古代和現代的文學財產的標準和編輯準確性;其他幾乎神聖的方式結束。 Oettli considers the dilemma "either the work of Moses or the work of a deceiver" as the expression of sheer imprudence; Kautzsch unctuously points to the depth of the wisdom and knowledge of God whose ways we cannot fathom, but must admire.歐特列認為兩難“要么摩西的工作或工作的騙子”的言論純粹輕率; Kautzsch假惺惺點深度的智慧和知識的上帝的方式我們無法捉摸,但必須欽佩。 The left wing of criticism openly acknowledges that there is no use in hushing up matters; it actually is the result of scientific research that both form and contents of a great part of the Old Testament are based on conscious fiction and forgery.左翼的批評,公開承認,是沒有用的hushing的事項;它實際上是由於這兩個科研形式和內容的很大一部分舊約是基於意識小說和偽造。


In some general introductions to the Pentateuch its messianic prophecies are specially considered, ie, the so-called proto-evangelium, Gen., iii, 15; the blessing of Sem, Gen., ix, 26-7; the patriarchal promises, Gen., xii, 2; xiii, 16; xv, 5; xvii, 4-6, 16; xviii, 10-15; xxii, 17; xxvi, 4; xxviii, 14; the blessing of the dying Jacob, Gen., xlix, 8-10; the Prophecy of Balaam, Num., xxiv, 15 sqq.; and the great Prophet announced by Moses, Deut., xviii, 15-19. But these prophecies belong rather to the province of exegesis than introduction.在一些普通的五經推出其彌賽亞的預言正在特別考慮,即所謂的原福音,將軍,三, 15 ;的祝福掃描電鏡,將軍,九,埃弗里;父權制的承諾,根。 ,十二, 2 ;第十三16 ;十五, 5 ;十七, 4月6日, 16日;十八, 10月15日; 22 , 17 ; 26 , 4 ;二十八, 14 ;的祝福臨終雅各布,將軍, xlix , 8月10日;預言的巴蘭,序號。 , 24 , 15 sqq 。 ,和偉大的先知摩西宣布, Deut 。 , 18 , 15-19 。但是,這些預言屬於而是省的註釋比言。 Again, the text of the Pentateuch has been considered in some general introductions to the work.同樣,文摩西五一直被認為在一些一般性的介紹工作。 We have seen already that besides the Massoretic Text we have to take into account the earlier text followed by the Septuagint translators, and the still earlier readings of the Samaritan Pentateuch; a detailed investigation of this subject belongs to the field of textual or lower criticism.我們已經看到了,除了Massoretic文字,我們必須考慮到先前的文本其次是七十譯員,並仍然較早讀數撒瑪利亞五經;詳細調查這個問題屬於文字領域的或較低的批評。 But the style of the Pentateuch can hardly be referred to any other department of Pentateuchal study.但是,風格的摩西五很難提到任何其他部Pentateuchal研究。

As Moses employed no doubt pre-existent documents in the composition of his work, and as he must have made use too of the aid of secretaries, we expect antecedently a variety of style in the Pentateuch.正如摩西僱用毫無疑問預先存在的文件的組成他的工作,因為他必須有使用過的秘書的協助下,我們預計先行各種風格的摩西五。 It is no doubt due to the presence of this literary phenomenon that the critics have found so many points of support in their minute analysis.這無疑是由於存在這種現象,文學評論家發現這麼多點支持他們分鐘分析。 But in general, the style of the work is in keeping with its contents.但一般而言,工作作風,是符合其內容。 There are three kinds of material in the Pentateuch: first, there are statistics, genealogies, and legal formularies; secondly, there are narrative portions; thirdly, there are parenthetic sections.有三種物質在摩西五:第一,有統計資料,族譜,法律處方;第二,說明部分;第三,有弧形的部分。

No reader will find fault with the writer's dry and simple style in his genealogical and ethnographic lists, in his table of encampments in the desert, or his legal enactments.沒有讀者會發現故障與作家的乾旱和樸實的作風在他的家譜和人種名單,在他桌上的營地在沙漠中,或其法律法規。 Any other literary expression would be out of place in records of this kind.任何其他文學作品的表達將是不合時宜的,在這種記錄。 The narrative style of the Pentateuch is simple and natural, but also lively and picturesque.的敘事風格的摩西五是簡單和自然,而且活潑,風景如畫。 It abounds in simple character sketches, dialogues, and anecdotes.它有許多簡單的字符素描,對話,和軼事。 The accounts of Abraham's purchase of a burying-ground, of the history of Joseph, and of the Egyptian plagues are also dramatic.帳目的亞伯拉罕的購買掩埋地面,歷史的約瑟夫,埃及瘟疫也戲劇性。 Deuteronomy has its peculiar style on account of the exhortations it contains.申命記有其獨特的風格考慮到它包含的規勸。 Moses explains the laws he promulgates, but urges also, and mainly, their practice.摩西說,他頒布的法律,但還敦促,主要的做法。 As an orator, he shows a great deal of unction and persuasiveness, but is not destitute of the earnestness of the Prophets.作為一個演說家,他發現了大量的油膏和說服力,但不是赤貧的真誠的先知。 His long sentences remain at times incomplete, thus giving rise to so-called anacolutha (cf. Deuteronomy 6:10-12; 8:11-17; 9:9-11; 11:2-7; 24:1-4).他的長句,有時仍然不完整,從而引起所謂anacolutha (參見申命記6:10-12 ; 8:11-17 ; 9:9-11 ; 11:2-7 ; 24:1-4 ) 。 Being necessarily a popular preacher, he is not lacking in repetitions.正在流行的不一定是傳道,他並不缺乏重複。 But his earnestness, persuasiveness, and unction do not interfere with the clearness of his statements.但他的真誠,說服力和油膏不干預清晰,他的發言。 He is not merely a rigid legislator, but he shows his love for the people, and in turn wins their love and confidence.他不僅是一個僵化的立委,但他表明他的愛的人,反過來贏得他們的愛和信心。

Decisions of the Biblical Commission決定聖經委員會

Some decisions of the Biblical Commission in regards to the chief subject of this article, viz., Genesis, are as follows: The various exegetical systems which exclude the literal and historical sense of the first three chapters of the Book of Genesis are not based on solid foundation.一些決定的聖經委員會在對行政主體的規定,即。 ,成因如下:各訓詁系統排除的字面和歷史意義上的前三章的創世記不是基於堅實的基礎。 It should not be taught that these three chapters do not contain true narrations of facts, but only fables derived from the mythologies and cosmogonies of earlier peoples, purged of the polytheistic errors and accommodated to monotheism; or allegories and symbols, with no objective reality, set forth in the guise of history to inculcate religious and philosophical truths; or, finally, legends partly historical and partly fictitious put together for instruction and edification. In particular, doubt should not be cast on the literal and historical sense of passages which touch on the foundations of the Christian religion, as, for instance, the creation of the universe by God at the beginning of time; the special creation of man; the formation of the first woman from the first man; the unity of the human race; the original happiness, integrity, and immortality of our first parents in the state of justice; the precept given by God to man to try his obedience; the transgression of the Divine precept, at the suggestion of the Devil, under the form of a serpent; the fall of our first parents from their original state of justice; the promise of a future Redeemer.它不應該告訴我們,這三個章節不包含真正述的事實,但只有寓言源自神話和cosmogonies早先人民,清除錯誤的多神教和安置到一神教;或寓言和象徵,沒有任何客觀現實,中所列的幌子歷史灌輸宗教和哲學的真理;或最後,傳說是虛構的歷史和部分提出的指導和啟發。尤其是,毫無疑問不應投下的文字和歷史意義上的通道談談的基礎基督教派,例如,創造宇宙的上帝在開始的時間;特別設立人;成立的第一位女性的第一人;的團結人類的原來幸福,完整,我們的第一個不朽的父母在該國的司法所給予的戒律上帝男子試圖服從他的侵神聖戒律,在建議的魔鬼,根據形式的蛇;秋天我們的第一個父母從原來的國家司法;承諾未來救世主。

In explaining such passages in these chapters as the Fathers and Doctors interpreted differently, one may follow and defend the opinion which meets his approval.在解釋這種通道在這些章節的父親和醫生不同的解釋,你可以遵循和捍衛認為符合他的批准。 Not every word or phrase in these chapters is always necessarily to be taken in its literal sense so that it may never have another, as when it is manifestly used metaphorically or anthropomorphically.並非每一個詞或短語在這些章節是一定要採取在其字面意義,以便它可能永遠不會有其他的,當它顯然是用來比喻或anthropomorphically 。 The literal and historical meaning of some passages in these chapters presupposed, an allegorical and prophetical meaning may wisely and usefully be employed.字面和歷史意義的一些段落在這些章節的先決條件,一個寓言和預言的含義可能會明智和有益的工作。 As in writing the first chapter of Genesis the purpose of the sacred author was not to expound in a scientific manner the constitution of the universe or the complete order of creation, but rather to give to the people popular information in the ordinary language of the day, adapted to the intelligence of all, the strict propriety of scientific language is not always to be looked for in their terminology.作為書面的第一章成因的目的不是神聖的作者闡述了科學的方式在憲法的或完整的宇宙秩序的創造,而是給人民大眾的信息在普通語言的一天,以適應所有的情報,嚴格科學的語言合適的並不總是要尋找的術語。 The expression six days and their division may be taken in the ordinary sense of a natural day, or for a certain period of time, and exegetes may dispute about this question.

Publication information Written by AJ Moss. Transcribed by Thomas M. Barrett & Michael T. Barrett. Dedicated to the Poor Souls in Purgatory The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XI. Published 1911. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Nihil Obstat, February 1, 1911. Remy Lafort, STD, Censor. Imprimatur. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York


Many works referring to the Pentateuch have been cited throughout the course of this article.許多工程指的是摩西五已經列舉的整個過程中這一條。 We shall here add a list of mainly exegetical works, both ancient and modern, without attempting to give a complete catalogue.我們將在這裡購買的清單,主要訓詁作品,無論古代和現代,而試圖讓一個完整的目錄。

PATRISTIC WRITERS."Eastern Church:--ORIGEN, Selecta in Gen., PG, XII, 91- 145; IDEM, Homil. in Gen., ibid., 145-62; IDEM, Selecta et homil, in Ex., Lev., Num., Deut., ibid., 263-818; IDEM, Fragmenta in PG, XVII, 11-36; ST. BASIL, Homil. in Hexaemer. in PG, XXIX, 3-208; ST. GREGORY OF NYSSA, In Hexaemer. in PG, XLIV, 61-124; IDEM, De homin. Opific., ibid., 124-297; IDEM, De vita Moysis, ibid., 297-430; ST. JOHN CHRYS., Homil. in Gen. in PG, LIII, LIV, 23- 580; IDEM, Serm. In Gen. in PG, LIV, 581-630; ST. EPHR., Comment in Pentat. in Oper. Syr., I, 1-115; ST. CYRIL OF ALEX., De adoratione in spiritu in PG, LXVIII, 133-1125; Glaphyra in PG, LXIX, 13-677; THEODORETUS, Quaest. in Gen., Ex., Lev., Num., Deut. in PG, LXXX, 76-456; PROCOPIUS OF GAZA, Comment. in Octateuch. in PG, LXXXVII, 21-992; NICEPHORUS, Catena in Octateuch. et libros Reg. (Leipzig, 1772).教父作家。 “東方教會: -奧利, Selecta的將軍,前列腺素,第十二章, 91 - 145 ;同上, Homil 。將軍中,同上。 , 145-62 ;同上, Selecta等homil ,在惠。 ,列夫。 ,序號。 , Deut 。 ,同上。 , 263-818 ;同上, Fragmenta的指引, 17 , 11-36 ;秘。羅勒, Homil 。在Hexaemer 。在前列腺素,第29屆, 3-208 ;秘。貴格利的NYSSA ,在Hexaemer 。在指引,四十四, 61-124 ;同上,者homin 。 Opific 。 ,同上。 , 124-297 ;同上,者維Moysis ,同上。 , 297-430 ;秘。約翰CHRYS 。 , Homil 。在將軍的指引, LIII ,活動全省, 23 - 580 ;同上,血清。在將軍的指引,活動全省, 581-630 ;秘。 EPHR 。 ,評論中Pentat 。在歌劇院。錫爾河。 ,我1-115 ;意法半導體。利羅杜德偉。 ,者adoratione在spiritu的指引, LXVIII , 133-1125 ; Glaphyra的指引, LXIX , 13-677 ; THEODORETUS , Quaest 。將軍中,惠。 ,列夫。 ,序號。 , Deut 。在前列腺素, LXXX , 76-456 ;普羅科匹厄斯加沙,評論。在Octateuch 。在指引, LXXXVII , 21-992 ; NICEPHORUS ,卡泰納在Octateuch 。等libros註冊。 (萊比錫, 1772年) 。

Western Church: ST.西方教會:聖。 AMBROSE, In Hexaemer.劉漢銓,在Hexaemer 。 in PL, XIV, 123-274; IDEM, De Paradiso terrestri, ibid., 275-314; IDEM, De Cain et Abel, ibid., 315-60; IDEM, De Noe et arca, ibid., 361-416; IDEM, De Abraham, ibid., 419-500; IDEM, De Isaac et anima, ibid., 501-34; IDEM, De Joseph patriarcha, ibid., 641-72; IDEM, De benedictionibus patriarcharum, ibid., 673-94; ST.在光致發光,十四, 123-274 ;同上,者天堂terrestri ,同上。 , 275-314 ;同上,者該隱與亞伯,同上。 , 315-60 ;同上,者諾埃等方舟,同上。 , 361-416 ;同上,者亞伯拉罕,同上。 , 419-500 ;同上,者艾薩克等動物,同上。 , 501-34 ;同上,者約瑟夫patriarcha ,同上。 , 641-72 ;同上,者benedictionibus patriarcharum ,同上。 , 673 - 94 ;秘。 JEROME, Liber quaest. JEROME ,書quaest 。 hebraic. in Gen. in PL, XXIII, 935-1010; ST.希伯來語。在將軍的特等,二十三, 935-1010 ;秘。 AUGUSTINE, De Gen. c.奧古斯丁者將軍角 Manich. Manich 。 ll. 11 。 due in PL, XXXIV, 173-220; IDEM, De Ger.由於特等,三十四, 173-220 ;同上,德閣。 ad lit., ibid., 219-46; IDEM, De Ger.廣告點燃。 ,同上。 , 219-46 ;同上,德閣。 ad lit.廣告點燃。 ll. 11 。 duodecim, ibid., 245-486; IDEM, Quaest in Heptateuch., ibid., 547-776; RUFINUS, De benedictionibus patriarcharum in PL, XXI, 295-336; ST. duodecim ,同上。 , 245-486 ;同上, Quaest在Heptateuch 。 ,同上。 , 547-776 ; RUFINUS ,者benedictionibus patriarcharum的特等,二十一, 295-336 ;秘。 VEN.委內瑞拉。 BEDE, Hexaemeron in PL, XCI, 9-190; IDEM, In Pentateuch. BEDE , Hexaemeron在特等, XCI , 9-190 ;同上,在摩西五。 Commentarii, ibid., 189-394; IDEM, De tabernaculo et vasibus ejus, ibid., 393-498; RHABANUS MAURUS, Comm. Commentarii ,同上。 , 189-394 ;同上,者tabernaculo等vasibus ejus ,同上。 , 393-498 ; RHABANUS毛魯斯,商業。 in Gen. in PL, CVII, 443-670; IDEM, Comment.在將軍的特等, CVII , 443-670 ;同上,評論。 in Ez., Lev., Num., Deut. in PL, CVIII, 9-998; WALAFRID STRABO, Glossa ordinaria in PL, CXIII, 67-506.在雌二醇。 ,列夫。 ,序號。 , Deut 。在特等, CVIII , 9-998 ; WALAFRID斯特拉博, Glossa ordinaria在特等, CXIII , 67-506 。

MIDDLE AGES:-ST.中世紀時期: ST段。 BRUNO OF ASTI, Expositio in Pentateuch.布魯諾的ASTI , Expositio在摩西五。 in PL, RUPERT OF DEUTZ, De SS.在光致發光,魯珀特的道依茨公司,德黨衛軍。 Trinitate et operib. Trinitate等operib 。 Ejus in PL, CLXVII, 197-1000; HUGH OF ST. VICTOR, Adnotationes elucidatoriae in Pent. Ejus在特等, CLXVII , 197-1000 ;休聖。維克托, Adnotationes elucidatoriae的壓抑。 in PL, CLXXV, 29-86; HONORIUS OF AUTUN, Hexameron in PL, CLXXII, 253-66; IDEM, De decem plagis Aegypti, ibid., 265-70; ABELARD, Expositio in Hexaemeron in PL, CLXXVII, 731-84; HUGH OF ST. CHER, Postilla (Venice, 1588); NICOLAUS OF LYRA, Postilla (Rome, 1471); TOSTATUS, Opera, I-IV (Venice, 1728); DIONYSIUS THE CARTHUSIAN, Comment.在特等, CLXXV , 29-86 ;挪留的歐坦, Hexameron在特等, CLXXII , 253-66 ;同上, 12月plagis Aegypti者,同上。 , 265-70 ;亞伯拉德, Expositio在Hexaemeron在特等, CLXXVII , 731-84 ;休聖。雪兒, Postilla (威尼斯, 1588年) ; NICOLAUS的LYRA , Postilla (羅馬, 1471年) ; TOSTATUS ,歌劇,一至四(威尼斯, 1728年) ;狄奧尼修斯的卡爾特,評論。 in Pentateuch.在摩西五。 in Opera omnia, I, II (Montreuil, 1896-7).在Opera OMNIA公司,一,二(蒙特勒伊, 1896-7 ) 。

MORE RECENT WORKS.-Jewish Writers:-The Commentaries of RASHI (1040-1150), ABENASRA (1092-1167), and DAVID KIMCHI, (1160-1235) are contained in the Rabbinic Bibles; ABARBANEL, Comment.最近WORKS.猶太作家: -的評注的RASHI ( 1040至1150年) , ABENASRA ( 1092年至1167年) ,和大衛泡菜, ( 1160年至1235年)中載有拉比聖經; ABARBANEL ,評論。 (Venice, 5539 AM; 1579 BC); CAHEN, French tr. (威尼斯, 5539分; 1579年) ; CAHEN ,法國文。 of Pent.壓抑。 (Paris, 1831); KALISCH, Historical and Critical Comment on the Old Test. (巴黎, 1831年) ; KALISCH的,歷史的和批判性評論的舊試驗。 (London), Gen. (1885); Lev. (倫敦) ,將軍( 1885年) ;列夫。 (1867, 1872); Ez. ( 1867年, 1872年) ;雌二醇。 (1855); HIRSCH, Der Pent. ( 1855年) ; HIRSCH ,明鏡壓抑。 ubersetzt und erklart (2nd ed., Frankfurt, 1893, 1895); HOFFMANN, Das Buch Lev. ubersetzt與erklart (第二版。 ,法蘭克福, 1893年, 1895年) ;霍夫曼達斯圖書列夫。 ubersetz und erklart (Berlin, 1906). ubersetz與erklart (柏林, 1906年) 。

