Book of Revelation, Revelations, Apocalypse啟示錄,啟示,啟示

General Information 一般信息

The Book of Revelation is the last book of the New Testament of the Bible.啟示錄是最後一本書的新約聖經。 Its title comes from the first verse of the text, "the revelation of Jesus Christ . . . to his servant John."其名稱來自於第一詩的文字, “啟示耶穌基督。 。 。對他的僕人約翰。 ” The book is also called The Apocalypse, and it is the only piece of New Testament writing cast almost entirely in the apocalyptic mode.這本書也被稱為啟示,它是唯一的一塊新約全書寫演員幾乎全部在世界末日模式。 Irenaeus states that Revelation was written during the reign of the Roman emperor Domitian, probably about AD 95.依國家啟示寫時期的羅馬皇帝多米田,大概公元95 。 Tradition asserts that the apostle Saint John wrote Revelation during his exile on Patmos. Some scholars do not accept this attribution because of the stylistic differences between Revelation and the other works attributed to John - the Gospel and Epistles.傳統聲稱使徒聖約翰啟示寫道流亡期間,就帕特莫斯。一些學者並不接受這種歸屬由於文體的差異啟示和其他工程歸因於約翰-福音和書信。

After a prologue, the book comprises two main parts.經過序幕,這本書由兩個主要部分。 The first (chaps. 2 - 3) contains letters to the seven churches of Asia, warning them against false teachers and offering encouragement. The rest consists of a series of visions, replete with allegories, numbers and other symbols, and a strong eschatological message.第一次(第2 - 3 )包含字母的七個教會的亞洲, 警告他們對提供虛假的教師和鼓勵。其餘包括一系列的觀點,充滿了寓言,數字和其他符號,和一個強大末世信息。 These features are characteristic of the apocalyptic writing then in vogue.這些功能特點世界末日書面然後流行。

Interpretation of the Book of Revelation has been a source of much controversy.解讀啟示錄已引起了許多爭議。 Some have held that it had a message only for the 1st century world.有些人認為,它有一個信息不僅對21世紀的世界。 Others maintain that the book is a prophecy to be fulfilled totally in the future (see Millenarianism).其他維持這本書是一個預言,就必須履行完全在未來(見千禧年) 。 Undoubtedly, John spoke to the situation of his day.毫無疑問,約翰談到的情況,他的一天。 The letters to the seven churches indicate a situation of crisis, probably brought on by Roman persecutions of the Christians.這些信件的七個教會表明危機的情況下,可能帶來的羅馬迫害的基督教徒。 From his understanding of the revelation of God for his day, he painted a vision of God's final triumph over evil that has sustained many Christians in later eras.從他的理解的啟示上帝給他的一天,他描繪了一幅遠景上帝的最終戰勝邪惡,已經持續很多基督徒在以後的時代。

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In the Book of Revelation, John is interpreting the significance of the cross and resurrection for the future, be it near or distant.這本書的啟示,約翰解釋的意義和復活兩岸的未來,無論是近或遠。 He declares their meaning for time and history until the end.他宣稱其含義的時間和歷史結束為止。 God is on his throne (chap. 4); Christ has won the victory (chap. 5); God is at work in the midst of apparent chaos (seals, trumpets, and bowls).上帝是他的王位(第4章) ;基督贏得了勝利(第5章) ;上帝是在工作中處於明顯的混亂(海豹,小號,和碗) 。 The true victors are those called out in Christ from every tongue, nation, and people (chaps. 5, 20). Although God's work in history has been hidden except to eyes of faith, the final stanza will reveal that all history has truly been his story (chaps. 17, 20).真正的勝利者是那些所謂的在基督從每個母語,民族,人民(第5 , 20 ) 。雖然上帝的工作,在歷史上已被隱藏,除非眼睛的信念,最後詩就會發現,所有的歷史確實是他的故事(第17 , 20 ) 。 The victory won in history by the cross will be displayed in history by the return, and God will ultimately be revealed as all in all (chaps. 21, 22).在勝利的歷史,兩岸將顯示在歷史上的回報,上帝將最終發現所有的一切(第21 , 22 ) 。

Douglas Ezell道格拉斯Ezell

Bibliography 參考書目
WJ Abraham, Divine Revelation and the Limits of Historical Criticism (1982); J Baillie, The Idea of Revelation in Recent Thought (1956); JW Bowman, The First Christian Drama: The Book of Revelation (1968); E Brunner, Revelation and Reason (1984); A Dulles, Models of Revelation (1983); J Ellul, Apocalypse: The Book of Revelation (1977); WJ Harrington, The Apocalypse of St. John: A Commentary (1969); WG Heidt, The Book of the Apocalypse (1962); G Moran, Theology of Revelation (1966); R Niebuhr, The Meaning of Revelation (1967). WJ通訊公司亞伯拉罕天啟和限制史學批評( 1982年) ; J貝利的設想在最近的思想的啟示( 1956年) ;金威鮑曼,第一基督教戲劇:啟示錄( 1968年) ; é布魯尼爾,啟示和理由( 1984年) ;阿杜勒斯模式的啟示( 1983年) ; J埃呂爾,啟示:啟示錄( 1977年) ; WJ通訊公司,哈靈頓啟示聖約翰:評注( 1969年) ;工作組Heidt ,這本書的啟示錄( 1962年) ; G莫蘭,神學的啟示( 1966年) ; R尼布爾的含義啟示( 1967年) 。

Book of Revelation啟示錄

Brief Outline簡要概述

  1. Christ the critic of the Churches (1:1-3:22)基督批評教會( 1:1-3:22 )
  2. Series of seals, trumpets and bowls; God's Judgment upon a world controlled by evil (4:1-16:21)一系列的封條,小號和碗;上帝的判決後,所控制的世界邪惡( 4:1-16:21 )
  3. Overthrow of evil society, religion and government in the destruction of Babylon and the defeat of the beast and his armies by Christ (17:1-21:8)推翻邪惡的社會,宗教和政府首腦在破壞巴比倫和失敗的野獸和他的軍隊由基督( 17:1-21:8 )
  4. Establishment of the city of God, the Eternal Destiny of His people (21:9-22:5)建立城市上帝,永恆的命運他的人民( 21:9-22:5 )
  5. Epilogue: appeal and invitation (22:6-21)後記:呼籲和邀請( 22:6-21 )


Advanced Information 先進的信息

Revelation is an uncovering, a bringing to light of that which had been previously wholly hidden or only obscurely seen.啟示是一個發現,一個使鑑於那些先前已經完全隱藏或只隱晦地看到。 God has been pleased in various ways and at different times (Heb. 1:1) to make a supernatural revelation of himself and his purposes and plans, which, under the guidance of his Spirit, has been committed to writing.上帝很高興以各種方式和在不同的時間( Heb. 1:1 ) ,使超自然啟示本人和他的目的和計劃,這些計劃的指導下,他的精神,一直致力於寫作。 (See WORD OF GOD.) The Scriptures are not merely the "record" of revelation; they are the revelation itself in a written form, in order to the accurate presevation and propagation of the truth. (見上帝的話語。 )聖經不只是“記錄”的啟示,他們本身的啟示以書面形式,以便準確presevation和傳播真相。 Revelation and inspiration differ.啟示和靈感不同。 Revelation is the supernatural communication of truth to the mind; inspiration (qv) secures to the teacher or writer infallibility in communicating that truth to others.啟示是傳播真理的超自然的心態;靈感( qv )保證的教師或作家犯錯誤溝通,真相給他人。 It renders its subject the spokesman or prophet of God in such a sense that everything he asserts to be true, whether fact or doctrine or moral principle, is true, infallibly true.它使得其主題發言人或先知上帝在這種意義上,他主張,一切是真實的,不管事實或理論或道德原則,是真實的, infallibly如此。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (伊斯頓圖解詞典)

Book of Revela'tion = The Apocalypse書Revela'tion =的啟示

Advanced Information 先進的信息

The Book of Revelation is the closing book and the only prophetical book of the New Testament canon.啟示錄是關閉的圖書和唯一預言書新約全書佳能。 The author of this book was undoubtedly John the apostle.的作者,這本書無疑是使徒約翰。 His name occurs four times in the book itself (1:1, 4, 9; 22:8), and there is every reason to conclude that the "John" here mentioned was the apostle.他的名字出現4次,這本書本身( 1:1 , 4 , 9 , 22時08分) ,並有充分理由得出這樣的結論: “約翰”在這裡提到的使徒。 In a manuscript of about the twelfth century he is called "John the divine," but no reason can be assigned for this appellation.在一個時間約在12世紀,他是所謂的“神聖的約翰” ,但沒有任何理由可以被指派為這個稱謂。

The date of the writing of this book has generally been fixed at AD96, in the reign of Domitian.日期的書面這本書一般被固定在AD96 ,在統治的多米提安。 There are some, however, who contend for an earlier date, AD 68 or 69, in the reign of Nero.有一些,但是,誰堅持的一個較早的日期,公元68或69 ,在尼祿統治。 Those who are in favour of the later date appeal to the testimony of the Christian father Irenaeus, who received information relative to this book from those who had seen John face to face.這些誰贊成日後呼籲證詞基督教父親依,誰收到的資料與這本書從這些誰見過約翰面對面。

He says that the Apocalypse "was seen no long time ago."他說,現代啟示錄“是沒有看到很久以前。 ” As to the relation between this book and the Gospel of John, it has been well observed that "the leading ideas of both are the same. The one gives us in a magnificent vision, the other in a great historic drama, the supreme conflict between good and evil and its issue. In both Jesus Christ is the central figure, whose victory through defeat is the issue of the conflict. In both the Jewish dispensation is the preparation for the gospel, and the warfare and triumph of the Christ is described in language saturated with the Old Testament The difference of date will go a long way toward explaining the difference of style."之間的關係以及這本書的福音約翰,它已得到很好的指出, “領先的思想,兩者是相同的。一個讓我們在一個宏偉的設想,在一個偉大的歷史話劇,最高法院之間的衝突善和惡的問題。在這兩個耶穌基督是核心人物,他們的勝利是通過失敗問題的衝突。在這兩個猶太人免除是籌備工作的福音,以及戰爭和勝利中所描述基督語言飽和舊約的不同日期將大大有助於解釋不同的風格。 “ Plummer's Gospel of St. John, Introd.盧默的聖約翰福音, Introd 。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (伊斯頓圖解詞典)

