Christian Ministry基督教部

General Information 一般信息

Ministry means "service," which is an ideal for all Christians; the image of Christ as servant (Phil. 2:5-7; Mark 10:45) has been extended to the Christian church as a whole. From the beginning, however, certain individuals have been designated to perform spiritual functions within the church. 部的意思是“服務” ,這是一個理想的為所有基督徒的形象,基督的僕人( Phil. 2:5-7 ;馬克10:45 )已擴大到基督教堂作為一個整體。從一開始,然而,某些個人已被指定執行的精神功能的教堂。 Those ordained to these special ministries, which are usually full-time occupations, are now called ministers or Priests.這些晉這些特殊部門,這通常是全職的職業,現在所謂的部長或牧師。 Even in its early development, the church was a structured society consisting of the body of the faithful served by a group of individuals charged with particular functions and responsibilities.即使是在其早期發展,教會是一個結構性的社會組成的機構,忠實服務的一群人被控犯有特別的職能和責任。

The Gospels agree that the first ministers received their commission directly from Jesus Christ, but their ministry was set within the context of the church.福音同意,第一次部長委員會收到他們直接從耶穌基督,但他們的部定範圍內的教堂。 The first ministers were called the Twelve, and later, the term Apostle was applied to them and to some other leaders of the community: Matthias, who succeeded Judas, Paul, Barnabas, and others. One important qualification of the original apostles was to have been eyewitnesses of Jesus Christ.第一部長被稱為12 ,後來,這個詞使徒適用於他們和其他一些社會領袖:馬蒂亞斯,誰成功猶大,保羅,巴拿巴等。一項重要資格的原始使徒是有被目擊者耶穌基督。 The apostles went out from Jerusalem to preach, baptize, and establish churches.使徒出去從耶路撒冷講道,施洗,建立教會。 Other wandering ministers included the 70 sent out by Jesus (Luke 10:1), evangelists such as Philip (Acts 8:5), and charismatic prophets (Acts 11:27).其他流浪部長包括70所發出耶穌(路加福音10:1 ) ,福音如菲利普(使徒八點05分) ,和魅力先知(使徒11時27分) 。

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As the church spread and became more institutionalized, local ministries emerged, presided over by prominent converts appointed by the apostles.教會傳播,成為更加制度化,當地政府部門出現,主持了著名的轉換指定的使徒。 The original offices were those of Bishops (overseers) and Presbyters (elders), although to begin with these were not clearly distinguished.原來的辦事處是那些主教(監察)和Presbyters (長者) ,雖然一開始就沒有這些明確的區分。 Ministers such as Stephen and his companions were also appointed to deal with administrative matters and leave the apostles free for preaching (Acts 6:1-6), although Stephen also preached.部長們,如斯蒂芬和他的同伴還任命了處理行政事項和假使徒自由宣教(使徒6:1-6 ) ,儘管斯蒂芬還鼓吹。 They have been taken as prototypes of Deacons, although not actually called by this name.他們已經採取作為原型的執事,但實際上沒有所謂的這個名字。

During the 2d century the peripatetic ministries of apostles, evangelists, and prophets gradually died out and were replaced by a settled ministry situated in various towns and cities.在二維的流動世紀部委使徒,福音使者,和先知逐漸消失了,取而代之的定居部設在各城鎮和城市。 Early in the century, Ignatius of Antioch testified to the increasing power and influence of the bishops, who came to be regarded as the successors to the apostles.早在本世紀內修斯的安提阿證明,越來越多的權力和影響力的主教,誰是被視為繼承宗徒。 Especially in cities where the churches had been founded by apostles, chronological lists of bishops were drawn up, and their unbroken line of succession from an apostolic founder was claimed to be a guarantee of the authenticity of their teaching, as against heretical teachers lacking such pedigree (see Apostolic Succession).尤其是在城市的教堂被創立的使徒,順序列出的主教,擬訂了,他們連續繼承人從使徒創始人是自稱是保證真實性的教學,教師對邪教缺乏這種譜系(見繼承宗徒) 。

Under the bishops, presbyters (who were now called priests) performed most of the duties of Christian ministry in the local churches--preaching, administering the sacraments, and providing pastoral care.根據主教, presbyters (誰是現在被稱為神父)完成大部分的職責基督教部在當地的教堂-說教,管理聖禮,並提供牧靈工作。 The deacons formed an order somewhat apart, with some clerical and some lay characteristics, thus providing a bridge between clergy and laity.執事組成秩序有點除,一些文書和一些奠定特徵,從而提供了一種橋樑的神職人員和信徒。 The diaconate eventually devolved into a stepping-stone to the presbyterate, until it began to be restored to its original function in recent times.下放的diaconate最終成為一個踏腳石的presbyterate ,直到它開始恢復其原有的功能,最近次。

Even in New Testament times some women exercised a ministry similar to that of deacons, although not until the 4th century did they become known as deaconesses.即使是在新約時代一些婦女行使部類似執事,但直到4世紀,他們被稱為女執事。 To what extent the deaconess's office was recognized as an order of ministry comparable to the men's orders is disputable, and practice probably varied from place to place.在何種程度上女執事辦公室被確認為一項命令部可比的男子的命令是有爭議的,與實踐可能不同地點舉行。 The ancient office of deaconess died out, but it has been revived in modern times.古老的辦公室女執事去世了,但它已恢復在現代社會。

The threefold ministry of bishops, priests, and deacons has been maintained in the Catholic tradition of the church, but at the Reformation most Protestant churches abolished the order of bishops and called their presbyters ministers. These ministers might be assisted by elders or deacons. 的三個部的主教,司鐸和執事一直保持在傳統的天主教教會,但在改革最新教廢除主教的命令,並要求其presbyters部長。這些部長們可能會幫助老人或執事。

Entry to the full-time ministry now entails a course of theological and practical training leading to ordination, the process by which the candidate is received into the ministerial order.進入全日制部現在需要的神學課程和實踐培訓,導致協調的過程中,候選人獲得的部級命令。 In the Catholic tradition, ordination is by a bishop, signifying the unity and continuity of the church.在天主教的傳統,協調是一個主教,標誌著的統一性和連續性教堂。 In nonepiscopal Protestant churches, ordination is usually by a collective of ministers acting together.在nonepiscopal新教教堂,協調通常是由一個集體的部長共同行動。

The Catholic tradition emphasizes the priestly and sacramental aspects of ministry, whereas the Protestant churches stress preaching and teaching. In recent times many Protestant churches have admitted women to the ministry. 天主教傳統強調祭司和聖事部方面,而新教強調傳教和教學。最近許多新教承認婦女部。 The Roman Catholic and Orthodox churches reject women's ordination; Anglicans, or Episcopalians, are divided on this issue.羅馬天主教和東正教教堂拒絕婦女協調;聖公會,或聖公會,分為在這一問題上。

John Macquarrie約翰Macquarrie

Bibliography 參考書目
Kirk, KE, ed., The Apostolic Ministry (1946); Niebuhr, H. Richard, and Williams, Daniel D., eds., The Ministry in Historical Perspective, rev.爾柯克,科,教署。 ,宗徒們( 1946年) ;尼布爾閣下理查德和威廉姆斯,丹尼爾博士,合編。 ,該部在歷史的角度來看,恢復。 ed. (1983); Osborn, Ronald E., In Christ's Place: Christian Ministry in Today's World (1977); Schillebeeckx, Edward, Church with a Human Face: New and Expanded Theology of Ministry (1985); Steele, DA, Images of Leadership and Authority for the Church (1987); Williams, Daniel D., The Minister and the Care of Souls (1961).教育署。 ( 1983年) ;奧斯本,羅納德大腸桿菌,在基督的位置:基督教部在今天的世界( 1977年) ; Schillebeeckx ,愛德華,教會有人情味的:新的和擴大的神學部( 1985年) ;斯蒂爾,多巴胺,圖像領導和管理局教會( 1987年) ;威廉姆斯,丹尼爾博士,部長和照顧靈魂( 1961年) 。


Advanced Information 先進的信息

The biblical concept of ministry is service rendered to God or to people.聖經的概念部提供的服務,以神或人。 Ministry in the church has as its goal the edification of individuals with a view toward corporate maturity in Christ (Eph. 4:7-16).內政部在教堂裡有一個共同目標的個人的熏陶,以期對企業的成熟度在基督( Eph. 4:7-16 ) 。

The concept of ministry as service is seen in the words diakoneo ("serve") and douleuo ("serve as a slave") and their corresponding nouns.的概念,作為服務部看到的話diakoneo ( “服務” )和douleuo ( “充當奴隸” )及其相應的名詞。 The word hyperetes indicates one who gives willing service to another, eg, servants of the "word" (Luke 1:2), of Christ (John 18:36; Acts 26:16; I Cor. 4:1), and of Paul and Barnabas (Acts 13:5).這個詞hyperetes表明一個誰願意給另一個服務,例如,公務員的“字” (路加福音1:2 ) ,基督(約18:36 ;行為26:16我心病。 4:1 ) ,和保羅和巴拿巴(使徒13時05分) 。