Protestant Writers:-The works of LUTHER, MELANCHTHON, CALVIN, GERHART, CALOVIUS, DRUSIUS, DE DIEU, CAPPEL, COCCEIUS, MICHAELIS, LE CLERC, ROSENMULLER, and even of TUCH and BAUMGARTEN, are of minor importance in our days; KNOBEL, Gen. (6th ed., by DILLMANN, 1892; tr., Edinburgh, 1897); RYSSEL, Ez.新教作家: -的作品路德梅蘭希頓,卡爾文格哈, CALOVIUS , DRUSIUS ,德迪厄, CAPPEL , COCCEIUS ,蔑克里斯,樂賈勒, ROSENMULLER ,甚至TUCH和鮑姆加滕,是未成年人的重要性在我們天;克諾貝爾,將軍(第6版。通過DILLMANN , 1892年;文。 ,愛丁堡, 1897年) ; RYSSEL赫拉。 and Lev.和列夫。 (3rd ed., 1897); DILLMANN, Numbers, deut., Jos. (2nd ed., 1886); LANGE, Theologisch-homiletisches Bibelwerk (Bielefeld and Leipzig); IDEM, Gen. (2nd ed., 1877); IDEM, Ez., Lev., and Numbers (1874); STOSCH, Deut. (第3版。 , 1897年) ; DILLMANN ,數字deut 。 ,聖何塞(第二版。 , 1886年) ;蘭格Theologisch - homiletisches Bibelwerk (比勒費爾德和萊比錫) ;同上,將軍(第2版。 , 1877年) ; IDEM赫拉。 ,列夫。和數字( 1874年) ; STOSCH , Deut 。 (2nd ed., 1902); KEIL and FRANZ DELITZSCH, Biblischer Comment. (第2版。 , 1902年) ;的Keil和弗蘭茲德里, Biblischer評論。 uber das AT; KEIL, Gen. and Ex. (3rd ed., Leipzig, 1878); IDEM, Lev., Numbers, Deut.尤伯杯存在的; Keil公司,將軍和前。 (第3版。 ,萊比錫, 1878年) ;同上,列夫。 ,數字Deut 。 (2nd ed., 1870; tr., Edinburgh, 1881, 1885); STRACK and ZOCKLER, Kurzgefasster Komment. (第2版。 , 1870年;文。 ,愛丁堡, 1881年, 1885年) ;施特拉克和ZOCKLER , Kurzgefasster Komment 。 zu den h. Schriften A. und NT (Munich); STRACK, Gen. (2nd ed., 1905); IDEM, Ez., Lev., Numbers (1894); OETTLI, Deut.楚蘭旦閣下著作答:與新台幣(慕尼黑) ;施特拉克,將軍(第2版。 , 1905年) ;同上,雌二醇。 ,列夫。 ,數字( 1894年) ;歐特列, Deut 。 (1893); NOWACK, Handkomment. ( 1893年) ; NOWACK , Handkomment 。 zum AT (Gottingen); GUNKEL, Gen. (1901); BANTSCH, Ez., Lev., Numbers (1903); Deut. zum在(哥廷根大學) ;貢克爾,將軍( 1901 ) ; BANTSCH赫拉。 ,列夫。 ,數字( 1903年) ; Deut 。 by STEUERNAGEL (1900); MARTI, Kurtzer Handommentar z.由STEUERNAGEL ( 1900 ) ;馬蒂庫爾策Handommentar卓 AT (Freiburg): HOLZINGER, Gen. (1898), Ez.在(弗賴堡) : HOLZINGER ,將軍( 1898 ) ,雌二醇。 (1900), Numbers (1903); BERTHOLET, Lev. ( 1900年) ,數字( 1903年) ; BERTHOLET ,列夫。 (1901), Deut. ( 1901 ) , Deut 。 (1899); BOHMER, Das erste Buch Mose (Stuttgart, 1905); COOK, The Holy Bible according to the Authorized Version, I-II (London, 1877); SPENCE and EXELL, The Pulpit Commentary (London): WHITELAW, Gen.; RAWLINSON, Ex.; MEYRICK, Lev.; WINTERBOTHAM, Numbers; ALEXANDER, Deut.; The Expositor's Bible (London): DODS, Gen. (1887); CHADWICK, Exod. ( 1899年) ;博默,達斯erste圖書莫塞(斯圖加特, 1905年) ;庫克聖經根據授權版本,第一和第二(倫敦, 1877年) ; SPENCE和EXELL ,講壇評(倫敦) :懷特勞,根。 ;羅林森,惠。 ;蛾,列夫。 ;溫,數字;亞歷山大, Deut 。 ;的Expositor的聖經(倫敦) : DODS ,將軍( 1887年) ; CHADWICK , Exod 。 (1890); KELLOGG, Lev. ( 1890年) ; KELLOGG ,列夫。 (1891); WATSON, Numbers (1889); HARPER, Deut. (1895); The International Critical Commentary (Edinburgh): GRAY, Numbers (1903); DRIVER, Deut. ( 1891年) ;華生,數字( 1889年) ;哈珀, Deut 。 ( 1895年) ,國際評論文章(愛丁堡) :灰色,數字( 1903年) ;司機, Deut 。 (1895); SPURRELL, Notes on the Hebrew Text of Gen. (2nd ed., Oxford, 1896); GINSBURG, The Third Book of Moses (London, 1904); MACLAREN, The Books of Ex., Lev., and Numbers (London, 1906); IDEM, Deut. ( 1895年) ; SPURRELL ,債券在希伯來文將軍(第2版。 ,牛津, 1896年) ;金斯伯格的第三本書的摩西(倫敦, 1904年) ;麥克拉倫的書惠。 ,列夫。和數字(倫敦, 1906年) ;同上, Deut 。 (London, 1906); REUSS, L'histoire sainte et la loi (Paris, 1879); KUENEN, HOSYKAAS, and OORT, Het Oude Testament (Leyden, 1900-1). (倫敦, 1906年) ; REUSS ,歐萊雅等香格里拉史聖萊(巴黎, 1879年) ; KUENEN , HOSYKAAS ,和奧爾特報舊全書(萊頓, 1900-1 ) 。

Catholic Works:-The works of CAJETAN, OLEASTER, STEUCHUS EUGUBINUS, SANTE PAGINO, LIPPOMANNUS, HAMMER, B. POREIRA, ASORIUS MARTINENGUS, LORINUS, TIRINUS, A LAPIDE, CORN, JANSENIUS, BONFRERE, FRASSEN, CALMET, BRENTANO, DERESER, and SCHOLZ are either too well known or too unimportant to need further notice.天主教工程: -的作品CAJETAN , OLEASTER , STEUCHUS EUGUBINUS , SANTE PAGINO , LIPPOMANNUS ,錘子,灣POREIRA , ASORIUS MARTINENGUS , LORINUS , TIRINUS ,阿LAPIDE ,玉米, JANSENIUS ,邦弗雷雷, FRASSEN , CALMET , BRENTANO , DERESER ,和SCHOLZ都是眾所周知或太不重要需要另行通知。 La Sainte Bible (Paris); CHELIER, La Genese (1889); IDEM, l'Exode et la Levitique (1886); TROCHON, Les Nombres et le Deuteronome (1887-8); Cursus Scripturae Sacrae (Paris); VON HUMMELAUER, Gen. (1895); Ex., Lev.聖聖經(巴黎) ; CHELIER ,香格里拉Genese ( 1889年) ;同上,歐萊雅Exode等香格里拉Levitique ( 1886年) ; TROCHON ,法國Nombres等樂Deuteronome ( 1887-8 ) ; Cursus Scripturae Sacrae (巴黎) ;馮HUMMELAUER ,將軍( 1895年) ;惠。 ,列夫。 (1897); Num. ( 1897年) ;序號。 (1899); Deut. ( 1899年) ; Deut 。 (1901); SCHRANK, Comment. ( 1901年) ;薊馬,評論。 literal.字面。 in Gen. (1835); LAMY, Comment in l. Gen.在將軍( 1835年) ;拉米評論中湖將軍 (Mechlin, 1883-4); TAPPEHORN, Erklarung der Gen. (Paderborn, 1888); HOBERG, Die Gen. nach dem Literalsinn erklart (Freiburg, 1899); FILLION, La Sainte Bible, I (Paris, 1888); NETELER, Das Buch Genesis der Vulgata und des hebraischen Textes ubersetzt und erklart (Munster, 1905); GIGOT, Special Introduction to the Study of the Old Testament, I (New York, 1901). Biblical Commission: Acta Apostolicoe Sedis (15 July, 1908); Rome (17 July, 1909). ( Mechlin , 1883-4 ) ; TAPPEHORN , Erklarung德國將軍(帕德博恩, 1888年) ;霍貝格,模具nach將軍馬克Literalsinn erklart (弗賴堡, 1899年) ;菲利安,聖聖經,我(巴黎, 1888年) ; NETELER ,達斯書起源之Vulgata和沙漠hebraischen文本ubersetzt與erklart (明斯特, 1905年) ; GIGOT ,特別介紹研究舊約,我(紐約, 1901年) 。聖經委員會:獸類Apostolicoe位置未定( 1908年7月15號) ;羅馬( 1909年7月17號) 。

Book of Genesis or Bereshit創世記或Bereshit

Jewish Perspective Information 猶太透視信息

§ 1. § 1 。 -Biblical Data:聖經資料:

The first book of the Torah, and therefore of the whole Bible, is called by the Jews "Bereshit," after the initial word; by the Septuagint and by Philo it is called Γύνεσις (κόσμου) = "origin" (of the world), after the contents, and hence "Genesis" has become the usual non-Hebrew designation for it.第一本書的律法,因此整個聖經,是由所謂的猶太人“ Bereshit , ”在最初的詞;由七十和斐羅它被稱為Γύνεσις ( κόσμου ) = “起源” (世界)之後的內容,因此, “創世紀”已成為通常的非希伯來語指定的。 According to the Masorah, it is divided into ninety-one sections ("parashiyyot"), forty-three of which have open or broken lines ("petuḥot"), and forty-eight closed lines ("setumot"); or into forty-three chapters ("sedarim") and twenty-nine sections ("pisḳot"); for reading on the Sabbath, into twelve lessons; according to the division adopted from the Vulgate, into fifty chapters with 1,543 verses.據Masorah ,它分為91節( “ parashiyyot ” ) , 43 ,其中有開啟或虛線( “ petuḥot ” ) ,和48封閉線( “ setumot ” ) ;或40 3章( “ sedarim ” )和29節( “ pisḳot ” ) ;閱讀在安息日,到12的經驗教訓,根據該司通過從武加大,到1543年50章的經文。

§ 2. Nature and Plan. § 2 。自然保護區和計劃。

Genesis is a historical work.成因是一個歷史的工作。 Beginning with the creation of the world, it recounts the primal history of humanity and the early history of the people of Israel as exemplified in the lives of its patriarchs, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and their families.首先是成立了世界,它的原始檔案記載的人類歷史的早期歷史和以色列人民所體現的生活中的始祖亞伯拉罕,以撒和雅各,和他們的家人。 It contains the historical presupposition and basis of the national religious ideas and institutions of Israel, and serves as an introduction to its history and legislation.它包含的歷史前提和基礎,國家的宗教思想和機構的以色列,並充當介紹其歷史和法律。 It is a well-planned and well-executed composition of a single writer, who has recounted the traditions of his people with masterly skill, combining them into a uniform work, without contradictions or useless repetitions, but preserving the textual and formal peculiarities incident to their difference in origin and mode of transmission.這是一個精心策劃和執行的組成一個單一的作家,誰也敘述了他的人民的傳統與精湛的技巧,它們合併成一個統一的工作,沒有矛盾或無用的重複,而是維護和正式文本的特性事件他們的差異起源和傳播的方式。

§ 3. The author has treated the story as a series of ten "generations" ("toledot"); namely, (1) of heaven and earth, ch. § 3 。作者治療的故事一系列10 “後代” ( “ toledot ” ) ,即( 1 )天地,甲烷。 ii.二。 4-iv.; (2) of Adam, v.-vi. 4四。 ; ( 2 )亞當v.-vi. 8; (3) of Noah, vi. 8 ; ( 3 )諾亞,六。 9-ix.; (4) of Noah's sons, x.-xi. 9; (5) of Shem, xi. 9九。 ; ( 4 )諾亞的兒子, x.-xi. 9 ; ( 5 )閃,十一。 10-26; (6) of Terah, xi. 10月26日; ( 6 ) Terah ,十一。 27-xxv. 27二十五。 11; (7) of Ishmael, xxv. 11 ; ( 7 )以實瑪利,二十五。 12-18; (8) of Isaac, xxv. 12月18日; ( 8 )以撒,二十五。 19-xxxv.; (9) of Esau, xxxvi.; (10) of Jacob, xxxvii.-1. 19三十五。 ; ( 9 )以掃,三十六。 ; ( 10 )的雅各, xxxvii. - 1 。

§ 4. § 4 。 Contents.目錄。

In the beginning God created heaven and earth (i. 1), and set them in order in six days.在一開始上帝創造天地(一1 ) ,並將這些人設定,以便在6天。 He spoke, and on the first day there appeared the light; on the second, the firmament of heaven; on the third, the separation between water and land, with vegetation upon the latter; on the fourth, sun, moon, and stars; on the fifth, the marine animals and birds; on the sixth, the land animals; and, finally, God created man in His image, man and woman together, blessing them and giving them dominion over all beings.他說,和第一天出現了光;在第二,蒼穹的天堂;對第三,區分水和土地,與植被的後者;第四,太陽,月亮和星星;第五,海洋動物和鳥類;在第六,土地動物;最後,上帝創造的人他的形象,男人和女人在一起,祝福他們,讓他們統治眾生。 On the seventh day God rested, and blessed and sanctified the day (i. 2-ii. 3).在第七天上帝休息,並祝福和神聖的一天(一2二。 3 ) 。 As regards the creation and subsequent story of man (Adam), God forms him out of earth ("adama"), and breathes into him the breath of life.至於建立和隨後的故事男子(亞當) ,他的上帝形式地球( “阿達馬迪昂” ) ,和呼吸到他的生命氣息。 Then He sets him in a pleasure-garden (Eden), to cultivate and watch over it.然後,他套在他高興花園(伊甸園) ,培養和觀賞權。 Adam is allowed to eat of all the fruit therein except that of the "tree of the knowledge of good and evil."亞當可以吃所有的水果,但那裡的“樹的知識,善和惡。 ” God then brings all the animals to Adam, to serve as company for and to receive names from him.上帝然後把所有的動物亞當,擔任公司的,並得到他的名字。 When Adam can find no being like himself among all these creatures, God puts him into a deep sleep, takes a rib from his side, and forms a woman (called later "Eve"), to be a companion to him.當亞當找不到像自己在所有這些動物,上帝把他變成了一個深度睡眠,採取了肋骨從他身邊,並形成了一個女人(後稱為“夏娃” ) ,是一個同伴給他。 The woman is seduced by the artful serpent to eat of the forbidden fruit, and the man also partakes of the same.該名女子是引誘的巧妙蛇吃了禁果,而該男子也partakes相同。 As punishment they are driven out of Eden (ii. 4-iii.).作為懲罰他們趕出伊甸園(白介素4三。 ) 。 Adam and Eve have two sons, Cain and Abel.亞當和夏娃有兩個兒子,該隱和亞伯。 Cain grows envious of the favor found by his brother before God, and slays him; he then wanders over the earth as a fugitive, and finally settles in the land of Nod.該隱增長的青睞羨慕他的弟弟發現上帝面前,並slays他;然後,他遊蕩在地球作為一名逃犯,並最終定居睡鄉。 Enoch, one of his sons, builds the first city, and Lamech takes two wives, whose sons are the first dwellers in tents and owners of herds and the earliest inventors of musical instruments and workers in brass and iron.伊諾克,他的一個兒子,建立的第一個城市,拉麥考慮兩個妻子,他們的兒子是第一次在帳篷裡的居民和業主的畜群和最早發明的樂器和工人在銅和鐵。 Cain's descendants know nothing about God (iv.).該隱的後裔一無所知上帝( iv. ) 。 Another son, Seth, has in the meantime been born to Adam and Eve in place of the slain Abel.另一個兒子,塞思,已在此期間出生的,以亞當和夏娃的地方被殺阿貝爾。 Seth's descendants never lose thought of God.塞思的後代永遠不會喪失思想的上帝。 The tenth in regular descent is the pious Noah (v.).第十次定期後裔是虔誠的諾亞(五) 。

§ 5. As mankind has become wicked, indulging in cruelties and excesses, God determines to destroy it entirely. § 5 。人類已經成為邪惡的,沉迷於殘酷和過分,上帝決定它完全摧毀。 Noah only, on account of his piety, will escape the general ruin; and God commands him to build a large ark, since the work of destruction is to be accomplished by means of a great flood.諾亞只,考慮到他的虔誠,將逃跑的一般破產;和上帝命令他修建一個大方舟,因為工作的破壞是完成通過大洪水。 Noah obeys the command, entering the ark together with his wife, his three sons, Shem, Ham, and Japheth, their wives, and, by God's instructions, with one couple of each kind of animal on the earth.諾亞服從命令,進入方舟連同他的妻子,他的三個兒子,閃,火腿,和Japheth ,他們的妻子,以及上帝的指示,與一對夫婦的每一種動物在地球上。 Then the flood comes, destroying all living beings save those in the ark.然後,洪水到來時,銷毀所有眾生拯救那些在方舟。 When it has subsided, the latter leave the ark, and God enters into a covenant with Noah and his descendants.當它已經消退,後者離開方舟,上帝訂立盟約與諾亞和他的後代。 Noah begins to cultivate the field that has been cursed during Adam's lifetime (iii. 17-19; v. 29), and plants a vineyard (ix. 20).諾亞開始培養領域已詛咒在亞當的一生( iii. 17-19 ;五29 ) ,和植物葡萄園( ix. 20 ) 。 When, in a fit of intoxication, Noah is shamelessly treated by his son Ham, he curses the latter in the person of Ham's son Canaan, while the reverential Shem and Japheth are blessed (ix. 21-27).當在一個合適的中毒,諾亞是無恥地對待他的兒子聯隊,他咒罵後者在人火腿的兒子迦南,而恭敬閃和Japheth有幸( ix. 21-27 ) 。 Ch.總。 x. contains a review of the peoples that are descended fromJapheth, Ham, and Shem (down to the chief branch of the last-named), and are living dispersed over the whole earth.審查了人民的後裔fromJapheth ,火腿,和閃(到行政處去年命名) ,以及居住分散,在整個地球。 The dispersion was due to the "confusion of tongues," which God brought about when men attempted to build a tower that should reach up to heaven (xi. 1-9).分散的原因是“混亂的舌頭, ”上帝使當男人試圖建立一個塔,應達到天堂( xi. 1月9日) 。 A genealogy is given of Shem's descendants in regular line, the tenth generation of whom is represented by Terah (xi. 10-25).阿家譜的是閃的後裔經常線,十代人的代表Terah ( xi. 10月25日) 。

