Book of Lamentations書耶利米哀歌

General Information 一般信息

The Book of Lamentations in the Old Testament of the Bible is actually five poems that lament the destruction of Jerusalem in 586 BC.書耶利米哀歌在舊約聖經實際上是五個詩悲嘆破壞耶路撒冷的586年。 Often called "The Lamentations of Jeremiah," it is usually placed after the Book of Jeremiah, despite its uncertain authorship.通常稱為“耶利米哀歌耶利米” ,通常是放在後耶利米書,儘管其不確定性作者。 The poet vividly describes the devastation endured by Jerusalem.詩人生動地描述了所遭受的破壞耶路撒冷。 Although this recitation of laments faced the harsh realities of the present, the prayer - poems also stirred up continuing hope in Yahweh's promises for the future.雖然這背誦感嘆面臨的嚴峻現實目前,祈禱-詩也激起了希望繼續在耶和華的承諾的未來。

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Advanced Information 先進的信息

Lamentation, (Heb. qinah), an elegy or dirge.悲嘆, ( Heb. qinah ) ,一個輓歌或輓歌。 The first example of this form of poetry is the lament of David over Saul and Jonathan (2 Sam. 1:17-27). It was a frequent accompaniment of mourning (Amos 8:10).第一個例子,這種形式的詩歌是哀嘆超過掃羅大衛和喬納森( 2山姆。 1:17-27 ) 。這是一個經常伴奏的哀悼(阿莫斯納曼8:10 ) 。 In 2 Sam. 3:33, 34 is recorded David's lament over Abner.在2山姆。 3時33分, 34個記錄大衛的悲嘆阿布納。 Prophecy sometimes took the form of a lament when it predicted calamity (Ezek. 27:2, 32; 28:12; 32:2, 16).預言有時採取的形式,哀嘆時預測的災難( Ezek. 27:2 , 32 ; 28:12 ; 32:2 , 16 ) 。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (伊斯頓圖解詞典)

Book of Lamenta'tions書Lamenta'tions

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Lamentations, called in the Hebrew canon 'Ekhah, meaning "How," being the formula for the commencement of a song of wailing.耶利米哀歌,要求在希伯來文佳能' Ekhah ,意思是“如何”的公式正在開始一首歌的哭。 It is the first word of the book (see 2 Sam. 1:19-27).這是第一個字的書(見2山姆。 1:19-27 ) 。 The LXX.該LXX 。 adopted the name rendered "Lamentations" (Gr. threnoi = Heb. qinoth) now in common use, to denote the character of the book, in which the prophet mourns over the desolations brought on the city and the holy land by Chaldeans.通過提供的名字“耶利米哀歌” ( Gr. threnoi =希伯來。 qinoth )現在普遍使用,指的性質,這本書,其中表示哀悼先知帶來的desolations城市和聖地的迦勒。 In the Hebrew Bible it is placed among the Khethubim.在希伯來文聖經把它放在各Khethubim 。 (See BIBLE.) As to its authorship, there is no room for hesitancy in following the LXX. (見聖經。 )作為其著作權,也沒有猶豫的餘地之後LXX 。 and the Targum in ascribing it to Jeremiah.和根在耶利米歸咎於它。 The spirit, tone, language, and subject-matter are in accord with the testimony of tradition in assigning it to him.的精神,語氣,語言和主題事項是符合傳統的證詞,在分配給他。 According to tradition, he retired after the destruction of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar to a cavern outside the Damascus gate, where he wrote this book.按照傳統,他退休後的銷毀尼布甲尼撒對耶路撒冷的一個洞穴外的大馬士革門,在那裡他寫這本書。

