General Information 一般信息

For Christians, Lent is a 40-day penitential period of prayer and fasting that precedes Easter.對於基督徒,四旬期是一個40天期間悔罪的祈禱和禁食之前復活節。 In the Western church, observance of Lent begins 6 1/2 weeks prior to Easter on Ash Wednesday; (Sundays are excluded).在西方教會,遵守四旬期始於6 1 / 2星期之前復活節聖灰星期三; (星期日除外) 。 In the Eastern church the period extends over 7 weeks because both Saturdays and Sundays are excluded.在東方教會期間延續7週,因為星期六和星期日除外。 Formerly a severe fast was prescribed: only one full meal a day was allowed, and meat, fish, eggs, and milk products were forbidden.前身是嚴重的快速明:只有一個完整一天只吃一頓飯被允許,和肉,魚,蛋和奶產品是被禁止的。 Today, however, prayer and works of charity are emphasized.然而,今天的祈禱和工程慈善得到強調。 Lent has been observed since the 4th century.四旬期一直以來4世紀。

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General Information 一般信息

Lent is the period of fasting and penitence traditionally observed by Christians in preparation for Easter.四旬期期間是空腹和懺悔傳統觀察基督徒,準備復活節。 The length of the Lenten fast, during which observants eat sparingly, was established in the 4th century as 40 days.長度的四旬期快,在這期間observants吃少,成立於4世紀為40天。 In the Eastern churches, where both Saturdays and Sundays are regarded as festival days, the period of Lent is the eight weeks before Easter; in the Western churches, where only Sunday is regarded as a festival, the 40-day period begins on Ash Wednesday and extends, with the omission of Sundays, to the day before Easter.在東方教堂,在兩個週六,週日被視為節日期間,四旬期是復活節前8個星期;在西方的教堂,在那裡只有週日被視為節, 40天內開始的聖灰星期三和延伸,與遺漏星期日,在復活節前一天。 The observance of fasting or other forms of self-denial during Lent varies within Protestant and Anglican churches.遵守禁食或其他形式的自我否定四旬期期間不同的新教和聖公會教堂。 These bodies emphasize penitence.這些機構強調懺悔。 The Roman Catholic church has in recent years relaxed its laws on fasting.羅馬天主教會在最近幾年放鬆其法律空腹。 According to an apostolic constitution issued by Pope Paul VI in February 1966, fasting and abstinence during Lent are obligatory only on Ash Wednesday and Good Friday.據使徒憲法發出教皇保羅六世在1966年2月,空腹和禁慾四旬期期間是強制性只在聖灰星期三和耶穌受難日。


Advanced Information 先進的信息

Lent is a forty-day period of penitence and prayer which begins on Ash Wednesday and prepares for the feast of Easter.四旬期是一個40天期間的懺悔和祈禱開始的聖灰星期三和準備的節日復活節。 It is a form of retreat for Christians preparing to celebrate the paschal mystery.這是一個形式的務虛會的基督徒準備慶祝復活節的謎。 It became a forty-day retreat during the seventh century to coincide with the forty days spent BY Christ in the desert; before this Lent usually lasted only a week.它成為一個第四十三一天務虛會在7世紀,以配合該四十天基督所花費在沙漠中;在這個四旬期通常只持續了一個星期。 Every Friday of Lent is a day of abstinence.每週五的每天四旬期是禁慾。 Fasting probably originated from the custom of fasting by those who were expecting to be baptized after being catechumens.空腹可能源於習慣空腹這些誰期望受洗後慕道。 The third, fourth, and fifth Sundays of Lent refer to the process of preparing for baptism.第三,第四和第五次週日的大齋期指的籌備進程的洗禮。

Penitential works are very important during Lent.悔罪的作品是非常重要的四旬期期間。 These include not only abstinence and fasting but also prayers and charitable works.這些因素不僅包括禁慾和禁食祈禱,而且還和慈善工程。 Ash Wednesday is one of the greatest days of penitence.聖灰星期三是一個最大的贖罪日。 Vatican Council II in the Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy describes how penitence will lead one closer to God.梵蒂岡第二理事會在憲法中的神聖禮儀介紹如何懺悔將導致一個更接近上帝。 People should not become overly involved in the penitence itself, however, but realize that the penitence is in preparation for celebrating the death and resurrection of Jesus Christ. Christians seek a change of heart during Lent in their relationship to God.人民不應該成為過於參與懺悔本身,但是,但是認識到懺悔是為籌備慶祝死亡和復活的耶穌。基督徒尋求改變了主意四旬期期間的關係上帝。