General Revelation一般啟示

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Revelation General is that divine disclosure to all persons at all times and places by which one comes to know that God is, and what he is like.啟示一般的神聖披露的是,所有的人在所有的時間和地點由哪一個來知道,上帝,他是什麼樣。 While not imparting saving truths such as the Trinity, incarnation, or atonement, general revelation mediates the conviction that God exists and that he is self-sufficient, transcendent, immanent, eternal, powerful, wise, good, and righteous.雖然不是傳授節水真理,如三一,化身,或贖罪,一般啟示介相信上帝存在,他是自給自足,是至高無上的,內在的,永恆的,功能強大的,明智的,很好,和正義的。 General, or natural, revelation may be divided into two categories: (1) internal, the innate sense of deity and conscience, and (2) external, nature and providential history.一般,或自然,啟示可分為兩類: ( 1 )內部,內在的感覺神和良心,和( 2 )外部,性質和天賜的歷史。

Summary of Positions綜述職位

Biblical Data聖經數據

In the OT Elihu's speech to Job (esp. Job. 36:24-37:24) draws attention to the rain that waters the earth, the thunder and lightning that strikes terror in the heart, the fury of a thunderstorm, and the brilliant shining of the sun following the storm's departure. The text suggests that these natural phenomena attest the power, majesty, goodness, and severity of the creator God and that the data are there for all to behold (Job 36:25).在加時賽伊萊休的講話就業(特別是就業。 36:24-37:24 )提請注意雨水域地球,雷電衝擊恐怖心,憤怒,雷雨的輝煌光輝的太陽風暴後離開。案文表明,這些自然現象證明的權力,國王陛下,善良,和嚴重性上帝和造物主的數據,大家都看見(約伯記36:25 ) 。 Moreover, God's address to Job (esp. Job 38:1-39:30) conveys the idea that natural phenomena (lightning, thunder, rain, snow), the daily rising of the sun, the majestic constellations in the heavens, and the complexity and harmonious interrelationships among the animal kingdom all attest the existence and glory of God.此外,上帝的解決就業(特別是就業38:1-39:30 )傳達的想法,自然現象(閃電,雷鳴,雨,雪) ,每天上升的太陽,在雄壯的星座在天空,和複雜性和相互關係和諧的動物王國都證明存在和榮耀神。

According to Ps.據聚苯乙烯。 19 God reveals himself through the two-volume book of nature (vss. 1-6) and book of the law (vss. 7-13). 19上帝揭示自己通過兩卷書的性質( vss. 1-6 )和書籍的法律( vss. 7月13日) 。 In the first volume we read, "The heavens declare the glory of God; the skies proclaim the work of his hands" (vs. 1).在第一冊我們讀到, “老天爺宣布神的榮耀的上帝的手” (比1 ) 。 That which the created order shows forth is the divine "glory" (kabod), namely, the external manifestation of God's inner being and attributes.這其中的創建是為了表明提出的神聖“光榮” ( kabod ) ,即外部表現上帝的內心和屬性。 The revelation of God's glory through the heavens is declared to be perpetual or uninterrupted (vs. 2), wordless or inaudible (vs. 3), and world-wide in scope (vs. 4).啟示上帝的榮耀,通過天被宣布為永久或中斷(對2 ) ,無言的或無聲(對3 ) ,並在全球範圍(比4 ) 。 That Judaism held to a general revelation in nature is clear from Wisd.這猶太教舉行一般性啟示性的明確Wisd 。 Sol.溶膠。 13:5: "The greatness and beauty of created things give us a corresponding idea of their Creator." 13時05分: “的偉大和美麗的東西給我們建立了相應的想法,他們的創作。 ”

In the prologue to his Gospel, John makes two assertions about the eternal Word.在他的福音序幕,約翰使兩個斷言永恆的文字。 First, "in him was life, and that life was the light of men" (1:4).首先, “在他的生命,這生命是輕的男子” ( 1:4 ) 。 And second, the Word is "the true light that gives light to every man who comes into the world" (1:9).第二,這個詞的“真光,使光線誰是每一個男人的世界” ( 1時09分) 。 The Greeks identified the Logos as the divine power that energizes man's intellectual and moral life.希臘人確定標識的神聖權力,注入人的智力和道德的生活。 Wisdom, the parallel Jewish concept, was viewed as the power of God operative in the world to create, enlighten, and renew (cf. Wisd. Sol. 7:22-9:18).智慧,平行猶太人的概念,被看作是上帝的力量手術在世界上創造,啟發,並重申(見Wisd 。溶膠。 7:22-9:18 ) 。 Thus it seems likely that in John 1:4, 9 the apostle has in mind the universal work of the Logos whereby the human mind is divinely illumined so as to perceive God as a first principle, much the same as Calvin's "sense of divinity" or "seed of religion."因此,它似乎在約翰1:4 , 9使徒已到普遍工作標識,即人的心靈是神照亮,以感知上帝作為第一原則,大致相同卡爾文的“意義上的神”或“種子的宗教。 ”

Preaching to Gentiles at Lystra, Paul and Barnabas appealed to knowledge they and their hearers held in common as a result of general revelation: namely, that God is the creator of all things (Acts 14:15) and the providential provider of the necessities of life (vs. 17).說教外邦人在Lystra ,保羅和巴拿巴呼籲他們和他們的知識聽眾共同舉行的,由於一般的啟示,即:上帝是造物主的一切事物(使徒14:15 )和天賜提供商的必需品生活(對17 ) 。 In his kindly dealings with humankind God "has not left himself without testimony" (amarturon, vs. 17).在他的親切對待人類上帝“並沒有留在自己的證詞” ( amarturon ,比17 ) 。 Similarly, in his address to pagan Athenians (Acts 17:24-31) Paul referred, as a point of contact, to truths his audience knew by virtue of God's universal self-disclosure in nature and history.同樣,在講話中異教雅典(使徒17:24-31 )保羅提到,作為一個聯絡點,向他的聽眾知道真理憑藉上帝的普遍自我揭露的性質和歷史。 These include (1) God is the creator and sovereign of the universe (Acts 17:24); (2) he is self-sufficient (vs. 25a); (3) he is the source of life and all good (vs. 25b); (4) he is an intelligent being who formulates plans (vs. 26); (5) he is immanent in the world (vs. 27); and (6) he is the source and ground of human existence (vs. 28).這些措施包括( 1 )上帝是造物主和主權的宇宙(使徒17:24 ) ; ( 2 )他是自給自足(與第25A ) ; ( 3 )他是生命之源,和所有好的(對25B條) ; ( 4 )他是個聰明誰正在制定計劃(與第26條) ; ( 5 )他是內在的世界(對27 )和( 6 )他是源和地面的人類生存(與。 28 ) 。

In Rom.在ROM 。 2:14-15 Paul teaches that a further modality of general revelation is the implanted moral law attested to the heart by the faculty of conscience. 2:14-15保羅教導我們進一步方式一般啟示是植入道德律證明了心系的良知。 All men are guilty of transgressing the law, Paul argues: the Jews because they have violated the law written on stone, and the Gentiles because they have failed to live by the moral law written on their hearts (cf. Rom. 1:32).所有男人犯有超越法律,保羅說:猶太人,因為他們觸犯了法律上的石頭,和外邦人,因為他們沒有生活的道德法律寫在他們的心中(參見光盤。 1:32 ) 。 Communicated to each rational person by the power of conscience is the existence of a supreme Lawgiver and his moral requirements.傳達給每一個有理性的人的良知的力量是存在的最高立法者和他的道德要求。

The clearest teaching that all people possess a rudimentary knowledge of God as creator occurs in Rom.最明顯的教學,所有的人擁有了一個初步的了解上帝的創造者發生在ROM 。 1:18-21. 1:18-21 。 Paul argues that through the universal revelation in nature God is "clearly seen" (vs. 20), "understood" (vs. 20), and "known" (vs. 19; cf. vs. 21).保羅認為,通過普遍啟示性的神是“清楚地看到” (與20 ) , “理解” (與20 ) ,和“知道” (與19 ;比照。比21 ) 。 That which man gains knowledge of is defined as God's invisible qualities, his eternal power and divine nature (theiotes).那男子收益知識的定義是上帝的無形的素質,他的永恆的力量和神性( theiotes ) 。 The Greek noun theiotes, "divinity," signifies the totality of the perfections that comprise the Godhead.希臘名詞theiotes , “神” ,標誌著全部完善構成神體。 Moreover, the apostle claims that this elemental knowledge of God is acquired by rational reflection on the created order (vs. 20). The word ginosko ("to know") used in vss.此外,使徒聲稱,這一元素的知識是上帝所獲得的理性思考建立秩序(對20 ) 。這個詞ginosko ( “知道” )中使用的VSS 。 19, 21 connotes to perceive with the senses and to grasp with the mind. 19日, 21日的含義認識到與感官和把握的主意。


Scriptures that the consistent response of the sinner when confronted with the truth-content of general revelation is to dismiss it from his consciousness (Rom. 1:21-32).聖經的一致反應的罪人面對的真相,內容一般啟示是,駁回他的意識( Rom. 1:21-32 ) 。 Thus instead of worshiping and obeying God, the unregenerate person asserts his own autonomy and fashions lifeless idols which he proceeds to venerate. Whereupon God deliberately gives man over to the sordid impulses of his sinful nature (Rom. 1:24, 26, 28).因此,不是崇拜和服從上帝, unregenerate人聲稱自己的生命的自主性和時尚偶像,他的收益敬禮。於是上帝故意讓男子到骯髒的衝動,他罪孽深重的性質( Rom. 1時24分, 26 , 28 ) 。 Instead of proving salvific, general revelation serves only to condemn the sinner and to establish his guiltworthiness before God (Rom. 1:20).相反證明salvific ,一般啟示只會譴責罪人,並建立了guiltworthiness上帝面前( Rom. 1:20 ) 。