That cavern is still pointed out.該溶洞仍然指出。 "In the face of a rocky hill, on the western side of the city, the local belief has placed 'the grotto of Jeremiah.' “面對岨,西邊的城市,當地的信仰已經把'洞穴耶利米。 There, in that fixed attitude of grief which Michael Angelo has immortalized, the prophet may well be supposed to have mourned the fall of his country" (Stanley, Jewish Church).那裡,在固定的態度悲痛其中米開朗琪羅有永生,先知很可能應該有悼念秋天他的國家“ (赤柱,猶太教堂) 。 The book consists of five separate poems.這本書由五個單獨的詩。 In chapter 1 the prophet dwells on the manifold miseries oppressed by which the city sits as a solitary widow weeping sorely.第1章先知居住的多方面的苦難壓迫其中市位於作為一個單獨的遺孀哭嚴峻。 In chapter 2 these miseries are described in connection with the national sins that had caused them.這些在第2章中所描述的苦難與罪惡的國家造成了他們。 Chapter 3 speaks of hope for the people of God.第3章講的希望在天主的子民。 The chastisement would only be for their good; a better day would dawn for them.該責罰只會對他們的良好;一個更美好的一天會到來的。 Chapter 4 laments the ruin and desolation that had come upon the city and temple, but traces it only to the people's sins.第4章感嘆的廢墟和荒蕪已降臨的城市,廟宇,但只將它的痕跡的人的罪過。 Chapter 5 is a prayer that Zion's reproach may be taken away in the repentance and recovery of the people.第5章是一個祈禱錫安的責備可能帶走的懺悔和恢復人民。

The first four poems (chapters) are acrostics, like some of the Psalms (25, 34, 37, 119), ie, each verse begins with a letter of the Hebrew alphabet taken in order. 前四個詩(章)是acrostics ,像一些詩篇( 25 , 34 , 37 , 119 ) ,即每個詩一開始就信中所採取的希伯來字母順序。 The first, second, and fourth have each twenty-two verses, the number of the letters in the Hebrew alphabet. 第一,第二,和第四次都22詩句,人數中的字母希伯萊字母表。 The third has sixty-six verses, in which each three successive verses begin with the same letter. The fifth is not acrostic. 第三個擁有66詩句,其中每個詩句開始連續三次以同樣的信。五是不acrostic 。 Speaking of the "Wailing-place (qv) of the Jews" at Jerusalem, a portion of the old wall of the temple of Solomon, Schaff says: "There the Jews assemble every Friday afternoon to bewail the downfall of the holy city, kissing the stone wall and watering it with their tears. They repeat from their well-worn Hebrew Bibles and prayer-books the Lamentations of Jeremiah and suitable Psalms."在談到“哭位( qv )的猶太人”在耶路撒冷,部分舊牆的所羅門聖殿,沙夫說: “有猶太人集會逢星期五下午哀嘆倒台聖城,親吻石牆和澆水它的眼淚。他們重複他們穿希伯來聖經和祈禱書的耶利米哀歌耶利米和適當的詩篇。 “

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (伊斯頓圖解詞典)


Jewish Perspective Information 猶太透視信息


-Biblical Data:聖經資料:

Fourth and Fifth Poems.第四次和第五次詩。


-Biblical Data:聖經資料:

In the manuscripts and printed copies of the Old Testament the book is called, after its initial word, "Ekah"; in the Talmud and among the Rabbis, after its contents, "Ḳinot" (comp. especially BB 15a).在手稿和印本舊約這本書被稱為後,其最初的一句話, “ Ekah ” ;在塔爾穆德之間和拉比,在其內容, “ Ḳinot ” ( comp.特別是BB心跳15A條) 。 The Greek and Latin translations of the Old Testament, as well as the Church Fathers, call it Θρῆνοι, or Θρῆνοι Ἱερεμίον, or "Threni."在希臘文和拉丁文翻譯舊約,以及教會的教父,稱之為Θρῆνοι ,或Θρῆνοι Ἱερεμίον ,或“ Threni 。 ”