The word leitourgia and its corresponding verb, leitourgeo, often refer to the priestly service of the OT.這個詞leitourgia及其相應動詞, leitourgeo ,往往指的是祭司服務催產素。 They are used figuratively in the NT to indicate financial "ministry" (Rom. 15:27; II Cor. 9:12) and the pouring out of Paul's life sacrificially in his ministry (Phil. 2:17).它們被用來比喻在新界表明財政“省” ( Rom. 15:27 ;二心病。 9時12分)和湧出保羅的生命犧牲在他的部( Phil. 2時17分) 。 This terminology describes Christian service in general, but in the postapostolic period it is increasingly applied to the distinctive service of clergy as the Christian counterpart to the OT Levitical ministers.這個術語描述基督教服務處的一般,但在postapostolic期間人們越來越多地應用到服務的獨特的基督教神職人員對應的催產素Levitical部長。 This is seen in I Clement and in the Apostolic Constitutions.這是從我克萊門特和使徒憲法。

Types of ministry seen in Scripture include the service of priests and Levites in the OT, of apostles, prophets, evangelists, and pastor-teachers in the NT, along with the general ministry of elders and the individual mutual ministries of all believers.類型部看到聖經包括服務的司鐸和利在催產素的使徒,先知,福音使者,和牧師,教師新台幣,加上一般部的長者和個人相互部委的所有信徒。 The term "ministry" therefore refers to the work both of those commissioned to leadership and of the whole body of believers.術語“內政部”因此,指的是這兩項工作委託給領導和全身的信徒。

The ideals of ministry are portrayed in the servant-leadership of Christ.理想的部描繪的僕人領導的基督。 Acts 6:3 provides guidelines as to the spiritual qualities sought in leaders, and I Tim. 6時零三規定的行為準則,以尋求精神素質的領導人,我添。 3:1-13 (cf. Titus 1:6-9) specifies the necessary qualities in greater detail. 3:1-13 (參見提多書1:6-9 )規定了必要的素質,更詳細。

There is a considerable difference of opinion regarding the historical development of ministry in the NT and in the early church.有相當大的意見分歧,關於歷史發展部在NT和在早期教會的使命。 Many have seen a development from a simple charismatic ministry, exercised by every Christian in an individual way, to an organized or "official" ministry restricted to a few, ultimately issuing in the monarchial episcopate in the postapostolic period.許多人看到了發展從一個簡單的魅力部,行使的每一個基督徒在個人的方式,以一個有組織的或“正式”內政部限於少數,最終發行的君維爾古斯在postapostolic時期。 The Reformation reversed this trend to a degree.改革扭轉了這一趨勢的程度。 From time to time in the history of the church and again in recent times various groups have emphasized the charismatic aspect of ministry.不時在教會歷史,並再次在最近各團體都強調了魅力方面部。 Most recently, concepts of ministry have been modified by such diverse movements as the worker priests, the stress on lay leadership and ministries, the development of multiple church staffs, and the modern charismatic movement.最近,部的概念已被修改的等不同運動的工人神父,壓力奠定領導和各部,發展多個教會工作人員,與現代魅力的運動。

It is far from certain, however, that the NT church experienced a linear development from charismatic to institutional ministry, and even less plausible that there was an antithesis in the early church between these tow forms of ministry such as postulated by E. Kasemann and others.這是遠不能肯定,但是,新界教堂經歷了從線性發展的體制魅力部,更合理,有一個對立面在初期教會之間的這些形式的拖車部,如假設的E. Kasemann和其他。 It is true that there is little indication in most of Paul's letters of an institutional ministry, and that elders and deacons are mentioned mainly in the Pastorals (often considered non-Pauline) and Acts (often considered an "early catholic" work).誠然,沒有跡象顯示在大多數保羅的信部的一個機構,並長老和執事提到主要是在Pastorals (通常被視為非波利娜)和行為(通常被視為“早期天主教”工作) 。 However, the mention in Phil.然而,提到菲爾。 1:1 of elders and deacons accords with the picture in Acts of Paul ordaining elders in every church. 1:1的長老和執事符合圖片行為的保羅在每個祝聖長老教會。 Also the passages in the Pastorals concerning elders and deacons stress their character and function, not their "office."另外,通道的Pastorals關於長老和執事強調其性質和功能,而不是他們的“辦公室” 。 Further, the specific function exercised by elders, deacons, apostles, prophets, evangelists, and pastor-teachers is never set over against, or intended to eclipse, the mutual ("one another") ministries of the individual Spirit-gifted believers.此外,具體職能行使的長老,執事,使徒,先知,福音使者,和牧師,教師從來都不是建立了打擊,或打算月食,相互( “彼此” ) ,政府各部的個人精神,天才信徒。

There are a number of additional issues surrounding the theology of ministry.有一些額外的問題,神學部。 These include (1) whether the NT ever described a prerequisite "call" to ministry other than the general commands of Christ and the recognition of the local church; (2) whether women were admitted to ministry in the NT (and consequently should be today); (3) whether life style (eg, homosexuality) or prior experiences such as divorce should preclude ministry; and (4) what honor and authority should accrue to "full-time" ministers of Christ above those which belong to any faithful follower of the Lord.這些措施包括( 1 )是否新台幣以往描述的一個先決條件“請”到省以外的一般命令基督和承認地方教會; ( 2 )婦女是否被接納為衛生部在新界(並因此應當今日) ; ( 3 )是否生活方式(如同性戀)或之前的經驗,如離婚應排除部;和( 4 )什麼榮譽和當局應歸於“全職”基督部長以上那些屬於任何忠實追隨者勳爵。 Some of these questions revolve around the institutional aspect of ministry.其中的一些問題圍繞著體制方面部。 A further question is whether there is a sacramental aspect to ministry which is restricted to those ordained as priests by the church.另一個問題是是否有聖禮方面部是限於那些祝聖為神父教會。

A dual view of ministry, ie, that all believers were to exercise a ministry in accordance with their spiritual gift, but that authoritative teaching, leadership, and discipline were limited to a recognized body of elders, paves the way for an answer to the above questions.雙鑑於部,即所有信徒行使部根據他們的精神禮物,但權威的教學,領導,紀律僅限於一個公認機構的長者,鋪平了道路回答了上述的問題。 Paul restricted women from authoritative teaching positions, for example (I Tim. 2:12), but the universal testimony of both the OT and NT is that they exercised a variety of significant ministries. There are some significant instances also of women leaders in the early centuries of the church.保羅限制婦女權威教學職位,例如(一添。二點12分) ,但普遍的證詞都催產素和NT是他們行使各種重大部委。也有一些重要的情況下還對婦女領導人世紀初的教堂。 Whether Paul's restrictions were intended to apply beyond the time when the NT was completed and when all ministries were more regulated is open to question.是否保羅的限制,旨在適用於超出了當時的NT已經完成,並在所有部門都更規範的開放問題。 Ministry, by whatever persons and in whatever form, is essentially a continuation of the servant ministry of the Lord Jesus Christ.部以任何個人和任何形式的,基本上是一個持續的僕人部主耶穌基督。 In Protestant evangelicalism it is also largely a ministry of the Word of God.在新教的福音,也是在很大程度上部神的話語。 The purpose of ministry extends, of course, even beyond the edification of the church.的目的,延伸部,當然,甚至超出了熏陶的教堂。 It is, as in all Christian activity, the glory of God.這是,因為在所有基督教活動,神的榮耀。

WL Liefeld輪候冊Liefeld
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (規矩福音字典)

Bibliography 參考書目
P. Achtemeier, "The Ministry of Jesus in the Synoptic Gospels," Int 35:157-69; HW Beyer, TDNT, II, 81-93; FJA Hort, The Christian Ecclesia; JB Lightfoot, "The Christian Ministry," in Saint Paul's Epistle to the Philippians; TM Lindsay, The Church and the Ministry in the Early Centuries; TW Manson, The Church's Ministry; JKS Reid, The Biblical Doctrine of the Ministry; E. Schillebeeckx, Ministry; E. Schweizer, Church Order in the NT; EE Shelp and A. Sunderland, eds., A Biblical Basis for Ministry; H. Strathmann, TDNT, IV, 215-31; HB Swete, ed., Essays on the Early History of the Church and the Ministry.體育Achtemeier , “內政部耶穌福音的天氣, ”整數35:157-69 ;老拜爾, TDNT ,二, 81-93 ; FJA園藝,基督教教會;巴頓娜萊, “基督部透露, ”在聖保羅使徒的腓利;商標林,教會和內政部在早期世紀荃灣曼森,教會部;人次里德聖經教義部;體育Schillebeeckx部;東施魏策爾,教會中的秩序新台幣;電子Shelp和A.桑德蘭合編。 ,依據聖經部閣下; Strathmann , TDNT ,四, 215-31 ;乙肝Swete ,教育署。 ,論文集的早期歷史教會和內政部。


General Information 一般信息

The office of a priest is essentially that of a mediator; he interprets God (or the gods or other supernatural forces) to the adherents of a religion and represents them before God, usually as the one who offers sacrifice on their behalf.該辦公室的一名牧師基本上是一個調停者,他解釋上帝(或神或其他超自然力量)的信徒的宗教,並代表他們在上帝面前,通常是作為一個提供犧牲誰代表他們。 All ancient religions had their priests, and these priests exercised great influence, not only as custodians of the sacred mysteries but often as the only literate members of society.所有古老的宗教有其神父,這些神父有著巨大的影響,不僅作為保管人的神聖奧秘,但往往是唯一識字的社會成員。 Many present-day religions such as Buddhism, Hinduism, and Shinto have priests, but others, notably Islam, do not.許多當今的宗教,如佛教,印度教,和神道的司鐸,但另一些,特別是伊斯蘭教,不。 Judaism had priests until the destruction of the Temple.猶太教的教士,直至摧毀寺。