But general revelation serves several salutary ends.但是一般的啟示一些有益的服務目的。 (1) The universally implanted moral law provides the only authentic basis by which good and evil can be distinguished. ( 1 )普遍植入道德法律規定的唯一真實的基礎上,其中善惡可以區分。 The fact that good is enjoined and evil proscribed provides society with the only viable framework for existence.事實上,良好的責成和提供社會邪惡被禁的唯一可行的框架存在。 (2) Since all people possess a rudimentary knowledge of God, the Christian witness is assured that when he speaks to a sinner the notion of God is not a meaningless cipher. ( 2 )由於所有的人擁有了一個初步的了解上帝,基督信仰見證是有保證的,當他談到一個罪人的概念,上帝不是一個毫無意義的密碼。 And (3) general revelation provides the rational basis for God's saving revelation mediated by Christ and the Bible. ( 3 )一般啟示提供合理的基礎,在上帝的節能啟示導基督和聖經的內容。 In this sense natural theology serves as the vestibule of revealed theology.在這個意義上自然神學擔任前庭顯示神學。

BA Demarest廣管局德馬雷斯特
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (規矩福音字典)

Bibliography 參考書目
BC Berkouwer, General Revelation; E. Brunner, Revelation and Reason; BA Demarest, General Revelation.公元前Berkouwer ,一般啟示;體育布魯尼爾,啟示和理由;廣管局德馬雷斯特,一般啟示。

Special Revelation特別啟示

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The midtwentieth century's revival of interest in special divine revelation occurs at a significant time in modern history.該midtwentieth世紀的復興中的利益特別天啟發生在一個重要的時間在現代歷史。 Naturalism has become a virile cultural force in both East and West.自然主義已成為一個強有力的文化力量在東,西。 In previous centuries the chief rivals of revealed religion were speculative idealism and philosophical theism; today the leading antagonists are materialistic communism, logical positivism, atheistic existentialism, and variant forms of Anglo-Saxon humanism.在過去的幾個世紀中的主要競爭對手是投機啟示宗教和哲學唯心主義有神論;今天領先拮抗劑是唯物主義的共產主義,邏輯實證主義,無神論的存在,和變異形式的盎格魯撒克遜人為本。 Since communist philosophy refers the whole movement of events to economic determinism, the recovery of the Judeo-Christian emphasis on special historical revelation gains pointed relevance.自從共產主義哲學是指整個運動的活動,以經濟決定,恢復的猶太教和基督教重點放在特殊的歷史啟示收益指出意義。

The Meaning of Revelation啟示的意義

The term "revelaltion" means intrinsically the disclosure of what was previously unknown.術語“ revelaltion ”是指內在的披露是前所未知的。 In Judeo-Christian theology the term is used primarily of God's communication to man of divine truth, that is, his manifestation of himself or of his will.在猶太教和基督教神學的長期主要用於上帝的溝通,以人的神聖真理,那就是,他的表現,他本人或他的意願。 The essentials of the biblical view are that the Logos is the divine agent in all revelation, this revelation being further discriminated as general or universal (ie, revelation in nature, history, and conscience) and special or particular (ie, redemptive revelation conveyed by wondrous acts and words).最基本的聖經觀點是,標誌是神聖的代理人在所有的啟示,這種啟示正在進一步歧視一般或普遍的(例如,啟示性的,歷史和良知的)和特殊或特定(即轉達了救贖啟示奇妙的行為和字) 。 The special revelation in sacred history is crowned by the incarnation of the living Word and the inscripturation of the spoken word.特別在神聖的歷史啟示是王冠上的化身生活的Word和inscripturation的話語。 The gospel of redemption is therefore not merely a series of abstract theses unrelated to specific historical events; it is the dramatic news that God has acted in saving history, climaxed by the incarnate person and work of Christ (Heb. 1:2), for the salvation of lost humankind.的福音贖回,因此不只是一系列摘要論文無關的具體歷史事件,這是戲劇性的消息,上帝一直在拯救歷史,高潮所體現的人與工作的基督( Heb. 1:2 ) ,為拯救了人類。 Yet the redemptive events of biblical history do not stand uninterpreted.然而,救贖事件聖經歷史並不uninterpreted 。 Their authentic meaning is given in the sacred writings, sometimes after, sometimes before the events.其真正的含義是在神聖的著作,有時後,有時事件之前。 The series of sacred acts therefore includes the divine provision of an authoritative canon of writings, the sacred Scriptures, providing a trustworthy source of knowledge of God and of his plan.神聖的一系列行為,包括神聖因此提供一個權威性佳能的著作,聖經教導,提供了一個值得信賴的知識來源的上帝和他的計劃。

Despite the distinction of general and special revelation, God's revelation is nonetheless a unity, and it must not be artificially sundered.儘管區分一般和特殊啟示,上帝的啟示仍然是一個團結的,它必須不會受到人為的sundered 。 Even prior to man's fall, Adam in Eden was instructed by specially revealed statutes (eg, to be fruitful and multiply, to eat and not to eat of certain fruit).之前,人類的秋天,亞當在伊甸園指示特別顯示章程(例如,是富有成果和繁殖,吃,不要吃一些水果) 。 In view of man's corruption, after the fall any one-sided reliance simply on general revelation would be all the more arbitrary.鑑於人的腐敗,淪陷後,任何片面依賴只是一般的啟示將更加武斷。 Yet we are not on that account to minimize the fact and importance of general revelation, on which the Bible insists (Ps. 19; Rom. 1-2).然而,我們不能在這個帳戶,以最大限度地減少的事實和重要性一般啟示,而堅持的聖經( Ps. 19 ;光盤。 1-2 ) 。 But taken alone the so-called theistic proofs have led few men to the living God.但僅採取了所謂的有神論的證據,導致一些人的生活上帝。 The assumption of Thomas Aquinas that God can be known by natural reason apart from a revelation of Jesus Christ may be viewed, in fact, as an unwitting preparation for the revolt of early modern philosophy against special revelation and its contrary emphasis solely on general revelation.擔任多瑪斯上帝可以被稱為自然原因除了啟示耶穌基督可以認為,事實上,作為不知情的準備起義早期現代哲學的啟示和對特別強調其完全違背一般的啟示。 The many types of speculative theism and idealism arising in the wake of this emphasis were only temporarily able to hold a line against the decline to naturalism.在許多類型的投機有神論和唯心論中產生後,這只是暫時的重點是能夠進行線對自然下降。

While the Bible indeed affirms God's general revelation, it invariably correlates general revelation with special redemptive revelation.雖然聖經的確申明上帝的一般啟示,它總是與相關的一般啟示特別救贖啟示。 It declares at one and the same time that the Logos is creator and redeemer (John 1).它宣布在同一時間,該商標是創作者和救世主(約翰1 ) 。 It does not present general revelation on the thesis that the true knowledge of God is possible to fallen man through the natural light of reason apart from a revelation of Christ, but rather introduces general revelation alongside special revelation in order to emphasize man's guilt.它沒有目前的一般啟示論文,真正的上帝的知識有可能下降男子通過自然光線的原因除了基督的啟示,而是介紹了大會的啟示與特殊啟示,以強調人的罪責。 Thus the Scripture adduces God's unitary revelation, general and special, to display man's true predicament; he is a finite creature with an eternal destiny, made for spiritual fellowship with God, but now separated from his maker by sin.因此,經1971上帝的啟示統一,一般和特殊的,以顯示人的真正的困境,他是一種有限的動物與一個永恆的命運,為研究金與上帝的精神,但現在他的製造商分離的罪孽。

Special revelation is redemptive revelation. It publishes the good tidings that the holy and merciful God promises salvation as a divine gift to man who cannot save himself (OT) and that he has now fulfilled that promise in the gift of his Son in whom all men are called to believe (NT). 特別啟示是救贖的啟示。它出版的好消息,羅馬和仁慈的上帝許諾救贖作為神聖禮物的人誰不能自救(催產素) ,並說,他現在已經在履行這一承諾的禮物他的兒子在他們所有的人被稱為相信(新台幣) 。 The gospel is news that the incarnate Logos has borne the sins of doomed men, has died in their stead, and has risen for their justification.福音是有消息稱,體現標誌承擔的罪過注定男子,已經死亡之而起的,並已上升為他們的理由。 This is the fixed center of special redemptive revelation.這是固定的中心,特別救贖啟示。

False Views of Revelation虛假次數的啟示

Christian theology has had to protect the biblical view of special revelation against many perversions.基督教神學不得不保護聖經鑑於對許多特別的啟示perversions 。 Platonic preoccupation with "eternal ideas" accessible to men by rational contemplation alone, plus the disregard of history as a meaningful arena of events, tended to militate against essential elements of the biblical view, viz., divine initiative and particularity, and redemptive history as a carrier of absolute revelation.柏拉圖關注“永恆的想法”獲得男子理性沉思獨立,加上無視歷史舞台上作為一個有意義的事件,往往不利於基本要素聖經的觀點看,即。 ,神聖的倡議和特殊性,並救贖歷史承運人的絕對啟示。 The idealistic notion that God's revelation is given only generally, that it is a universally accessible idea, is destructive of biblical emphases such as the particularity of special revelation and a historical sequence of special saving events (climaxed by the incarnation, atonement, and resurrection of Christ as the unique center of redemptive revelation). Eighteenth century rationalism revived the notion of pre-Christian Greek idealism that historical facts are necessarily relative and never absolute, and that revelation consequently is to be divorced from historical actualities and identified with ideas alone.在理想的概念,即上帝的啟示是只籠統地說,這是一個普遍開放的想法,是破壞性的重點,如聖經的特殊性和特別啟示的歷史序列的特殊節能活動(高潮的化身,贖罪,與復活基督為中心的獨特的救贖啟示) 。十八世紀的理性主義的概念恢復前基督教希臘唯心主義的歷史事實,必然是相對的,永遠不是絕對的,而且啟示因此是脫離歷史與現狀,並確定了單獨的想法。 While still professing to speak of Christian revelation, this form of rationalism dissolved the essential connection of special revelation with historical disclosure.雖然說話仍然信奉基督教的啟示,這種形式的理性主義的基本方面解散的特殊的歷史啟示披露。