The five poems deal with the destruction of Jerusalem (586 BC), describing how city and country, palace and Temple, king and people, suffered under the terrible catastrophe.五個詩歌處理破壞耶路撒冷( 586年) ,說明如何城市和國家,宮殿和神廟,國王和人民,遭受了可怕的災難。 The several poems have markedly different characteristics.詩的幾個明顯不同的特點。 The first shows an almost utter lack of consecutive thought.第一個節目幾乎完全缺乏連續思想。 Although it may be divided into two distinct sections.-verses 1-11b, in which the poet speaks, and 11c-22, in which the city continues-the sections themselves present no logical development of thought.雖然它可分為兩個不同的sections. -詩句1 - 11B條,其中詩人說,和碳- 11 - 22 ,其中城市繼續,本節沒有自己的邏輯發展的思路。 The theme of the entire song is the distress of the city (which is personified) and of her children and inhabitants, and the haughtiness of the victors.的主題,整個歌曲是窘迫的城市(這是人格化)和她的孩子和居民,並傲慢的勝利者。 Thus verses 1 et seq.這樣的詩句1起。 deal, in obvious imitation of Isa.協議,在明顯的模仿伊薩。 i.字母i. 21, with the misfortunes of Jerusalem; verse 5, with the arrogance of the Chaldeans; verses 6-9, again, with the misery of the inhabitants; verse 10, with the proud victors. 21 ,與不幸的耶路撒冷;詩5 ,以傲慢的迦勒;詩句6月9日,再次與苦難的居民;詩10 ,與自豪勝利者。 Verses 12-16 of the second section are especially remarkable for their series of detached images representing Jerusalem's sufferings; viz., the rain of fire, the net, the yoke, the treading in the wine-press, etc. From a theological point of view, the strong sense of sin (verses 5, 8, 14, 18, 21), as well as the wish that God may punish the enemy (verse 22), is noteworthy.詩篇12月16日的第二部分是特別顯著的一系列圖像代表耶路撒冷分離的痛苦;即。雨聲火災,淨,枷鎖,在踩在葡萄酒出版社等,從神學的角度認為,強烈的責任感黃大仙(詩5 , 8 , 14 , 18 , 21 ) ,以及希望上帝會懲罰敵人(詩22 ) ,是值得注意的。

The second poem, ch.第二首詩,甲烷。 ii.二。 (comp. Jer. xiv. 15-18), is remarkable for its methodical arrangement. ( comp.哲。十四。 15-18日) ,是了不起的有條理的安排。 After the theme-the destruction of Jerusalem-has been announced in verse 1, it is treated first in its political aspect (2-5) and then from its religious side (6-7).在主題摧毀耶路撒冷已經宣布在詩1 ,這是第一次在其對待政治方面( 2-5 ) ,然後再從宗教方面( 6-7 ) 。 Verse 8 is the beginning of a new section, also in two parts: (a) 8-9a, dealing with the fate of the city; and (b) 9b-12, with that of her inhabitants.新詩8進入了一個新的部分,也分為兩部分: (一) 8 - 9A條,涉及的命運城市;和( b )第9b - 12 ,與她的居民。 Verse 13 introduces a parenetic portion: the false prophets are mostly to blame (14-17); therefore the exhortation to cry unto the Lord (18-19) and the fulfilment of the exhortation (20-22).新詩13介紹了parenetic部分:假先知大多歸咎於( 14-17 ) ;因此,告誡你們哭主( 18-19 )和履行勸告( 20-22 ) 。