In Christianity the word priest comes from two distinct Greek terms, one meaning elder or presbyter and the other meaning priest in the traditional sense of mediator. 在基督教牧師一詞來自兩個不同的希臘來說,一個意思老年或發起人和其他含義牧師在傳統意義上的調解。 Roman Catholics, Anglicans (Episcopalians), and Eastern Orthodox commonly refer to as priests those who have been ordained; they correspond roughly to those whom Protestants call ministers or sometimes presbyters.羅馬天主教,英國聖公會(聖公會) ,以及東正教通常稱為祭司這些誰已經注定;它們所對應的人大致呼籲新教徒部長或有時presbyters 。 The word priest in its traditional hieratical sense is used in the New Testament to refer to Jesus Christ, the mediator of the new Covenant and also of the whole Church, which exercises a collective priesthood. Roman Catholics, Anglicans, and Eastern Orthodox recognize also a special hieratical priesthood of bishops and presbyters, expressed in their sacramental ministry and especially in the offering of the eucharistic sacrifice.這個詞牧師在其傳統hieratical的感覺是用於新約全書指耶穌基督,調解的新的盟約,也是整個教會,行使集體鐸。羅馬天主教,英國聖公會和東正教也承認特別hieratical鐸主教和presbyters ,表示在其聖禮部,特別是在提供的聖體聖事的犧牲。

John Macquarrie約翰Macquarrie

Bibliography: 參考書目:
Fischer, James A., Priests: Images, Ideals and Changing Roles (1987); James, Edwin O., The Nature and Function of Priesthood Kung, Hans, Why Priests?, trans.費希爾,詹姆斯,神父:圖像,理想和不斷變化的作用( 1987年) ;詹姆斯,埃德溫京城的性質和功能鐸西貢,漢斯,為什麼神父? ,轉運。 by John Cumming (1972); Power, David N., Minister of Christ and His Church: The Theology of Priesthood (1969); Rahner, Karl, The Priesthood, trans.由John卡明( 1972年) ;電力,大衛北路部長基督和他的教會:神學鐸( 1969年) ;拉內,卡爾,牧師跨。 by Edward Quinn (1970; repr. 1973).愛德華奎因( 1970年; repr 。 1973年) 。


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The term "priest" is identical in origin with the word "presbyter," which literally means "elder"; but in the English language it has become associated for the most part with the religious official whose main function is the offering up of sacrifices, though the English Reformers of the sixteenth century hoped that the retention of the term "priest" in the Book of Common Prayer would effect the restoration of its proper meaning of elder.術語“牧師”是相同的原產地改為“長老” ,這意思是“老人” ,但在英語已成為相關的大部分與宗教官員,其主要職能是提供的犧牲,儘管英語改革者在16世紀希望保留的“牧師”這本書的共同祈禱會影響恢復其應有之義老人。

This confusion was occasioned by the strange fact that the English language has not kept in common usage any term corresponding to the Latin sacerdos, which precisely designates one who offers up sacrifices (hence "sacerdotal").這種混亂是所引起奇怪的事實是,英語並沒有存放在共同使用的任何條款相應的拉丁美洲sacerdos ,這正是一個指定誰提供了犧牲(因此“ sacerdotal ” ) 。 In the English of the OT and NT "priest" denotes a sacerdos and "priesthood" his sacerdotal ministry.在英文的催產素和NT “神父”表示sacerdos和“祭司”他sacerdotal部。 Thus the duty belonging to priesthood is defined in Heb.因此,責任屬於鐸是指在河北。 5:1 as follows: "Every high priest chosen from among men is appointed to act on behalf of men in relation to God, to offer gifts and sacrifices for sins"; and on the basis of this principle it is argued concerning the priesthood of Christ that "therefore it is necessary for this priest also to have something to offer" (Heb. 8:3). The Christian doctrine of priesthood and of the relationship between the priesthood of the OT and that of the NT is most fully expounded in the Epistle to the Hebrews, which has been called "the Epistle of Priesthood." 5:1如下: “每個大祭司選自男子被任命為名義行事的人與上帝,提供禮品和犧牲捷聯慣導系統” ,並在此基礎上原則上認為有關的司鐸基督說: “因此,有必要對這個牧師也有提供” ( Heb. 8點03 ) 。基督教學說鐸和之間的關係鐸的催產素,並在NT是最充分的闡述在書信的希伯來人,其中被稱為“使徒祭司。 ”

The Necessity of Priesthood司鐸的必要性

It is the universal sinfulness of man which makes a sacrificing priesthood a necessity.這是普遍的罪孽的人作出了一項犧牲鐸必要的。 The sacrifices offered up effect, or symbolize the means of effecting, reconciliation between sinful man and his holy Creator.提供的犧牲效應,或象徵的方式影響,罪孽深重的人之間的和解和他的神聖的造物主。 The function of priesthood, accordingly, is a mediatorial function.司鐸的作用,因此,是一個mediatorial功能。 The giving of the law through Moses and the institution of the Aaronic or Levitical priesthood belong together.給予法律通過摩西和機構的Aaronic或Levitical鐸屬於在一起。 Law and priesthood are simultaneous in origin and inseparable in operation (Heb. 7:11ff.).法律和司祭是同時在原籍國和不可分割的操作( Heb. 7時11頁。 ) 。 The reason for this is that the Israelites, like the rest of mankind, were sinners and therefore when confronted with the law, which is God's standard of righteousness, lawbreakers.這樣做的原因是,猶太人其他地方一樣,人類的罪人,因此,面對法律,這是上帝的標準義,不法分子。

Certainly the Godgiven law is holy and just and good and spiritual (Rom. 7:12, 14) and as such marks out the way of life: by faithfully keeping its precepts a man shall live (Lev. 18:5; Neh. 9:29; Matt. 19:16-17; Rom. 10:5; Gal. 3:12).當然, Godgiven法律是神聖的,公正和良好的精神( Rom. 7點12分, 14 ) ,因此,標誌了一種生活方式:通過忠實保持戒律一名男子將生活( Lev. 18時05 ; Neh 。 9 : 29 ;馬特。 19:16-17 ;光盤。 10:5 ;半乳糖。 3時12分) 。 But man's radical problem is that he is a sinner.但是,人的根本問題是,他是一個罪人。 The law shows him up for what he is, a lawbreaker, and "the wages of sin is death" (Rom. 6:23; cf. Ezek. 18:4, 20; Gen. 2:17).該法表明他為自己是一個壞人,而“罪的工價乃是死” ( Rom. 6時23分;比照。結。 18時04分, 20 ;將軍2點17分) 。 Consequently Paul writes, "The very commandment which promised life proved to be death to me" (Rom. 7:10), not that there is anything wrong with the law; the fault is in man who breaks the law (Rom. 7:13). Hence the necessity for the formulation of the law to be accompanied by the institution of a priesthood to mediate redemptively between God and the sinner who has broken his law, and who needs to be restored from death to life.因此保羅寫道: “非常誡命許諾生活證明,死亡對我” ( Rom. 7:10 ) ,而不是有什麼問題的法律;故障是在男子誰違反法律( Rom. 7 : 13 ) 。因此,有必要制定法律,輔之以建立一個司祭之間進行調解redemptively上帝和罪人誰打破了他的法律,誰需要恢復從死亡的生命。

OT Priesthood催產素鐸

The priesthood of the old covenant could not effect the reality of reconciliation portended by its sacrificial function.鐸舊盟約不能影響現實的和解預示其祭祀功能。 Its character was preparatory; it portrayed the principle of propitiatory sacrifice but not the fulfillment of that principle.其特點是籌備;它描繪的原則,和解的犧牲,但沒有實現這一原則。 Its imperfection, which aroused the longing for and the expectation of the provision of the perfect priesthood, was apparent for the following reasons.其缺陷,這引起了嚮往和期望,提供完善的祭司,是明顯的,理由如下。

Christ as Priest基督牧師

The purpose of the old order of priesthood was to teach the people that atonement for sins requires the provision of an innocent victim in the sinner's place and the shedding of blood as that victim dies the death due to the sinner.的目的,舊秩序的司祭是教的人贖罪捷聯慣導系統需要提供一個無辜的受害者在罪人的地位和流血的受害者死亡的死亡原因是罪人。 The Levitical order could not accomplish this atonement, but it kept alive the expectation of the coming of the prefect priest and the offering of the perfect sacrifice in fulfillment of the gospel promises contained in the Scriptures of the OT.該Levitical為了不可能完成這一任務的救贖,但維持生命的期望,在今後的行政區神父和提供完善的犧牲在履行承諾的福音聖經中所載的催產素。 The new order of priesthood is that of Melchizedek, and it is comprehended in the single person of our Redeemer Jesus Christ (Heb. 7).新秩序的司祭是,麥基洗德,這是理解的單身人士,我們的救主耶穌基督( Heb. 7 ) 。