Moreover, it freely abandoned crucial aspects of redemptive history without protest to the destructive critics.此外,自由放棄的重要方面救贖歷史上沒有抗議的破壞性批評。 And it surrendered the defense of the uniqueness or once-for-allness of special revelation in deference to the notion that revelation is always and only general.它的防務移交的獨特性,或一次為allness特別啟示尊重的概念始終是啟示,只有一般。 Wherever Christianity has been confronted by idealistic speculations of this kind, it has had to contend against a determination to dissolve the central significance of the virgin birth, unique divinity, atoning death, and bodily resurrection of Christ. Since revelation was equated necessarily with a universal manifestation, every historical event was regarded simply as one of many reflections (in lower or higher degree) of this general principle, while an absolute revelation in some particular strand or at some particular point of history was arbitrarily excluded.只要基督教一直面臨著理想主義的這種猜測,它不得不對一個決心解散中央意義處女生育,唯一的神,彌補死亡,身體基督的復活。自啟示等同不一定具有普遍性表現,每一個歷史事件被看作僅僅是一個許多思考(下或更高學位)的一般原則,而絕對的啟示在某些特殊鏈或在某些特殊點的歷史任意排除在外。

Modern evolutionary theory, on the other hand, has attached new importance to the historical process.現代的進化理論,另一方面,高度重視新的歷史進程。 But this concern for history also has generally been pursued on presuppositions hostile to the biblical view.但這種關注的歷史也已普遍推行的前提敵視聖經觀點。 The tendency to exalt evolution itself into an ultimate principle of explanation works against the recognition of a fixed center or climax of history in the past.提升的趨勢,演變成一個最終的原則對作品的解釋,承認一個固定的中心或高潮的歷史成為過去。 While history may be approached with sentimental notions of hidden divinity, and major turning-points in the long sweep of events singled out as providential, the secred redemptive history of the past is leveled to the plateau of other elements in history, and history as a whole is no longer understood in revelation to the unique revelation of God in Christ as its center.雖然歷史上可能是對待感情隱藏的神的觀念,和重大轉折點點在長期包攬事件挑出來作為天賜的神聖救贖歷史背景是平整的黃土高原在歷史上的其他內容,並作為一個歷史整個不再是理解的啟示,以獨特的啟示上帝在基督為中心。

In fact the tendency to view reason itself only as a late emergent in the evolutionary process suppresses the biblical declaration that reality itself has its ultimate explanation in the Logos (John 1:3), and in effect contravenes the doctrine of rational divine revelation. That is why the question of the nature and significance of mind is one of the crucial problems of contemporary philosophy in its bearing upon both Christian and communist philosophy.事實上的傾向查看原因本身只能作為應急下旬在進化過程中抑制聖經宣言這一現實本身已經說明了其最終的標識(約1:3 ) ,並在生效違反原則的合理天啟。這因此,問題的性質和意義的心態是一個關鍵問題的當代哲學的同時對雙方的基督教和共產主義的哲學。 The modern philosphical revolt against reason, anchored first in skeptical theories about the limitations of human knowledge of the spiritual world and then in skeptical theories about the limitations of human knowledge of the spiritual world and then in evolutionary dogmas, has an obvious bearing upon the Christian contention that God communicates truths about himself and his purposes.現代哲學反抗的原因,首先在懷疑紮根理論的局限性,人類知識的心靈世界,然後在懷疑理論的局限性,人類知識的心靈世界,然後在進化教條,有明顯的基督教軸承的論點,即上帝傳達真理關於他本人和他的目的。

While it is the case that Christianity in contending for special revelation is concerned for spiritual decision between Jesus Christ and false gods, and not merely for an acceptance of certain revealed truths, yet the Christian movement does not on that account demean the importance of divinely revealed doctrines.雖然現在的情況是,基督教在爭的啟示是特別關注的精神耶穌基督之間的決定和假神,而不僅僅是一個接受某些揭示的真理,但基督教運動並不貶低該帳戶上的重要性神發現教條。 Christian experience involves both assensus (assent to revealed doctrines) and fiducia (personal trust in Christ).基督教經驗涉及assensus (同意以揭示理論)和fiducia (個人信託在基督) 。 Moreover, saving trust is impossible without some authentic knowledge of God (Heb. 11:6; I Cor. 15:1-4; Rom. 10:9).此外,節能信任是不可能的一些真實的知識的上帝( Heb.十一時○六分,我心病。 15:1-4 ;光盤。 10點09 ) 。

Since Schleiermacher's day Protestant theology has been influenced repeatedly by antiintellectualistic strands in modern philosophy, especially by such thinkers as Kant, James, and Dewey.自施萊爾馬赫的一天新教神學一直影響反复antiintellectualistic鏈在現代哲學,尤其是作為康德等思想家,詹姆斯和杜威。 Schleiermacher's formulas, that we know God only in relation to us and not as he is in himself, and that God communicates life and not doctrines, have been influential in encouraging an artificial disjunction in many Protestant expositions of special revelation.施萊爾馬赫的公式,我們知道上帝的關係不僅對我們,而不是因為他是在自己和上帝溝通的生活,而不是理論,已影響力,鼓勵人工脫節在許多新教論述特別的啟示。 Although often striving to advance beyond these restrictions, more recent existential and dialectical expositions nonetheless do not consistently rise above the quicksands of a merely relational theology.雖然經常努力超越這些限制,最近的生存和辯證的論述,但是沒有始終如一地超越quicksands一個僅僅關係神學。

Revelation as Rational作為理性的啟示

Because of its implications for rational revelation the traditional identification of the Bible as the word of God written has been especially repugnant to contemporary neo-orthodox theology.因為它影響理性啟示傳統鑑定聖經作為上帝的話,特別是書面已經深惡痛絕,以當代新正統神學。 It is contended that Jesus Christ alone should be identified as the Word of God, and that to speak of Scripture in this way demeans Christ.它爭辯說,耶穌基督只應該確定為神的話語,而且講經文以這種方式貶低基督。 The evangelical Protestant, however, distinguishes carefully between the logos theou and the rhema theou, that is, between the ontological Word incarnate and the epistemological word inscripturate. The motives for the neo-orthodox complaint are, in fact, speculative rather than spiritual.新教福音派,但是,仔細的區分標誌theou和銳瑪theou ,也就是說,詞之間的本體論和認識論的化身一詞inscripturate 。的動機的新東正教投訴,事實上,投機性,而不是精神。 For the witness of Scripture, to which neo-orthodox dogmaticians profess to appeal, is especially damaging to their case here.對於證人的聖經,其中新dogmaticians信奉東正教呼籲,尤其是有損於他們的案件在這裡。 The OT prophets consistently speak of their words as the words of God, using the formula "Thus saith the Lord" with untiring regularity.在加時賽先知一貫談論他們的話是上帝的話,用公式“因此saith上帝”與不懈的規律。 The NT apostles, moreover, speak of divine revelation in the form of difinite ideas and words (cf. I Thess. 2:13, where the Thessalonians are said to have "received the word of God which you heard from us not as the word of men but as...the word of God"; cf. also Rom. 3:2, where Paul characterizes the OT as "the oracles of God").新台幣使徒,此外,談論天啟的形式, difinite想法和詞(參見我Thess 。 2點13 ,在撒羅據說有“收到上帝的話,你聽到我們沒有這個詞男子...但作為上帝的話, “ ;比照。還光碟。 3:2 ,在保羅的催產素的特點為”神諭上帝“ ) 。 The disciples also spoke of Scripture as divine revelation and, in fact, had the sacred example and authority of Jesus Christ for so doing.門徒還談到聖經作為天啟,事實上,有神聖的例子和權威耶穌基督這樣做。 Jesus identified his own words with the word of the Father (John 14:34) and spoke of Scripture as the word of God (John 10:35).耶穌確定他自己的話改為父(約翰14時34分) ,並以聖經作為上帝的話, (約10:35 ) 。 The Biblical nowhere protests against the identification of Scripture with revelation, but rather supports and approves this identification.聖經無處抗議鑑定與聖經的啟示,而是支持和批准這項鑑定。 The neo-orthodox tendency to look upon Scripture as simply witness to revelation, in fact, contravenes the historic Christian view that the Bible itself is a form of revelation specially provided for man in sin as an authentic disclosure of the nature and will of God.新東正教趨勢看聖經只是證人啟示,事實上,違反了歷史性的基督教認為,聖經本身就是一種特殊形式的啟示的人提供了一個真實的罪惡披露的性質和上帝的意志。

From all this it is clear how significant is the Christian assertion that the laws of logic and morality belong to the imago Dei in man. Christian theology has always been under biblical compulsion to affirm the identity of the Logos with the Godhead, and to find a connection between God as rational and moral and the form and content of the divine image in man.從所有這一切很清楚如何重要的是,基督教主張的法律邏輯和道德屬於伊馬戈上帝的人。基督教神學一直根據聖經強迫確認身份的標誌與神體,並找到神之間的聯繫作為理性和道義和的形式和內容的神聖的形象的人。 That Jesus Christ is himself the truth; that man bears the divine image on the basis of creation and that this image while distorted by sin is not destroyed; that the Holy Bible is a rational revelation of the nature of God and his will for fallen man; that the Holy Spirit uses truth as a means of conviction and conversion, all these facts indicate in some measure the undeniable premium assigned to rationality by the Christian religion.耶穌基督是自己的真相,這名男子負有神聖的形象的基礎上,建立和這一形象而扭曲罪不能被破壞,認為聖經的啟示是一種理性的性質,上帝和他的意願下降男子這聖靈使用真理的一種手段的信念和轉換,所有這些事實表明在一定程度上是無可否認的保費分配到理性的基督教。 Yet human reason is not viewed as a source of truth; rather, man is to think God's thoughts after him.然而,人類理性不再被視為真理的源泉,而人是想上帝的想法後,他。 Revelation is the source of truth, and reason, as illuminated by the Spirit, the instrument for comprehending it.啟示之源的真理,因此,作為照明的精神,領會它的工具。