The third poem, ch.第三首詩,甲烷。 iii., has a character of its own, being a psalm, somewhat similar to Ps.三。 ,有其自身的特點,是一個詩篇,有些類似聚苯乙烯。 lxxxviii. lxxxviii 。 Here, too, the question arises as to whether the speaker is one person-perhaps Jeremiah (comp. K. Budde in Marti's "Kurzer Handcommentar,"xvii. 92 et seq.)-or the community (comp. R. Smend in Stade's "Zeitschrift," viii. 62, note 3).在這方面,也產生一個問題,是否一位發言者是一個人,也許耶利米( comp.光布德在馬蒂的“ Kurzer Handcommentar , ”十七。 92起。 )或社區( comp.河Smend在球場的“雜誌, ”八。 62 ,注3 ) 。 The latter opinion is preferable in view of the contents.後者認為,最好是考慮到的內容。 Verses 1-18 deal with the deep affliction in consequence of which the speaker is without peace and without hope, and therefore he cries to God (19 et seq.).詩篇1月18日處理的深切痛苦的後果,其中一位發言者是沒有和平,沒有希望,因此他哭了上帝( 19起。 ) 。 The following section (21-47) is most important from a religious point of view; for, according to it, God's mercy is renewed every morning, and therefore man may hope even in sorrow, which is only a divine means of discipline.下面一節( 21 〜 )最重要的是從宗教角度看,因為,根據它,上帝的憐憫,每天早上更新,因此,男子可能希望即使在悲痛,這僅僅是一個神聖的手段紀律。 If God has afflicted any one, He will also show pity, according to the abundance of His mercy.如果上帝困擾任何一個,他也將顯示憐憫,根據豐富的憐憫。 Hence, he who is afflicted must not deem himself abandoned by God, but should consider whether he has not deserved his trials because of sins.因此,他誰是困擾絕不能認為自己遺棄的上帝,但應考慮是否值得,他還沒有審判,因為他的罪孽。 The result of this reflection is an admission of sin by the community (verse 47).這樣做的結果反映是接納的罪孽由社區(詩47 ) 。 This is followed by another description of the afflictions of the community (48-55).其次是由另一描述苦難的社會( 48-55 ) 。 The song ends with a prayer: "Help me and avenge me on my enemies" (56-66).這首歌結束了祈禱: “請幫助我和報復我的敵人” ( 56-66 ) 。

Fourth and Fifth Poems.第四次和第五次詩。

The fourth poem, ch.第四首詩,甲烷。 iv., is similar to the second as regards its symmetrical arrangement and its contents.四。 ,類似第二至於其對稱安排及其內容。 Verses 1-11 deal with the affliction of the "bene Ẓiyyon" and the "Nezirim"-with the famine as the greatest terror of the siege.詩篇1月11日處理了痛苦的“貝錫安”和“ Nezirim ”與飢荒的最大恐怖包圍。 God has poured out all His anger upon the unhappy city, which suffers because of the sins of its leaders, the priests and prophets (13-16), the king and his council (17-20).上帝已投入了所有他的憤怒時的不愉快的城市,其原因是由於罪惡的領袖,牧師和先知( 13-16日) ,國王和他的委員會( 17-20 ) 。 The last two verses (21-22) contain a threat of punishment against Edom.在過去兩年的詩句( 21-22 )載有威脅的處罰以東。

Since ancient times the fifth poem, ch.自古以來第五首詩,甲烷。 v., has rightly been called a prayer.五,正確地被稱為祈禱。 Verse 1 addresses God with the words "Behold our reproach"; this reproach is described with but little coherence in verses 2-18, which are followed by a second appeal to God (19-22): "Renew our days as of old."新詩1地址上帝的話“看,我們的責備” ,這是描述責備,但幾乎沒有連貫性的詩句2月18日,這是的第二個呼籲上帝( 19-22日) : “我們再次天老。 “


(a) Biblical and Pre-Talmudic Data: The book gives no information as to its author. (一)聖經和預塔木德數據:這本書的任何資料,其作者。 The earliest mention of it is found in II Chron.最早提到它是在二專欄。 xxxv. 25: "And Jeremiah lamented for Josiah; and all the singing men and the singing women spake of Josiah in their lamentations to this day, and made them an ordinance in Israel: and, behold, they are written in the lamentations."三十五。 25 : “和耶利米哀嘆的喬賽亞;和所有男人和唱歌的唱歌婦女spake的喬賽亞在其悲嘆到這一天,使他們在以色列的條例:和,看哪,他們是書面的悲嘆。 ” The chronicler therefore regards Jeremiah as the author of lamentations on Josiah; and it is not improbable that he saw them in the Book of Lamentations, in view of passages like ii.因此,關於該記錄者耶利米的作者悲嘆的喬賽亞;也不是不可能,他認為他們在這本書中的耶利米哀歌,鑑於通道像二。 6 and iv. 6和第四。 20. 20 。 Josephus ("Ant." x. 5, § 1) has transmitted this tradition: "But all the people mourned greatly for him [Josiah], lamenting and grieving on his account for many days: and Jeremiah the prophet composed an elegy to lament him, which is extant till this time also."約瑟夫( “螞蟻” 。十, 5條第1款)轉交了這一傳統: “但是所有的人對他的哀悼大大[約書亞] ,哀嘆和悲傷,他為許多天:和耶利米先知組成一個悲歌悲嘆他,這是現存到這個時候還。 “ This tradition has found a place in the Talmud as well as in the Greek translation of the Old Testament, and is plainly cited by Jerome, who says, on Zech.這一傳統已經找到了發生在塔爾穆德以及希臘翻譯舊約,並明確提到的杰羅姆,誰說,對Zech 。 xii.十二。 11: "Super quo [Josia] lamentationes scripsit Jeremias, quæ leguntur in ecclesia et scripsisse eum Paralipomenon testatur liber."EGHM Lö. 11 : “超級現狀[ Josia ] lamentationes scripsit赫雷米亞斯, quæ leguntur在教會等scripsisse eum Paralipomenon testatur書” 。 EGHM羅。