§ 6. Terah, who lives at Ur of the Chaldees, has three sons, Abram, Nahor, and Haran. § 6 。 Terah ,誰住在烏爾的查爾德斯,有三個兒子,艾布拉姆, Nahor和哈蘭。 Haran's son is Lot.哈蘭的兒子是很多。 Nahor is married to Milcah, and Abram to Sarai, who has no children (xi. 26-32). Nahor結婚Milcah和艾布拉姆以Sarai的,誰沒有子女( xi. 26-32 ) 。 God directs Abram to leave his home and kindred because He intends to bless him. Abram obeys, emigrating with his entire household and Lot, his brother's son, to the land of Canaan.上帝指示艾布拉姆離開家庭和親屬,因為他打算保佑他。艾布拉姆服從,移民與他的整個家庭和很多,他的弟弟的兒子,對土地的迦南。 Here God appears to him and promises that the land shall become the property of his descendants. Abram is forced by a famine to leave the country and go to Egypt. The King of Egypt takes possession of the beautiful Sarai (whom Abram has represented as his sister), but, smitten by God, is compelled to restore her (xii.).這裡上帝覺得和承諾,即應成為土地的財產,他的後代。艾布拉姆是被迫的飢荒離開該國,並前往埃及。埃及國王佔有美麗薩萊(其中艾布拉姆已經派他的妹妹) ,但是,一見鍾情的上帝,是迫使恢復她( xii. ) 。 Abram returns to Canaan, and separates from Lot in order to put an end to disputes about pasturage, leaving to Lot the beautiful country in the valley of the Jordan near Sodom.艾布拉姆返回迦南,並分離地段,以制止糾紛牧草,留下來的美麗的國家地段山谷中的約旦附近所多瑪。 God thereupon again appears to Abram, and again promises him the whole country (xiii.).上帝隨即又似乎艾布拉姆,並再次承諾,他的整個國家( xiii. ) 。 Lot is taken prisoner during a war between Amraphel, King of Shinar, and Bera, King of Sodom, with their respective allies, whereupon Abram pursues the victors with his armed servants, liberates Lot, and seizes the booty, refusing his share of the same (xiv.).很多是在俘虜之間的戰爭Amraphel國王示拿,和貝拉,國王所多瑪,以及它們各自的盟友,在這種情況下艾布拉姆奉行的勝利者,他的武裝人員,解放地段,並奪取戰利品,拒絕他的份額相同( xiv. ) 。 After this exploit God again appears to Abram and promises him protection, a rich reward, and, in spite of the fact that Abram still has no children, a numerous progeny.在這之後再次利用上帝似乎艾布拉姆和許諾他的保護,豐富的獎勵,並在儘管艾布拉姆還沒有孩子,許多後代。 These descendants must pass four hundred years in servitude in a strange land; but after God has judged their oppressors they, in the possession of great wealth, shall leave the land of their affliction, and the fourth generation shall return to the same land (xv.).這些後代必須經過四百年的奴役在一個陌生的土地;但在上帝判斷壓迫者,他們所擁有的巨大財富,應離開土地的苦難,以及第四代應返回同一土地(十五。 ) 。

Sarai being still childless, Abram gets a son, Ishmael, by her Egyptian handmaid, Hagar (xvi.).賴正仍然沒有孩子,艾布拉姆得到一個兒子,以實瑪利,她的埃及侍女,黑格( xvi. ) 。 God again appears to Abram, and enters into a personal covenant with him securing Abram's future: God promises him a numerous progeny, changes his name to "Abraham" and that of Sarai to "Sarah," and institutes the circumcision of all males as an eternal sign of the covenant.上帝再次出現艾布拉姆,並進入個人盟約確保艾布拉姆與他的未來:上帝應許他的許多後代,他的名字更改為“林肯”和Sarai的以“薩拉”和機構的所有男性包皮環切作為永恆的簽署盟約。 Abraham, together with his whole house, immediately fulfils the rite (xvii.).亞伯拉罕,連同他的整個房子,立即履行儀式( xvii. ) 。 God once more appears to Abraham in the person of three messengers, whom Abraham receives hospitably, and who announce to him that he will have a son within a year, although he and his wife are already very old. Abraham also hears that God's messengers intend to execute judgment upon the wicked inhabitants of Sodom and Gomorrah, whereupon he intercedes for the sinners, and endeavors to have their fate set aside (xviii.).上帝再次出現亞伯拉罕在三個送信的人,他們收到hospitably亞伯拉罕,誰向他宣布,他將有一個兒子在一年之內,但他和他的妻子已經很老。亞伯拉罕還聽說上帝的使者打算執行判決的邪惡居民的所多瑪和蛾摩拉,在這種情況下,他干預的罪人,並力圖將其命運擱置( xviii. ) 。 Two of the messengers go to Sodom, where they are hospitably received by Lot.兩個使者去索多瑪,他們在那裡hospitably收到很多。 The men of the city wish to lay shameless hands upon them, and, having thus shown that they have deserved their fate, Sodom and Gomorrah are destroyed by fire and brimstone, only Lot and his two daughters being saved.男子的城市奠定無恥希望他們手中,並擁有從而表明,他們有值得他們的命運,所多瑪和蛾摩拉被燒毀和硫磺,只有很多,他的兩個女兒被保存。 The circumstances of the birth of Ammon and Moab are set forth (xix.). Abraham journeys to Gerar, the country of Abimelech.這種情況下誕生的阿蒙和莫阿布規定( xix. ) 。亞伯拉罕前往Gerar ,該國的Abimelech 。 Here also he represents Sarah as his sister, and Abimelech plans to gain possession of her, but desists on being warned by God (xx.). At last the long-expected son is born, and receives the name of "Isaac."這裡也成為他代表他的姐姐莎拉和Abimelech計劃獲得擁有她,但被警告desists上帝( xx. ) 。最後,期待已久的兒子出生,並接收名為“艾薩克。 ” At the instance of Sarah, the boy Ishmael, together with his mother, Hagar, is driven out of the house, but they also have a great future promised to them.在實例薩拉,男童伊斯梅爾,連同他的母親,黑格,趕出去的房子,但他們也有偉大的未來許諾給他們。 Abraham, during the banquet that he gives in honor of Isaac's birth, enters into a covenant with Abimelech, who confirms his right to the well Beer-sheba (xxi.). Now that Abraham seems to have all his desires fulfilled, having even provided for the future of his son, God subjects him to the greatest trial of his faith by demanding Isaac as a sacrifice. Abraham obeys; but, as he is about to lay the knife upon his son, God restrains him, promising him numberless descendants.亞伯拉罕,在晚宴上,他給款待艾薩克的出生,訂立盟約與Abimelech ,誰確認的權利以及啤酒巴( xxi. ) 。現在,亞伯拉罕似乎都滿足他的慾望,甚至還提供了未來的他的兒子,他向上帝科目的最大審判自己的信仰,要求艾薩克作為犧牲。亞伯拉罕服從;但是,正如他是奠定了刀後,他的兒子,上帝的限制,他有希望他無數的後裔。 On the death of Sarah Abraham acquires Machpelah for a family tomb (xxiii.).對死亡的薩拉亞伯拉罕獲得Machpelah一個家族墓( xxiii. ) 。 Then he sends his servant to Mesopotamia, Nahor's home, to find among his relations a wife for Isaac; and Rebekah, Nahor's granddaughter, is chosen (xxiv.).然後,他向他的僕人,以美索不達米亞, Nahor的家鄉,去尋找他的妻子關係的艾薩克;和Rebekah , Nahor的孫女,是選擇( xxiv. ) 。 Other children are born to Abraham by another wife, Keturah, among whose descendants are the Midianites; and he dies in a prosperous old age (xxv. 1-18).其他兒童出生亞伯拉罕另一個妻子, Keturah ,除其後裔是米甸人,他死在一個繁榮的老年( xxv. 1月18日) 。

§ 7. After being married for twenty years Rebekah has twins by Isaac: Esau, who becomes a hunter, and Jacob, who becomes a herdsman. § 7 。後結婚二十年Rebekah已雙胞胎艾薩:以掃,誰成為獵人,和Jacob ,誰成為牧民。 Jacob persuades Esau to sell him his birthright, for which the latter does not care (xxv. 19-34); notwithstanding this bargain, God appears to Isaac and repeats the promises given to Abraham.雅各布說服以掃出售他與生俱來的,而後者並不關心( xxv. 19-34 ) ;儘管有這樣的便宜貨,上帝似乎艾薩克並重申承諾給予亞伯拉罕。 His wife, whom he represents as his sister, is endangered in the country of the Philistines, but King Abimelech himself averts disaster.他的妻子,他代表他的妹妹,是在該國瀕臨絕種的非利士人,但國王Abimelech自己避免災難。 In spite of the hostility of Abimelech's people, Isaac is fortunate in all his undertakings in that country, especially in digging wells.儘管敵對Abimelech的人,以撒是他的幸運,所有的承諾在該國,尤其是在打井。 God appears to him at Beer-sheba, encourages him, and promises him blessings and numerous descendants; and Abimelech enters into a covenant with him at the same place.上帝覺得在啤酒巴,鼓勵他,並許諾他的祝福和眾多的後裔;和Abimelech訂立盟約與他在同一地點。 Esau marries Canaanite women, to the regret of his parents (xxvi.).以掃娶迦南婦女,感到遺憾,他的父母( xxvi. ) 。 Rebekah persuades Jacob to dress himself as Esau, and thus obtain from his senile father the blessing intended for Esau (xxvii.). Rebekah說服雅各布打扮自己以掃,從而獲得從他父親的祝福老年打算以掃( xxvii. ) 。 To escape his brother's vengeance, Jacob is sent to relations in Haran, being charged by Isaac to find a wife there.為了逃避他哥哥的復仇,雅各布發送到關係的哈蘭,被控告的艾薩克找到妻子那裡。 On the way God appears to him at night, promising protection and aid for himself and the land for his numerous descendants (xxviii.).上帝的道路上似乎他在夜間,有希望的保護和援助,並為自己的土地,其眾多後裔( xxviii. ) 。 Arrived at Haran, Jacob hires himself to Laban, his mother's brother, on condition that, after having served for seven years as herdsman, he shall have for wife the younger daughter, Rachel, with whom he is in love.抵達哈蘭,雅各布僱用自己的班,他的母親的哥哥,但條件是,後擔任過七年的牧民,他的妻子應具有的小女兒,雷切爾,與他是在愛。 At the end of this period Laban gives him the elder daughter, Leah; Jacob therefore serves another seven years for Rachel, and after that six years more for cattle.在這一時期結束時拉班讓他老的女兒,莉婭;雅各布因此另一個七年的雷切爾,經過六年多的牛。 In the meantime Leah bears him Reuben, Simeon, Levi, and Judah; by Rachel's maid Bilhah he has Dan and Naphtali; by Zilpah, Leah's maid, Gad and Asher; then, by Leah again, Issachar, Zebulun, and Dinah; and finally, by Rachel, Joseph. He also acquires much wealth in flocks (xxix.-xxx.).在此期間他的魯本莉婭熊,西蒙,列維和猶太;的雷切爾的女僕Bilhah他Dan和拿弗;由Zilpah ,莉婭的侍女,蓋德和阿舍爾;然後,再由莉婭,薩迦, Zebulun和黛娜;和最後通過雷切爾,約瑟夫。他還獲得多少財富在雞群( xxix. -三十。 ) 。

In fear of Laban, Jacob flees with his family and all his possessions, but becomes reconciled with Laban, who overtakes him (xxxi.).在恐懼中的拉班,雅各逃離與他的家人和他的所有財產,但成為和解的拉班,誰超越他( xxxi. ) 。 On approaching his home he is in fear of Esau, to whom he sends presents; and with the worst apprehensions he turns at night to God in prayer.在接近他的家,他是在恐懼中的以掃,並向他發出提出;和最嚴重的憂慮,他輪流在夜間向上帝祈禱。 An angel of God appears to Jacob, is vanquished in wrestling, and announces to him that he shall bear the name "Israel," ie, "the combatant of God" (xxxii.).一個天使的上帝似乎雅各布,是戰敗國在摔跤,並宣布對他說,他應承擔的名稱是“以色列” ,即“上帝的戰鬥” ( xxxii. ) 。 The meeting with Esau proves a friendly one, and the brothers separate reconciled. Jacob settles at Shalem (xxxiii.).會見以掃證明友好和兄弟單獨和解。雅各布塞特爾斯在Shalem ( xxxiii. ) 。 His sons Simeon and Levi take bloody vengeance on the city of Shechem, whose prince has dishonored their sister Dinah (xxxiv.).他的兒子西蒙和Levi採取血腥報復城市的示劍,其王子拒付其妹妹黛娜( xxxiv. ) 。 Jacob moves to Beth-el, where God bestows upon him the promised name of "Israel," and repeats His other promises.雅各布舉措貝絲,薩爾瓦多,而上帝賦予他所承諾的名稱為“以色列” ,並重申他的其他承諾。 On the road from Beth-el Rachel gives birth to a son, Benjamin, and dies (xxxv.).的公路上貝絲,薩爾瓦多雷切爾生下一個兒子,本傑明和模具( xxxv. ) 。 A genealogy of Esau and the inhabitants and rulers of his country, Edom, is given in ch.阿家譜的以掃和居民和統治者,他的國家,以東,是在CH 。 xxxvi.三十六。

§ 8. Joseph, Jacob's favorite, is hated by his brothers on account of his dreams prognosticating his future dominion, and on the advice of Judah is secretly sold to a caravan of Ishmaelitic merchants going to Egypt. § 8 。約瑟夫,雅各最喜歡的,是討厭他的兄弟們考慮到他的夢想prognosticating他未來的統治,以及所提供的意見猶太秘密出售給車隊的Ishmaelitic商人前往埃及。 His brothers tell their father that a wild animal has devoured Joseph (xxxvii.).他的兄弟告訴他們的父親,一個野生動物已吞噬約瑟夫( xxxvii. ) 。 Joseph, carried to Egypt, is there sold as a slave to Potiphar, one of Pharaoh's officials.約瑟夫,對埃及進行,是否有出售的奴隸Potiphar之一,法老的官員。 He gains his master's confidence; but when the latter's wife, unable to seduce him, accuses him falsely, he is cast into prison (xxxix.).他獲得他的主人的信心;但是,當後者的妻子,無法勾引他,指責他的錯誤,他是演員關進監獄( xxxix. ) 。 Here he correctly interprets the dreams of two of his fellow prisoners, the king's butler and baker (xl.).在這裡,他的解釋是正確的夢想他的兩個同胞囚犯,國王的巴特勒和貝克( xl. ) 。 When Pharaoh is troubled by dreams that no one is able to interpret, the butler draws attention to Joseph.當法老是不安的夢想,沒有人能夠解釋,管家提請注意約瑟夫。 The latter is thereupon brought before Pharaoh, whose dreams he interprets to mean that seven years of abundance will be followed by seven years of famine.後者隨即提交法老,他的夢想,他解釋為意味著7年的豐富後,將7年的飢荒。 He advises the king to make provision accordingly, and is empowered to take the necessary steps, being appointed second in the kingdom.他建議國王作出規定,因此,並有權採取必要的步驟,被任命為第二次在英國。 Joseph marries Asenath, the daughter of the priest Poti-pherah, by whom he has two sons, Manasseh and Ephraim (xli.).約瑟夫結婚Asenath的女兒教士波季, pherah ,是誰,他有兩個兒子,瑪和埃弗拉伊姆( xli. ) 。

When the famine comes it is felt even in Canaan; and Jacob sends his sons to Egypt to buy corn.當飢荒是有人認為,即使在迦南;和他的兒子雅各布發送到埃及購買玉米。 The brothers appear before Joseph, who recognizes them, but does not discover himself.出庭的兄弟約瑟夫,誰認識他們,但沒有發現他。 After having proved them on this and on a second journey, and they having shown themselves so fearful and penitent that Judah even offers himself as slave, Joseph reveals his identity, forgives his brothers the wrong they did him, and promises to settle in Egypt both them and his father (xlii.-xlv.).後事實證明他們就這個問題和第二次旅程,他們表現出自己這樣的恐懼和懺悔的猶太甚至提供自己的奴隸,約瑟夫透露他的身份,原諒他的兄弟,他們沒有錯,他和承諾,以解決雙方在埃及他們和他的父親( xlii. -第四十五。 ) 。 Jacob brings his whole family, numbering 66 persons, to Egypt, this making, inclusive of Joseph and his sons and himself, 70 persons.雅各布帶來全家人數66人,埃及,這一決策,其中包括約瑟夫和他的兒子和他本人, 70人。 Pharaoh receives them amicably and assigns to them the land of Goshen (xlvi.-xlvii.).法老收到友好和分配給他們的土地上戈申( xlvi. -四十七。 ) 。 When Jacob feels the approach of death he sends for Joseph and his sons, and receives Ephraim and Manasseh among his own sons (xlviii.).當雅各布認為死刑的做法,他發出的約瑟夫和他的兒子,和以法蓮和瑪收到自己兒子之間( xlviii. ) 。 Then he calls his sons to his bedside and reveals their future to them (xlix.).然後,他要求他的兒子到他的床邊,揭示自己的未來向他們( xlix. ) 。 Jacob dies, and is solemnly interred in the family tomb at Machpelah. Joseph lives to see his great-grandchildren, and on his death-bed he exhorts his brethren, if God should remember them and lead them out of the country, to take his bones with them (1.).雅各布死亡,並鄭重interred在家庭墓Machpelah 。約瑟夫的生活,看看他的曾孫,以及關於他的死亡床,他敦促他的兄弟,如果上帝應該記住他們,並導致他們離開該國,並採取了骨頭與他們( 1 。 ) 。

§ 9. Aim of Work. § 9 。目的的工作。

In the choice, connection, and presentation of his material the narrator has followed certain principles incident to the purpose and scope of his work.在選擇,連接,並介紹他的材料敘述者遵循某些原則事件的目的和範圍的工作。 Although he adopts the universal view-point of history, beginning with the Creation and giving a review of the entire human race, he yet intends to deal particularly with Israel, the people subsequently chosen by God, and to give an account of its origin and of its election, which is based on its religious and moral character.雖然他採用了普遍的觀點的歷史,開始創建並審查了整個人類,他還打算處理特別是以色列,後來的人所選擇的上帝,並交代其來源和它的選舉,這是基於其宗教和道德品格。 His chief point of view, therefore, is that of narrator of tribal and religious history; and only the details that bear on this history are reported.他的主要觀點出發,因此,是敘述者的部落和宗教的歷史和細節,只承擔對這一歷史的報告。

§ 10. It is his primary intention to show that the people of Israel are descended in a direct line from Adam, the first man created by God, through legitimate marriages in conformity with Israelitish moral ideals, ie, monandric marriages. § 10 。這是他的主要意圖表明,以色列人民的後裔在直接從亞當,其中一人由上帝創造出來的,通過合法的婚姻符合Israelitish道德理想,即monandric婚姻。 Offshoots branch from this main line at central points represented by Adam, Noah, Shem, Eber, Abraham, and Isaac, though their subsequent legitimacy can not be guaranteed.分支處由這條主線,中央點為代表的亞當,挪亞,閃,韋伯,亞伯拉罕和以撒,但隨後將其合法性不能得到保證。 Linguistically the descent from the main line is always indicated by the word , vouching for the paternity; while descent in a branch line is indicated by .從語言的後裔主線始終是所顯示的文字,金幣的父親;同時後裔分支線所指出的。 This is the explanation of the interchange of these two words, a phenomenon which has never yet been correctly interpreted.這是解釋交換這兩個詞,這種現象從未尚未得到正確解釋。 The line branching off at any one central point is always fully treated before the next member of the main line is mentioned.該生產線分支在任何一個中心點總是充分治療在下次成員主線提到。 Only such matters are related in regard to the branch lines as are important for the history of humanity or that of Israel.只有這樣事項有關的關於支線作為重要的是人類歷史上,或以色列。 No fact is ever introduced merely on account of its historical or antiquarian value.事實是任何時候都沒有介紹只是考慮到其歷史或文物價值。 In the main line the interest is concentrated upon the promised, long-expected generations of Isaac-Jacob, his sons and grandsons-who safely pass through all dangers and tribulations, emphasis being laid on their religious and moral character.在這條主線的興趣集中的承諾,期待已久的後代以撒,雅各,他的兒子和孫子,誰所有安全通過危險和磨難,重點放在他們的宗教和道德品質。