Contemporary theology is marked by its reaffirmation of the priority of revelation to reason.當代神學的特點是其重申優先啟示理智。 In this respect it is distinguished from the liberal Protestant dogmatics of the nineteenth century, which tended to view human reason as a selfsufficient and independent criterion.在這方面它區別於自由新教教義學在19世紀,這往往認為人類理性作為selfsufficient和獨立標準。 Some neo-Thomistic studies today restate the philosophy even of Thomas Aquinas so as to set the usual summary of his approach, "I understand in order to believe," in a context of faith.一些新Thomistic研究今天重申哲學甚至多瑪斯,以確定他的總結通常做法, “據我所知,以相信” ,在一個方面的誠意。 The Thomistic hostility to innate ideas, and the Thomistic support for knowledge of God by the way of negation and the way of analogy are, however, firmly reasserted. Protestant theology, heavily influenced by Karl Barth and Emil Brunner, now characteristically reasserts the priority of revelation over reason.該Thomistic敵視先天的想法,和Thomistic支持上帝的知識的方式和否定的方式比喻,然而,堅定地重申。新教神學,嚴重影響卡爾巴特和埃米爾布魯尼爾,現在典型重申的優先次序啟示的原因。 Thus the epistemological formulas representative of Augustine ("I believe in order to understand") and of Tertullian ("I believe what is absurd," ie, to the unregenerate man) are much in the climate of current theological dialogue.因此,認識論公式代表奧古斯丁( “我相信,以了解” )和特土良( “我認為是荒謬的, ”也就是說,到unregenerate人)要在目前的氣候神學對話。 But the modern tendency to exaggerate the transcendence of God, by way of revolt against the classic liberal overstatement of divine immanence, subserves the Tertullian more than the Augustinian formula.但現代傾向誇大超越上帝,以反抗經典自由主義虛報神聖內涵, subserves以上的特土良的奧古斯丁公式。 The historic Christian confidence in a revealed world-and-life view takes its rise from a prior confidence in the reality of rational divine revelation.基督徒的信心在顯示世界和人生觀對待其增長從先前的信心的實際情況合理天啟。 The modern tendency to veer toward a doctrine of revelation whose locus is to be found in an immediate existential response, rather than in an objectively conveyed Scripture, thwarts the theological interest in biblically revealed doctrines and principles from which an explanatory view of the whole of reality and life may be exposited.現代趨勢轉向對理論的啟示,其軌跡中可以找到生存立即作出反應,而不是一個客觀轉達聖經,阻礙興趣聖經神學理論和原則,顯示從解釋性鑑於整個現實和生命可能exposited 。 Thus it is apparent that a recovery of confidence in the intelligible integration of the whole of life's experiences depends significantly upon a virile sense of the actuality of rational divine revelation.因此很明顯,恢復信心,可理解一體化的整個人生經歷很大程度上取決於一個強有力的現實意義上的合理天啟。

CH Henry甲烷亨利
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (規矩福音字典)

Bibliography 參考書目
J. Baillie, The Idea of Revelation in Recent Thought; J. Calvin, Institutes of the Christian Religion, 1.6-9; CFH Henry, "Divine Revelation and the Bible," in Inspiration and Interpretation, ed.學者貝利的設想啟示最近思想的J.卡爾文研究所基督教, 1.6-9 ; CFH亨利, “神的啟示和聖經”的啟示和口譯,教育署。 JF Walvoord, and (ed.), Revelation and the Bible; PK Jewett, Emil Brunner's Concept of Revelation; H. Kraemer, Religion and the Christian Faith; BB Warfield, Revelation and Inspiration; HD McDonald, Theories of Revelation and Ideas of Revelation.怡富Walvoord ,和(編輯) ,啟示和聖經;激酶朱,埃米爾布魯尼爾的理念啟示閣下;克雷默,宗教和基督教信仰; BB心跳沃菲爾德,啟示和靈感;高清麥當勞,理論的啟示和思考的啟示。


Catholic Information 天主教新聞

Apocalypse, from the verb apokalypto, to reveal, is the name given to the last book in the Bible.啟示,來自動詞apokalypto ,揭示,是名字被給的最後一本書中的聖經。 It is also called the Book of Revelation.這也是所謂的啟示錄。

Although a Christian work, the Apocalypse belongs to a class of literature dealing with eschatological subjects and much in vogue among the Jews of the first century before, and after, Christ.雖然基督教工作的啟示屬於一類的文學處理末世論主題和許多流行的猶太人之間的第一個世紀前,後,基督。


The author of the Apocalypse calls himself John.的作者自稱約翰的啟示。 "John to the seven churches which are in Asia" (Ap., i, 4). “約翰的七個教堂是在亞洲” ( Ap. ,我, 4 ) 。 And again, "I, John, your brother and your partner in tribulation . . . was in the island which called Patmos, for the word of God" (i, 9).再次, “我,約翰,你的兄弟和你的伴侶在磨難。 。 。是在島內要求帕特莫斯,為上帝的話, ” (一, 9 ) 。

The Seer does not further specify his personality.在先知沒有進一步說明他的個性。 But from tradition we know that the Seer of the Apocalypse was John the Apostle the son of Zebedee, the Beloved Disciple of Jesus.但是,從傳統我們知道,先知的啟示是使徒約翰的兒子號Zebedee ,可愛的弟子耶穌。 At the end of the second century the Apocalypse was acknowledged by the historical representatives of the principal churches as the genuine work of John the Apostle.結束時的第二個世紀的啟示是公認的歷史代表主要教堂的真正工作約翰使徒。

In Asia, Melito, Bishop of Sardis, one of the Seven Churches of the Apocalypse, acknowledged the Revelation of John and wrote a commentary on it (Eusebius, Hist. Eccl., IV, 26).在亞洲,美利托,主教撒狄,一個七教會的啟示,承認約翰啟示寫了評論它(優西比烏,組織胺。 Eccl 。 ,四, 26 ) 。 In Gaul, Irenaeus firmly believes in its Divine and Apostolic authority (Adversus Haer., V, 30).在高盧,依堅信在其神聖和使徒管理局( Adversus Haer 。 ,五, 30 ) 。 In Africa, Tertullian frequently quotes Revelation without apparent misgivings as to its authenticity (C. Marcion, III, 14, 25).在非洲,良經常引用的啟示沒有明顯疑慮其真實性(角馬吉安,三, 14 , 25 ) 。 In Italy, Bishop Hippolytus assigns it to the Apostle St. John, and the Muratorian Fragment (a document about the beginning of the third century) enumerates it along with the other canonical writings, adding, it is true, apocryphal Apocalypse of St. Peter, but with the clause, quam quidam ex nostris in ecclesia legi nolunt.在意大利,西波呂主教分配給使徒聖約翰,以及穆拉多利片段(約文件開始的第三個世紀)列舉了它與其他規範的著作還補充道,這是真的,未經聖彼得的啟示,但該條款,華富quidam前nostris在教會普通法nolunt 。 The Vetus Itala, moreover, the standard Latin version in Italy and Africa during the third century, contained the Apocalypse. In Egypt, Clement and Origen believed without hesitation in its Joannine authorship.該Vetus伊泰萊,此外,該標準版在意大利拉丁美洲和非洲在第三個世紀,載有啟示。在埃及,克萊門特和奧利認為毫不猶豫地在其Joannine作者。 They were both scholars and men of critical judgment.他們都是學者和男子的關鍵判斷。 Their opinion is all the more valuable as they had no sympathy with the millennial teaching of the book.他們認為更是寶貴的,因為它們沒有同情千年教學的書籍。 They contented themselves with an allegorical interpretation of certain passages but never ventured to impugn its authority.他們滿足自己的寓言解釋某些段落,但從未大膽抨擊其權威。

Approaching more closely the apostolic age we have the testimony of St. Justin Martyr, about the middle of the second century.走近更密切使徒時代,我們的證詞,聖賈斯汀烈士,對中東的第二個世紀。 From Eusebius (Hist. Eccl., IV, xviii, 8), as well as from his dialogue with the Jew, Tryphon (c. 81), held in Ephesus, the residence of the apostle, we know that he admitted the authenticity of the Apocalypse.由優西比烏( Hist. Eccl 。 ,四, 18 , 8 ) ,以及從他的對話,猶太人, Tryphon (角81 ) ,在以弗所,居住宗徒,但我們知道,他承認的真實性的啟示。 Another witness of about the same time is Papias, Bishop of Hierapolis, a place not far from Ephesus.另一名證人的大約在同一時間是帕皮亞,主教希拉波利斯,一個地方不遠處以弗所。 If he himself had not been a hearer of St.如果他本人不是一個聽話的街 John, he certainly was personally acquainted with several of his disciples (Eusebius, Hist. Eccl., III, 39).約翰,他當然是親自了解他的幾個弟子(優西比烏,組織胺。 Eccl 。 ,三, 39 ) 。 His evidence however is but indirect.他的證據,但只不過是間接的。 Andreas, Bishop of Caesarea, in the prologue to his commentary on the Apocalypse, informs us that Papias admitted its inspired character.安德烈主教凱撒利亞,在他的評注序幕的啟示,告訴我們,帕皮亞承認其靈感性質。 From the Apocalypse undoubtedly Papias derived his ideas of the millennium, on which account Eusebius decries his authority, declaring him to have been a man of limited understanding.從啟示無疑帕皮亞源性他的想法千年,而帳戶優西比烏譴責他的權力,宣布他已被一個人的了解有限。 The apostolic writings which are extant furnish no evidence for the authenticity of the book.使徒著作是現存提供任何證據的真實性,這本書。