The perfection of his priesthood is confirmed by the fact that it is forever (Ps. 110:4), that the sacrifice he offered is once for all (Heb. 7:27), and that, his work of atonement completed, he is now enthroned in celestial glory (Heb. 1:3; 10:12; 12:2).完善他鐸也證實了這一事實,這是永遠( Ps. 110:4 ) ,該犧牲他願意再次為所有( Heb. 7點27分) ,而且,他的工作完成贖罪,他是現在坐床在天體榮耀( Heb. 1:3 ; 10:12 ; 12:2 ) 。 The perfection of his priesthood is established by the sinlessness of his earthly life as the incarnate Son, our fellow human being.完善鐸是他所設立的清白,他的世俗生活,體現的兒子,我們的同胞的人。 This means that in contrast to the first Adam, who suffered defeat and dragged down the human race in his fall, Jesus, "the last Adam, (I Cor. 15:45, 47), took our humanity to himself in order to redeem it and to raise it in himself to the glorious destiney for which it was always intended.這意味著,在對比的是第一亞當,誰遭受失敗,並拖累人類在其秋季,耶穌, “過去亞當, (我心病。 15:45 , 47 ) ,在我們人類自己,以贖回它,並提高它在自己的光榮destiney它總是打算。

It means that in going to the cross he who was without sin took our sins upon himself and suffered the rejection and the death due us sinners, "the righteous for the unrighteous" (I Pet. 2:22-24; 3:18; Heb. 4:15; 7:26-27), as the innocent victim provided by God's grace and mercy (I Pet. 1:18-19).這意味著,在去跨他誰是沒有罪的,誰就了我們的罪,並根據自己遭受排斥和死亡原因我們罪人, “正義的義” (我寵物。 2:22-24 ;三時十八分;希伯來。 4:15 ; 7:26-27 ) ,為無辜受害者提供的主的恩典和憐憫(一寵物。 1:18-19 ) 。 And it means, further, that he is not only our sacrificing priest but also the sacrifice itself, for it was himself that he offered up for us, and thus in him we have the provision of the perfect substitute, a genuine equivalent, our fellow man (Heb. 2:14-15), who truly takes our place. Accordingly we are assured that by the will of God "we have been sanctified through the offering of the body of Jesus Christ once for all," who "by a single offering...has perfected for all time those who are sanctified" (Heb. 10:10, 14).而且這意味著,進一步的,他不僅是我們的犧牲,而且牧師的犧牲自己,因為它是自己,他為我們提供的,因此我們必須在他提供完美的替代品,真正的當量,我們的同胞男子( Heb. 2:14-15 ) ,誰真正需要我們的地方。因此我們確信,由上帝的意志“我們一直在通過提供聖潔的屍體耶穌基督一勞永逸的, ”誰“了單提供了完善...所有這些時間誰是神聖“ ( Heb. 10:10 , 14 ) 。

The new order of priesthood fulfilled in the single person of Christ has, of course, completely superseded the old order.新秩序的司祭履行的單身人士基督當然,完全取代了舊秩序。 With Christ as our one great high priest who lives forever there is now no place or need for any succession of sacrificing priests.與基督作為我們的一個偉大的大祭司誰永遠活現在沒有任何地方或需要任何繼承犧牲牧師。 Now that he has offered up the one perfect sacrifice of himself there is room for no other sacrifice nor for any repetition of sacrifices.現在,他已提出了一個完美的犧牲自己有餘地的犧牲,也沒有任何其他的任何重複的犧牲。 In Christ both priesthood and sacrifice have been brought to fulfillment and to finality.在基督裡都鐸和犧牲已被繩之以法,並最終實現。


The Priesthood of Believers出家信徒

There remains, however, a priesthood which belongs to those who through faith have been united to Christ. This has commonly been designated " the priesthood of all believers ." Thus Peter describes Christians as "a holy priesthood" whose function is "to offer spiritual sacrifices acceptable to God through Jesus Christ" (I Pet. 2:5; cf. vs. 9).然而,仍然有一鐸屬於那些誰信仰已通過聯合國向基督。這通常被指定為“ 出家的所有信徒 。 ”因此彼得介紹基督徒為“神聖的祭司” ,其職能是“提供精神犧牲接受神通過耶穌基督“ (我寵物。 2:5 ;比照。比9 ) 。 These spiritual sacrifices are not in any sense redemptive sacrifices but sacrifices of gratitude to God for the one all-sufficient redemptive sacrifice of Christ's self-offering at Calvary for us sinners.這些精神的犧牲並非在任何意義上的救贖的犧牲,但犧牲感謝上帝的一個全足夠犧牲基督救贖的自我服務,我們在髑髏罪人。 Thus we are exhorted to "present our bodies," ie, ourselves, "as a living sacrifice, holy and acceptable to God" (Rom. 12:1); and as we willingly offer ourselves we express our spiritual priesthood in acts of praise and thanksgiving and in the selfless service of our fellow men as we minister to their needs.因此,我們敦促“目前我們的身體” ,即自己, “作為一個有生命力的犧牲,神聖的和可以接受的上帝” ( Rom. 12:1 ) ;和我們心甘情願地將自己奉獻,我們對此表示精神鐸行為的讚美和感恩節和無私的服務,我們的同胞,我們部長他們的需要。 The exercise of this priesthood is summed up in the words of Heb.行使這一鐸是總結的話希伯來。 13:15-16: "Through him [Christ] then let us continually offer up a sacrifice or praise to God, that is, the fruit of lips that acknowledge his name. Do not neglect to do good and to share what you have, for such sacrifices are pleasing to God." 13:15-16 : “通過他[基督]然後讓我們不斷地提供了一個犧牲或讚美上帝,也就是水果的嘴唇,承認他的名字。不要忽視做好並分享你,對這種犧牲,是神所喜悅的。 “

In his celebrated essay "The Christian Ministry," JB Lightfoot not only insists that "as individuals, all Christians are priests alike," he also draws attention to the fact that in the ministerial offices enumerated in I Cor.在他的著名論文“基督教部, ”巴頓娜萊不僅堅持認為, “作為個人,所有的基督徒都神父” ,他還提請注意的是,在辦事處的部長級會議中列舉本人心病。 12:28 and Eph. 12時二十八分和弗。 4:11 "there is an entire silence about priestly functions: for the most exalted office in the Church, the highest gift of the Spirit, conveyed no sacerdotal right which was not enjoyed by the humblest member of the Christian community." 4時11分“有一個完全是沉默祭司職能:為最崇高的辦公室在教會的最高禮物的精神,轉達了沒有sacerdotal權利是不享有的humblest會員的基督教社區。 ” His affirmation concerning the kingdom of Christ in the opening paragraph of the essay is no less emphatic: "Above all it has no sacerdotal system. It interposes no sacrificial tribe or class between God and man, by whose intervention alone God is reconciled and man forgiven. Each individual member holds personal communion with the Divine Head. To him immediately he is responsible, and from him directly he obtains pardon and draws strength."他肯定的王國基督在開頭段落的論述也同樣強調: “最重要的是它沒有sacerdotal系統。它沒有犧牲interposes部落或階級之間的上帝和人類,由單獨的干預上帝核對和男子原諒。每個會員擁有個人共融與神頭。要他立即他負責,並直接從他身上,他獲得赦免,並汲取力量。 “ These words of a great churchman and NT scholar admirably present the position of the apostolic church on the subject of priesthood.這些話非常牧師和NT學者欽佩目前的立場,使徒教會的主題鐸。

PE Hughes體育休斯
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (規矩福音字典)


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It is the consistent NT teaching that the work of ministers is "for the perfecting of the saints, ... for the edifying of the body of Christ" (Eph. 4:12).這是一貫的新台幣教學的工作,部長們是“為完善的聖人, ...為啟發的基督的身體” ( Eph. 4時12 ) 。 The minister is called of God to a position of responsibility rather than privilege, as the words for "minister" show (diakonos, "table waiter"; hyperetes, "under-rower" in a large ship; leitourgos, "servant," usually of the state or a temple).這位部長被稱為上帝的立場的責任,而不是特權,因為字的“部長”查看( diakonos , “表服務員” ; hyperetes ,根據“曬”在一個大型船舶; leitourgos , “僕人” ,通常有關國家或廟宇) 。

There are two passages in the NT which are of especial importance in this connection, I Cor.有兩個通道在新界具有特別重要在這方面,我心病。 12:28 and Eph. 12時二十八分和弗。 4:11-12. 4:11-12 。 From the former we gather that included in the ministries exercised in the early church were those of apostleship, prophecy, teaching, miracles, gifts of healings, helps, governments, diversities of tongues (possibly also interpretations, vs. 30).從前我們聚集,其中包括在各部委行使初期教會的那些apostleship ,預言,教學,創造奇蹟,禮品的healings ,幫助,各國政府,不同的語言(可能還解釋,與30 ) 。 The latter adds evangelists and pastors.後者增加了福音和牧師。 In every case these appear to be the direct gift of God to the church. Both passages seem to say this, and this is confirmed elsewhere in the case of some of the people mentioned.在任何情況下這些似乎是上帝的禮物直接的教堂。通道似乎都這樣說,這是證實的情況在其他地方的一些人提及。 Thus in Gal.因此,在半乳糖。 1:1 Paul insists that his apostolate was in no sense from man. 1:1保羅堅持認為,他的使徒是沒有意義的人。 He entirely excludes the possibility of his receiving it by ordination.他完全排除的可能性,他收到了協調。 We are to think, then, of a group of men directly inspired by the Holy Spirit to perform various functions within the church by way of building up the saints in the body of Christ.我們認為,那麼,有一群人直接受到聖靈履行各項職能,教會的方式建立的聖人在基督的身體。