TJ German天津德國
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (規矩福音字典)

Bibliography 參考書目
N. Hordern and J. Otwell, Lent; H. Franke, Lent and Easter.北霍登和J. Otwell ,四旬期閣下;弗蘭卡,四旬期和復活。


Catholic Information 天主教新聞

Origin of the word詞源

The Teutonic word Lent, which we employ to denote the forty days' fast preceding Easter, originally meant no more than the spring season.四旬期的日爾曼字,我們聘請來表示四十天快速的復活節,原來是指不超過春季。 Still it has been used from the Anglo-Saxon period to translate the more significant Latin term quadragesima (French carême, Italian quaresima, Spanish cuaresma), meaning the "forty days", or more literally the "fortieth day".不過它已經被用來從盎格魯撒克遜時期把更重要的拉丁美洲長期quadragesima ( carême法語,意大利語quaresima ,西班牙語cuaresma ) ,這意味著“四十天” ,或更字面上的“ 40天” 。 This in turn imitated the Greek name for Lent, tessarakoste (fortieth), a word formed on the analogy of Pentecost (pentekoste), which last was in use for the Jewish festival before New Testament times.這反過來又模仿希臘名稱四旬期, tessarakoste ( 40 ) ,一個字上形成比喻聖靈降臨節( pentekoste ) ,這是在使用上的猶太節日之前新約全書倍。 This etymology, as we shall see, is of some little importance in explaining the early developments of the Easter fast.這詞源,我們將看到,是一些小的重要性,說明早期發展的復活節快。

Origin of the custom起源自定義

Some of the Fathers as early as the fifth century supported the view that this forty days' fast was of Apostolic institution.有些的父親早在15世紀支持這樣的觀點,這四十天'快是使徒機構。 For example, St. Leo (d. 461) exhorts his hearers to abstain that they may "fulfill with their fasts the Apostolic institution of the forty days" - ut apostolica institutio quadraginta dierum jejuniis impleatur (PL, LIV, 633), and the historian Socrates (d. 433) and St. Jerome (d. 420) use similar language (PG, LXVII, 633; PL, XXII, 475).例如,聖利奧( 4 461 )勸告他的聽眾投棄權票,他們可能“履行其齋戒使徒機構的四十天” - UT斯達康教廷institutio quadraginta dierum jejuniis impleatur (特等,活動全省, 633 ) ,和歷史學家蘇格拉底( 4 433 )和聖杰羅姆( 4 420 )使用類似的語言(前列腺素, LXVII , 633 ;特等, 22 , 475 ) 。

But the best modern scholars are almost unanimous in rejecting this view, for in the existing remains of the first three centuries we find both considerable diversity of practice regarding the fast before Easter and also a gradual process of development in the matter of its duration.但最好的現代學者們幾乎一致反對這一觀點,因為在現有的仍然是最初的三個世紀,我們發現這兩個相當不同的做法迅速在復活節之前,也逐步發展進程中的問題,其持續時間。 The passage of primary importance is one quoted by Eusebius (Hist. Eccl., V, xxiv) from a letter of St. Irenaeus to Pope Victor in connection with the Easter controversy.通過最重要的是一個引用的優西比烏( Hist. Eccl 。 ,五,二十四)從信中,教皇聖依維克多與復活節爭議。 There Irenaeus says that there is not only a controversy about the time of keeping Easter but also regarding the preliminary fast.有依說,那裡不僅是一個爭議的時間保持復活節而且還就初步快。 "For", he continues, "some think they ought to fast for one day, others for two days, and others even for several, while others reckon forty hours both of day and night to their fast". He also urges that this variety of usage is of ancient date, which implies that there could have been no Apostolic tradition on the subject. “為” ,他繼續說: “一些人認為他們應該快速的一天,其他兩天,甚至幾個,而另一些認為四十小時都白天和黑夜的快速。 ”他還敦促這一品種使用的是古老的日期,這意味著有可能沒有使徒傳統的主題。 Rufinus, who translated Eusebius into Latin towards the close of the fourth century, seems so to have punctuated this passage as to make Irenaeus say that some people fasted for forty days. Rufinus ,誰翻譯的優西比烏到拉丁美洲走向結束四世紀,看來有間斷這一段,使依說,有些人禁食四十天。 Formerly some difference of opinion existed as to the proper reading, but modern criticism (eg, in the edition of Schwartz commissioned by the Berlin Academy) pronounces strongly in favor of the text translated above. We may then fairly conclude that Irenaeus about the year 190 knew nothing of any以前有些不同的意見存在,以正確的閱讀,但現代的批評(例如,在出版的施瓦茨委託柏林科學院)宣布堅決支持文本翻譯以上。我們可能會得出這樣的結論:依公平的一年190一無所知的任何