§ 11. The events are related in definite chronological order, the chief dates being as follows: § 11 。相關的事件是在一定的時間順序排列,首席日期如下:

see table見表

The year of the Creation is the year 3949 before the common era. The ten generations before the Flood attain to ages varying between 777 years (Lamech) and 969 years (Methuselah), with the exception of Enoch (365 years).今年的創新是3949年之前,共同的時代。在10代之前,洪水達到年齡不等七七七年(拉麥)和969年(瑪土撒拉) ,除伊諾克( 365年) 。 Those of the ten generations after the Flood vary between 600 years (Shem) and 148 (Nahor).是10代,大洪水過後之間600年(閃)和148 ( Nahor ) 。 All the reasons for the details of this chronology have not yet been discovered.所有的原因,這個年代的細節還沒有被發現。 Oppert has declared (in "REJ" 1895, and in Chronology) that the figures are connected with ancient Babylonian chronological systems. Oppert宣布(在“ REJ ” 1895年,在年表) ,該數字與古巴比倫的時間系統。 The variations found in the Septuagint and in the Samaritan Pentateuch were introduced for certain purposes (see Jacob in "JQR" xii. 434 et seq.).變化中發現七十和撒瑪利亞五經介紹了為某些目的(見雅各布在“ JQR ”十二。 434起。 ) 。 The correctness of the Masoretic figures, however, is evident from the context.正確的馬所拉的數字,但是,很明顯從上下文。

§ 12. Anachronisms such as various critics allege are found in Genesis do not in reality exist; and their assumption is based on a misunderstanding of the historiographic principles of the book. § 12 。過時,如各種批評者們宣稱發現成因並不在現實中存在;和假設是基於一種誤解的史學原則的這本書。 Thus the history of a generation no longer of importance is closed and the death of its last member noted, although it may not be contemporaneous with the next succeeding generation, to which the attention is then exclusively directed.因此,歷史上的一代不再是封閉的重要性和死亡的最後一名成員指出,儘管它可能不是同時代的下一個成功的一代,對此的關注,然後專門針對。 This view explains the apparent contradictions between xi.這種觀點解釋之間顯而易見的矛盾十一。 32 and xi. 32十一。 26, xii. 26 ,十二。 4; also between xxv. 4 ;之間二十五。 7 and xxv. 7和25 。 26; xxi. 26 ;二十一。 5 and xxv. 5和25 。 20; xxxv. 20 ;三十五。 28 (Jacob was at that time 120 years old) and xlvii. 28 (雅各布在這個時間120歲)和四十七。 9; xxxvii. 9 ;三十七。 2, xli. 2 ,四十一。 46; etc. In ch. 46 ;等在CH 。 xxxiv.三十四。 Dinah is not six to seven years old, nor Simeon and Levi eleven and ten respectively, but (xxxv. 27, xxxvii. 1 et seq., xxxiii. 17) each is ten years older.黛娜不是6至7歲,也不西梅昂和Levi分別為11和10 ,但( xxxv. 27三十七。 1起。 ,三十三。 17 )每個十年以上。 The events in ch.該事件在CH 。 xxxviii.三十八。 do not cover twenty-three years-from the sale of Joseph in his seventeenth year to the arrival of Judah's grandsons in Egypt (xlvi. 12) in Joseph's fortieth year-but thirty-three years, as the words (elsewhere only in xxi. 22 and I Kings xi. 29) refer back in this case to xxxiii.不包括二三年,從銷售約瑟夫在他的17年的到來,猶太的孫子在埃及( xlvi. 12 )在約瑟夫的第四十個年頭,但三十三年,作為字(其他地方僅在二十一。 22日,我國王十一。 29 )是指在這種情況下,以三十三。 17. 17 。 The story is introduced at this point to provide a pause after ch.故事介紹了在這一點上,以提供一個暫停後總。 xxxvii.三十七。

§ 13. Nor are there any repetitions or unnecessary doublets. § 13 。也沒有重複或不必要聯。 If ch.如果總。 ii. were an account of the Creation differing from that found in ch.二。是到創作不同於發現在CH 。 i., nearly all the events would have been omitted; it is, however, the story in detail of the creation of man, introduced by a summary of what preceded.一,幾乎所有的事件會被忽略;但是,它的故事詳細的創建人,介紹了總結了前面。 Neither are there two accounts of the Flood in ch. vi.-ix., in which no detail is superfluous.無論是有兩個賬戶的洪水在CH 。 vi.-ix. ,其中沒有任何細節是多餘的。 The three accounts of the danger of Sarah and Rebekah, ch.這三個賬戶的危險薩拉和Rebekah ,甲烷。 xii., xx., and xxvi., are not repetitions, as the circumstances are different in each case; and ch.十二。 ,二十。 ,和二十六。 ,不重複,作為的情況都不一樣,每個案件;和CH 。 xxvi.二十六。 refers expressly to ch.指總明確。 xx.二十。 The account in xix.該帳戶在十九。 29 of the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah and the rescue of Lot, is but a summary introducing the story that follows, which would not be comprehensible without xix. 29日的破壞所多瑪和蛾摩拉和挽救很多,只是簡要介紹如下的故事,而不會被理解不十九。 14, 23, 28. 14 , 23 , 28 。 Repeated references to the same place (Beth-el, xxviii. 19, xxxv. 15), or renewed attempts to explain the same name (Beer-sheba, xxi. 31, xxvi. 33; comp. xxx. 20 et seq.), or several names for the same person (xxvi. 34, xxvii. 46-xxxvi. 2 for Esau's wives) are not contradictions.反复引用同一地點(貝斯,薩爾瓦多,二十八。 19三十五。 15 ) ,或試圖重新解釋相同的名稱(啤酒巴, 21 。 31 , 26 。 33 ;補償。三十。 20起。 ) ,或幾個名字是同一個人( xxvi. 34 ,二十七。 46 - 36 。 2 ,以掃的妻子)不矛盾。 The change of Jacob's name into that of "Israel" is not narrated twice; for xxxii. 29 contains only the announcement by the messenger of God.的變化雅各布的名稱,將是“以色列”不是敘述的兩倍;為三十二。 29只包含宣布上帝的使者。

Apparently no exegete has noted that is a parenthesis often found in prophetic speeches ("Not Jacob-thus it will be said [ie, in xxxv. 10]-shall be thy name"); is an impossible construction in Hebrew; xxxii.顯然沒有exegete指出,是一個括號中時常發現先知演講( “不雅各布,因此這將是說[即三十五。 10 ] ,應你的名字” ) ;是不可能建設希伯來語;三十二。 4 et seq. 4起。 and xxxiii.和三十三。 1 et seq. 1起。 do not prove, contrary to xxxvi.沒有證明,違反三十六。 6-7, that Esau was living at Seir before Jacob's return. 6月7日,即以掃是生活在Seir前雅各布的回報。 The account of the sale of Joseph as found in xxxvii.帳戶買賣約瑟夫的發現三十七。 1-25, 28, 29-36; xl. 1月25日, 28 , 29-36 ;儀。 1 et seq. 1起。 does not contradict xxxvii.並不矛盾三十七。 25-27, 28; xxxix. 25日至27日, 28日;三十九。 ; forthe Midianites were the middlemen between the brothers and the Ishmaelites, on the one hand, and between the latter and Potiphar, on the other. ; forthe米甸人是兄弟之間的中間人和Ishmaelites ,一方面之間,以及後者與Potiphar問題。 Potiphar is a different person from the overseer of the prison; and Joseph could very well say that he had been stolen, ie, that he had been put out of the way (xl. 15). Potiphar是一個不同的人從監督員的監獄;和約瑟夫很可能會說,他曾被盜,即他已被撲滅的方式( xl. 15 ) 。

§ 14. It is the purpose of the book, on its religious as well as its historic side, to portray the relation of God to humanity and the behavior of the latter toward Him; His gracious guidance of the history of the Patriarchs, and the promises given to them; their faith in Him in spite of all dangers, tribulations, and temptations; and, finally, the religious and moral contrasts with Hamitic (Egyptian and Canaanite) behavior. § 14 。它的目的是這本書,在其宗教以及歷史方面,把上帝的關係和對人類的行為,後者對他,他的親切指導的歷史,始祖,和承諾給他們,他們的信念,他不顧一切危險,磨難和誘惑;最後,宗教和道德,與含米特(埃及和迦南)的行為。

§ 15. Religion of Genesis. § 15 。宗教的起源。

Being a historical narrative, no formal explanations of its religious views are found in Genesis; but the stories it contains are founded on such views, and the author furthermore looks upon history as a means of teaching religion.作為一個歷史敘事,沒有正式解釋其宗教觀點是在成因;故事,但它包含有這些意見的基礎上,作者還期待對歷史的一種手段宗教課程。 He is a historian only in virtue of being a theologian.他是一位歷史學家只能在憑藉一個神學。 He inculcates religious doctrines in the form of stories.他灌輸宗教教義的形式,故事。 Instead of propounding a system he describes the religious life.不是propounding他介紹了一個系統的宗教生活。 The book therefore contains an inexhaustible fund of ideas.因此,這本書包含了不竭的基金的想法。 The most important among these, regarding God, the Creation, humanity, and Israel's Patriarchs, may be mentioned here.最重要的,其中關於上帝創造,人類,和以色列的始祖,可以在這裡提及。

§ 16. There is only one God, who has created heaven and earth (that is, the world), and has called all objects and living beings into existence by His word. § 16 。世界上只有一個上帝,誰創造了天地(即世界) ,並呼籲所有物體和生物的存在了自己的諾言。 The most important point of the theology of Genesis, after this fundamental fact, is the intentional variation in the name of God.最重要的一點神學的成因,在這一基本事實,是蓄意的變化以真主的名義。 It is the most striking point of the book that the same God is now called "Elohim" and now "Yhwh."這是最引人注目的點,這本書,同樣的上帝,現在所謂的“耶洛因” ,現在“ Yhwh 。 ” In this variation is found the key to the whole book and even to the whole Pentateuch.在發現這種變化的關鍵,整本書,甚至對整個摩西五。 It is not accidental; nor are the names used indifferently by the author, though the principle he follows can not be reduced to a simple formula, nor the special intention in each case be made evident.這不是偶然,也不是用冷淡的名字由作者,但他遵循的原則不能被減少到一個簡單的公式,也沒有特別打算在每一種情況下取得明顯的。

§ 17. "Yhwh" is the proper name of God (= "the Almighty"; see Ex. iii. 12 et seq., vi. 2), used wherever the personality of God is to be emphasized. § 17 。 “ Yhwh ”是適當的名稱,神( = “萬能的” ,見惠。三。 12起。 ,六。 2 ) ,用於地方的個性上帝是加以強調。 Hence only such expressions are used in connection with "Yhwh" as convey the impression of personality, ie, anthropomorphisms.因此,只有這樣的表達是用來連接“ Yhwh ”作為傳達的印象是個性,即anthropomorphisms 。 Eyes, ears, nose, mouth, face, hand, heart are ascribed only to "Yhwh," never to "Elohim."眼睛,耳朵,鼻子,嘴,臉,手,心是認定的唯一的“ Yhwh , ”永遠“耶洛因。 ” These anthropomorphisms are used merely to suggest the personal life and activity of God, and are not literal personifications, as is conclusively proved by the fact that phrases which would be actual anthropomorphisms-eg, "God sees with His eyes"; "He hears with His ears"; "one sees God's face" ("head," "body," etc.)-never occur.這些anthropomorphisms使用只是為了表明個人生活和活動的上帝,而不是字面personifications ,這是確鑿的事實證明了這一詞組將實際anthropomorphisms ,例如, “上帝將與他的眼睛” , “他聽到了他的耳朵“ , ”人們看到上帝的臉“ ( ”頭“ , ”身體“ ,等等) ,永遠不會發生。 The expression "Yhwh's eyes" indicates divine knowledge of what may be seen through personal apperception; "Yhwh's ears," what may be heard; = "God's anger" indicates the reaction of God's moral nature against evil; "Yhwh's mouth" indicates the utterances of the God who speaks personally; "Yhwh's face" indicates immediate personal intercourse with the God who is felt to be present; "Yhwh's hand" indicates His sensible manifestations of power; "Yhwh's heart" indicates His thoughts and designs.表達“ Yhwh的眼睛”表示什麼神聖的知識可以看出,通過個人領悟; “ Yhwh的耳朵, ”可能是聽到; = “上帝的憤怒”的反應,表明上帝的道德性質與邪惡“ ; Yhwh的嘴”的言論表明,上帝誰說話人; “ Yhwh的臉”表示立即個人交往與上帝誰是認為是本; “ Yhwh的手”表明他的理智的表現力; “ Yhwh的心”表明他的想法和設計。 The phrase "Yhwh, a personal God," characterizes fully the use of this name. “一語Yhwh ,個人上帝”的特點,充分利用這一名稱。 A person or a nation can have personal relations with the personal Yhwh only; and only He can plan and guide the fate of either with a personal interest.一個人或一個國家可以有個人的關係,個人Yhwh只,只有他可以計劃和指導的命運,無論是個人利益。 Yhwh is the God of history and of the education of the human race.耶和華是上帝的歷史和教育的人類。 Only Yhwh can exact a positive attitude toward Himself, and make demands upon man that are adequate, ie, moral: Yhwh is the God of positive morality.只有Yhwh可以確切持積極態度自己,並要求有足夠的人,即道德: Yhwh是上帝的積極道德。 A personal, inner life longing for expression can be organized into definite form and find response only if Yhwh be a personal, living God.個人,內心生活嚮往的表達可以組織成明確的形式,尋找對策,只有Yhwh是個人,活著的上帝。 Yhwh is the God of ritual, worship, aspiration, and love.耶和華是神的祭祀,祈禱,願望,和愛。

§ 18. "Elohim" is an appellative, and the general name for the divinity, the superhuman, extramundane being, whose existence is felt by all men-a being that possesses intelligence and will, exists in the world and beyond human power, and is the final cause of all that exists and happens. § 18 。 “耶洛因”是一個通稱,和一般的神的名字,超人, extramundane目前,它的存在感到所有的人一被,擁有智慧和意願,存在於世界和超越人類力量,最後一個原因是所有存在和發生。 "Yhwh" is concrete; "Elohim" is abstract. “ Yhwh ”是混凝土; “耶洛因”是抽象的。 "Yhwh" is the special," Elohim" the general, God. “ Yhwh ”是特殊的, “耶洛因”一般,上帝。 "Yhwh" is personal; "Elohim." “ Yhwh ”是個人; “耶洛因。 ” impersonal.非人格化。 Yet there is no other Elohim but Yhwh, who is "ha-Elohim" (the Elohim).然而,沒有任何其他耶洛因,但Yhwh ,誰是“夏耶洛因” (在耶洛因) 。

The following points may be observed in particular:以下各點可以看出,特別是:

(a) "Elohim," as genitive of a person, indicates that the latter has superhuman relations (xxiii. 6; similarly of an object, xxviii. 17, 22). (一) “耶洛因, ”作為一個人的所有格,表明後者超人關係( xxiii. 6 ;同樣的對象,二十八。 17日, 22日) 。

(b) It also indicates ideal humanity (xxxiii. 10; comp. xxxii. 29). ( b )它也表明理想的人類( xxxiii. 10 ;補償。三十二。 29 ) 。

(c) "Elohim" expresses the fate imposed by a higher power. (三) “耶洛因”表示的命運所強加更高的權力。 The statement "A person is prosperous" is paraphrased by "Elohim is with him," which is distinctly different from "Yhwh is with him."聲明“一個人的繁榮”是轉述的“耶洛因是他的, ”這是明顯不同於“ Yhwh是他。 ” While the former indicates objectively a person's prosperity with regard to a single event, the latter expresses the higher intentions and consecutive plans of the personal God in regard to the person in question.雖然前者表示客觀一個人的繁榮方面的一個單獨的事件,後者表達了更高的意圖和計劃的連續的個人上帝關於人的問題。 Abimelech says to Abraham, "Elohim is with thee in all that thou doest" (xxi. 22), while he says to Isaac, "Yhwh is with thee," and "thou art now the blessed of Yhwh" (xxvi. 28, 29). Abimelech亞伯拉罕說: “耶洛因是跟你說,你在所有doest ” ( xxi. 22 ) ,而他說,以艾薩克, “ Yhwh是你”和“你是現在的得天獨厚的Yhwh ” ( xxvi. 28 29 ) 。 For Abimelech had at first tried in vain to injure Isaac; but later he convinced himself () that evidently () it was the Yhwh worshiped by Isaac that designedly protected and blessed the latter.為Abimelech最初妄圖傷害艾薩克;但後來,他相信自己( ) ,顯然( ) ,這是Yhwh供奉艾薩認為故意保護和祝福後者。 Again, in xxi.再次,在二十一。 20: "And Elohim was with the lad"; for Ishmael did not belong to the chosen line, concerning which God had special plans. 20 : “與耶洛因是與法援署” ;為伊斯梅爾不屬於所選擇的路線,關於上帝的特別計劃。 Yhwh, however, is always with Israel and its heroes (xxvi. 3, 28; xxviii. 15 [xxxii. 10, 13]; xlvi. 4; Ex. iii. 12; Num. xxiii. 21; Deut. ii. 7; xx. 1; xxxi. 8, 23; Josh. i. 5, 9, 17; iii. 7; Judges ii. 18; vi. 12, 16; I Sam. iii. 19; xvi. 18; xviii. 12, 14; xx. 13; II Sam. vii. 3, v. 10; I Kings i. 37; II Kings xviii. 7).耶和華,然而,始終是與以色列和它的英雄( xxvi. 3 , 28 ;二十八。 15 [三十二。 10 , 13 ] ;四十六。 4 ;惠。三。 12 ;序號。二十三。 21 ; Deut 。二。 7 ;二十。 1 ;三十一。 8日, 23日;喬希。島5日, 9日, 17日;三。 7 ;法官二。 18 ;六。 12日, 16日,我三。三。 19 ;十六。 18 ;十八。 12 , 14 ;二十。 13 ;二山姆。七。三,五10 ;王一37 ;二世國王十八。 7 ) 。 Particularly instructive is Jacob's vow, xxviii.特別是啟發是雅各布的誓言,二十八。 20 et seq., "If Elohim will be with me . . . then shall Yhwh be my Elohim." 20起。 “如果耶洛因將與我。 。 。然後應Yhwh是我耶洛因。 ” Adverse fate especially is, out of fear, euphemistically ascribed to the general Elohim, the impersonal God, rather than to Yhwh xlii.尤其是不良的命運,出於恐懼,委婉地歸因於一般耶洛因,但非上帝,而不是Yhwh四十二。 28). 28 ) 。