But there are others also.但也有其他人也。 Thus from early days the apostles made it a habit to appoint elders.因此,從初期使徒了一種習慣,任命長者。 Some hold that the seven of Acts 6 were the first elders.一些人士認為, 7 6人的行為的第一個長老。 This seems very unlikely, but there were certainly elders at the Council of Jerusalem (Acts 15).這似乎不大可能,但有一定的長者在安理會的耶路撒冷(使徒15 ) 。 It is very striking that even on their first missionary journey Paul and Barnabas appointed elders "in every church" (Acts 14:23).這是非常驚人的,即使他們的第一個傳教士的旅程任命保羅和巴拿巴長老“在每一個教會” (使徒14時23分) 。 There is every reason for thinking that these men were ordained with the laying on of hands, as in the case of the elders of the Jewish synagogue.我們完全有理由的思想,這些人被祝聖的倒在手的情況一樣,老年人的猶太教會堂。 Then there were the deacons of whom we read in Phil.然後有執事人閱讀我們菲爾。 1:1 and I Tim. 1:1 ,我添。 3:8ff. 3時零八頁。 We know nothing of their method of appointment, but it is likely that it also included the laying on of hands, as it certainly did somewhat later in the history of the church.我們不知道他們的任命方法,但很可能還包括埋設的手,因為它確實有點遲在歷史上的教堂。

It is sometimes said that the first group of ministers is opposed to the second in that they possessed a direct gift from God.人們有時說,第一批部長反對的第二次,他們擁有直接來自上帝的禮物。 This, however, cannot be sustained.但是,這不能再繼續下去。 In Acts 20:28 we read, "the Holy Ghost has made you bishops," and in I Tim.在使徒行傳20:28我們讀到, “聖靈了您的主教” ,在我添。 4:14 of "the gift that is in thee, which was given thee by prophecy, with the laying on of the hands of the presbytery." 4時14分“的禮物,是你,這是給你的預言,而倒在了手中的長老。 ” It is clear that the act of ordination was not thought of as in opposition to a gift from God, but as itself the means of the gift from God.很顯然,該法的排序是沒有想到的是,反對上帝的禮物,而是作為自己的方式從上帝的恩賜。 Indeed the only reason that a man might minister adequately was that God had given him the gift of ministering.事實上,唯一的原因,一名男子可能是部長充分上帝給他的禮物ministering 。 The picture we get then is of a group of ministers who had been ordained, men like bishops and deacons, and side by side with them (at times no doubt the same people) those who had a special gift of God in the way of prophecy, apostleship, or the like.我們得到的圖片則是一組部長誰已經注定,男人像主教和執事,並與他們並肩(有時毫無疑問,同樣的人)是誰了一份特殊的禮物上帝的道路預言, apostleship ,或類似的。 The meaning of some of those gifts has long since perished (eg, prophecy, apostleship).的含義,其中的一些禮物早已腐爛(如預言, apostleship ) 。 But they witness to the gifts that God gave his church in the time of its infancy.但是,他們見證了禮物,上帝給他的教會在規定的時間內它的初級階段。

There are some who think of the ministry as constitutive of the church.有一些誰認為該部作為構教堂。 They emphasize that Christ is the head of the body, and that he gives it apostles, prophets, etc., that it may be built up.他們強調,基督是頭的身體,他給它使徒,先知,等等,它可能會建立起來。 They infer that the ministry is the channel through which life flows from the head.他們推斷,該部的渠道生活源於頭。 This does, however, seem to be reading something into the passage.這樣做,不過,似乎是讀一些進入通道。 It is better to take realistically the NT picture of the church as the body of Christ, as a body, moreover, with a diversity of functions.最好是採取切實的NT圖片教會作為基督的身體,作為一個機構,此外,各種不同的職能。 The life of Christ is in it, and the divine power puts forth whatever is needed.基督的生命是在它的神聖權力,並提出了什麼是必要的。 In the Spirit-filled body there will emerge such ministerial and other organs as are necessary.本著這一精神填充機構將出現這樣的部長級會議和其他機關所必需的。 On this view the ministry is essential, but no more essential than any other function of the body.在這個觀點上部是必要的,但沒有更重要的作用比任何其他的機構。 And it preserves the important truth that the body is that of Christ, who does what he wills within it.它保留了重要的事實,即身體是基督,誰做什麼,他的遺囑內。 His blessing is not confined to any particular channel.他的祝福表示感謝並不局限於任何特定的通道。

L Morris L莫里斯
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (規矩福音字典)

Bibliography 參考書目
HB Swete, Early History of the Church and Ministry; JB Lightfoot, Commentary on Philippians; KE Kirk, ed., The Apostolic Ministry; TW Manson, The Church's Ministry; S. Neil, ed., The Ministry of the Church; L. Morris, Ministers of God; DT Jenkins, The Gift of Ministry; M. Green, Called to Serve; JKS Reid, The Biblical Doctrine of the Ministry; E. Schweizer, Church Order in the NT.乙肝Swete ,早期歷史教會和內政部;巴頓娜萊,評腓利;柯爾柯克,教育署。 ,宗徒們;荃灣曼森,教會部;南尼爾,教育署。 ,內政部教會;研究莫里斯部長上帝; DT公司詹金斯,禮品部;格林呼籲服務;人次里德聖經教義部;東施魏策爾,教會秩序新台幣。


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A Minister is one who serves, as distinguished from the master.部長是誰提供服務,作為區別於主人。 (1.) Heb. ( 1 。 )希伯來。 meshereth, applied to an attendant on one of superior rank, as to Joshua, the servant of Moses (Ex. 33:11), and to the servant of Elisha (2 Kings 4:43). meshereth ,適用於隨之而來的一個卓越的排名,以約書亞,僕人摩西(例如33:11 )和公僕以利沙(列王紀下4時43分) 。 This name is also given to attendants at court (2 Chr. 22:8), and to the priests and Levites (Jer. 33:21; Ezek. 44:11).這個名稱還向服務員在法院( 2染色體。 22點08 ) ,以及神職人員和利( Jer. 33:21 ;結。 44:11 ) 。 (2.) Heb. pelah (Ezra 7:24), a "minister" of religion. ( 2 。 )希伯來。 pelah (埃茲拉7時24分) ,一個“部長”的宗教。 Here used of that class of sanctuary servants called "Solomon's servants" in Ezra 2:55-58 and Neh. 7:57-60.這裡使用的是類庇護公務員被稱為“所羅門的公務員”在以斯拉2:55-58和Neh 。 7:57-60 。 (3.) Greek leitourgos, a subordinate public administrator, and in this sense applied to magistrates (Rom. 13:6). ( 3 。 )希臘leitourgos ,下屬公共管理員,並在這個意義上適用於法官( Rom.十三時06分) 。 It is applied also to our Lord (Heb. 8:2), and to Paul in relation to Christ (Rom. 15:16). (4.) Greek hyperetes (literally, "under-rower"), a personal attendant on a superior, thus of the person who waited on the officiating priest in the synagogue (Luke 4:20).它也適用於我們的上帝( Heb. 8:2 )和保羅在基督( Rom. 15:16 ) 。 ( 4 。 )希臘hyperetes (字面上看, “下曬” ) ,個人服務員卓越的,因此,誰的人等在主牧師的猶太教堂(路加福音4時20分) 。 It is applied also to John Mark, the attendant on Paul and Barnabas (Acts 13:5).它也適用於約翰標誌,隨之而來的對保羅和巴拿巴(使徒13時05分) 。 (5.) Greek diaconos, usually a subordinate officer or assistant employed in relation to the ministry of the gospel, as to Paul and Apollos (1 Cor.3:5), Tychicus (Eph. 6:21), Epaphras (Col. 1:7), Timothy (1 Thess. 3:2), and also to Christ (Rom. 15:8). ( 5 。 )希臘diaconos ,通常是部屬人員或助理就業有關部的福音,因為保羅和阿波羅( 1 Cor.3 : 5 ) , Tychicus ( Eph. 6點21分) , Epaphras (中校1時07分) ,霍震霆( 1 Thess 。 3:2 ) ,同時也向基督( Rom. 15時08 ) 。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (伊斯頓圖解詞典)