The Alogi, about AD 200, a sect so called because of their rejection of the logos-doctrine, denied the authenticity of the Apocalypse, assigning it to Cerinthus (Epiphanius, LI, ff, 33; cf. Iren., Adv. Haer., III, 11, 9).該Alogi ,大約公元200 ,一個教派所謂的,因為他們拒絕標識,學說,否認的真實性啟示,分配到克林妥(埃皮法尼烏斯,李,段, 33 ;比照。 Iren 。病毒。 Haer 。三, 11日, 9 ) 。 Caius, a presbyter in Rome, of about the same time, holds a similar opinion.凱厄斯,一個牧師在羅馬,大約在同一時間,舉行了類似的意見。 Eusebius quotes his words taken from his Disputation: "But Cerinthus by means of revelations which he pretended were written by a great Apostle falsely pretended to wonderful things, asserting that after the resurrection there would be an earthly kingdom" (Hist. Eccl., III, 28).優西比烏引用他的話從他的爭議: “但克林妥的方式披露,他假裝寫的一個偉大使徒虛假假裝美好的事物,聲稱復活之後將有一個世俗的王國” ( Hist. Eccl 。 ,三, 28 ) 。 The most formidable antagonist of the authority of the Apocalypse is Dionysius, Bishop of Alexandria, disciple of Origen.最可怕的拮抗劑的權威啟示是狄奧尼修斯主教亞歷山大,弟子奧利。 He is not opposed to the supposition that Cerinthus is the writer of the Apocalypse.他不反對假定克林妥是作家的啟示。 "For", he says, "this is the doctrine of Cerinthus, that there will be an earthly reign of Christ, and as he was a lover of the body he dreamed that he would revel in the gratification of the sensual appetite". “為”他說, “這是理論的克林妥,將有一個世俗統治的基督,和他是一個情人,他的身體夢想,他將陶醉在滿足感官胃口” 。 He himself did not adopt the view that Cerinthus was the writer.他本人沒有採取認為,克林妥是作家。 He regarded the Apocalypse as the work of an inspired man but not of an Apostle (Eusebius, Hist. Eccl., VII, 25). During the fourth and fifth centuries the tendency to exclude the Apocalypse from the list of sacred books continued to increase in the Syro-Palestinian churches.他認為,啟示作為工作的鼓舞人,但沒有一個使徒(優西比烏,組織胺。 Eccl 。 ,七, 25 ) 。在第四和第五世紀的傾向排除啟示清單中的神聖的書籍繼續增加在Syro巴勒斯坦教堂。 Eusebius expresses no definite opinion.優西比烏表示沒有明確的意見。 He contents himself with the statement: "The Apocalypse is by some accepted among the canonical books but by others rejected" (Hist. Eccl., III, 25).他自己的內容的聲明說: “現代啟示錄是一些公認的規範的書籍,而是由其他拒絕” ( Hist. Eccl 。 ,三, 25 ) 。 St. Cyril of Jerusalem does not name it among the canonical books (Catech. IV, 33-36); nor does it occur on the list of the Synod of Laodicea, or on that of Gregory of Nazianzus.聖西里爾耶路撒冷沒有將它命名的典型書籍( Catech.四, 33-36 ) ;也沒有出現在名單上的主教會議老底嘉,或對格雷戈里的高利。 Perhaps the most telling argument against the apostolic authorship of the book is its omission from the Peshito, the Syrian Vulgate.也許最有說服力的論點作者對使徒的著作是它遺漏了Peshito ,敘利亞武加大。 But although the authorities giving evidence against the authenticity of the Apocalypse deserve full consideration they cannot annul or impair the older and unanimous testimony of the churches. The opinion of its opponents, moreover, was not free from bias.但是,儘管當局對提供證據的真實性的啟示應該充分考慮他們不能廢止或損害老年人和一致的證詞教堂。的意見,其對手,而且,並非沒有偏見。 From the manner in which Dionysius argued the question, it is evident that he thought the book dangerous as occasioning crude and sensual notions concerning the resurrection. In the West the Church persevered in its tradition of apostolic authorship.從以何種方式在狄奧尼修斯爭辯的問題,很顯然,他認為這本書危險引致原油和感官概念關於復活。在西方教會堅持其傳統的使徒著作。 St. Jerome alone seemed to have been influenced by the doubts of the East.聖杰羅姆單獨似乎已受到懷疑的東方。


The relation between the Apocalypse and the Fourth Gospel has been discussed by authors, both ancient and modern.之間的關係的啟示和第四福音已經討論過的作家,無論古代和現代。 Some affirm and others deny their mutual resemblance.一些肯定和其他否認彼此相似。

The learned Alexandrine Bishop, Dionysius, drew up in his time a list of differences to which modern authors have had little to add.亞歷山大主教的教訓,狄奧尼修斯,制定了在他的時間的差異列表的現代作家幾乎沒有增加。 He begins by observing that whereas the Gospel is anonymous, the writer of the Apocalypse prefixes his name, John.他首先指出,而福音是匿名的,作家的啟示前綴他的名字,約翰。 He next points out how the characteristic terminology of the Fourth Gospel, so essential to the Joannine doctrine, is absent in the Apocalypse.他接著指出,如何特徵術語第四福音,因此至關重要的Joannine理論,是不存在的啟示。 The terms, "life", "light", "grace", "truth", do not occur in the latter.的條款, “生命” , “輕” , “寬限期” , “真理” ,不發生在後者。 Nor did the crudeness of diction on the part of the Apocalypse escape him.也沒有粗獷的用詞是對他的啟示逃脫。 The Greek of the Gospel he pronounces correct as to grammar, and he even gives its author credit for a certain elegance of style.希臘的福音,他宣布,以語法正確的,他甚至給出了作者信貸一定典雅的風格。 But the language of the Apocalypse appeared to him barbarous and disfigured by solecisms.但語言的啟示似乎他野蠻和毀容的solecisms 。 He, therefore inclines to ascribe the works to different authors (Hist. Eccl., VII, 25).因此他傾向於賦予作品不同的作者( Hist. Eccl 。 ,七, 25 ) 。

The upholders of a common authorship reply that these differences may be accounted for by bearing in mind the peculiar nature and aim of each work.該upholders共同作者的答复是,這些差異可能是佔了銘記的特殊性質和宗旨的各項工作。 The Apocalypse contains visions and revelations.啟示錄中包含的理想和啟示。 In conformity with other books of the same kind, eg the Book of Daniel, the Seer prefixed his name to his work. The Gospel on the other hand is written in the form of an historical record.符合其他書籍同類,如但以理書,前綴的先知他的名字,他的工作。福音另一方面是書面形式的歷史記錄。 In the Bible, works of that kind do not bear the signature of their authors.在聖經的作品那種不承擔簽字的作者。 So also as regards the absence of Joannine terminology in the Apocalypse.因此,還至於沒有Joannine術語啟示。 The object of the Gospel is to prove that Jesus is the life and the light of the world, the fullness of truth and grace.該物體的福音是證明耶穌是生命和世界之光,在豐滿的真理與恩寵。 But in the Apocalypse Jesus is the conqueror of Satan and his kingdom.但是,在啟示耶穌是征服者撒旦和他的王國。 The defects of grammar in the Apocalypse are conceded.缺陷語法的啟示是承認。 Some of them are quite obvious.其中有些是顯而易見的。 Let the reader but notice the habit of the author to add an apposition in the nominative to a word in an oblique case; eg iii, 12; xiv, 12; xx, 2.讓讀者的習慣,但通知的作者添加沉積在主格到Word中的一個斜案件;如三, 12歲;十四, 12歲;二十, 2 。 It further contains some Hebrew idioms: eg the Hebrew equivalent to erchomenos, "the one that is to come", instead of esomenos, i, 8.它還包含一些希伯來成語:如希伯來相當於erchomenos , “一個是來” ,而不是esomenos ,我8 。 But it should be borne in mind that when the Apostle first came to Ephesus he was, probably wholly ignorant of the Greek tongue.但是,應當牢記的是,當使徒首先來到以弗所他,也許完全不了解希臘舌頭。

The comparative purity and smoothness of diction in the Gospel may be adequately accounted for by the plausible conjecture that its literary composition was not the work of St. John but of one of his pupils.相對純度和光滑的詞在福音可充分考慮到了合理的猜想,它不是文學組成的工作聖約翰但他的一個學生。 The defenders of the identity of authorship further appeal to the striking fact that in both works Jesus is called the Lamb and the Word.維護者的身份,作者進一步呼籲驚人事實,即在這兩個工程的耶穌被稱為羔羊和Word 。 The idea of the lamb making atonement for sin by its blood is taken from Isaiah 53.這個想法的羔羊決策贖罪黃大仙其血液取自以賽亞53 。 Throughout the Apocalypse the portraiture of Jesus is that of the lamb.在整個的肖像畫的啟示是,耶穌的羔羊。 Through the shedding of its blood it has opened the book with seven seals and has triumphed over Satan.通過脫落的血開闢了七本書的封條,並戰勝了撒旦。 In the Gospel Jesus is pointed out by the Baptist as the "Lamb of God . . . him who taketh away the sin of the world" (John 1:29).在福音中的耶穌是所指出浸會為“上帝的羔羊。 。 。他誰taketh把罪惡的世界” (約1點29分) 。 Some of the circumstances of His death resemble the rite observed in the eating of the paschal lamb, the symbol of redemption.有些情況下,他的死亡類似於禮觀察到的逾越節吃羊肉的象徵贖回。 His crucifixion takes place on the selfsame day on which the Passover was eaten (John xviii, 28).他的受難地的同一日,逾越節吃(約十八28 ) 。 Whilst hanging on the cross, His executioners did not break the bones in His body, that the prophecy might be fulfilled: "no bone in it shall be broken" (John 19:36).雖然掛在十字架上,他的劊子手沒有打破骨頭在他的屍體,該預言可能實現: “沒有骨頭應打破” (約19點36 ) 。 The name Logos, "Word", is quite peculiar to the Apocalypse, Gospel and first Epistle of St. John.標識的名稱, “詞” ,是相當特殊的啟示,福音和第一使徒聖約翰。 The first sentence of the Gospel is, "In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God".第一句中的福音是, “剛開始是這個詞,以及詞與上帝,和Word是上帝” 。 The first epistle of St. John begins, "That which was from the beginning which we have heard . . . of the word of life".第一使徒聖約翰開始, “這是從一開始我們聽到。 。 。這個詞的生命” 。 So also in the Apocalypse, "And his name is called the Word of God" (19:13).所以也啟示“和他的名字被稱為神的話語” ( 19點13 ) 。