(b) In Rabbinical Literature: The rabbinical authorities regard Lamentations as having been written by Jeremiah (BB 15a). ( b )在猶太教文學:猶太教當局方面耶利米哀歌已被寫的耶利米( BB心跳15A條) 。 It is one of the three "Ketubim Ḳeṭannim" (Ber. 57b), and is variously designated as "Ḳinot," "Megillat Ḳinot," "Ekah," and "Megillat Ekah" (Ber. 57b; BB 15a; Lam. R. i. 1, ; comp. L. Blau ["Zur Einleitung in die Heilige Schrift," p. 38, note 3, Budapest, 1894], who questions the last two titles).它是三個“ Ketubim Ḳeṭannim ” ( Ber. 57B章) ,是各種指定為“ Ḳinot ” , “ Megillat Ḳinot ” , “ Ekah ”和“ Megillat Ekah ” ( Ber. 57B章; BB心跳15A條;林。 R 。島1 ;補償。屬布勞[ “論導論在模具神聖Schrift ” ,第38頁,注3 ,布達佩斯, 1894年] ,誰的問題在過去兩年冠軍) 。 And he who reads it utters first the benediction "'Al Miḳra Megillah" (Soferim xiv. 2; comp. ed. Müller, p. 188).誰和他第一次讀它行使的祝福“ '基地Miḳra Megillah ” ( Soferim十四。 2 ;補償。男女。米勒,第188號) 。 Ekah was written immediately after the destruction of the First Temple and of the city of Jerusalem (Lam. R. i. 1), though R. Judah is of the opinion that it was composed during the reign of Jehoiakim, after the first deportation (ib.). Ekah寫後立即銷毀第一聖殿和耶路撒冷城( Lam.河一1 ) ,但河猶太認為,這是組成時期的Jehoiakim ,在第一驅逐(國際文憑。 ) 。

The alphabetical construction of the poems furnished suggestions of an ethical nature to the Rabbis.按字母順序排列的建設提供建議的詩歌的道德性質的拉比。 The seven alphabets (ch. v. was also considered alphabetical as it numbers twenty-two verses) recall the seven sins committed by Israel (ib. Introduction, xxvii.). 7個字母(章五,也被認為是按字母順序排列的,因為數字22的詩句)回顧七宗罪以色列( ib.介紹,二十七。 ) 。 This form also indicates that Israel violated the Law from alef此表還表明,以色列違反法律從阿勒夫 to taw (以托( ib.國際文憑。 i.字母i. 1, § 21), ie, from beginning to end. 1 , § 21 ) ,即從開始到結束。 The letter pe體育的信 was placed before 'ayin, because Israel spake with the mouth () what the eye ("'ayin") had not seen (Lam. R. ii. 20).是擺在' ayin ,因為以色列spake的嘴( )什麼的眼睛( “ ayin ” )還沒有看到( Lam.河二。 20 ) 。 The influence of the Lamentations in bringing Israel to repentance was greater than that of all the other prophecies of Jeremiah (Lam. R. ix. 26). See also Jeremiah in Rabbinical Literature.的影響,使以色列耶利米哀歌悔改大於所有其他的預言耶利米( Lam.河九。 26 ) 。又見耶利米在猶太教文學。