Advanced Information 先進的信息

The word derives from the Greek kleros, "a lot," which points to a method of selection like that in Acts 1:26 (in Acts 1:17 "part" [AV] translates kleros).一詞源於希臘kleros , “很多” ,這點,選擇一種方法一樣,在使徒行傳1時26分( 1時17中的行為“的一部分” [影音]翻譯kleros ) 。 As early as Jerome it was pointed out that the term is ambiguous.早在杰羅姆有人指出,這個詞是含糊不清。 It may denote those chosen to be God's, the Lord's "lot" (as in Deut. 32:9).這可能意味著這些選擇是上帝,上帝的“很多” (如在Deut 。 32:9 ) 。 Or it may signify those whose lot or portion is the Lord (cf. Ps. 16:5).或者它可能意味著那些地段或部分是上帝(參見聚苯乙烯。 16時05分) 。 In the NT the word is not used of a restricted group among the believers, and in I Pet.在新界一詞沒有使用有限制集團之間的信徒,和我寵物。 5:3 the plural is used of God's people as a whole (God's heritage," AV). But by the time of Tertullian it was used of the ordained office-bearers in the church, viz., bishops, priests, and deacons. Later the word came to include the minor orders, and sometimes, it seems, members of religious orders or even educated people generally. But this use did not last, and the term now denotes regular members of the ordained ministry of the church (without respect to denomination) as distinct from lay people generally. 5時03複數用於上帝的人作為一個整體(上帝的遺產“的AV ) 。但是,德爾圖良的時候,它是用於在祝辦公室承擔的教會,即。 ,主教,神父和執事。後來這個詞來包括未成年人的命令,有時看來,宗教訂單,甚至受過教育的人一般。但是,這並沒有持續使用,並表示這個詞現在經常成員祝部教會(不尊重以面額)有別於奠定人們普遍。

L Morris L莫里斯
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (規矩福音字典)

Clergy, Ministry神職人員,部

Editor's Comment編輯評論

This is a rare contribution to BELIEVE where personal commentary is involved.這是一種罕見的貢獻,相信在涉及個人的評注。 For that reason, these comments may be ignored, if only because they are only provided by a Pastor and not a lifelong Christian scholar like the thousands of other articles in BELIEVE.出於這個原因,這些意見可能會被忽略,如果僅僅是因為他們只是提供了牧師,而不是終身基督教學者像成千上萬的其他條款相信。

There seems to be an enormous recent effect, where Christian Ministers seem to believe that they are "absolute authorities" on every possible subject related to Christianity.似乎有一個巨大的近期療效,其中基督教牧師似乎認為它們是“絕對當局”對一切可能的主題有關基督教。 They attended Divinity School or Bible College or some other educational facility where they received a hopefully good education regarding Christianity. However, many seem to have morphed into believing that they "know it all!".他們參加了神學院或聖經學院或其他教育機構,他們收到了良好的教育希望有關基督教。然而,許多似乎已經演變為認為他們“知道這一切! ” 。

Many modern Ministers will tolerate zero disagreement with anything they ever say.許多現代的部長們將零容忍任何異議,他們都表示。 More, they often become truly vicious in attacking anyone who disagrees with them.更多信息,他們往往成為真正的惡性攻擊任何人誰不同意他們。 Sadly, that often involves Ministers of other Churches.可悲的是,這往往涉及其他教會部長。 Do they not realize what Jesus mist think of their viciously attacking other Christian Clergy?難道他們不知道什麼耶穌薄霧認為其惡毒攻擊其他基督教牧師? How can they think that they can be justified in such attacks?他們怎麼能認為他們可以有理由此類攻擊? Whether or not they happen to actually be correct or not?不管他們是否發生實際是正確的或不呢?

Didn't Jesus Teach us to be Tolerant and Compassionate and Patient? Didn't He Teach is to be Humble rather than Arrogant?沒有耶穌教導我們要寬容和富有同情心和病人?不是他教的人士,要謙遜,而不是傲慢?

The SOURCE of this sort of Arrogance seems to be equally troubling. IF a Minister had spent a lifetime (say, 30 years) deeply studying some concept such as whether tattoos is sinful or acceptable, it might be appropriate for him to express personal openions.來源的這種傲慢似乎是同樣令人不安。如果部長一輩子(也就是說, 30年)深入學習一些概念,如是否紋身是有罪的或可以接受的,它可能是適當的,他表示,個人openions 。 But the reality is that, once out of Bible School, most Ministry do very little additional study.但現實是,一旦出聖經學校,大多數部做進一步的研究很少。 They have weekly responsibilities of giving Sermons and composing those Sermons, of preparing and giving mid-week Services, and of dealing with the many daily issues regarding operating a Church, attendance, utility bills, snow removal, scheduling Baptisms, etc.他們每週的責任給予說教和撰寫這些講道,編寫和提供週中服務,並處理日常問題的許多方面的經營教會,出勤,電費,鏟雪,調度洗禮,等 Therefore, in general, the basis for his opinions on any subject such as tattoos is from some OTHER Minister who has either written a book or given speeches expressing HIS personal opinions!因此,一般情況下,根據他的意見的任何問題,如紋身是由其他一些部長誰要么寫了一本書或給予講話表達了他個人意見!

Once he hears several different Ministers each express similar opinions, they tend to get absorbed and recorded as "rock solid beliefs". Nearly always, there is also some specific Scripture that has gotten attached as the supposed Biblical basis for such beliefs.當他聽到幾個不同的部長們表示了類似的每個意見,他們往往得到吸收和記作“堅如磐石的信念。 ”幾乎總是,也有一些具體的聖經已得到重視的假定聖經這種信念的基礎。

This situation has resulted in intensely passionate Ministers insisting that abortion is absolutely a sin, but a careful examination of the Scripture cited rarely says anything resembling that!這種情況造成強烈熱情部長堅持認為墮胎是絕對一種罪過,但仔細研究聖經說,很少提到類似的事情! Many personal assumptions regarding the interpretation are necessary to arrive at the conclusions that he expresses as absolute fact.許多個人假設的解釋是必要達成的結論,他表示絕對的事實。 Indeed, there are other Ministers (rather few) who cite Scripture to passionately insist that (some) abortions are not sinful at all, and interestingly, they sometimes cite the exact same Scripture as alleged basis!事實上,有其他部長(而不是幾個)誰引用聖經,以熱情堅持認為, (某些)墮胎不是罪過所有,和有趣的是,他們有時舉完全相同聖經所稱的基礎!

This all really makes Protestant Christianity look really bad, as a basic claim has always been that all beliefs are "sola Scriptura", by the Bible alone.這一切真的使新教基督教期待非常糟糕,作為一項基本要求一直是所有信仰是“唯獨聖經” ,由聖經本身。 This is clearly not what is being done regarding such subjects, on either side of the argument.這顯然不是正在做什麼等問題方面,對任何一方的說法。

It seems clear to me that ALL Clergy need to remember that Jesus Taught Humility and Tolerance.似乎很清楚,我所有的神職人員必須記住,耶穌教導謙卑和寬容。 It is therefore inappropriate to demand that others agree with you, even if you are certain that you are correct!因此,不恰當的要求他人同意你的,即使您確信自己是正確的! Yes, it is good to have Passion and Devotion to Christianity. But we are also required (or supposed) to BEHAVE like Christians, or like Christ might have.是的,這是很好的激情和奉獻精神,以基督教。但是,我們也需要(或假定)的行為就像基督徒,或像基督可能。 It is unimaginable that Jesus would have berated or insulted Christians or anyone else for having incorrect or incomplete beliefs.這是難以想像的,耶穌會斥責或侮辱基督教徒或其他任何人因不正確或不完整的信念。 There is no doubt that He would instead have Patiently attempted to calmly explain important facts.毫無疑問,他將不是耐心地試圖冷靜地解釋重要的事實。 Why isn't that obvious in today's Churches?為什麼不是明顯在今天的教會? Instead, there is such a ferocious insistence on claiming absolute knowledge of all of God's Plan, a claim that should actually be seen as very foolish.相反,有這樣一種兇猛堅持聲稱絕對知識的所有上帝的計劃,聲稱實際上應該被看作是非常愚蠢的。 We are all merely humans.我們都只是人類。


Catholic Information 天主教新聞

The term minister has long been appropriated in a distinctive way to the clergy. The language of I Cor., iv, 1-2; Heb., viii, 2; Matt., xx, 26, etc. must have helped to familiarize the thought that those charged with spiritual functions in the Christian Church were called upon to be the servants (ministri) of their brethren.任期部長一直批獨特的方式神職人員。語言我心病。 ,四, 1月2日;希伯來。 ,八, 2 ;馬特。 ,二十, 26歲,等必須熟悉幫助認為這些指控犯有精神方面的職能教會呼籲是公務員( ministri )的兄弟。 Even before the Reformation the word minister was occasionally used in English to describe those of the clergy actually taking part in a function, or the celebrant as distinguished from the assistants, but it was not then used sine addito to designate an ecclesiastic.即使在改革部長一詞是偶爾使用英語來描述這些神職人員參加實際的功能,或禮作為區別於助理,但它不是用正弦addito指定一個牧師。 This employment of the term dates from Calvin, who objected to the name priest etc. as involving an erroneous conception of the nature of the sacred office.這種就業的任期日期從卡爾文,誰反對名稱牧師等涉及一個錯誤的概念,性質的神聖辦公室。 These Calvinistic views had some influence in England.這些意見有一定Calvinistic在英國的影響力。 In the Boo of Common Prayer the word minister occurs frequently in the sense of the officiant at a service, and in the thirty-second of the Canons Ecclesiastical (1603) we read "no bishop shall make a person deacon and minister both upon one day", where clearly minister stands as the equivalent of priest.在富的共同祈禱部長一詞經常出現在這個意義上的officiant的服務,並在第三十二教會的規( 1603 ) ,我們改為“沒有主教應盡的人都執事和部長時一天“ ,其中明確部長,成為相當於牧師。 As regards modern usage the Hist.至於現代使用的組織胺。 Eng.楊永強。 Dictionary says: "The use of minister as the designation of an Anglican clergyman (formerly extensively current, sometimes with more specific application to a beneficed clergyman) has latterly become rare, and is now chiefly associated with Low Church views; but it is still the ordinary appellation of one appointed to spiritual office in any non-Episcopal communion, especially of one having a pastoral charge".詞典說: “利用部長作為指定一個聖公會牧師(前廣泛電流,有時更具體應用到beneficed牧師)已成為近來少見,現在主要是與低教會的看法,但它仍然是一個普通的稱謂任命為精神文明辦公室在任何非主教共融,特別是一個具有田園收費“ 。