Easter fast of forty days.復活節快速的四十天。

The same inference must be drawn from the language of Tertullian only a few years later.同樣的推理必須從良的語言只有在幾年之後。 When writing as a Montanist, he contrasts the very slender term of fasting observed by the Catholics (ie, "the days on which the bridegroom was taken away", probably meaning the Friday and Saturday of Holy Week) with the longer but still restricted period of a fortnight which was kept by the Montanists.寫作時作為Montanist ,他對比了非常細長任期禁食觀察到的天主教徒(即“這幾天的新郎被帶走” ,大概指的是週五和週六的聖週)與長遠,但仍限制期一個星期這是保存的Montanists 。 No doubt he was referring to fasting of a very strict kind (xerophagiæ - dry fasts), but there is no indication in his works, though he wrote an entire treatise "De Jejunio", and often touches upon the subject elsewhere, that he was acquainted with any period of forty days consecrated to more or less continuous fasting (see Tertullian, "De Jejun.", ii and xiv; cf. "de Orat.", xviii; etc.).毫無疑問,他指的是空腹一個非常嚴格的實物( xerophagiæ -幹齋戒) ,但目前並無跡象顯示在他的作品,但他寫了整個論文“者Jejunio ” ,而且往往涉及到這個問題的其他地方,他是熟悉任何期間四十天神聖更多或更少連續空腹(見良“者Jejun 。 ” ,第二和第十四;比照。 “日Orat 。 ”十八;等等) 。

And there is the same silence observable in all the pre-Nicene Fathers, though many had occasion to mention such an Apostolic institution if it had existed.有相同的沉默在所有觀察到前尼西亞父親,但許多曾提到這樣一個使徒機構如果它的存在。 We may note for example that there is no mention of Lent in St. Dionysius of Alexandria (ed. Feltoe, 94 sqq.) or in the "Didascalia", which Funk attributes to about the yearkú yet both speak diffusely of the paschal fast. Further, there seems much to suggest that the Church in the Apostolic Age designed to commemorate the Resurrection of Christ, not by an annual, but by a weekly celebration (see "the Month", April 1910, 337 sqq.).我們可以注意到,例如,有沒有提到四旬期聖狄奧尼修斯亞歷山大(編Feltoe 94 sqq 。 )或“ Didascalia ” ,其中的大約克屬性的yearkú說話都還瀰漫的逾越快。此外,似乎有很多建議,教會使徒時代的設計,以紀念基督的復活,而不是由一個年度,但每週一次的慶祝活動(見“月” , 1910年4月, 337 sqq 。 ) 。 If this be so, the Sunday liturgy constituted the weekly memorial of the Resurrection, and the Friday fast that of the Death of Christ.如果這是這樣,在星期日的每週禮儀構成紀念館的復活,以及週五快,死亡基督。 Such a theory offers a natural explanation of the wide divergence which we find existing in the latter part of the second century regarding both the proper time for keeping Easter, and also the manner of the paschal fast.這種理論提供了一個自然的解釋分歧較大,我們發現現有的一部分,後者的第二個世紀就在適當的時候保持復活節,還的方式快速的逾越。 Christians were at one regarding the weekly observance of the Sunday and the Friday, which was primitive, but the annual Easter festival was something superimposed by a process of natural development, and it was largely influenced by the conditions locally existing in the different Churches of the East and West.基督徒在一個關於每週遵守星期日和星期五,這是原始的,但每年的復活節慶典,一些重疊的自然發展過程,它主要是受當地現有的條件在不同的教會東方和西方。 Moreover, with the Easter festival there seems also to have established itself a preliminary fast, not as yet anywhere exceeding a week in duration, but very severe in character, which commemorated the Passion, or more generally, "the days on which the bridegroom was taken away".此外,隨著復活節節似乎也已初步確立了自己速度快,還沒有任何超過一個星期的時間,但非常嚴重的性質,它紀念激情,或更籠統地說, “這幾天的新郎帶走“ 。