The Seer himself testifies that the visions he is about to narrate were seen by him whilst in Patmos.證明自己的預言家的看法,他將要講述他所看到,同時在帕特莫斯。 "I John . . . was in the island which is called Patmos for the word of God and for the testimony of Jesus" (1:9). “我約翰。 。 。是在島內被稱為帕特莫斯為上帝的話,和耶穌的證詞” (一時09分) 。 Patmos is one of the group of small islands close to the coast of Asia Minor, about twelve geographical miles from Ephesus.帕特莫斯是一個集團的小島嶼靠近小亞細亞海岸約12英里的地域以弗所。 Tradition, as Eusebius tells us, has handed down that John was banished to Patmos in the reign of Domitian for the sake of his testimony of God's word (Hist. Eccl., III, 18).傳統,優西比烏告訴我們,一直流傳下來,約翰被放逐到帕特莫斯的統治多米提安為了他的證詞上帝的詞( Hist. Eccl 。 ,三, 18 ) 。 He obviously refers to the passage "for the word of God and for the testimony of Jesus" (i, 9).他顯然指的是通過“為上帝的話,和耶穌的證詞” (一, 9 ) 。 It is true that the more probable meaning of this phrase is, "in order to hear the word of God", etc., and not "banished because of the word of God", etc., (cf. i. 2).的確,更可能這段話的含義是, “為了聽神之道”等,而不是“放逐因為上帝的話, ”等(見一, 2 ) 。 But it was quite natural that the Seer should have regarded his banishment to Patmos as prearranged by Divine Providence that in the solitude of the island he might hear God's word.但是,這是十分自然的先知應該把他流放到帕特莫斯作為預先的神的,在孤獨的島嶼,他可能聽到上帝的話。 The tradition recorded by Eusebius finds confirmation in the words of the Seer describing himself as "a brother and partaker in tribulation" (i, 9).傳統記錄的優西比烏發現確認的話,先知自稱為“一個兄弟和關係者的苦難” (一, 9 ) 。 Irenaeus places the Seer's exile in Patmos at the end of Domitian's reign.依地方先知的流亡帕特莫斯年底的多米提安的統治地位。 "Paene sub nostro saeculo ad finem Domitiani imperii" (Adv. Haer., V. 4). The Emperor Domitian reigned AD 81-96. “ Paene分nostro saeculo廣告finem Domitiani統治” ( Adv. Haer 。 ,五4 ) 。皇帝多米提安公元81-96年在位。 In all matters of Joannine tradition Irenaeus deserves exceptional credit.所有事項中的Joannine傳統依值得特殊信貸。 His lifetime bordered upon the Apostolic age and his master, St. Polycarp, had been among the disciples of St. John. Eusebius, chronicling the statement of Irenaeus without any misgivings, adds as the year of the Seer's exile the fourteenth of Domitian's reign.他的一生接壤的使徒年齡和他的主人,聖波利卡普,一直是門徒聖約翰。優西比烏,記載依的聲明沒有任何疑慮,增加為一年的先知的流亡第十四的多米提安的統治地位。 St. Jerome also, without reserve or hesitation, follows the same tradition.聖杰羅姆還沒有儲備金或猶豫,遵循同樣的傳統。 "Quarto decimo anno, secundam post Neronem persecutionem movente Domitiano, in Patmos insulam relegatus, scripsit Apocalypsim" (Ex libro de Script. Eccl). “季刊decimo野, secundam後Neronem persecutionem movente Domitiano ,在帕特莫斯insulam relegatus , scripsit Apocalypsim ” (當然圖書日腳本。 Eccl ) 。 Against the united testimony of these three witnesses of tradition the statement of Epiphanius placing the Seer's banishment in the reign of Claudius, AD 41-54, appears exceedingly improbable (Haer., li, 12, 33).針對美國的證詞,這三個證人的傳統的聲明埃皮法尼烏斯把先知的流放中的統治克勞迪烏斯,公元41-54 ,似乎極不可能( Haer. ,李, 12 , 33 ) 。



1:1-3. 1:1-3 。 Title and description of the book標題和描述的書

The revelation made by Jesus the Messias to John.啟示耶穌所作的弭賽亞約翰。

1:4-9. 1:4-9 。 Salutation稱謂

Salutation prefatory to the seven Epistles, wishing the churches the grace and the peace of God and Jesus.稱呼前言七項書信,希望教會的恩典與和平的上帝和耶穌。

1:9-20. 1:9-20 。 The vision of Jesus as the Son of man耶穌的設想作為人子

The portrait is taken from Daniel 10 and Henoch 46.畫像是從丹尼爾10和過敏46 。 Cf.比照。 the phrases, "one like the son of man" (Apocalypse 1:13, Daniel 10:16 and 7:13); "girded with gold" (Apocalypse 1:13; Daniel 10:5); "eyes like flames of fire" (Apocalypse 1:14; Daniel 10:6); "a voice like that of a multitude" (Apocalypse 1:15; Daniel 10:6); "I fell down like one senseless" (Apocalypse 1:17; Daniel 10:9); "and he touched me" (Apocalypse 1:17, Daniel 10:18); "hair white like wool" (Apocalypse 1:14; Daniel 7:9; Henoch 46:1).的短語, “一個像他的兒子” (啟示錄1點13分,丹尼爾10時16分和七時13分) ; “ girded黃金” (啟示錄1點13分;丹尼爾10:5 ) ; “眼睛像火焰火災“ (啟示錄1點14 ;丹尼爾10時06分) , ”一個聲音一樣,眾多“ (啟示錄1:15 ;丹尼爾10點06分) ; ”我倒想一個毫無意義的“ (啟示錄1時17分,丹尼爾10 : 9 ) ; “他感動了我” (啟示錄1時17分,丹尼爾10:18 ) ; “頭髮白像羊毛” (啟示錄1點14分;丹尼爾7點09 ;過敏46:1 ) 。

2:1-3:22. 2:1-3:22 。 The Epistles, to the seven Churches的書信,以七個教會

The Churches are Ephesus, Smyrna, Pergamum, Thyatira, Sardis, Philadelphia, and Laodicea.以弗所的教會,士每拿,帕加馬, Thyatira ,撒狄,費城,和老底嘉。 The Epistles are short exhortations to the Christians to remain steadfast in their faith, to beware of false apostles and to abstain from fornication and from meat offered to idols.很短的書信規勸的基督徒堅定自己的信仰,提防假使徒和棄權私通和肉類提供的偶像。


Chapters 4 and 5.章第4和第5 。 The vision of God enthroned upon the Cherubim The throne is surrounded by twenty-four elders.上帝的設想後,革魯賓登基王位周圍是2004年的長者。 In the right hand of God is a scroll sealed with seven seals.在右邊的上帝之手是一個滾動的7封條密封。 In the midst of the Cherubim and the elders the Seer beholds a lamb, "agnus tamquam occisus", having on its throat the scar of the gash by which it was slain.正值革魯賓和長者的先知beholds羔羊“ , agnus tamquam occisus ”的項目,其喉嚨瘢痕的加什其中被殺害。 The Seer weeps because no one either in heaven or on earth can break the seals.流淚的先知,因為沒有任何人無論是在天堂還是在地球上能夠打破海豹。 He is comforted on hearing that the lamb was worthy to do so because of the redemption it had wrought by its blood.他安慰的聽證會上說,羊肉值得這樣做,因為它已贖回所造成的血。 The portrait of the throne is taken from Ezechiel 1.畫像王位取自Ezechiel 1 。 Compare in both accounts the description of the four beasts.比較在這兩個帳戶的描述四個野獸。 They resemble a lion, an ox, a man, and an eagle.他們像獅子,一頭牛,一個男人,和一個老鷹球。 Their bodies are full of eyes (cf. Revelation 4:8; and Ezekiel 10:12). The twenty-four elders were probably suggested by the twenty-four courses of priests ministering in the Temple.他們的身體充滿了眼睛(參見啟示4時08分;和以西結書10:12 ) 。在2004年的長者可能提出的04年課程的神職人員ministering在聖殿。 The lamb slain for the sins of mankind is from Isaias 53.羔羊被殺的罪孽人類伊薩亞53 。

Chapters 6 and 7.第一章第6和第7 。 The seven seals and the numbering of the Saints At the opening of four seals, four horses appear.七個印章和編號的聖徒在開幕式的四個印章,四匹馬出現。 Their colour is white, black, red, and sallow, or green (chloros, piebald).他們的膚色是白色,黑色,紅色,和蠟黃,或綠色( chloros ,花斑) 。 They signify conquest, slaughter, dearth and death.他們意味著征服,屠宰,缺乏和死亡。 The vision is taken from Zach., vi, 1-8.我們的目標是從扎克。 ,六, 1月8日。 At the opening of the fifth seal the Seer beholds the martyrs that were slain and hears their prayers for the final triumph.開幕式上的第五密封先知beholds的烈士被殺害,並聽到他們的祈禱,最後的勝利。 At the opening of the sixth seal the predestined to glory are numbered and marked.在開幕的第六屆密封注定要光榮的編號和標記。 The Seer beholds them divided into two classes.在先知beholds他們分成兩班。 First, 144,000 Jews, 12,000 of every tribe.首先,十四點四萬猶太人, 12,000每個部落。 Then a numberless multitude chosen from all nations and tongues.然後,無數多種選擇從所有國家和舌頭。