(d) As "Elohim" designates the universal ruler of the world, that term is used in ch. ( d )作為“耶洛因”指定普遍統治者的世界,這個詞是用來在CH 。 i.字母i. in the story of the Creation; but in order to designate this Elohim as the true God the word "Yhwh" is always addedin the following chapters (ii., iii.).在這個故事的創作,但為了這耶洛因指定的真神中的“ Yhwh ”始終是addedin下面的章節(白介素,三。 ) 。 (e) In so far as man feels himself dependent upon Elohim, whom he needs, the latter becomes his Elohim. ( e )在迄今為止的男子認為自己依賴耶洛因,他的需求,後者成為他的耶洛因。 As the term "Elohim" includes the idea of beneficent power, this relation becomes, on the part of God, that of the omnipotent patron, and, on the part of man, that of the protégé, the one who needs protection and offers respect and obedience (xvii. 7, xxviii. 22).由於“耶洛因”包括思想善行權力,這種關係變得對那一部分的上帝,是萬能的贊助,以及對部分人,即protégé ,誰需要提供保護和尊重服從( xvii. 7二十八。 22 ) 。 The same interpretation applies to "Elohim" followed by the genitive of a person.同樣的解釋適用於“耶洛因” ,接著所有格一個人。 (f) Elohim is the religious meeting-ground between the believer in Yhwh and persons of a different faith (xiv. 22; xx. 13; xxi. 23; xxxix. 9; xli. 16, 25, 28, 32, 38). ( F )的耶洛因是宗教上地面之間的信徒在Yhwh和人不同的信仰( xiv. 22 ;二十。 13 ; 21 。 23 ;三十九。 9 ;四十一。 16 , 25 , 28 , 32 , 38 ) 。 (g) "Elohim" is the appellation of God used in connection with the person who is inclined toward Yhwh, but whose faith is not yet fully developed; for the one who is on the way to religion, as Melchizedek (ch. xiv.) and Abraham's servant (ch. xxiv.; comp. Jethro in Exodus and Balaam in Numbers; see §§ 28, 31). ( g )項: “耶洛因”是上帝的稱謂用在與人誰是傾向於Yhwh ,但他們的信仰是尚未充分發展;為一個誰是道路上的宗教,因為麥基洗德(章十四。 )和亞伯拉罕的僕人(章二十四。 ;補償。 Jethro在流亡和巴蘭的數量;見§ § 28 , 31 ) 。

(h) "Elohim" represents God for those whose moral perception has been blunted by sin (iii. 3, 5); from the mouths of the serpent and the woman instead of "Jahweh" is heard "Elohim"; they desire to change the idea of a living God, who says, "Thou shalt," into a blurred concept of an impersonal and indefinite God. (高) “耶洛因”代表上帝的那些人的道德觀念已被削弱的罪惡( iii. 3 , 5 ) ;從口蛇和女人不是“ Jahweh ”是聽到“耶洛因” ,他們希望改變的想法,活著的上帝,誰說: “你應該”成為一個模糊的概念,客觀和無限期上帝。 But the God who pronounces judgment is Yhwh (ch. ii., iii.; on Cain, ch. iv.; in connection with the Flood, vi. 3-8; the tower of Babel, xi. 5 et seq.; Sodom and Gomorrah, xviii. 19; Er and Onan, xxxviii. 7, 10). (i) Although the personality of Elohim is indistinct, he yet is felt to be a moral power making moral demands.但是,上帝是誰宣布判決Yhwh (章二。三。 ;對該隱,甲烷。四。 ;與水災,六。 3-8 ;巴別通天塔,十一。 5起。 ;所多瑪和蛾摩拉,十八。 19 ; ER和Onan ,三十八。 7日, 10日) 。 ( i )雖然個性的耶洛因是模糊的,他還覺得是一種道義上的權力作出道義上的要求。 The moral obligation toward him is the negative virtue of the "fear of God," the fear of murder (xx. 11), unchastity (xxxix. 9), injustice (xlii. 18), and renunciation (xxii. 12).在道義上有義務對他是不利憑藉“上帝的恐懼” ,擔心謀殺( xx. 11 ) ,不貞( xxxix. 9 ) ,不公正( xlii. 18 ) ,和放棄( xxii. 12 ) 。 (k) "Elohim" also means the appearance of the Deity, and hence may be synonymous with "mal'ak." (金) “耶洛因”也意味著出現了神,因此,可等同於“ mal'ak 。 ” It may also designate an object of the ritual representing or symbolizing the Deity (xxxv. 2).它還可以指定一個對象的儀式代表或象徵著神( xxxv. 2 ) 。

§ 19. "Elohim" is more explicitly defined by the article; "ha-Elohim," ie, "the Elohim" or "of the Elohim," is sometimes used to identify an "Elohim" previously mentioned (xvii. 18; comp. verse 17; xx. 6, 17; comp. verse 3). § 19 。 “耶洛因”是更明確界定的文章; “夏耶洛因” ,即“在耶洛因”或“的耶洛因” ,有時是用於識別“耶洛因”前面提到的( xvii. 18 ;補償。詩句17 ;二十。 6日, 17日;補償。詩3 ) 。 The single, definite, previously mentioned appearance of an Elohim is called "ha-Elohim," being as such synonymous with "Mal'ak Yhwh" (xxii. 1, 3, 9, 11, 15), both speaking for Yhwh (verse 16; comp. xlviii. 15).單一,明確,出現了前面提到的耶洛因被稱為“夏耶洛因” ,正因為這種等同於“ Mal'ak Yhwh ” ( xxii. 1 , 3 , 9 , 11 , 15 ) ,這兩個發言Yhwh (詩16 ;補償。四十八。 15 ) 。 "Ha-Elohim," when derived from "Elohim," is a preparation for "Yhwh"; when derived from "Yhwh" it is a weakening of the idea of God (see §§ 31 et seq.). “夏耶洛因, ”當來自“耶洛因” ,是為籌備“ Yhwh ” ;當來自“ Yhwh ”這是一個削弱的想法上帝(見§ § 31起。 ) 。 Although these examples do not exhaust the different uses of these two names, they are sufficient to show the author's intentions.雖然這些例子不排氣的不同用途這兩個名字,它們足以顯示作者的意圖。

§ 20. A rare term for "God" is "El Shaddai" (xvii. 1, xxviii. 3, xxxv. 11, xliii. 13, xlviii. 13; "Shaddai" in xlix. 25). § 20 。罕見的任期為“上帝”是“薩爾瓦多代” ( xvii. 1 ,二十八。 3 ,三十五。 11四十三。 13四十八。 13 ; “代”在xlix 。 25 ) 。 The usual translation and interpretation, "Almighty," is entirely unsupported.通常的筆譯和口譯, “萬能的” ,完全是毫無根據。 The term, when closely examined, means "the God of faith," ie, the God who faithfully fulfils His promises.這個詞時,仔細檢查,意思是“上帝的信仰” ,即上帝誰忠實履行自己的諾言。 Perhaps it also means a God of love who is inclined to show abundant love.也許這也意味著上帝的愛誰是傾向於表現出豐富的愛。

§ 21. God as a personal being is not only referred to in anthropomorphistic and anthropopathic terms, but He also appears to man and speaks with him. § 21 。上帝作為個人而不僅是中提到anthropomorphistic和擬人的條款,但他似乎還男子和他說話。 Thus He speaks with Adam and Eve, Cain, Noah, Abraham, Hagar, Abimelech, Isaac, Jacob, and Laban.因此,他講的亞當和夏娃,該隱,諾亞,亞伯拉罕,黑格, Abimelech ,以撒,雅各,和拉班。 But He appears only from the time of Abraham, and in different ways.但他似乎只能從時間亞伯拉罕,並以不同的方式。 An Elohim "appears" to Abimelech and Laban in a dream at night (xx. 3, xxxi. 24); a mal'ak Yhwh appears to Hagar (xvi. 7 et seq.), being called in verse 13 simply "Yhwh."一個耶洛因“似乎” ,以Abimelech和拉班在夢中在夜間( xx. 3 ,三十一。 24 ) ; 1 mal'ak Yhwh似乎黑格( xvi. 7起。 ) ,被稱為詩13只“ Yhwh 。 “ Yhwh appears to Abram (xii. 7, xv. 1); in a vision (xii. 1, 7) apparently accompanied by darkness, a pillar of smoke, and fire; in xvii.耶和華似乎艾布拉姆( xii. 7十五。 1 ) ;在遠景( xii. 1日, 7日)顯然伴隨黑暗,一個支柱煙霧,火災;在十七。 Yhwh, who is subsequently called "Elohim" (verses 9, 15, 19), appears, and then ascends (verse 22); in xviii.耶和華,誰是後來被稱為“耶洛因” (詩9日, 15日, 19 ) ,看來,然後上升(詩22 ) ;在十八。 Yhwh appears in the form of three men who visit Abraham, but these speak as one Yhwh in verses 13, 17, 20, 26, and 33, who then leaves, while the two messengers go to Sodom.耶和華的形式出現的三名男子誰訪問亞伯拉罕,但這些發言的一個Yhwh在詩句13 , 17 , 20 , 26 , 33 ,誰然後離開,而兩名信使前往所多瑪。 Yhwh appears to Isaac on a certain day (xxvi. 2), and again that night (verse 24). Jacob is addressed in a dream by Yhwh (xxviii. 12 et seq.).耶和華似乎艾薩克某一天( xxvi. 2 ) ,並再次晚上(詩24 ) 。雅各布是解決一個夢想的Yhwh ( xxviii. 12起。 ) 。 In xxxi. 3 Yhwh speaks to Jacob; Jacob says (verse 11) that a mal'ak of Elohim appeared to him in a dream.在三十一。 3 Yhwh說話雅各布;雅各布說(詩11 ) ,一個mal'ak的耶洛因出現給他的一個夢想。 In xxxv.在三十五。 9 Elohim again appears to him, in reference to the nocturnal encounter with a "man" (xxxii. 14 et seq.), and ascends (xxxv. 13). 9耶洛因再次出現,他在提到夜間遇到的“人” ( xxxii. 14起。 )以及上升( xxxv. 13 ) 。 In xlvi.在四十六。 2 Elohim speaks to him in a vision of the night. 2耶洛因在談到他的遠見深夜。

Hence, the appearance of God means either a dream-vision, or the appearance of a messenger sent by God, who speaks in His name, and may therefore himself be called "Elohim of Yhwh."因此,出現了上帝是指一個夢想,遠見,或出現了上帝派來的使者,誰講了他的名字,並可能因此他被稱為“耶洛因的Yhwh 。 ”

§ 22. "Mal'ak of God" signifies, in the first place, the fortunate disposition of circumstances (xxiv. 7, 40; comp. xlviii. 16), in which case it is parallel to "ha-Elohim," the divine guidance of human life; more often, however, it denotes the "angels" ("mal'akim"), messengers of God in human shape who carry His behests to men and who seem to enter and leave heaven through a gate (xxviii. 11); eg, "Yhwh's messenger" (xvi. 7, 11; xxii. 11, 15); "Elohim's messenger" (xxi. 17; in the plural, xix. 1, 15; xxviii. 12; xxxii. 2); or "ha-Elohim's messenger" (xxxi. 11). § 22 。 “ Mal'ak上帝”意味著,擺在首位,幸運的處置情況( xxiv. 7 , 40 ;補償。四十八。 16 ) ,在這種情況下,它是平行於“夏耶洛因, ”在神聖的指導人類生命;更頻繁,但是,它是指“天使” ( “ mal'akim ” ) ,上帝的使者在人類形狀誰背著他的遺志,以男性和誰似乎進入和離開天堂通過一個門(二十八。 11 ) ;例如, “ Yhwh的使者” ( xvi. 7日, 11日; 22 。 11 , 15 ) ; “耶洛因的使者” ( xxi. 17 ;中使用複數,十九。 1日, 15日;二十八。 12 ;三十二。 2 ) ;或“夏耶洛因的使者” ( xxxi. 11 ) 。 The "man" who wrestled with Jacob likewise seems to have been a mal'ak (xxxii. 25, 29, 31), and the men whom Abraham entertained and who saved Lot were also mal'akim (xviii., xix.). “人”是誰按倒與雅各布同樣上演了一個mal'ak ( xxxii. 25日, 29日, 31日)和男子亞伯拉罕其中受理,誰保存地段也mal'akim ( xviii. ,十九。 ) 。 According to the popular belief, it is disastrous to meet them (xvi. 13, xxxii. 31).據普遍認為,這是災難性的,以滿足他們( xvi. 13三十二。 31 ) 。 On this point, more than on any other, the author seems to have followed popular ideas.在這一點上,超過任何其他的作者似乎其次受歡迎的想法。

§ 23. It appears from the foregoing that the conception of God found in Genesis is throughout a practical, religious one. § 23 。從上述的概念中發現上帝成因是整個實際,宗教之一。 God is treated exclusively with reference to His dealings with the world and with man, and to the interest that He takes in man's fate and behavior. He guides, educates, and punishes.上帝是處理專門提及他打交道,並與世界上的人,和他的興趣,需要在人的命運和行為。他指導,教育和處罰。 He assigns to the first of mankind a habitation in Eden, sets them a task, and commands them not to do a certain thing.指派給他的第一個人類居住的伊甸園,樹立他們的任務,並命令他們不要做某些事情。 When they break this command He punishes them; but even after that He cares for them.當他們打破這一命令他懲罰他們;但即使在此之後,他關心他們。 Although punishing the murderer Cain, He affords him protection; the cruelties and unnatural sins of the generation of the Flood arouse His sorrow and anger; He humiliates the pride of the men who are planning to build a tower that shall reach to heaven; He utterly destroys with fire and brimstone the sinful generation of Sodom and Gomorrah.雖然懲罰兇手該隱,他讓他的保護;的殘酷和不自然的罪孽產生洪水引起他的悲痛和憤怒;他侮辱的驕傲男子誰正計劃建立一個塔,應達到上天堂;他完全破壞防火和硫磺的罪孽深重一代所多瑪和蛾摩拉。 The punishments are either the natural consequences of sin-the first of mankind haverobbed the earth, which had willingly offered the fruit of its trees, hence it is cursed and paralyzed, and can no longer give its fruit freely, so long as Adam is living; Eve has succumbed to desire, hence she has become the slave of desire; Cain has defiled the earth by murder, hence he has deprived it of its strength-or they correspond exactly to the sins; eg, men build a tower in order to remain united, hence they are dispersed; Jacob wishes to rule his brother, therefore he must humiliate himself before that brother; he deceives, and is deceived in return; he dresses up in a goatskin in order to obtain a blessing fraudulently, therefore he is terribly deceived and plunged in sorrow through a goatskin; Judah advises the sale of Joseph as a slave, therefore he himself is forced to offer himself as a slave.要么處罰的自然後果新安第一haverobbed人類的地球,它願意提供的成果,它的樹木,因此,詛咒和癱瘓狀態,並且可以不再給予其果實自由,只要亞當生活;除夕已屈服於願望,因此,她已成為奴隸的願望;該隱已經玷污地球的謀殺,因此他已失去了它的力量,或者完全相符的罪孽;例如,男人建立一個塔,以保持團結,因此,它們是分散的;雅各布希望統治他的弟弟,因此他必須在此之前,羞辱自己的弟弟,他欺騙,是欺騙,以換取他打扮的羊皮,以便獲得祝福欺詐,因此,他是可怕的欺騙,陷入悲痛通過羊皮;猶太建議出售約瑟夫作為奴隸,因此,他本人被迫提供自己的奴隸。

God, on the other hand, is pleased with the pious, with Enoch and Noah, and especially with Abraham's unshakable faith (xv. 6); his righteousness and justice, which he recommends to his children and household (xviii. 19); his implicit obedience, which is ready to make the supreme sacrifice (xxii. 12, 16).上帝,另一方面,感到高興的是虔誠的,與伊諾克和諾亞,特別是與亞伯拉罕的堅定信念( xv. 6 ) ;他的正義和公正的,他建議他的孩子和家庭( xviii. 19條) ;他隱式的服從,這是準備作出最大犧牲( xxii. 12日, 16日) 。 For Abraham's sake God saves Lot (xix. 19); blesses Abraham's son Isaac (xxvi. 5), his children, and his children's children; protects them through all dangers; prevents others from doing evil to them (xii. 17, xiv., xv., xx. 3, xxvi., xxxi. 24); and leads them in a marvelous manner. He gives commands to men, and binds them to Himself by covenants and promises.為亞伯拉罕的上帝為了節省地段( xix. 19 ) ;祝福亞伯拉罕的兒子以撒( xxvi. 5 ) ,他的孩子們,和他的孩子的孩子;保護他們的所有危險;阻止他人作惡他們( xii. 17日,十四。 ,十五。 , XX元。 3 ,二十六。 ,三十一。 24 ) ;並導致他們在一個奇妙的方式進行。他給命令男人,並結合他們自己的公約和承諾。 They are the objects of His designs, as they are His work.他們是他的設計對象,因為它們是他的工作。

§ 24. The Creation. § 24 。創作。

The entire universe is the work of God; this proposition is the necessary consequence of the idea of God as found in Genesis and the Pentateuch and in the whole Bible generally.整個宇宙是上帝的工作,這是必要的命題後果的想法中找到神成因和摩西五和整個聖經一般。 From this arises doubtless the author's belief that God created the world out of nothing.從出現這種情況無疑作者認為,上帝創造了世界無中生有。 He does not say how this primal act of creation was accomplished.他沒有說明這一原始行為創造完成。 In the beginning the earth was a desolate watery chaos ("tohu wa bohu"), over which the spirit of God brooded, and which God divided into heaven and earth and arranged and peopled in six days.在開始時,地球是一個荒涼的水瀉混亂( “ tohu佤博湖” ) ,對其中的精神,上帝brooded ,並上帝分為天地,這裡和安排,並在6天。 The living beings are created in an orderly sequence, proceeding from the inorganic to the organic, from the incomplete to the complete, man being the crown.生活都是建立在一個有序的序列,從無機到有機,從不完善到完善,男子冠。 In the beginning God creates light together with time and the day.在一開始上帝創造了光與時間和日期。 The outer firmament separates the waters above and below it; then when the lower waters recede the land appears; the earth produces grass and trees; and plants and animals are created, each "after its kind," and endowed with the faculty of propagating within their kind in their respective elements.分開外蒼穹水域它上面和下面,然後在較低的水域出現消退的土地;地球產生基層和樹木和植物和動物產生,每個“後,客氣” ,並賦予學部的宣傳內其種類在各自的要素。 Every organic being, therefore, is endowed with a nature of its own, which the Creator intends it to keep by pairing only with its own kind.每一個有機的,因此,被賦予了其自身的性質,而它的創造者打算繼續配對只有通過自己的實物。 The lights that God has fixed in the firmament serve to separate the day from the night; they shall be for "signs, periods, seasons, and years," and shall give light to the earth.燈光上帝固定在蒼穹服務分開每天晚上,他們應為“標誌,時間,季節和年” ,並應根據地球。 The sun is the greater light, that rules the day; the moon is the lesser light, that rules the night.太陽是更大的光,這一天的規則;月亮是較低輕,這條深夜。

§ 25. The Creation is, in the judgment of God, good in particular, and very good in general, ie, fit for life, commensurate to its purpose, salutary, harmonic, and pleasing. § 25 。創新是,在上帝的判決,特別是良好的,而且非常好的一般,即適合於生活,其目的相稱的,有益的,諧波,和愉悅。 The book expresses an optimistic satisfaction and pleasure in the world, a lively veneration for God's arrangements and the peculiar dignity of each being as determined by God.這本書表達了樂觀的滿意和高興地在世界上了生動的崇拜上帝的安排,以及獨特的尊嚴,每個所確定的上帝。 The simplicity, sublimity, depth, and moral grandeur of this story of the Creation and its superiority to every other story dealing with the subject are universally recognized.簡單,崇高,深度,和道義上的宏偉這個故事的創作和其他優勢,每一個故事處理該問題的公認。