Be this as it may, we find in the early years of the fourth century the first mention of the term tessarakoste.是這樣,因為它可能會,我們發現在最初幾年的四世紀的第一次提到這個詞tessarakoste 。 It occurs in the fifth canon of the Council of Nicea (AD 325), where there is only question of the proper time for celebrating a synod, and it is conceivable that it may refer not to a period but to a definite festival, eg, the Feast of the Ascension, or the Purification, which Ætheria calls quadragesimæ de Epiphania.它發生在第五佳能理事會的尼西亞(公元325 ) ,那裡是唯一的問題的適當時機的慶祝會議上,這是可以想像的,它可能是指沒有一個時期,而是一個明確的節日,如升天節,或純化,這Ætheria呼籲quadragesimæ日Epiphania 。 But we have to remember that the older word, pentekoste (Pentecost) from meaning the fiftieth day, had come to denote the whole of the period (which we should call Paschal Time) between Easter Sunday and Whit-Sunday (cf. Tertullian, "De Idololatria", xiv, - "pentecosten implere non poterunt").但是我們必須記住,老字, pentekoste (聖靈降臨節)從50日的意義,已經到了指整個時期(我們應該要求復活節時間)之間在復活節的星期日和白衣星期日(見良“者Idololatria “ ,第十四條, - ” pentecosten implere非poterunt “ ) 。 In any case it is certain from the "Festal Letters" of St. Athanasius that in 331 the saint enjoined upon his flock a period of forty days of fasting preliminary to, but not inclusive of, the stricter fast of Holy Week, and secondly that in 339 the same Father, after having traveled to Rome and over the greater part of Europe, wrote in the strongest terms to urge this observance upon the people of Alexandria as one that was universally practiced, "to the end that while all the world is fasting, we who are in Egypt should not become a laughing-stock as the only people who do not fast but take our pleasure in those days".在任何情況下,它是某些從“節日快報”聖亞他那修,在331聖責成他的羊群時,為期四十天的禁食初步,但不包括,嚴格快速的聖週,第二,在339個同一個父親,之後前往羅馬,在更大的歐洲的一部分,寫以最強烈的措詞敦促遵守各國人民的亞歷山德里亞的一個普遍做法是, “到最後,雖然世界上所有的空腹,我們誰是在埃及不應成為笑股票作為唯一的人誰不採取迅速,但我們很高興在那些日子裡“ 。 Although Funk formerly maintained that a Lent of forty days was not known in the West before the time of St. Ambrose, this is evidence which cannot be set aside.雖然克前堅持認為,四旬期的四十天不知道在西方面前的時候,聖安布羅斯,這是證據,不能被擱置。