As regards Catholic use, minister is the title of certain superiors in various religious orders.至於天主教使用,部長的名字是某些上級的各種不同的宗教命令。 The head of the Franciscan Order is known as the minister general, and the superior of the different provinces of the various branches is called minister provincial.負責人方濟秩序被稱為兼秘書長,以及上級的不同省份的各部門被稱為部長省。 The same is true of the Order of the Trinitarians for the Redemption of Captives and of some other orders.也是如此的命令Trinitarians的贖回俘虜和其他一些命令。 In the Society of Jesus the second in command in each house, who is usually charged with the internal discipline, the commissariat, etc., is called minister.在社會上的耶穌的第二次命令在每個房子,通常是誰負責的內部紀律,糧食等,被稱為部長。 The statement made in Addis and Arnold's "Catholic Dictionary" and thence incorporated into the great Hist.發表的聲明在亞的斯亞貝巴和阿諾德的“天主教詞典” ,再納入偉大組織胺。 Eng.楊永強。 Dictionary that each of the five assistants of the General of the Jesuits is called minister is without foundation.詞典的每一五名助理總的耶穌被稱為部長是毫無根據的。

Publication information Written by Herbert Thurston.出版信息作者赫伯特瑟斯頓。 Transcribed by Bruce C. Berger. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume X. Published 1911.轉錄布魯斯角伯傑。天主教百科全書,卷十,發布1911年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1911. Nihil Obstat , 1911年10月1日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.雷米Lafort ,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York認可。 +約翰法利紅衣主教,大主教紐約


Catholic Information 天主教新聞

This term denotes a priest who has the cure of souls (cura animarum), that is, who is bound in virtue of his office to promote the spiritual welfare of the faithful by preaching, administering the sacraments, and exercising certain powers of external government, eg, the right of supervision, giving precepts, imposing light corrections -- powers rather paternal in their nature, and differing from those of a bishop, which are legislative, judicial, and coactive. A pastor is properly called a parish-priest (parochus) when he exercises the cure of souls in his own name with regard to a determined number of subjects who are obliged to apply to him for the reception of certain sacraments specified in the law.這個詞是指一名牧師誰的治愈靈魂(庫拉animarum ) ,也就是說,誰必將在憑藉他的辦公室,以促進精神文明福利忠實的說教,管理聖禮,並行使某些權力的外部政府,例如,監督權,讓戒律,實行輕更正-權力,而父親在其性質,有別於主教,這是立法,司法,和coactive 。牧師是正確稱為堂,神父( parochus )當他行使治愈的靈魂在他自己的名字就堅定一些科目誰有義務對他適用的接待某些聖禮法律規定的。 In this article "parish-priest" is always taken in this strict sense. Pastors (whether parish-priests or not) are either irremovable (inamovibiles) or movable (amovibiles ad nutum).在這條“堂,神父”始終是在這方面採取嚴格的意義。牧師(不論堂,神父或沒有)都不可( inamovibiles )或動產( amovibiles廣告nutum ) 。 An irremovable pastor or rector is one whose office gives him the right of perpetuity of tenure; that is, he cannot be removed or transferred except for a canonical reason, viz., a reason laid down in the law and, in the case of a criminal charge, only after trial.一個不可牧師或校長是他的辦公室給他的權利的永久使用權,也就是說,他不能被刪除或轉移除了典型的原因,即。 ,理由中所規定的法律,並在的情況下,刑事指控,之後才審判。 (See IRREMOVABILITY.) A movable pastor or rector is one whose office does not give him this right; but the bishop must have some just and proportionate reason for dismissing or transferring him against his will, and, should the priest believe himself wronged in the matter, he may have recourse to the Holy See, or to its representative where there is one having power in such cases. (見IRREMOVABILITY 。 )一個可移動牧師或校長是他的辦公室並沒有給他這個權利,但主教必須有公正和適當的理由解僱或轉移他對他的意志,並應神父認為自己冤枉的的問題,他可能訴諸教廷,或其代表在那裡有一個有權力在這種情況下。 Moreover, according to some canonists, even movable pastors in case of a criminal charge cannot be absolutely removed from their office without a trial (cf. Pierantonelli, "Praxis Fori Ecclesiastici," tit. iv; Smith, "Elements of Ecclesiastical Law", n. 418.) This, certainly, is the case in the United States of America (Decrees of Propaganda, 28 March, and 20 May, 1887).此外,根據一些canonists ,即使動產牧師情況下的刑事指控不能絕對免去其辦公室未經審判(見Pierantonelli , “實踐法院Ecclesiastici , ”針鋒相對。四;史密斯, “要素教會法” ,注418 。 )這當然是如此美利堅合眾國(法令的宣傳, 3月28日,和1887年5月20日) 。

The Council of Trent (Sess. XXIV, cap. xiii, de Ref.) shows it to be the mind of the Church; that dioceses should, wherever it is possible, be divided into canonical parishes (See PARISH), to be governed by irremovable parish-priests. In places, therefore, where the Tridentine law cannot be fully carried out, bishops adopt measures which fulfil this requirement as nearly as circumstances allow.安理會的遄達( Sess.二十四章。第十三日編號。 )表明它是心靈的教會教區應該說,無論它是有可能的,可分為典型教區(見PARISH ) ,將所管轄不可教區,神職人員。在地方,因此,那裡的Tridentine法律不能得到充分執行,主教採取措施履行這一要求盡量接近的情況下允許。 One such measure was the erection of quasi-parishes, districts with defined limits, ordered for the United States in 1868 (Second Plenary Council of Baltimore, n. 124).其中一項措施是豎立準堂區,縣確定的界限,下令美國在1868年(第二次全體會議理事會巴爾的摩,北124 ) 。 Another such was the institution of irremovable rectors (pastors with the right of perpetuity of tenure), ordered for England in 1852 (First Provincial Council of Westminster Decr. xiii), and for the United States in 1886 (Third Plenary Council of Baltimore, n. 33).另一個這樣的體制是不可校長(牧師的權利的永久使用權) ,下令在1852年英格蘭(第一個省級理事會威斯敏斯特Decr 。十三) ,以及美國於1886年(第三次全體會議安理會的巴爾的摩,正。 33 ) 。

The power to appoint pastors is ordinarily vested in the bishop.有權任命牧師通常由主教。 Among the candidates possessed of the necessary qualifications the appointment should fall on the one who is best fitted for the office.的候選人中具有必要的資格,任命應屬於上一個是誰最適合的辦公室。 Moreover, according to the Council of Trent (Sess. XXIV, cap. xviii, de Ref) candidates for the office of parish-priest should (a few cases excepted) pass a competitive examination (concursus).此外,根據安理會的遄達( Sess.二十四章。十八,日參)候選人辦公室教區,牧師應(少數情況下例外)通過競爭性考試(地) 。 This provision of the Council of Trent is sometimes by particular enactments applied in the selection of candidates for the office of irremovable rectors, as happens in the United States (Third Plenary Council of Baltimore, tit. ii, cap. vi).這條規定,安理會的遄有時是由特定的法規適用於在挑選候選人辦公室不可校長,因為發生在美國(三中全會理事會巴爾的摩,針鋒相對。第二章。六) 。

With regard to the faculties and powers of pastors, those of parish-priests are sufficiently defined by the law, and hence are ordinary, not delegated.關於學院和權力的牧師,是教區,神職人員有足夠的法律規定,因此是普通,沒有授權。 Of these faculties some are called rights strictly parochial, because in a parish they belong exclusively to the parish-priest, so that their subjects cannot with regard to them have recourse to another priest, except with his or the bishop's consent.這些學院的一些權利要求嚴格的狹隘的,因為在他們屬於教區的教區,牧師,因此,其議題不能就他們求助於另一個神父,除非他或主教的同意。 These rights are the following: the right of administering baptism, holy viaticum, and extreme unction in all cases where there is no urgent necessity; the right of administering paschal communion, of proclaiming the banns of marriage, and of blessing marriages.這些權利如下:管理權的洗禮,羅馬viaticum ,和臨終的一切情況下,也沒有迫切需要;有權管理逾越共融,宣布了結婚通告的婚姻,婚姻的祝福。 To the parish-priest are also reserved the celebration of funerals (except in certain cases specified in the law), and the imparting of certain blessings, the chief one being blessing of the baptismal font.為了教區,牧師也保留了慶祝葬禮(除非在某些情況下,在法律規定) ,並傳授一些祝福,首席的是祝福的洗禮字體。 To pastors, who are not parish-priests, the right of assisting at marriages is given by the law as to parish-priests.以牧師,誰不教區,教士的權利,幫助在婚姻是法律所賦予的教區,神職人員。 The other rights usually are granted to them by the bishops and are defined in the particular laws; such is very commonly the case in the United States England, and Scotland, with regard to baptism, holy viaticum, extreme unction, and funerals.其他權利通常是給予他們的主教,是指在特定法律;這種是非常普遍的情況在美國的英格蘭,蘇格蘭,關於洗禮,羅馬viaticum ,臨終和葬禮。 Mention should be made here of the custom which exists in certain dioceses of the United States, whereby the faithful of one district are permitted to receive such sacraments from the pastor of another district if they rent a pew in his church (Second Plenary Council of Baltimore, nn. 117, 124, 227, and the statutes of several diocesan synods).值得一提的是這裡的習俗存在於某些教區美國,其中一個區的信徒被允許接受這種聖禮從另一區牧師如果他們租皮尤在他的教會(理事會第二次全體會議巴爾的摩,神經網絡。 117 , 124 , 227 ,和章程的若干教區主教會議) 。 Rights not strictly parochial are those which belong by law to parish-priests, but not exclusively.權利沒有得到嚴格狹隘是那些屬於依法堂,神父,但不完全。 Such are the faculties of preaching celebrating Mass, low or solemn, hearing confessions, administering Holy Communion.這些都是學院的說教慶祝彌撒,低或莊嚴,聽口供,管理聖餐。 Pastors who are not parish-priests receive these faculties from their bishop.牧師誰不堂,神父收到這些學院從他們的主教。