Fürst, Der Kanon des AT Leipsic, 1868.SSEGH弗斯特,明鏡加隆公司在Leipsic , 1868.SSEGH

(c) Critical View: Since the tradition of the Jeremianic authorship was current as early as the time of the chronicler, it is doubtless an ancient one, but no reference is made to it in any of the songs themselves. (三)批評的看法:由於傳統的Jeremianic作者是目前最快的時間記錄者,這無疑是一個古老的一個,但沒有提到它的任何歌曲本身。 There are, on the contrary, weighty reasons against ascribing the authorship to Jeremiah:有相反的,重大的原因歸咎於對作者以耶利米:

(1) The position of the book among the "Ketubim" in the Hebrew canon; for though the Alexandrian canon places it beside the Book of Jeremiah, this juxtaposition did not obtain originally, since the two books were translated by different writers. ( 1 )的立場,這本書的“ Ketubim ”在希伯來文佳能;為佳能雖然亞歷山大的地方它旁邊的耶利米書,這並列沒有獲得原來,因為兩本書被翻譯不同的作家。

(2) The style of the songs, ie (a) their language and (b) their poetical form. ( 2 )風格的歌曲,即( a )自己的語言和( b )他們的詩歌形式。

(a) Their language: this has been exhaustively examined by Löhr in Stade's "Zeitschrift," xiv. (一)自己的語言:這是徹底審查Löhr在體育場的“雜誌, ”十四。 31 et seq., and it shows that ii. 31起。 ,它表明,二。 and iv.和四。 were drawn undoubtedly from Ezek., and i.得出無疑從結。 ,和一 and v. probably from Deutero-Isaiah.和訴可能從Deutero -以賽亞。

(b) Their poetical form: this does not refer to the elegiac verse (which Budde called the "Ḳinah-verse") of the first four songs-a verse-form which since the time of Amos is found in all the prophetic literature-but to the so-called acrostic form: that is, in ch. (二)他們的詩歌形式:這並非指的輓歌詩(其中布德稱為“ Ḳinah -詩” )的前四個歌曲一詩,形式之時起阿莫斯納曼發現所有先知文學但所謂的acrostic形式,即:在CH 。 i., ii., and iv.一,二。 ,和四。 each successive verse begins with a successive letter of the alphabet; in ch.每次連續詩一開始就連續字母;在CH 。 iii.三。 three verses are devoted to each letter; and the fifth song contains at least twenty-two verses, corresponding to the number of letters in the Hebrew alphabet.三個詩句用於每個字母;和第五歌曲至少包含22詩句,相應數量的字母在希伯來文字母表。 This artificial arrangement is scarcely ever found in the Old Testament except in late Psalms and in the later literature, like Prov.這種人為的安排幾乎從未發現舊約詩篇除下旬在後來的文獻,如省。 xxxi. and Nahum i.三十一。島和內厄姆 3. 3 。 The decisive argument against the hypothesis of the Jeremianic authorship is found in the contents of some of the passages.決定性的論點對假說Jeremianic中發現作者的內容的一些段落。 For example, ii.例如,二。 9 states that at that time the prophets had no vision from the Lord; iv. 9個國家,當時的預言沒有遠見從主;四。 17 refers to the reliance on help from Egypt; iv. 17指的是依賴於幫助埃及;四。 20, to the loyalty to the king; v. 7 states that Israel suffered innocently for the sins of the fathers.Indeed, it is highly improbable that Lamentations was composed by any one man, for the following reasons: (1) One writer would hardly have treated the same theme five different times; (2) the diversified character of the several songs, as shown above, is an argument against the assumption, as is also the difference in the acrostic arrangement; for in ch. 20 ,對國王的忠誠;五, 7個國家,以色列遭受無辜的罪惡的fathers.Indeed ,這是極不可能的耶利米哀歌組成的任何一個人,原因如下: ( 1 )一位作家會很難處理同一主題的五個不同的時間; ( 2 )多元化的特點,一些歌曲,如上所示,是一個反對的假設,因為也是差異acrostic安排;為在CH 。 i.字母i. the那個 precedes the之前的 , while it follows in ii.-iv. ,而如下ii.-iv. In view of the characteristics mentioned above, ii.鑑於上面提到的特點,二。 and iv.和四。 may be regarded as belonging together; the first dwelling more on the fate of the city, the second more on that of the inhabitants, and both rising to a higher poetic level than the remaining songs of the book.可被視為屬於在一起;第一住宅的命運更多的城市,更多的是第二次的居民,都上升到較高的水平,詩的剩餘歌曲的書籍。 Ch.總。 i.字母i. and v. might also be classed together, while iii. occupies an exceptional position, and may have been added in order to render the whole collection adaptable to religious purposes.和訴也可能被歸類在一起,而三。佔有特殊地位,並可能增加了,以便使整個收集適應宗教目的。 In later times, the book was read on the Ninth of Ab, in memory of the destruction of the Solomonic and Herodian Temples; and the custom may have originated even during the time of Zerubbabel's Temple. The time and place of the composition of the book are matters of conjecture.在以後的時間,閱讀這本書是關於第九屆的抗體,在記憶的破壞Solomonic和Herodian寺廟;和自定義可能起源甚至時期Zerubbabel聖殿。時間和地點的組成圖書問題是猜想。 Ch.總。 ii.二。 and iv.和四。 may have been written a decade after the destruction of Jerusalem; i.可能已經寫了10年後銷毀耶路撒冷;島 and v., perhaps toward the end of the Exile; and iii.和訴,也許是對的結束流亡;和三。 seems to be of still later origin.似乎還是後來的原產地。 Arguments seem to be in favor of Babylon as the place of origin of the book.論點似乎是有利於巴比倫作為原產地的書籍。