Duration of the Fast修讀快速

In determining this period of forty days the example of Moses, Elias, and Christ must have exercised a predominant influence, but it is also possible that the fact was borne in mind that Christ lay forty hours in the tomb.在確定這一時期的四十天的例子,摩西,埃利亞斯,和基督必須行使的主要影響,但它也有可能是事實,銘記的是,基督奠定四十〇小時在墓穴。 On the other hand just as Pentecost (the fifty days) was a period during which Christians were joyous and prayed standing, though they were not always engaged in such prayer, so the Quadragesima (the forty days) was originally a period marked by fasting, but not necessarily a period in which the faithful fasted every day. Still, this principle was differently understood in different localities, and great divergences of practice were the result.另一方面,正如聖靈降臨節( 51天)是一個時期基督徒祈禱常設歡樂,但他們並不總是從事這種祈禱,所以Quadragesima (第四十五天)最初一段時間的齋戒,但不一定是在這個時期的信徒禁食每天。儘管如此,這一原則是不同的理解,不同的地方,和偉大的實踐分歧的結果。 In Rome, in the fifth century, Lent lasted six weeks, but according to the historian Socrates there were only three weeks of actual fasting, exclusive even then of the Saturday and Sunday and if Duchesne's view may be trusted, these weeks were not continuous, but were the first, the fourth, and sixth of the series, being connected with the ordinations (Christian Worship, 243).在羅馬,在第五世紀,四旬期持續六週,但據歷史學家蘇格拉底,只有三個星期的實際空腹,獨家即使這樣的星期六和星期日,如果杜申的觀點可能是值得信賴的,這週是不是連續性的,但第一,第四和第六的系列,目前正在與祝(基督教崇拜, 243 ) 。 Possibly, however, these three weeks had to do with the "scrutinies" preparatory to Baptism, for by some authorities (eg, AJ Maclean in his "Recent Discoveries") the duty of fasting along with the candidate for baptism is put forward as the chief influence at work in the development of the forty days.可能的話,但是,這三個星期必須做的“ scrutinies ”籌備洗禮,為一些部門(如歐塞爾麥克林在他的“最新發現” )的責任空腹與洗禮的候選人提出的行政工作中的影響力發展的四十天。 But throughout the Orient generally, with some few exceptions, the same arrangement prevailed as St. Athanasius's "Festal Letters" show us to have obtained in Alexandria, namely, the six weeks of Lent were only preparatory to a fast of exceptional severity maintained during Holy Week.而且在整個東方普遍,一些少數例外,同樣的安排普遍存在的聖亞他那修的“節日快報”顯示我們已經獲得在亞歷山德里亞,即6個星期的大齋期,只有一個快速籌備的特殊嚴重性保持在羅馬週。 This is enjoined by the "Apostolic Constitutions" (V, xiii), and presupposed by St. Chrysostom (Hom. xxx in Gen., I).這是禁止的“使徒憲法” (五,十三) ,並假定由聖金口( Hom.三十的將軍,我) 。 But the number forty, having once established itself, produced other modifications.但是,一些四十零,而一旦確立了自己製作的其他修改。 It seemed to many necessary that there should not only be fasting during the forty days but forty actual fasting days.似乎許多必要的,應該不僅是空腹在四十天,但實際禁食40天。 Thus we find Ætheria in her "Peregrinatio" speaking of a Lent of eight weeks in all observed at Jerusalem, which, remembering that both the Saturday and Sunday of ordinary weeks were exempt, gives five times eight, ie, forty days for fasting.因此,我們找到Ætheria在她的“ Peregrinatio ”講的大齋期為8週在所有觀察到耶路撒冷,這都記住,週六和週日的普通星期都不能免除,使8 5倍,即四十天的禁食。 On the other hand, in many localities people were content to observe no more than a six weeks' period, sometimes, as at Milan, fasting only five days in the week after the oriental fashion (Ambrose, "De Elia et Jejunio", 10).另一方面,在許多地方人的內容,觀察不超過6個星期的期間,有時,因為在米蘭,空腹只有五天後,在本週的東方時尚(劉漢銓, “者埃利亞等Jejunio ” , 10 ) 。 In the time of Gregory the Great (590-604) there were apparently at Rome six weeks of six days each, making thirty-six fast days in all, which St. Gregory, who is followed therein by many medieval writers, describes as the spiritual tithing of the year, thirty-six days being approximately the tenth part of three hundred and sixty-five.時代的格里高利大( 590-604 )有明顯在羅馬6個星期的六天每個,使36天,所有快,這聖格雷戈里,誰其次是有許多中世紀作家,描述為什一奉獻的精神,今年36天大約十部分365 。 At a later date the wish to realize the exact number of forty days led to the practice of beginning Lent upon our present Ash Wednesday, but the Church of Milan, even to this day, adheres to the more primitive arrangement, which still betrays itself in the Roman Missal when the priest in the Secret of the Mass on the first Sunday of Lent speaks of "sacrificium quadragesimalis initii", the sacrifice of the opening of Lent.在稍後的日期,希望實現的確切人數四十天導致實踐四旬期開始後,我們目前的聖灰星期三,但教會的米蘭,甚至到今天,堅持以最原始的安排,仍然暴露出自己的羅馬彌撒時,牧師在地下的秘密的第一個星期日的四旬期提到“ sacrificium quadragesimalis initii ” ,犧牲四旬期開幕。