Pastors are naturally entitled to a salary.牧師自然有權獲得工資。 This is furnished by the revenues of the parochial benefice, should there be one; otherwise, it is taken from the revenues of the church or from the offerings.這是由其收入狹隘的采邑,應該有一個,否則,它是從收入的教堂或產品。 Such offerings as the faithful contribute of their own accord, without specifying the purpose of their donation, belong to the pastor.這類產品的忠實貢獻自己的協議,但沒有具體說明的目的,其捐贈,屬於牧師。 This assertion is based on the presumption that these gifts are meant to show the gratitude of the faithful towards the priests who spend their lives in caring for the souls committed to their charge.這種說法的依據是假設,這些禮物是為了顯示感謝忠實的祭司誰對他們的生活支出在照顧他們的靈魂承諾負責。 This presumption, however, ceases wherever custom or law provides that at least a certain portion of these offerings should belong to the church.這一假設,但是,不再在任何地方習慣或法律規定,至少有一定比例的這些產品應屬於教會。 This is generally the case where churches, not possessing other sources of income, depend entirely on the offerings.這是一般的情況下,教堂,不擁有其他收入來源,完全取決於產品。 An illustration of such laws is to be found in the eighth decree of the Second Provincial Council of Westminster, approved by Leo XIII in the Constitution "Romanos Pontifices" of 8 May, 1881.說明了這種法律是要找到在第八法令第二省議會威斯敏斯特批准利奧十三世在“憲法羅曼諾斯Pontifices ”的1881年5月8日。 Accordingly, in countries where this is in force, the usual collections taken up in the churches belong to each mission, in addition to the pew-rents, and it is from these revenues that the salaries of pastors and assistants are ordinarily drawn.因此,在有些國家,這是在部隊,通常採取集合在教堂屬於每個特派團,除了佩尤租金,這是由這些收入的薪金和助理牧師通常得出。

Pastors, besides having rights, have also obligations.牧師,除了權利,還義務。 They must preach and take care of the religious instruction of the faithful, especially of the young, supply their spiritual needs by the administration of the sacraments, reside in their parish or mission, administer diligently the property entrusted to their care, watch over the moral conduct of their parishioners, and remove, as far as possible, all hindrances to their salvation.他們必須宣揚和照顧宗教信徒,特別是年輕的,供應他們的精神需求的管理,聖禮,住在他們的本堂或使命,勤奮物業管理委託給他們的照顧,觀賞的道德開展其教區,並刪除,並盡可能為他們的所有障礙救贖。 Moreover, parish-priests must make a profession of faith and take the oath prescribed by Pius X in his "Motu Proprio", 1 Sept., 1910; they must also offer the Holy Sacrifice on behalf of their flock on Sundays and certain holydays set down in the law.此外,教區,神職人員必須作出信念和宣誓明皮尤斯X在他的“手諭” , 1 9月, 1910年,他們還必須提供羅馬犧牲代表其羊群在週日和某些holydays設置在法律。 When the number of the faithful entrusted to the care of the pastor is so large that he alone cannot fulfil all the duties incumbent on his office, the bishop has the right to order him to take as many priests to help him as may be necessary.當一些忠實委託照顧的牧師是如此之大,他本身無法履行所有職責義不容辭的他的辦公室,主教有權責令採取許多神職人員,以幫助他的可能是必要的。 These are called assistants or auxiliary priests, and differ both from coadjutors who are given to pastors for other reasons determined by the law, and from administrators who take charge of a parish during its vacancy, or the absence of its pastor.這些都是所謂的助理或輔助祭司,並從不同的coadjutors誰給牧師因其他原因所決定的法律,從管理員誰負責教區空缺期間,或缺乏其牧師。

Positive law (Council of Trent, Sess. XXI, cap. iv, de Ref.), modified in some countries by custom, reserves to the parish-priest the right to choose his assistants, a choice, however, which is subject to the approval of the bishop, and it is also from the bishop that assistants receive their faculties.實在法(理事會特倫特, Sess 。二十一章。四,日編號。 ) ,修改在一些國家的習俗,儲備堂,神父有權選擇他的助手,一個選擇,但是,這是受批准的主教,也是由助理主教說,收到學院。 The amount of their salary is likewise to be determined by the bishop, and, as to its source, the same rules hold as those already mentioned with regard to pastors.數額的工資也同樣應由主教,並在其來源,持有相同的規則已經提到的那些方面的牧師。 As to their removal, (a) when their nomination belongs by law to the parish-priest, they can be removed either by him or by the bishop, (b) when their nomination belongs to the bishop, he alone can remove them; in any case a reasonable cause is necessary, at least for the lawfulness of the act, and the assistant who believes that he has been wronged may have recourse to higher authorities, as mentioned above with regard to movable pastors.至於他們的搬遷, ( a )當其提名屬於依法教區,牧師,他們可以被刪除或者由他或由主教, ( b )在其提名屬於主教,他就可以將它們移除;在任何情況下,合理的原因是必要的,至少在合法的行為,和助理誰認為他已經委屈可能訴諸上級如上所述,關於動產牧師。 Their office, however, does not cease with the death of the priest or bishop who appointed them, unless this was clearly expressed in the letters of appointment.他們的辦公室,但是,並沒有停止與死亡的神父或主教任命他們誰,除非這是明確表達了委任書。 For the recent legislation regarding the removal of parish-priests, see PARISH, section II, 2.最近的立法消除堂,神父,見教區,第二節2 。

Publication information Written by Hector Papi.出版信息作者埃克托爾帕皮。 Transcribed by Bobie Jo M. Bilz.轉錄的Bobie喬先生Bilz 。 Dedicated to Reverend J.牧師學者致力於 Ronald Knott, Pastor of the Cathedral of the Assumption, Louisville, Kentucky, 1983-1997. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XI.羅納德諾特,牧師大教堂的假設,肯塔基州路易斯維爾, 1983年至1997年。天主教百科全書,第十一。 Published 1911.發布時間1911年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, February 1, 1911. Nihil Obstat , 1911年2月1日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor. Imprimatur.雷米Lafort ,性病,檢查員。認可。 +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰法利紅衣主教,大主教紐約


BAART, Legal Formulary (4th ed., New York), nn. BAART ,法律藥典(第4版。 ,紐約) ,神經網絡。 86-113; BOUIX, De Parocho (3rd ed., Paris, 1889); FERRARIS, Bibliotheca Canonica etc. (Rome, 1885-99); NARDI, Dei Parrochi (Pesaro, 1829-60); SANTI, Pr£lectiones juris canonici (New York, 1905); SCHERER, Handbuch des Kirchenrechts (Graz, 1886), xcii-iii; SMITH, Elements of Ecclesiastical Law, I (9th ed., New York, 1893), nn. 86-113 ; BOUIX ,者Parocho (第3版。 ,巴黎, 1889年) ;法拉利,圖書館等卡諾尼卡(羅馬, 1885年至1899年) ;慧,上帝Parrochi (佩扎羅, 1829年至1860年) ;聖,镨£ lectiones法律canonici (紐約, 1905年) ; SCHERER ,手冊之Kirchenrechts (格拉茨, 1886年) , xcii第三;史密斯,教會法的要素,我(第9版。 ,紐約, 1893年) ,神經網絡。 639-70; WERNZ, Jus Decretalium (Rome, 1899), tit. 639-70 ; WERNZ ,強制Decretalium (羅馬, 1899年) ,針鋒相對。 xxxix; RAYMUNDI ANTONII EPISCOPI, Instructio Pastoralis (5th ed., Freiburg, 1902); AICHNER, Compendium juris eccl.三十九; RAYMUNDI ANTONII EPISCOPI , Instructio Pastoralis (第5版。 ,弗賴堡, 1902年) ; AICHNER ,彙編法律eccl 。 (6th ed., Brixon, 1887), 426-41; CRONIN, The New Matrimonial Legislation (Rome, 1908). (第6版。 , Brixon , 1887年) , 426-41 ; CRONIN ,新的婚姻立法(羅馬, 1908年) 。

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