§ 26. Humanity. § 26 。人類。

Man, the crown of Creation, as a pair including man and woman, has been made in God's image.男子,官方的創作,作為一個對包括男人和女人,已經取得了上帝的形象。 God forms the first man, Adam, out of earth ("adamah").上帝的第一人,亞當,在地球( “ adamah ” ) 。 This indicates his relation to it in a manner that is fundamental for many later laws.這表明他與它的方式是為許多後來的基本法律。 Man is a child of the earth, from which he has been taken, and to which he shall return.人是一個孩子的地球,而他已經採取和他應返回。 It possesses for him a certain moral grandeur: he serves it; it does not serve him.它具有一定的對他的道德宏偉:他服務,而是它不符合他。 He must include God's creatures in the respect that it demands in general, by not exploiting them for his own selfish uses.他必須包括天主所創造的尊重,它的要求一般情況下,不利用它們為自己的自私的用途。 Unlawful robbery of its gifts (as in paradise), murder, and unchastity anger it, paralyze its power and delight in producing, and defile it.非法搶劫的禮品(如在天堂) ,謀殺,和它不貞潔憤怒,癱瘓其權力和喜悅的生產,並弄髒它。 God breathed the breath of life into the nostrils of man, whom He formed out of earth.上帝的呼吸呼吸進入鼻孔生命的人,他成立了地球。 Therefore that part of him that is contrasted with his corporeal nature or supplements it-his life, soul, spirit, and reason-is not, as with the animals, of earthly origin, existing in consequence of the body, but is of divine, heavenly origin.因此,這一部分的他,是他的肉體的對比性或補充它,他的生命,靈魂,精神和理性,是不是,與動物,人世間出身,因此現有的機構,而是神,天上的原產地。 Man is "toledot" (ii. 4) of heaven and earth. The creation of man also is good, in the judgment of God; the book, therefore, is cognizant of nothing that is naturally evil, within man or outside of him.人是“ toledot ” (白介素4 )的天地。創建人也很好,在上帝的判決;這本書,因此,認識到沒有任何自然是邪惡的,在外面的人或他。 After God has created man, He says: "It is not good that the man should be alone; I will make him an help meet for him" (ii. 18).在上帝創造了人,他說: “這是不好的,該名男子應單獨;我將讓他的幫助滿足他的” (白介素18 ) 。 In order that man may convince himself that there is no being similar to him among all the creatures that have been made, God brings all the animals unto Adam, that he may name them, ie, make clear to himself their different characteristics.為了那個男人可以說服自己,沒有任何類似他被所有的動物中已經作出,上帝把所有的動物告訴亞當,他可能名字,即明確自己的不同特點。 Hence man, looking for a being like unto himself among the animals, finds language.因此男人,尋找一個正在給自己喜歡的動物,認為語言。 God thereupon creates woman out of the rib of man, who gladly recognizes her as bone of his bone and flesh of his flesh. "Therefore shall a man leave his father and his mother, and shall cleave unto his wife: and they shall be one flesh"; meaning that the mature man may and shall leave the paternal house, where he has been merely a dependent member of the family, and, urged by the longing for a sympathetic being that will supplement him, shall live with the woman of his choice, and found with her a family of his own, where the two shall be combined in an actual and a spiritual unity. In this passage the relation between man and woman is expressed, and also the nature of marriage, which is a life partnership in which one helps and supplements the other.於是上帝創造女人的肋骨的人,誰樂意承認她是他的骨骨和肉,他的肉體。 “因此,人要離開他的父親和他的母親,並應妻子:他們成為一肉“ ;也就是說,成熟的男人可能,並應離開父親的房子,在那裡他一直只是依賴的家庭成員,並敦促渴望同情的是,將補充,他將生活與他的女人選擇,並發現她自己的家庭,那裡的兩個應結合實際和精神文明的統一。在這之間的關係通過男人和女人是表達,也是婚姻的性質,這是一個生命的夥伴關係其中一個幫助和補充的。 Procreation is not its purpose, but its consequence.生育不是它的目的,但它的後果。 God has given to man, as to all living beings, the faculty of multiplying.上帝給了人類,所有眾生,系成倍增加。

§ 27. God gives to man dominion over the earth and over all living beings. The food of the first man consists solely of the fruits of the field, that of the animals being grass (i. 29). § 27 。上帝給人類統治地球和所有生物。食品的第一人純粹的成果領域,即動物被基層(一29 ) 。 His occupation is to cultivate and watch over the Garden of Eden (ii. 15), the only restriction placed upon its enjoymentbeing that he shall not eat of the fruit of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil.他的職業是培育和監管伊甸園(白介素15 ) ,唯一的限制,賦予其enjoymentbeing ,他不得吃的水果樹的知識,善和惡。 In the Garden of Eden men go naked and know no shame; this feeling is aroused only after they have broken God's command, and then He makes them garments of skins to cover their nakedness.在伊甸園男人們赤裸,不知道羞恥,這感覺是引起後,才打破上帝的命令,然後他使他們的皮毛服裝,以支付他們的裸體。

§ 28. All men on earth are descended from the first pair, Adam and Eve, and are therefore also of the image of God. § 28 。地球上的所有男性後代是第一對,亞當和夏娃,因此也有上帝的形象。 This statement expresses the unity of the whole human race.這份聲明表示的團結全人類。 Man is a created being, made in the image of God, and all men are related: these doctrines are among the most fundamental and weighty of the whole Bible.人是一個正在建立,在上帝的形象,以及所有有關的男子:這些理論是最根本的和重大的整個聖經。

The branch descended from Cain, the fratricide, the eldest son of the first pair, is the founder of civic and nomadic culture.該處該隱後裔的自相殘殺,長子的第一對,是的創始人公民和游牧文化。 The branch descended from Seth develops along religious lines: from Elohim (Seth, in iv. 25) through ha-Elohim (Enoch, in v. 22) to Yhwh (Noah, in vi. 8).後裔分支塞思開發沿線的宗教方針:從耶洛因(塞思,在四。 25 )通過公頃,耶洛因(伊諾克,在五, 22 )以Yhwh (諾亞,在六。 8 ) 。 But punishment has been made necessary on account of Adam's sin; the human race must be destroyed on account of its cruelties and excesses.但是,處罰已取得了必要的帳戶亞當的罪孽;人類必須銷毀考慮到其殘酷和過分。 A new race begins with Noah and his sons, and God promises that He will neither curse the earth again, nor destroy all living beings, but that, on the contrary, "seed-time and harvest, and cold and heat, and summer and winter, and day and night shall not cease" (viii. 22).一種新的比賽開始,挪亞和他的兒子,上帝的承諾,他將既不詛咒再次地球,也摧毀一切眾生,但是,與此相反, “種子的時間和收穫,以及嚴寒及酷暑,夏季和冬天,白天和黑夜,不得停止“ ( viii. 22 ) 。 He blesses Noah and his family, that they may multiply and fill the earth and be spiritually above the animals.他祝福挪亞和他的家人,他們可能乘並填寫地球和精神上以上的動物。 He permits men to eat meat, but forbids them to eat blood, or meat with the blood thereof.他允許男子吃肉,但禁止他們吃血,或肉類的血人。 God will demand the blood (life) of every man or animal that spills it.上帝將需要的血液(生活)的每個人或動物,洩漏它。 "Whoso sheddeth man's blood, by man shall his blood be shed" (ix. 6). “ Whoso sheddeth人的血液中,他的血的人應予以說明” ( ix. 6 ) 。 God enters into a covenant with Noah and his descendants, promising them that He will not again send a general flood upon the earth, and instituting the rainbow as a token thereof (ch. ix.).上帝訂立盟約與挪亞和他的後代,希望他們,他將不會再發出一個一般洪水的地球,並建立了彩虹,以示人(章九。 ) 。 The God whom all the Noachidæ worship is Elohim (ix. 1, 7, 8, 12, 16, 17), Yhwh being worshiped by Shem and his descendants.神人所有Noachidæ禮拜耶洛因( ix. 1 , 7 , 8 , 12 , 16 , 17 ) , Yhwh被崇拜的大師和他的後代。 All the peoples dispersed over the earth are grouped as descendants of Shem, Ham, and Japheth.所有人民分散在地球歸類為後代閃,火腿,和Japheth 。 The genealogy of these peoples which the author draws up in ch.該家譜對這些國家人民的作者借鑒了在CH 。 x. according to the ethnographic knowledge of his time, finds no parallel in its universality, which includes all men in one bond of brotherhood.根據人種學知識的時間,沒有發現在其普遍性平行,其中包括所有的人在一個債券的兄弟情誼。 In this way have originated the peoples that shall be blessed in Abraham.以這種方式起源的人民應在亞伯拉罕祝福。

§ 29. Israel's Patriarchs. § 29 。以色列的始祖。

Terah, the descendant of Shem and Eber, has three sons, one of whom, Abraham, is destined by God for momentous events. Terah ,閃的後裔和韋伯,有三個兒子,其中一人,亞伯拉罕,注定是由上帝的重大事件。 He shall leave his home; and God says to him: "I will make of thee a great nation, and I will bless thee and make thy name great; and thou shalt be a blessing: And I will bless them that bless thee, and curse him that curseth thee; and in thee shall all families of the earth be blessed" (xii. 2-3).他將離開自己的家園;和上帝說,對他說: “我將在你一個偉大的國家,我會保佑你,使你的名字偉大;和你應該是一個福音:我會保佑他們,保佑你,和詛咒他, curseth你和你應在所有家庭地球的祝福“ ( xii. 2-3 ) 。 God often repeats the promise that Abraham's descendants shall be as numerous as the stars in heaven and as the sand on the seashore (xv. 5, xxii. 17); that He will make him a father of many nations, and cause him to be exceedingly fruitful; that kings and nations shall be descendants of him and Sarah (xvii. 5, 6, 16); that he shall become a great people; that all nations of the earth shall be blessed in him (xviii. 18, xxii. 18); and that his descendants shall receive the entire land of Canaan as a hereditary possession (xiii. 14 et seq., xv. 7, xvii. 18).上帝常常重複的承諾,亞伯拉罕的後裔應一樣多的星星在天上的沙子海邊( xv. 5 , 22 。 17 ) ; ,他將讓他父親的許多國家,並造成他是極其富有成果,這國王和聯合國應後裔他和薩拉( xvii. 5 , 6 , 16 ) ; ,他將成為一個偉大的人民,所有國家的地球應祝福他( xviii. 18二十二。 18 ) ;和他的後裔應得到整個土地的迦南作為遺傳擁有( xiii. 14起。 ,十五。 7 ,第XVII 。 18 ) 。 But before all this comes to pass Israel shall be sorely oppressed for four hundred years as servants in a strange land, after which they shall go out with rich possessions, and God shall judge their oppressors (xv. 13 et seq.).但是,在所有這一切是通過以色列應被壓迫的痛苦四百年的僕人在一個陌生的土地,之後他們將走出去與豐富的財產,上帝應判斷其壓迫者( xv. 13起。 ) 。 In confirmation of these promises God enters twice into a covenant with Abraham: the first time (xv. 18 et seq.) as an assurance that his descendants shall possess Canaan; and the second time, before Isaac's birth, as a sign that He will be their God.在確認這些承諾上帝進入兩次到盟約與亞伯拉罕:第一次( xv. 18起。 )為保證,他的後代應具備迦南;和第二次,前艾薩克的誕生,作為一個標誌,他將是他們的神。 In token thereof God changes Abram's and Sarai's names into "Abraham" and "Sarah" (), combining His own name with theirs, and institutes the circumcision of all the men of Abraham's household and their male descendants as an eternal sign of the covenant between Himself and Abraham.在象徵性的變化有上帝艾布拉姆和薩萊的名字變成“ Abraham ”和“薩拉” ( ) ,結合自己的名字與他們的,和研究所的割禮所有男人的亞伯拉罕的家庭和她們的男性後代作為一個永恆的標誌之間的盟約他本人和亞伯拉罕。 Abraham acknowledges Yhwh (xiv. 22), builds altars to Him (xii. 7, 8; xiii. 18); calls upon His name (xii. 8, xiii. 4, xxi. 33); shows an invincible faith in His promises, whatever present circumstances may be; is ready for the greatest sacrifice; and proves himself, by his human virtues-his helpfulness, unselfishness, hospitality, humanity, uprightness, dignity, and love of peace-worthy of divine guidance.亞伯拉罕承認Yhwh ( xiv. 22 ) ,建立祭壇向他( xii. 7日, 8日;十三。 18 ) ;呼籲他的名字( xii. 8 ,十三。 4 , 21 。 33 ) ;顯示立於信仰自己的諾言,不管目前的情況而定;已準備好最大的犧牲,並證明自己,他的人類的美德,他樂於助人,無私奉獻,熱情好客,人道,正直,尊嚴和對和平的熱愛,無愧于神聖的指導。

§ 30. Of Abraham's two sons Ishmael shall be blessed, and become the father of twelve princes and the progenitor of a great people (xvi. 10, xvii. 20, xxi. 18). § 30 。亞伯拉罕的兩個兒子以實瑪利應得天獨厚,成為父親的12王子和祖一個偉大的人( xvi. 10日,十七。 20 , 21 。 18 ) 。 Ishmael himself becomes an archer, lives in the wilderness, and marries an Egyptian woman (xxi. 20 et seq.).伊斯梅爾自己成為一個射手,生活在野外,和結婚的埃及婦女( xxi. 20起。 ) 。 But the one to inherit the promises and the land is Isaac (xvii. 21, xxi. 12), Sarah's son.但是,一個繼承的承諾和土地艾薩克( xvii. 21 , 21 。 12 ) , Sarah的兒子。 Therefore his father chooses for him a wife from among his own relations (ch. xxiv.).因此,他的父親選擇他的妻子從他自己的關係(第24章。 ) 。 God renews to him the promises given to Abraham (xxvi. 3, 24).神再次向他許諾給亞伯拉罕( xxvi. 3 , 24 ) 。 Isaac is truly the son of his great father, though he has a somewhat passive nature.艾薩克是真正的兒子,他的偉大的父親,儘管他已經有點被動的性質。 He also builds an altar to Yhwh, and calls upon His name (xxvi. 2).他還建立一個祭壇,以Yhwh ,並呼籲他的名字( xxvi. 2 ) 。

§ 31. Isaac's sons are twins; Esau, the elder, scorns the rights of the first-born, leaving them to Jacob (xxv. 34). § 31 。以撒的兒子是雙胞胎;以掃,老,藐視人權的第一胎,使他們能夠雅各布( xxv. 34 ) 。 Esau is a hunter, whose fate it is to live by the sword and be subject to his brother, though in time he will throw off his yoke (xxvii. 40).以掃是一個獵人,他們的命運是生活用劍,並接受他的弟弟,但他將拋出了他的桎梏( xxvii. 40 ) 。 He is also called "Edom," and subsequently lives in the land of that name in the mountainous region of Seir.他也被稱為“以東, ”後來住在土地上的名稱,在山區Seir 。 He is loved by his father, but Rebekah loves Jacob; and when Esau marries a Canaanite woman, Isaac, deceived by a trick, blesses Jacob, who, before he sets out for Haran, receives from his father Abraham's blessing also (xxviii. 4). Jacobattains to right relations with God only after mistakes, trials, and struggles.他是愛他的父親,但Rebekah愛雅各布;和結婚時,以掃迦南女子,以撒,欺騙伎倆,祝福雅各,誰之前,他列出的哈蘭,收到他的父親亞伯拉罕的祝福也( xxviii. 4 ) 。 Jacobattains權與上帝的關係之後才錯誤,審判和鬥爭。 He knows Yhwh, whose hand he has seen in his father's life (xxvii. 20); he recognizes Him in the divine appearance (xxviii. 16); but he has not experienced God in his own life.他知道Yhwh ,他的手他已經看到了他父親的生命( xxvii. 20 ) ;他承認他在神聖的外觀( xxviii. 16 ) ;但他沒有經驗的上帝在自己的生命。 God has not yet become his God; hence he avoids the name of Yhwh so long as he is in a strange country (xxx. 2; xxxi. 7, 9, 42, 53; xxxii. 3); but the narrator does not hesitate to say "Yhwh" (xxix. 31; xxxi. 3; xxxviii. 7, 10), that name being also known to Laban (xxx. 27, 30) and his daughters (xxix. 32 et seq., xxx. 24). Not until a time of dire distress does Jacob find Yhwh, who becomes for him Elohim when the vow turns to a prayer.上帝還沒有成為他的上帝,因此他避免了名稱Yhwh ,只要他是在一個陌生的國家( xxx. 2 ;三十一。 7 , 9 , 42 , 53 ;三十二。 3 ) ;但敘述者不猶豫說“ Yhwh ” ( xxix. 31 ;三十一。 3 ;三十八。 7日, 10日) ,這個名字也被稱為以拉班( xxx. 27日, 30歲)和他的女兒( xxix. 32起。 ,三十。 24 ) 。直到時間的可怕的困境並不雅各布找到Yhwh ,誰當選時,他耶洛因的誓言變成祈禱。 He has overcome Elohim, and himself receives another name after he hasamended his ways (ie, has gained another God), namely, "Israel," ie, "warrior of God."他克服了耶洛因,和他本人獲得的另一個名稱,他hasamended他的方式(即獲得了另一個上帝) ,即“以色列” ,即“上帝的戰士。 ” God now gives him the same promises that were given to Abraham and Isaac (xxxv. 11 et seq.), and Jacob builds an altar to God ("El"), on which he pours a drink-offering.現在上帝給他同樣的承諾,提供給亞伯拉罕和Isaac ( xxxv. 11起。 )和雅各布建立一個祭壇上帝( “厄爾尼諾” ) ,對他倒飲料,提供。 Similarly he brings offerings to the God of his father when he leaves Canaan to go with his family to Egypt, God promising to accompany him and to lead his descendants back in due time.同樣,他帶來了產品的上帝時,他的父親離開迦南去與家人一起前往埃及,上帝答應陪他,並導致他的後代回到在適當的時候。 Jacob finds the name of Yhwh again only on his death-bed (xlix. 18).雅各布認為,名稱Yhwh再次只對他的死亡床( xlix. 18 ) 。