Nature of the fast性質的快速

Neither was there originally less divergence regarding the nature of the fast. For example, the historian Socrates (Hist. Eccl., V, 22) tells of the practice of the fifth century: "Some abstain from every sort of creature that has life, while others of all the living creatures eat of fish only. Others eat birds as well as fish, because, according to the Mosaic account of the Creation, they too sprang from the water; others abstain from fruit covered by a hard shell and from eggs. Some eat dry bread only, others not even that; others again when they have fasted to the ninth hour (three o'clock) partake of various kinds of food". Amid this diversity some inclined to the extreme limits of rigor.無論是原先有分歧較少的性質迅速。例如,歷史學家蘇格拉底( Hist. Eccl 。 ,五, 22 )講述的做法第五世紀: “有些避免每一種動物有生命,而其他的所有眾生吃的魚只。其他吃鳥類以及魚類,因為根據花葉帳戶的建立,他們也紛紛從水;其他棄權水果所涵蓋的硬殼和雞蛋。一些只有吃幹麵包,別人也不是其他的時候,他們禁食第九次小時( 3點鐘)參與各類食品。 “在這種多樣性的一些傾向於極端限制嚴格。 Epiphanius, Palladius, and the author of the "Life of St. Melania the Younger" seem to contemplate a state of things in which ordinary Christians were expected to pass twenty-four hours or more without food of any kind, especially during Holy Week, while the more austere actually subsisted during part or the whole of Lent upon one or two meals a week (see Rampolla, "Vita di. S. Melania Giuniore", appendix xxv, p. 478).埃皮法尼烏斯,帕拉第阿斯,作者的“生命的聖Melania年輕”似乎考慮到一個國家的事情,其中普通的基督徒,預計通過二十四小時或以上沒有任何種類的食物,尤其是在聖週,而更嚴峻的實際生存期間部分或全部四旬期的一個或兩餐一周(見Rampolla , “維塔教堂。南Melania Giuniore ” ,附錄25 ,第478 ) 。 But the ordinary rule on fasting days was to take but one meal a day and that only in the evening, while meat and, in the early centuries, wine were entirely forbidden.但是,普通的規則空腹天採取但是一天只吃一頓飯,只有在晚上,而肉類,並在世紀初,葡萄酒是完全禁止的。 During Holy Week, or at least on Good Friday it was common to enjoin the xerophagiæ, ie, a diet of dry food, bread, salt, and vegetables.聖週期間,或者至少是耶穌受難節這是共同責成xerophagiæ ,即飲食的乾糧,麵包,鹽,和蔬菜。

There does not seem at the beginning to have been any prohibition of lacticinia, as the passage just quoted from Socrates would show.似乎沒有在年初已被任何禁止lacticinia ,因為通過剛才引用從蘇格拉底將顯示。 Moreover, at a somewhat later date, Bede tells us of Bishop Cedda, that during Lent he took only one meal a day consisting of "a little bread, a hen's egg, and a little milk mixed with water" (Hist. Eccl., III, xxiii), while Theodulphus of Orleans in the eighth century regarded abstinence from eggs, cheese, and fish as a mark of exceptional virtue.此外,在有些日後,比德告訴我們主教Cedda ,在四旬期他只用了一天只吃一頓飯組成的“一點麵包,一個雞蛋,和少量牛奶與水混合” ( Hist. Eccl 。 ,三,二十三) ,而Theodulphus奧爾良在第八世紀認為禁慾雞蛋,奶酪,魚類作為商標的特殊美德。 None the less St. Gregory writing to St. Augustine of England laid down the rule, "We abstain from flesh meat, and from all things that come from flesh, as milk, cheese, and eggs."然而,聖格里高利聖奧古斯丁書面英格蘭奠定了規則, “我們棄權的肉肉類,和所有的東西來自肉體,如牛奶,奶酪和雞蛋。 ” This decision was afterwards enshrined in the "Corpus Juris", and must be regarded as the common law of the Church.這一決定後來被載入“大全” ,而且必須被視為普通法的教會。 Still exceptions were admitted, and dispensations to eat "lacticinia" were often granted upon condition of making a contribution to some pious work. These dispensations were known in Germany as Butterbriefe, and several churches are said to have been partly built by the proceeds of such exceptions.不過例外的是承認和特許吃“ lacticinia ”後往往被授予條件作出貢獻,一些虔誠的工作。這些特許被稱為德國的Butterbriefe ,一些教堂據說是興建的部分收益,例如例外。 One of the steeples of Rouen cathedral was for this reason formerly known as the Butter Tower.一個尖塔魯昂大教堂是出於這個原因以前稱為黃油大樓。 This general prohibition of eggs and milk during Lent is perpetuated in the popular custom of blessing or making gifts of eggs at Easter, and in the English usage of eating pancakes on Shrove Tuesday.這種全面禁止蛋,奶四旬期期間延續至今的熱門定制的祝福或禮物,在復活節蛋,並在英語用法吃煎餅的懺悔星期二。