Emil G. Hirsch, Max Löhr, Solomon Schechter埃米爾赫斯基灣,最大Löhr ,索羅門謝克特

Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.猶太百科全書出版01年至1906年之間。


H. Ewald, Die Dichter des Alten Bundes, 2d ed., 1866, pp.閣下埃瓦爾德,模具迪希特萬老的Bundes ,二維版。 , 1866年,頁。 321 et seq.; Otto Thenius, in Kurzgefasstes Exegetisches Handbuch, 1855; Nägelsbach, Keil, Payne-Smith, Cheyne, and Plumptre at the end of their commentaries on Jeremiah; WR Smith, Lamentations, in Encyc. 321起。 ;奧托Thenius ,在Kurzgefasstes Exegetisches手冊, 1855年; Nägelsbach , Keil公司,佩恩史密斯,陳,並Plumptre結束時的評注耶利米;水利史密斯,耶利米哀歌,在Encyc 。 Brit.英。 9th ed.; S.第9版。 ;南 Oettli, in Strack and Zoeckler's Kurzgefasster Kommentar, etc.; M.歐特列,在施特拉克和Zoeckler的Kurzgefasster Kommentar等;先生 Löhr, Die Klagelieder Jeremia's, 1891; idem, in Nowack's Handkommentar zum Alten Testament, 1893; S. Löhr ,模具Klagelieder Jeremia的, 1891年;同上,在Nowack的Handkommentar zum老全書, 1893年;南 Minocchi, Le Lamentazioni di Geremia, Rome, 1897; Driver, Introduction to the Literature of the Old Testament, pp. Minocchi ,樂Lamentazioni娣Geremia ,羅馬, 1897年;驅動,介紹文學舊約,頁。 456 et seq., New York, 1902; Einleitungen to Lamentations (Klagelieder) by Cornill, Baudissin, König, Wellhausen-Bleek; Budde, Klagelieder, in KHC 1898.EGHM Lö. 456起。 ,紐約, 1902年; Einleitungen以耶利米哀歌( Klagelieder )由Cornill , Baudissin ,柯尼格,豪森- Bleek ;布德, Klagelieder ,在KHC 1898.EGHM羅。

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