§ 32. With Jacob and his twelve sons the history of the Patriarchs is closed; for the seventy persons with whom Jacob enters Egypt are the origin of the future people of Israel. § 32 。隨著雅各布和他的十二個兒子的歷史,始祖是封閉;對其中70人進入埃及的雅各布原產地的以色列人民的未來。 God does not appear to Jacob's sons, nor does he address them.上帝似乎並不雅各的兩個兒子,他也沒有解決這些問題。 Joseph designedly avoids the appellation "Yhwh"; he uses "Elohim" (xxxix. 9; xl. 8; xli. 16, 51, 53; xlv. 5, 9; xlviii. 9; 1. 25; "ha-Elohim," xli. 25, 28, 32; xlii. 18 [xliv. 16]; xlv. 9; and the Elohim of his father," xliii. 23). The narrator, on the other hand, has no reason for avoiding the word "Yhwh," which he uses intentionally (xxxix. 2, 3, 5). Yhwh takes a secondary place in the consciousness of Israel while in Egypt, but becomes all-important again in the theophany of the burning bush. The book prescribes no regulations for the religious life. The Patriarchs are represented in their family relations. Their history is a family history. The relations between husband and wife, parents and children, brother and sister, are displayed in pictures of typical truthfulness, psychologic delicacy, inimitable grace and loveliness, with an inexhaustible wealth of edifying and instructive scenes.約瑟夫故意避免稱謂“ Yhwh ” ;他用“耶洛因” ( xxxix. 9 ;儀。 8 ;四十一。 16 , 51 , 53 ;第四十五。 5日, 9日;四十八。 9 ; 1 。 25 ; “夏耶洛因, “四十一。 25 , 28 , 32 ;四十二。 18 [四十四。 16 ] ;第四十五。 9 ;和耶洛因他的父親, ”四十三。 23 ) 。敘述者,另一方面,沒有理由,以避免這個詞“ Yhwh , ”他故意使用( xxxix. 2 , 3 , 5 ) 。 Yhwh採取中學發生在以色列的意識,而在埃及,但成為最重要的又在神的燃燒布什。這本書沒有規定條例的宗教生活。的始祖都派代表參加他們的家庭關係。他們的歷史是一個家族的歷史。之間的關係丈夫和妻子,父母和子女,兄弟姐妹,都顯示在圖片的典型真實性,心理精緻,獨特的寬限期和可愛,有取之不盡的財富的啟發和指導意義的場面。

§ 33. Scientific Criticism. § 33 。科學的批評。

Since the time of Astruc (1753) modern criticism has held that Genesis is not a uniform work by one author, but was combined by successive editors from several sources that are themselves partly composite, and has received its present form only in the course of centuries; its composition from various sources being proved by its repetitions, contradictions, and differences in conception, representation, and language.由於時間的阿斯特呂克( 1753 )現代批評認為,起源不是一個統一的工作的一個作者,但結合歷屆編輯從幾個來源是自己的部分複合材料,並得到了其目前的形式只在幾個世紀的過程中;其構成正在從各種來源證明其重複,矛盾和分歧的概念,代表和語言。 According to this view, three chief sources must be distinguished, namely, J, E, and P. (1) J, the Jahvist, is so called because he speaks of God as "Yhwh" In his work (chiefly in the primal history, ch. i.-xi., as has been asserted since Budde) several strata must be distinguished, J1, J2, J3, etc. (2) E, the Elohist, is so named because down to Ex.根據這種觀點,三個主要來源必須是傑出的,即,強, E和體育( 1 ) J以來, Jahvist ,是所謂的,因為他講的上帝為“ Yhwh ”在他的工作(主要是在原始的歷史,甲烷。 i.-xi. ,因為一直以來主張布德)一些階層必須區分, J1 , j2環球通信, J3等( 2 )電子,該Elohist ,是得名,以惠。 iii.三。 he calls God "Elohim."他所謂的上帝“耶洛因。 ” A redactor (RJE) at an early date combined and fused J and E, so that these two sources can not always be definitely separated; and the critics therefore differ greatly in regard to the details of this question.阿redactor ( RJE )早日合併和融合J和英文,因此,這兩個來源往往不能絕對分開;和評論家因此大不相同的關於這一問題的細節。 (3) P, or the Priestly Codex, is so called on account of the priestly manner and tendencies of the author, who also calls God "Elohim." ( 3 ) P或法典的祭司,是所謂的帳戶祭司的方式和傾向的作家,誰也呼籲上帝“耶洛因。 ” Here again several strata must be distinguished, P1, P2, P3, etc., though only P2 is found in Genesis. After another redactor, D, had combined Deuteronomy with JE, the work so composed was united with P by a final redactor, who then enlarged the whole (the sequence J, E, D, P is, however, not generally accepted).在這裡再次幾個階層必須區分,小一,二,小三,等等,但只有中發現的P2成因。再過redactor ,丁,合併申命記與乙腦,組成的工作,以便為聯合國與P的最後redactor ,誰然後擴大全體(序列J ,電子商務,丁, P的,但是,一般不接受) 。 Hence the present Book of Genesis is the work of this last redactor, and was compiled more than one hundred years after Ezra.因此,本書的成因是工作的最後redactor ,並彙編成超過百年後以斯拉。 The works of J, E, and P furnished material for the entire Pentateuch (and later books), on whose origin, scope, time, and place of composition see Pentateuch.該工程的J ,電子,家具和P物質對整個摩西五(後來的書籍) ,在其原產地,範圍,時間和地點的組成見摩西五。

As it would take too much space to give an account of all the attempts made to separate the sources, the analysis of only the last commentator, namely, of Holzinger, who has made a special study of this question, will be noted.因為它會花太多的空間給一個帳戶的所有企圖獨立的來源,分析,只有最後評論員,即對Holzinger ,誰作出了一項特別研究這一問題,將予註明。 In his "Einleitung zum Hexateuch" he has given a full account of the labors of his predecessors, presenting in the "Tabellen" to his work the separation into sources laid down by Dillmann, Wellhausen, Kuenen, Budde, and Cornill.他在“導論zum Hexateuch ”他給予了充分考慮到勞動者的前任,提出在“ Tabellen ” ,以他的工作中分離到的來源所規定Dillmann ,豪森, Kuenen ,布德和Cornill 。 The commentary by Gunkel (1901) is not original as regards the sources.評注的貢克爾( 1901 )不是原始至於來源。

§ 34. see Analysis of the Sources. § 34 。看到分析的來源。 "a" and "b" denote respectively the first and second half of the verse; α, β, γ, etc., the smaller parts; * ="worked over"; "s" added to a letter means that the matter contains elements belonging to R or J or E or to the latter two ; "f" = " and the following verse " or "verses." “ A ”和“ B ”指分別是上半年和下半年的詩句; α , β , γ等,規模較小的地區; * = “工作了” ; “ S ”的加入意味著,信中包含的問題內容屬於R或J或E或後兩個;的“ F ” = “和下面的詩”或“的詩句。 ”

§ 35. Objections. § 35 。異議。

Serious objection may be brought to this analysis of sources on the following grounds: (1) It is unsupported by any external proof whatever; there is no authentic information showing that the Pentateuch, or Genesis in particular, was compiled from various sources, much less have any such sources been preserved in their original form.嚴重異議可提請本來源分析基於以下理由: ( 1 )它是沒有任何外部證明什麼,但沒有真正的信息顯示,五經,或Genesis尤其彙編來自各種渠道,更有任何這類資料保存在其原始形式。 (2) Hence the critics must rely solely upon so-called internal evidence. ( 2 )因此,批評者必須完全依靠各國所謂內部證據。 But the subjective state of mind with which the final decision rests is unstable and deceptive.但是,主觀的心理狀態與最後的決定是不穩定的和欺騙性。 It is hazardous to apply modern criteria and rules of composition and style to such anancient and peculiar work, whose origin is entirely unknown.這是危險運用現代標準和規則的組成和作風等anancient和特殊的工作,其原產地是完全未知的。 (3) Even if it be demonstrated that Genesis has been compiled from various sources, yet the attempt to trace the origin of each verse and of each part of a verse will never meet with success; the critics themselves confess that the process of combination was a most complicated one. ( 3 )即使是表明,成因已編制從各種來源,但試圖追查來源的每一詩句和每一部分的詩永遠不會取得成功;批評自己承認的過程中組合一個最複雜的。 (4) If the contradictions and repetitions said to be found in the book really existed, this would not necessarily prove that there had been more than one author; for the literatures of the world furnish numerous similar examples. ( 4 )如果說矛盾和重複中可以找到這本書確實存在,這並不一定會證明,有一個以上的作者;的文獻世界提供了許多類似的例子。 The existence of such repetitions and contradictions, however, has never been demonstrated.存在這種重複和矛盾,但是,從來沒有得到證明。

(5) The theory of sources is at best a hypothesis that is not even necessary; for it is based on a total misconception of the dominant ideas, tendencies, and plan of the book. ( 5 )理論的來源是在最好的假設是沒有必要的;因為它是根據總共誤解的主導思想,傾向和計劃書。 Its upholders have totally misconceived the theology of Genesis; transforming the interchange of the name of God, which is the soul of the book, into an external criterion for distinguishing the different authors.其upholders已經完全錯誤的神學成因;轉化互換以上帝的名義,這是靈魂的書,到一個外部標準區分不同的作者。 They have not understood the reason for the variation in the use of and , which in itself is a proof of uniform composition; and they have, therefore, missed a second fundamental idea, namely, that implied in the genealogies and their intimate relation to the Israelitic concept of the family.他們不理解的原因,變化的使用和,這本身就是一個證明統一組成;和因此,他們錯過了第二個基本概念,即意味著在族譜和他們的親密關係Israelitic人的家庭觀。 In criticizing the unequal treatment of the various portions of the material, the theory misconceives the different degrees of their importance for the author.在批評的不平等待遇的各個部分材料,理論misconceives了不同程度的重要性作者。 Difference in treatment is proof, not of different authors, but of different subjects and of the different points of view in one author.區別對待,這證明,而不是不同的作者,但不同的主題和不同觀點的一位作者。 (6) This would also explain the variations in the language of different passages. ( 6 )這也解釋了不同的語言,不同的通道。 But criticism on this point runs in a circle, diversity of sources being proved by differences of language, and vice versa.但是,批評在這一點上運行在一個圓圈,來源多樣性正證明了不同的語言,反之亦然。 (7) The separation into sources in particular is based on numberless exegetic errors, often of the most obvious kind, showing not only a misconception of the scope and spirit of the book, and of its mode of narration, but even of the laws of language; and this separation is in itself the greatest barrier to a correct insight into the book, in that it encourages the student to analyze difficult passages into their sources instead of endeavoring to discover their meaning. ( 7 )分離到的來源,尤其是無數闡釋的基礎上的錯誤,往往是最明顯的實物,顯示不僅是一種誤解的範圍和精神的書籍,以及它的敘事模式,但即使的法律語言;和分離,這本身就是最大的障礙,一個正確的了解這本書,因為它鼓勵學生分析困難通道納入其來源而不是努力地發現它們的含義。

§ 36. Notwithstanding all these objections, however, it can not be denied that various portions of Genesis palpably convey the impression of difference in origin and a corresponding difference in conception; but as the impression that the work gives of having been uniformly planned in every detail is still stronger, the explanation given in § 2 is here repeated; namely, Genesis has not been compiled from several sources by one redactor or by several redactors, but is the work of one author, who has recorded the traditions of his people with due reverence but independently and according to a uniform plan. § 36 。儘管所有這些反對意見,但是,不能否認,成因各個部分的印象明顯差異來源和相應的不同的概念,但作為一種印象,即工作提供了統一的計劃在每一個詳細仍然強大,解釋在第2條在這裡重複;即成因尚未彙編從幾個來源之一redactor或幾個編纂,但工作的一位作者,誰都有自己的傳統的人因為敬畏,但實行獨立,並根據統一的計劃。 Genesis was not compiled from various books.成因不是彙編各種書籍。

§ 37. Historical Criticism. § 37 。史學批評。

The historicity of the Book of Genesis is more or less denied, except by the representatives of a strict inspiration theory. Genesis recounts myths and legends.歷史性的創世記或多或少否認,但代表了嚴格的靈感理論。成因重新神話傳說。 It is generally admitted that the primal story is not historical (ch. i.-xi.); but critics vary in ascribing to the stories of the Patriarchs more or less of a historical foundation.人們普遍承認,原始故事並不歷史(章i.-xi. ) ;但批評者不同的故事賦予的始祖或多或少的歷史基礎。 For details see the articles under their respective names; here only a summary can be given:詳見文章根據各自的名稱;這裡只是一個簡要可考慮:

(a) The story of the Creation can not be historically true, for the reasons (一)的故事創作不能真實歷史的原因,

(1) that there can be no human traditions of these events; ( 1 )就不可能有人類的傳統,這些活動;

(2) its assumption of a creation in six days, with the sequence of events as recounted, contradicts the theories of modern science regarding the formation of the heavenly bodies during vast periods of time, especially that of the earth, its organisms, and its position in the universe. ( 2 )它假設成立六天,在一系列事件的回憶,違背了現代科學的理論就形成了巨大的天體在一段時間內,特別是地球,它的生物,以及其宇宙中的位置。 The popular view of Genesis can not be reconciled with modern science.流行的觀點成因無法調和與現代科學。 The story is a religio-scientific speculation on the origin of the world, analogous to the creation-myths found among many peoples.這個故事是一個宗教,科學猜測的起源,世界上類似的建立,神話中發現許多國家的人民。 The similarities to the Babylonian creation-myth are most numerous and most striking.相似的巴比倫創造神話數量最多和最引人注目的。 The extent of its dependence on other myths, the mode of transmission, and the age and history of the tradition and its adaptation are still matters of dispute.的程度,依賴於其他神話的傳播方式,年齡和歷史傳統和其適應仍然爭端事項。

(b) The story of the Garden of Eden (ch. ii., iii.) is a myth, invented in order to answer certain questions of religion, philosophy, and cultural history. (二)的故事伊甸園(章二。 ,三。 )是一個神話,發明為了回答某些問題的宗教,哲學,文化和歷史。 Its origin can not be ascertained, as no parallel to it has so far been found.其來源無法確定,因為沒有平行它迄今被發現。

(c) The stories of Cain and Abel and the genealogies of the Cainites and Sethites are reminiscences of legends, the historical basis for which can no longer be ascertained. (三)故事該隱和亞伯和族譜的Cainites和Sethites是回憶傳說,歷史基礎,它再也不能確定。 Their historical truth is excluded by the great age assigned to the Sethites, which contradicts all human experience.他們的歷史真相被排除的偉大時代賦予的Sethites ,這違背了所有人類的經驗。 A parallel is found in the ten antediluvian primal kings of Babylonian chronology, where the figures are considerably greater.一種並行分佈在10個過時的原始巴比倫國王的年代,那裡的數字是相當大的。

(d) The story of the Flood is a legend that is found among many peoples. It is traced back to a Babylonian prototype, still extant. (四)的故事是一個傳奇,洪水是許多國家的人民之間找到。這是追溯到巴比倫原型,仍然尚存。 It is perhaps founded on reminiscences of a great seismic-cyclonic event that actually occurred, but could have been only partial, as a general flood of the whole earth, covering even the highest mountains, is not conceivable.這也許是建立在回憶一個偉大抗震氣旋活動實際發生的,但可能只是局部的,作為一般洪水對整個地球的,覆蓋的最高山峰,是不是可以想像的。

(e) The genealogy of peoples is a learned attempt to determine genealogically the relation of peoples known to the author, but by no means including the entire human race; this point of view was current in antiquity, although it does not correspond to the actual facts. ( e )在家譜的人民是一個教訓試圖確定genealogically關係的人民知道作者的身份,但絕不是包括整個人類,這一點的看法是目前在古代,雖然它不符合實際事實。

(f) The stories of the Patriarchs are national legends. ( f )在故事的始祖是國家傳說。 Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob and his sons are idealized personifications of the people, its tribes, and families; and it can not now be ascertained whether or not these are based on more or less obscure reminiscences of real personages.亞伯拉罕,以撒和雅各和他的兒子是理想化personifications的人民,其部落和家族;和它現在不能確定這是否是根據或多或少地掩蓋真正的人士回憶。 In any case, these legends furnish no historically definite or even valuable information regarding the primal history of the people of Israel.在任何情況下,這些傳說提供任何明確的,甚至歷史上寶貴的原始資料,歷史上對以色列人民。 The whole conception of the descent of one people from one family and one ancestor is unhistorical; for a people originates through the combination of different families.整個構想後裔一個人從一個家庭和一個祖先是unhistorical ;為人民源自通過結合不同的家庭。 It has also been maintained that the stories of the Patriarchs are pale reflections of mythology or nature-myths.也有人認為,故事的始祖是蒼白思考的神話或自然神話。


Commentaries: Calvin, In Librum Geneseos Commentarius, ed.評注:卡爾文,在Librum Geneseos Commentarius ,教育署。 Hengstenberg, Berlin, 1838; J.亨斯,柏林, 1838年的J. Gerhard, Commentarius Super Genesin, Jena, 1637; Von Bohlen, Die Genesis Historisch-Kritisch Erläutert, Königsberg, 1832; Friedrich Tuch, Halle, 1838; 2d ed.總理, Commentarius超級Genesin ,耶拿, 1637年;馮波倫,模具起源歷史, Kritisch Erläutert , Königsberg , 1832年;弗里德里希Tuch ,哈雷, 1838年;的2D版。 (Arnold and Merx), 1871; CF Keil, Leipsic, 1878; Franz Delitzsch, Neuer Commentar zur Genesis, 1887; M. ( Arnold和Merx ) , 1871年;參看Keil公司, Leipsic , 1878年;弗蘭茲德里,諾伊爾Commentar楚成因, 1887年的M. Kalisch, 1858; A. Kalisch , 1858 ;答: Knobel, revised by Dillmann 1892; JP Lange, 2d ed., 1877; E.克諾貝爾, 1892年修訂的Dillmann ;太平紳士蘭格,二維版。 , 1877 ;大腸桿菌 Reuss, La Bible, pt. Reuss ,香格里拉聖經角。 iii., 1897; EH Brown, 1871 (Speaker's Commentary); R.三。 , 1897 ;高血壓布朗, 1871年(議長的評注) ;河 Payne Smith (Ellicot's Commentary, 1882); GI Spurrell, Notes on the Hebrew Text of the Book of Genesis, 1887; M.佩恩史密斯( Ellicot的評注, 1882年) ;胃腸Spurrell ,債券在希伯萊文字的圖書的成因, 1887年的M. Dods, The Book of Genesis, 4th ed., 1890; A. Dods ,這本書的起源,第4版。 , 1890年;答: Tappehorn, Erklärung der Genesis (Roman Catholic), 1888; Strack, in Kurzgefasster Commentar (Strack-Zöckler), 1894; Holzinger, in Kurzer Handcommentar, ed. Tappehorn , Erklärung之成因(羅馬天主教) , 1888年;施特拉克,在Kurzgefasster Commentar (施特拉克- Zöckler ) , 1894年; Holzinger ,在Kurzer Handcommentar ,教育署。 Marti, 1898; H.馬蒂, 1898閣下; Gunkel, in Handkommentar zum AT ed.貢克爾,在Handkommentar zum美國版。 Nowack, 1901. Criticism: Astruc, Conjectures surles Mémoires Originaux Dontil Paroitque Moyses' Est Servi pour Composer le Livre de la Gènèse, Brussels, 1753; Karl David Ilgen, Die Urkunden des Jerusalemischen Tempelarchivs, etc.: I. Urkunden des Ersten Buches von Moses, Halle, 1798; F. Nowack , 1901年。批評:阿斯特呂克,猜想surles Mémoires Originaux Dontil Paroitque Moyses '市盈率Servi爭取作曲家樂書德拉薩Gènèse ,布魯塞爾, 1753年;卡爾大衛Ilgen ,模具Urkunden萬Jerusalemischen Tempelarchivs等:一Urkunden萬Ersten Buches馮摩西,哈雷, 1798年;樓 Bleek, De Libri Geneseos Origine Atque Indole Historica, Bonn, 1836; Bleek ,者利布里Geneseos起源Atque吲哚的歷史,波恩, 1836年;