Relaxations of the Lenten Fast鬆弛的四旬期快速

From what has been said it will be clear that in the early Middle Ages Lent throughout the greater part of the Western Church consisted of forty weekdays, which were all fast days, and six Sundays.從已經表示,將明確指出,在中世紀早期,四旬期整個大部份西方教會包括四十平日,這些都是快速天, 6個星期日。 From the beginning to the end of that time all flesh meat, and also, for the most part, "lacticinia", were forbidden even on Sundays, while on all the fasting days only one meal was taken, which single meal was not permitted before evening.從開始到結束,當時所有的肉肉類,而且,在大多數情況下, “ lacticinia ” ,甚至被禁止在星期日,同時對所有禁食兩天只吃一頓飯是,這餐單之前不允許傍晚。 At a very early period, however (we find the first mention of it in Socrates), the practice began to be tolerated of breaking the fast at the hour of none, ie, three o'clock.在非常早的時期,但(我們認為,第一次提及它在蘇格拉底) ,開始的做法是不能容忍的快速突破在小時的票,即三點鐘。 We learn in particular that Charlemagne, about the year 800, took his lenten repast at 2 pm This gradual anticipation of the hour of dinner was facilitated by the fact that the canonical hours of none, vespers, etc., represented rather periods than fixed points of time.我們學習,特別是沙勒邁恩,大約800年,在他的四旬期就餐下午2時這一預期的逐步小時的晚宴促進了這一事實,即典型小時的票,晚禱等出席,而時間比固定點的時間。 The ninth hour, or none, was no doubt strictly three o'clock in the afternoon, but the Office of none might be recited as soon as sext, which, of course, corresponded to the sixth hour, or midday, was finished. Hence none in course of time came to be regarded as beginning at midday, and this point of view is perpetuated in our word noon which means midday and not three o'clock in the afternoon.第九屆小時,或根本沒有,毫無疑問嚴格三點在下午,但沒有辦公室可以背誦盡快sext ,這當然,相對應的第六屆小時,或中午,已經完成。因此過程中沒有時間來被視為中午開始,這個觀點是我們的長期一詞中午這意味著中午,而不是3點鐘在下午進行。 Now the hour for breaking the fast during Lent was after Vespers (the evening service), but by a gradual process the recitation of Vespers was more and more anticipated, until the principle was at last officially recognized, as it is at present, that Vespers in lent may be said at midday.現在時間為打破快速四旬期期間是在晚禱(晚上服務) ,而是由一個漸進的過程晚禱的背誦是越來越多的預期,直到原則是在去年正式承認,因為它是在目前,這晚禱在借給可以說在正午。 In this way, although the author of the "Micrologus" in the eleventh century still declared that those who took food before evening did not observe the lenten fast according to the canons (PL, CLI, 1013), still, even at the close of the thirteenth century, certain theologians, for example the Franciscan Richard Middleton, who based his decision in part upon contemporary usage, pronounced that a man who took his dinner at midday did not break the lenten fast.通過這種方式,雖然作者的“ Micrologus ”在11世紀仍然宣稱,這些食物之前誰了晚上不遵守四旬期快速根據大砲(特等,命令行, 1013年) ,不過,即使結束時十三世紀,某些神學家,比如濟理查德米德爾頓,誰在他的決定基於對當代部分的使用,顯著,一名男子誰把他吃飯,中午不休息的四旬期快。

Still more material was the relaxation afforded by the introduction of "collation".還有更多的物質是放寬介紹所提供的“整理” 。 This seems to have begun in the ninth century, when the Council of Aix la Chapelle sanctioned the concession, even in monastic houses, of a draught of water or other beverage in the evening to quench the thirst of those who were exhausted by the manual labor of the day.這似乎已經開始在九世紀,當安理會艾克斯拉沙佩勒認可的特許權,即使是在寺院住房,吃水中的水或其他飲料傍晚解渴渴望這些誰已經用盡的體力勞動的一天。 From this small beginning a much larger indulgence was gradually evolved.從這個小開始一個更大的寬容是逐步演變。 The principle of parvitas materiae, ie, that a small quantity of nourishment which was not taken directly as a meal did not break the fast, was adopted by St. Thomas Aquinas and other theologians, and in the course of centuries a recognized quantity of solid food, which according to received authorities must not exceed eight ounces, has come to be permitted after the midday repast.的原則, parvitas本質,即少量的營養而不是直接作為餐沒有打破快速獲得通過多瑪斯和其他神學,並在數百年的過程中一個公認的數量固體食品,根據收到當局不得超過8盎司,已被允許在中午就餐。 As this evening drink, when first tolerated in the ninth-century monasteries, was taken at the hour at which the "Collationes" (Conferences) of Abbot Cassian were being read aloud to the brethren, this slight indulgence came to be known as a "collation", and the name has continued since.由於今天晚上喝,當第一不能容忍在第九世紀的寺廟,採取了時間上的“ Collationes ” (會議)的艾博特Cassian正在朗讀的弟兄們,這稍微放縱後來被稱為“序“ ,和名稱以來一直。

Other mitigations of an even more substantial character have been introduced into lenten observance in the course of the last few centuries.其他緩解了更大幅度的性質已被引入到四旬期遵守過程中,過去幾個世紀。 To begin with, the custom has been tolerated of taking a cup of liquid (eg, tea or coffee, or even chocolate) with a fragment of bread or toast in the early morning.首先,自定義一直採取容忍杯液體(例如,喝茶或咖啡,甚至巧克力)的片段麵包或土司清晨。 But, what more particularly regards Lent, successive indults have been granted by the Holy See allowing meat at the principal meal, first on Sundays, and then on two, three, four, and five weekdays, throughout nearly the whole of Lent.但是,什麼更特別是關於四旬期,連續indults已獲准由羅馬教廷允許肉類的主要食物,首先在週日,然後在二,三,四,五個工作日,全國各地幾乎整個四旬期。 Quite recently, Maundy Thursday, upon which meat was hitherto always forbidden, has come to share in the same indulgence.最近,濯足節,在這肉是迄今一直被禁止,已經到來的份額相同的嗜好。 In the United States, the Holy See grants faculties whereby working men and their families may use flesh meat once a day throughout the year, except Fridays, Ash Wednesday, Holy Saturday, and the vigil of Christmas.在美國,教廷贈款院系,即工作的男子和他們的家庭可以使用肉肉類每天一次在整個一年中,除五,聖灰星期三,羅馬星期六和守夜的聖誕節。 The only compensation imposed for all these mitigations is the prohibition during Lent against partaking of both fish and flesh at the same repast.唯一的補償實行所有這些緩解措施是禁止四旬期期間都對partaking魚和肉,同時就餐。 (See ABSTINENCE; FAST; CANONICAL IMPEDIMENTS; LAETARE SUNDAY; SEPTUAGESIMA; SEXAGESIMA; QUINQUAGESIMA; QUADRAGESIMA; VESTMENTS). (見禁慾;快;典型障礙; LAETARE星期日SEPTUAGESIMA ; SEXAGESIMA ; QUINQUAGESIMA ; QUADRAGESIMA ;祭服) 。

Publication information Written by Herbert Thurston.出版信息作者赫伯特瑟斯頓。 Transcribed by Anthony A. Killeen.轉錄由安東尼基林。 AMDG The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume IX. AMDG天主教百科全書,體積九。 Published 1910.發布時間1910年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1910. Nihil Obstat , 1910年10月1號。 Remy Lafort, Censor.雷米Lafort ,審查。 Imprimatur.認可。 +John M. +約翰M Farley, Archbishop of New York法利,大主教紐約

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