I. Stähelin, Kritische Untersuchungen über die Genesis, Basel, 1830; H.一斯斯塔埃林,批判Untersuchungen黚er死亡成因,巴塞爾, 1830年閣下; Hupfeld, Die Quellen der Genesis und die Art Ihrer Zusammensetzung, Berlin, 1853 (this work laid the foundation for the modern theory of sources, ie, the compilation of Genesis from three independent works);霍普菲,模具Quellen死亡之成因與藝術Ihrer Zusammensetzung ,柏林, 1853年(這項工作奠定了現代理論的來源,即彙編成因來自3個獨立的工程) ;

E. Böhmer, Liber Geneseos Pentateuchicus, Halle, 1860 (first graphical distinction of the sources by means of different type); idem, Das Erste Buch der Thora, Uebersetzung Seiner Drei Quellenschriften und Redactionszusätze mit Kritischen, Exegetischen, und Historischen Erörterungen, ib.體育博默,書Geneseos Pentateuchicus ,哈雷, 1860年(第一圖形區別的來源方式不同類型) ;同上,達斯Erste書之疫, Uebersetzung Seiner顯Quellenschriften與Redactionszusätze麻省理工學院Kritischen , Exegetischen ,與Historischen Erörterungen ,國際文憑。 1862; T. 1862年;噸 Nöldeke, Untersuchungen zur Kritik des AT Kiel, 1809; J. Nöldeke , Untersuchungen論批判之在基爾, 1809年的J. Wellhausen, Die Composition des Hexateuchs, in Jahrbücher für Deutsche Theologie, xxi., xxii., reprinted 1885, 1889, 1893; Karl Budde, Die Biblische Urgeschichte, Giessen 1883; Kautzsch and Socin, Die Genesis mit Aeusserer Unterscheidung der Quellen, Freiburg-in-Breisgau, 1888, 1891; DW Bacon, Pentateuchical Analysis, in Hebraica, iv.豪森,模具組成沙漠Hexateuchs ,在年鑑f黵德意志神學,二十一。 ,二十二。 ,轉載1885年, 1889年, 1893年;卡爾布德,模具Biblische Urgeschichte ,吉森1883年; Kautzsch和Socin ,模具成因麻省理工學院Aeusserer Unterscheidung之Quellen ,弗賴堡-在布賴斯, 1888年, 1891年;德國之聲培根, Pentateuchical分析, Hebraica ,四。 216- 243, v. 7-17: The Genesis of Genesis, Hartford, 1892; EC Bissell, Genesis Printed in Colors (transl. from Kautzsch-Socm), Hartford, 1892; EI Fripp, The Composition of the Book of Genesis, 1892; CI Ball, Genesis, 1896 (critical text in colors in SBOT ed. Haupt). 216 - 243 ,五, 7月17日:起源起源,哈特福德, 1892年;歐共體比斯爾,成因印刷顏色( transl.從Kautzsch - Socm ) ,哈特福德, 1892年;本站弗里普,組成創世記, 1892年,開曼球,成因, 1896年(關鍵文字顏色SBOT版。豪普特) 。

Compare also the introductions to the Old Testament by Kuenen, Cornill, Strack, Driver, and König, and to the Hexateuch by Holzinger, 1893, and Steuernagel, 1901; A.比較還介紹舊約的Kuenen , Cornill ,施特拉克,司機,和柯尼格,和Hexateuch的Holzinger , 1893年,和Steuernagel , 1901年;答: Westphal, Les Sources du Pentateuque, Paris, 1888, 1892; WE Addis, The Documents of the, Hexateuch Translated and Arranged in Chronological Order, 1893, 1898; IE Carpenter and G. Hartford Battersby, The Hexateuch, 1900. Anti-Criticism: CH Sack, De Usu Nominum, Dei et in Libro Geneseos, Bonn, 1821; H.韋斯特,法國源杜Pentateuque ,巴黎, 1888年, 1892年,我們亞的斯亞貝巴,這些文件的, Hexateuch翻譯和安排的時間順序排列, 1893年, 1898年即卡朋特和G.哈特福德巴特斯,該Hexateuch , 1900 。反批評:甲烷袋,者烏蘇Nominum ,上帝ET的圖書Geneseos ,波恩, 1821年閣下; Ewald, Die Composition der Genesis Kritisch Untersucht, Brunswick, 1823 (subsequently retracted for the greater part by the author);埃瓦爾德,模具組成之成因Kritisch Untersucht ,不倫瑞克, 1823 (後來撤回的較大部分由作者) ;

EW Hengstenberg, Die Authentie des Pentateuchs, Berlin, 1836, 1839 (i. 181-414 contains an epoch-making proof of the meaning and intentional use of the names of God); M.電子戰亨斯,模具Authentie萬Pentateuchs ,柏林, 1836年, 1839年(一181-414包含一個具有劃時代意義的證據的含義和故意使用的姓名上帝) ;先生 Drechsler, Die Einheit und Echtheit der Genesis, 1838 (including Nachweis der Einheit und Planmässigkeit der Genesis); FH Ranke, Untersuchungen über den Pentateuch, Erlangen, 1834-40; IH Kurtz, Die Einheit der Genesis, 1846; C.德雷克斯勒,模具統一性和Echtheit之成因, 1838年(包括Nachweis德國統一和Planmässigkeit之起源) ;跳頻蘭克, Untersuchungen黚er旦摩西五,埃爾蘭根, 1834年至1840年; 44/198庫爾茨,模具統一之成因, 1846年;角 Keil, Ueber die Gottesnamen im Pentateuch, in Zeitschrift für Lutherische Theologie und Kirche, 1851, pp. Keil公司,論死Gottesnamen即時通訊摩西五,在雜誌Lutherische神學和教堂, 1851年,頁。 215-280; J. 215-280 ;學者 Halévy, Recherches Bibliques, i.哈萊維,地理Bibliques島 1895; WH Green, criticism of Harper, in Hebraica, v., vi., vii.; idem, The Unity of Genesis; EC Bissell, The Pentateuch, Its Origin and Structure, pp. 410-475, New York, 1885 (includes a voluminous bibliography on the Pentateuch). 1895年,武漢綠色,批評哈珀,在Hebraica ,五,六。 ,七。 ;同上,團結的成因;歐共體比斯爾的摩西五,其來源和結構,頁。 410-475 ,紐約, 1885年(包括大量的文獻摩西五) 。 BJ北京

-Critical View:臨界查看:

Genesis forms part of the Hexateuch.成因的一部分Hexateuch 。 As such it is regarded by the critical schools as a composite work, containing data from P and JE, the latter a history which, itself a combination of two distinct compilations-one, northern or Israelitish, E; the other, southern or Judean, J-tells in detail and in popular style the story of Israel from the beginning of things to the completed conquest of Canaan.因此,它被認為是關鍵的學校作為一個綜合的工作,其中載有數據從P和乙腦,後者是歷史,這本身就是一個結合兩個不同的彙編一,北部或Israelitish ,電子商務;另一方面,南部或朱迪亞,的J -告訴詳細和流行風格的故事,從一開始就以色列的事情完成征服迦南。 In addition to these elements, some independent material is distinguished from that ascribed to the sources named; and editorial comments (R) and changes have been separated in the critical analysis.除了這些因素,一些獨立的材料是區別於為其命名的來源;和編輯意見( R )和變更已分離的批判性分析。 There is practical unanimity among critics with regard to the character of P and what must be assigned to him. Elements.有切實可行的一致批評方面的性質, P和什麼必須分配給他。要件。

The P elements in Genesis consist of a series of interconnected genealogies, uniform in plan, and always prefaced by the introductory phrase "These are the generations of."為P元素的成因包括一系列相互關聯的族譜,統一的計劃,並始終序開頭一句“這是幾代人。 ” Connected with them is a scheme of Chronology around which a few historical glosses are grouped.與其有聯繫的是一個計劃的年表圍繞著一些歷史粉飾歸類。 In fuller detail the stories of Abraham's covenant and his purchase of a burialplace at Hebron are elaborated.在全面詳細的故事亞伯拉罕的公約和他購買burialplace在希伯倫闡述。 The accounts of Creation (see Cosmogony) and of the Flood are also given fuller treatment.帳目的創作(見宇宙)和洪水也給予充分的治療。 It would thus seem that P presupposes acquaintance with and the existence of a history or histories of the Patriarchs and of the times preceding theirs.因此,似乎磷的前提認識和存在的歷史或歷史的始祖和時代前面他們。 P is thus a work of a student aiming to present certain ideas and emphasizing certain conclusions. P是這樣一個工作的一個學生以目前的某些思想,並強調某些結論。 He traces the origin of Israel and his descendants as the one family chosen from among all the children of Adam.他痕跡的起源以色列和他的後代作為一個家庭選自所有兒童的亞當。 He lays particular stress on the religious institutions; eg, the Sabbath ordained by God Himself at the completion of the week of Creation; the command to abstain from partaking of blood; the covenant of circumcision; and the purity of the Israelitish stock (contrast Esau's marriages with Jacob's).他特別強調了宗教機構;例如,祝聖安息日的上帝在完成了一周的創造;命令棄權partaking的血液;盟約割禮;和純潔性Israelitish股票(對比以掃的婚姻與雅各布的) 。

The theory has been advanced that P is based on J, his story of Creation presupposing the use of historical and traditional material collected in J. On the whole, this may be admitted; but it is also plain that for the P account of the Creation and the Flood Babylonian sources and information were drawn upon.該理論已被先進的P是基於對J ,他的故事的創作預設使用的歷史和傳統的材料收集的學者從總體上看,這可能會被接納;但它也清楚地指出的P帳戶創作和洪水巴比倫和信息來源的借鑒。 The theology of P is of a high order.神學P是一個高秩序。 God is One; He is supramundane.上帝是他是supramundane 。 Creation is a transcendental, free act of the Absolute Creator (hence ).創作是一個先驗的,自由的行為絕對造物主(因此) 。 In history are revealed a divine plan and purpose.歷史上揭示了神聖的計劃和目的。 God communicates His decrees directly without the intervention of angels or dreams, and without recourse to theophanies.上帝傳達他的命令下,直接進行干預的天使或夢想,不訴諸theophanies 。 He is Elohim for Noah, El Shaddai for Abraham, and Yhwh for Israel.他是耶洛因的諾亞,薩爾瓦多代的亞伯拉罕和Yhwh以色列。 Anthropomorphisms are few and inoffensive. Anthropomorphisms很少,無害。 This theology reveals the convictions and reflections of a late epoch in Israel's religious and historical development. JE, after the elimination of P, presents an almost unbroken narrative.這揭示了神學信念與思考後時代在以色列的宗教和歷史的發展。乙腦,在消除磷,提出了一個幾乎完整的敘述。 In the earlier chapters J alone has been incorporated; E begins abruptly in Gen. xx.在前面幾章J僅已被納入; é開始突然將軍二十。 It is a moot point whether E contained originally a primeval history parallel to that now preserved in Genesis from J. That of the latter, as incorporated in the pre-Abrahamic chapters, is not consistent throughout; especially do the account of the Flood, the fragments of a genealogy of Seth, and other portions suggest the use of traditions, probably Babylonian, which did not originally form part of J.這是一個模擬點是否é載最初原始歷史平行的,現在保存在成因從學者後者,因為納入了前亞伯拉罕章節,不符合各地,特別是考慮到這樣做的洪水,在片段的系譜塞思,建議和其他部分的使用傳統,可能巴比倫,沒有原來的組成部分學者


JE, as far as Genesis is concerned, must be regarded as compilations of stories which long before their reduction to written form had been current orally among the people.乙腦,至於成因而言,必須被視為彙編的故事很久以前他們以書面形式減少了當前人民之間的口頭。 These stories in part were not of Canaanitish-Hebrew origin.這些故事中的一部分並不Canaanitish -希伯來語原籍。 They represent Semitic and perhaps other cycles of popular and religious tales ("Sagen") which antedate the differentiation of the Semitic family into Hebrews, Arabs, etc., or, migrating from one to the other of the Semitic groups after their separation, came to the Hebrews from non- Semitic peoples; hence the traces of Babylonian, Egyptian, Phenician, Aramaic, and Ishmaelitish influence.他們代表猶太人,也許其他週期的流行和宗教故事( “道說” ) ,其中antedate分化的猶太人家庭納入希伯來書,阿拉伯人等,或從一個遷移到其他的猶太人群體分離後,來到在希伯來人從非猶太人的民族,因此痕跡巴比倫,埃及, Phenician ,亞拉姆語和Ishmaelitish影響。 Some of the narratives preserve ancient local traditions, centered in an ancient religious sanctuary; others reflect the temper and exhibit thecoloring of folk-tales, stories in which the rise and development of civilization and the transition from pastoral to agricultural life are represented as the growth and development of individuals.一些古代的敘述維護當地的傳統,集中在一個古老的宗教聖殿;其他反映的脾氣和展覽thecoloring的民間故事,故事中的崛起和發展的文明和過渡牧區農業生活的代表作為增長和個人的發展。 Others, again, personify and typify the great migratory movements of clans and tribes, while still others are the precipitate of great religious changes (eg, human sacrifices are supplanted by animal ones).其他人,再次,人性和偉大的典型的移民流動的部族和部落,其他人則是沉澱的宗教變化(例如,人類的犧牲所取代動物的) 。 The relations and interrelations of the tribes, septs, and families, based upon racial kinship or geographical position, and sometimes expressive of racial and tribal animosities and antipathies, are also concreted in individual events.的關係和相互關係的部落, septs ,和家庭,基於種族的親屬關係或地理位置,有時表現的種族和部落的仇恨和antipathies ,也混凝土在個別事件。 In all this there is not the slightest trace of artificiality.在所有這一切沒有絲毫人工的痕跡。 This process is the spontaneous assertion of the folk-soul ("Volksseele").這個過程是自發的民間說法,靈魂( “ Volksseele ” ) 。 These traditions are the spontaneous creation of popular interpretation of natural and historical sentiments and recollections of remote happenings.這些傳統的自發創造流行的解釋的自然景觀和歷史感情和回憶的遠程事件。 The historical and theological interpretations of life, law, custom, and religion in its institutions have among all men at one time taken this form. The mythopeic tendency and faculty are universal.的歷史和神學的解釋,生活,法律,習俗,宗教在其機構的所有男子在同一時間採取這種形式。該mythopeic趨勢和教員都具有普遍性。 The explanations of names which exhibit signs of being the result of intentional reflection, are, perhaps, alone artificial.解釋名稱的跡象正在展出的結果故意反思,是,也許,僅人工。


Naturally, in the course of oral transmission these traditions were modified in keeping with the altered conditions and religious convictions of the narrators.很自然的過程中,口頭傳播這些傳統進行了修改符合條件的改變和宗教信念的敘述者。 Compiled at a time when literary skill had only begun to assert itself, many cycles of patriarchal histories must have been current in written form prior to the collections now distinguished by critics as E and J. Criticism has to a great extent overlooked the character of both of these sources as compilations.編譯時的文學技巧才開始斷言本身,許多週期的重男輕女的歷史必須是當前事先以書面形式的集合,以示區別批評現在的E和學者的批評在很大程度上忽視了這兩個特點這些消息人士的彙編。 It has been too free in looking upon them as works of a discriminating litterateur and historian.它一直在尋找過於自由的作品對他們的歧視,文學家和歷史學家。 P may be of this nature, but not J and E. Hence any theory on the literary method and character of either is forced to admit so many exceptions as to vitiate the fundamental assumption. P可能是這種性質的,但不是J和大腸桿菌因此任何理論對文學的方法和性質要么是被迫承認如此眾多的例外,以損害基本假設。 In E are found traits (elaborations, personal sentiment) ascribed exclusively to J; while J, in turn, is not free from the idiosyncrasies of E.電子商務中發現性狀(闡述,個人情緒)為其專門至J ;而J ,反過來,沒有擺脫的特點體育

Nor did R (the editor, editors, or diaskeuasts) proceed mechanically, though the purely literary dissection on anatomical lines affected by the higher criticism would lead one to believe he did.也沒有住宅(主編,編輯,或diaskeuasts )進行機械,但純粹的文學解剖解剖線而受影響的將導致更高的批評之一相信他。 He, too, had a soul.他也有一個靈魂。 He recast his material in the molds of his own religious convictions.他改寫自己的模具材料在他自己的宗教信念。 The Midrashic method antedates the rabbinical age.該Midrashic方法antedates猶太教年齡。 This injection of life into old traditional material unified the compilation.這種注射液的生活納入統一的舊傳統的材料彙編。 P's method, rightly regarded as under theological intention ("Tendenz"), was also that of R. Hence Genesis, notwithstanding the compilatory character of its sources, the many repetitions and divergent versions of one and the same event, the duplications and digressions, makes on the whole the impression of a coherent work, aiming at the presentation of a well-defined view of history, viz., the selection of the sons of Israel as the representative exponents of Yhwh's relations to the sons of Adam, a selection gradually brought about by the elimination of side lines descended, like Israel, from the common progenitor Adam, the line running from Adam to Noah-to Abraham-to Jacob = Israel. P的方法,正確地被視為下神學意圖( “ Tendenz ” ) ,也即河因此成因,儘管compilatory的性質及其來源,在許多重複和不同版本的同一個事件,重複和digressions ,使得整體上的印象是一個連貫的工作,旨在提出一個明確的歷史觀,即。 ,選擇的兒子,以色列的代表指數的Yhwh的關係的兒子亞當,選擇逐步所帶來的副作用線消除的後裔,如以色列,從共同的祖先亞當,該行從亞當到諾亞,亞伯拉罕到雅各=以色列。

Later Additions.後來補充。

Chapter xiv.第十四章。 has been held to be a later addition, unhistorical and belonging to none of the sources.一直被認為是稍後此外, unhistorical和屬於任何來源。 Yet the story contains old historical material.然而,古老的歷史故事中包含的材料。 The information must be based on Babylonian accounts (Hommel, "Alt-Israelitische Ueberlieferung," p. 153, speaks of an old Jerusalem tradition, and Dillmann, in his commentary, of a Canaanitish tradition; see Eliezer); the literary style is exact, giving accurate chronological data, as would a professional historian.這些信息的基礎必須是巴比倫帳戶(霍梅爾“ ,按Alt - Israelitische Ueberlieferung ” ,第153頁,講一個老耶路撒冷傳統, Dillmann ,在他的評注,一個Canaanitish傳統;見埃利澤) ;文體準確,給予準確的時間數據,將一個專業的歷史學家。 The purpose of the account is to glorify Abraham.的目的是美化帳戶亞伯拉罕。 Hence it has been argued that this chapter betrays the spirit of the later Judaism. Chapter xlix., the blessing by Jacob, is also an addition; but it dates from the latter half of the period of the Judges (K. Kohler, "Der Segen Jacob's"). The theory that the Patriarchs especially, and the other personages of Genesis, represent old, astral deities, though again advanced in a very learned exposition by Stucken ("Astral Mythen"), has now been generally abandoned.EGH因此有人認為,這一章背叛的精神,後來猶太教。章xlix 。 ,由雅各的祝福,也是除;但日期從下半年期間的法官(光科勒, “明鏡Segen雅各布的“ ) 。這一理論的始祖是,和其他人士的成因,代表歲,阿斯特拉神明,儘管再次在一個非常先進的經驗教訓論述Stucken ( ”阿斯特拉Mythen “ ) ,現在已普遍abandoned.EGH

Benno Jacob, Emil G. Hirsch本諾雅各布,埃米爾灣赫希

Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.猶太百科全書出版01年至1906年之間。

This subject presentation in the original English language本主題介紹在原來的英文

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The main BELIEVE web-page (and the index to subjects) is at主要相信網頁(和索引科目),是在