Chapters 8 and 9.第一章第8和第9 。 The seventh seal第七屆印章

After the interval of about half an hour, the seventh seal is broken; seven angels issue forth, each one holding a trumpet.後間隔約半小時,第七印章被打破; 7天使問題等等,每一個持有小號。 The sounding of the first four trumpets causes a partial destruction of the elements of nature.響頭四個喇叭造成部分毀壞的要素的性質。 One-third of the earth is burned, as also one-third of the trees and all the grass.三分之一的地球是被燒毀,也有三分之一的樹木和所有基層。 One-third of the sea becomes blood (cf. Exodus 7:17).有三分之一的海洋變成血(參見出7點17 ) 。 One-third of the rivers is turned into water of wormwood.有三分之一的河流變成水的艾草。 One-third of the sun, moon, and stars is obscured, causing one-third of the day to be dark (cf. Exodus 10:21).有三分之一的太陽,月亮和星星是模糊不清,造成三分之一的天是黑暗的(見出埃及記10點21分) 。 At the sounding of the fifth trumpet locusts ascend from the abyss.在探空第五小號蝗蟲升天的深淵。 Their work is to torment men for five months, They are specially charged not to touch the grass.他們的工作是痛苦的男子5個月,他們專門負責不要觸摸基層。 Their shape is that of horses (Joel 2:4) their teeth like those of lions (Joel 1:6), their hair like the hair of women.其形狀是馬(喬爾2:4 )他們的牙齒像獅子(喬爾1時06分) ,他們的頭髮,如頭髮的婦女。 They have the tails of scorpions where with to chastise man.他們有尾巴的蝎子在與以懲罰的人。 The command over them is held by the Angel of the Abyss, named Abaddon, the destroyer.他們的指揮權是由天使的深淵,命名為阿巴頓,驅逐艦。 At the sound of the sixth trumpet the four angels chained at the Euphrates are let loose.在健全的第六小號四個天使鐵鍊在幼發拉底河是讓鬆散。 They lead forth an army of horsemen.他們率先提出的一個軍隊的騎兵。 By the fire which the horses spit out and by their tails which are like serpents, one-third of mankind is killed.消防其中馬吐出和尾巴是像蛇,有三分之一的人類死亡。 After the sixth trumpet there are two digressions.在第六屆小號有兩個digressions 。 (1) The angel standing on the land and the sea. ( 1 )天使站在土地和海洋。 He swears that at the sound of the seventh trumpet the mystery will be completed.他發誓說,在健全的第七屆小號之謎將完成。 He hands to the Seer a little book.他手中的先知一本小書。 When eaten by him it is found sweet to taste, but bitter when once devoured.當吃了他發現甜蜜的味道,但痛苦一旦吞噬。 Taken from Ezech., ii.從Ezech 。 ,二。 8; iii, 3. 8 ;三, 3 。 (2) The contamination of the court of the Temple by the heathens. ( 2 )污染法院寺的異教徒。 It lasts three and a half years.它持續了三年半時間。 Taken from Dan., vii, 25; ix, 27; xii, 7-11.從丹。 ,七, 25 ;九,第27條;十二, 7月11日。 During that time two witnesses are sent to preach in Jerusalem.在此期間,兩名證人被送往鼓吹在耶路撒冷。 They are the two olive-trees foretold by Zach., iv, 3,11.他們是兩個橄欖油樹預言的扎克。 ,四, 3,11 。 At the end of their mission they are slain by the beast.在結束其使命,他們被殺害的野獸。 They are raised to life after three and a half days (= years).他們提出的生命三年半之後天( =歲) 。 The seventh trumpet is now sounded, the nations are judged and the kingdom of Christ is established.第七屆小號現在聽起來,是衡量國家和基督王國的建立。

(3) THE DIVINE DRAMA ( 3 )神電視劇

First Act.第一幕。 Chapters 12-14章12月14日

The lamb, the woman, and her seed; and opposed to them, the dragon, the beast from the sea, and the beast from the land.羔羊,該名女子,她的種子;和反對他們,龍,獸從海中,與野獸的土地。 The main idea is taken from Gen., iii, 15.其主要思想是從將軍,三, 15 。 "I will put enmities between thee (the serpent) and the woman, and thy seed and her seed". “我將與你的仇恨(毒蛇)和女人,你的種子,她的種子” 。 The woman is arrayed in heavenly splendour; a crown of twelve stars on her head and the sun and the moon under her feet (cf. Gen. xxxvii, 9, 10).該女子排列在天上輝煌;王冠的12星在她的頭和太陽和月亮在她的腳(見將軍三十七, 9 , 10 ) 。 She is in travail.她是在陣痛。 Her first-born is destined to rule all the nation (Psalm 2:8, 9).她的第一胎是注定要統治所有國家(詩篇2點08分, 9 ) 。 She herself, and her other seed, are persecuted for three and a half years by the great dragon who tries to kill them.她本人和她的其他種子,受到迫害的三年半的時間裡由大龍誰試圖殺死他們。 The great dragon is Satan (Genesis 3:1).大龍是撒旦(創3:1 ) 。 He is cast out of heaven.他投出的天堂。 With his tail he drags after him one-third of the stars.他與他的尾巴拖在後面緊跟的三分之一星級。 Taken from Dan., viii, 10.從丹。 ,八, 10 。 The fallen stars are the fallen angels.墮落星是墮落的天使。 The beast from the sea is in great part taken from Daniel's description of the four beasts.野獸從大海中的很大一部分是從丹尼爾的描述四個野獸。 It arises from the sea (Dan., vii, 3); has seven heads marked all over with blasphemies.它產生於海( Dan. ,七, 3 ) ;有7頭標記都與褻瀆。 It had also ten horns, like the fourth beast of Daniel (vii, 7); it resembled a leopard, the third beast of Daniel (vii, 6), it had feet like a bear, the second beast of Daniel (vii, 5); and teeth like a lion, the first beast of Daniel (vii, 4).它還10角,像第四野獸的丹尼爾(七, 7 ) ;它很像豹,第三野獸的丹尼爾(第七章, 6人) ,它已腳像熊,第二野獸的丹尼爾(七, 5 ) ;和牙齒像獅子,野獸的第一丹尼爾(七, 4 ) 。 The great dragon gives full power unto the beast, whereupon all the world worship it (viz. those whose names are not contained in the book of the lamb).大龍告訴充分權力的野獸,在這種情況下世界上所有崇拜它(即那些名稱中不包含的圖書羊肉) 。 The followers of the beast have its mark on their head and hand.的追隨者野獸有其商標在其頭部和手。 The beast from the land has two horns like a ram.野獸的土地有兩個角像內存。 Its power lies in its art of deceiving by means of tokens and miracles. Throughout the remainder of the book it is called the false prophet.其權力在於它的藝術欺騙的手段,令牌和奇蹟。餘下的這本書被稱為假先知。 Its office is to assist the beast from the sea, and to induce men to adore its image.其辦公室是協助獸從海中,並促使男性崇拜的形象。 The first act of the drama concludes with a promise of victory over the beast by the lamb of God.第一幕的戲劇結尾的承諾戰勝野獸的上帝的羔羊。

Second Act.第二幕。 Chapters 15-16 15-16章

The seven vials.七個小瓶。 They are the seven plagues preceding the destruction of the great city, Babylon.他們是前7瘟疫的破壞這個偉大的城市,巴比倫。 They were for the greater part suggested by the Egyptian plagues.他們的大部份建議由埃及瘟疫。 The first vial is poured out on the earth.第一瓶是湧出對地球。 Men and beasts are smitten with ulcers (Exodus 9:9-10).男人和野獸是重拳潰瘍(出埃及記9:9-10 ) 。 The second and third vial upon the seas and rivers. They become blood (Exodus 7:17-21).第二次和第三次小瓶的海洋和河流。他們成為血(出埃及記7:17-21 ) 。 The fourth vial upon the sun.第四小瓶的太陽。 It burns men to death.它燒傷男子死亡。 The fifth vial upon the throne of the beast.第五小瓶王位後的野獸。 It causes great darkness (Exodus 10:11-29).它造成巨大的黑暗(出埃及記10:11-29 ) 。 The sixth vial upon the Euphrates.第六小瓶的幼發拉底河。 Its waters are dried up and form a passage for the kings of the East (Exodus 14).其水域乾涸,形成一個通道為國王的東方(出14 ) 。 The seventh upon the air.第七屆對空氣。 Storm and earthquake destroy Babylon.風暴和地震摧毀巴比倫。

Third Act.第三幕。 Chapters 17-18 17-18章

The great harlot.偉大的妓女。 She is seated upon the scarlet beast with the seven heads and ten horns.她是坐在野獸的大紅的元首和10個喇叭。 She is robed in scarlet and decked with gold.她是在鮮紅的長袍和裝飾用金。 On her head is written: Mystery, Babylon the great.她的頭部被寫入:神秘,巴比倫的偉大。 The kings of the earth commit fornication with her. But the day of her visitation has come.國王地球犯下姦淫她。但是,一天,她探望已經到來。 She is made a desolate place, the habitation of unclean animals (Ls., xiii, 21, 22).她是荒涼的地方,居住的不潔動物( Ls. , 13 , 21 , 22 ) 。 Her fall is lamented by the rulers and merchants of the earth.她感到遺憾的是秋季的統治者和商人地球。

Fourth Act.第四幕。 Chapters 19-20章19-20

The victory over the beast and the great dragon.戰勝野獸和大龍。 A knight appears mounted on a white horse.騎士似乎安裝在白馬。 His name is "The word of God".他的名字是“神的話語” 。 He defeats the beast and the false prophet.他的失敗野獸和假先知。 They are cast alive in the pool of fire.他們是演員活著的池火災。 Their defeat is followed by the first resurrection and the reign of Christ for a thousand years.他們的失敗之後是第一次復活和基督統治了一千多年。 The martyrs rise to life and partake with Christ in glory and happiness.崛起的烈士的生命和參與與基督的榮耀和幸福。 During these thousand years the great dragon is held in chains.在這一千多年的大龍被關押在鏈。 At their completion he is once more set at large to torment the earth.在完成他再次為大型折磨地球。 He deceives the nations Gog and Magog.他欺騙聯合國Gog和瑪各。 These two names are taken from Ezech., chaps.這兩個名稱是取自Ezech 。章。 xxviii, xxxix, where however Gog is the king of Magog.二十八,第39屆,在那裡不過Gog是國王的瑪各。 At last he also is cast for all eternity in the pool of fire.最後,他也是演員的烙印在游泳池火災。 Hereupon the general judgement and the resurrection take place.於是一般的判斷力和復活發生。

Fifth Act.第五法。 Chapters 21-22章21-22

The new Jerusalem (cf. Ezechiel 40-48).新耶路撒冷(參見Ezechiel 40-48 ) 。 God dwells in the midst of His saints who enjoy complete happiness.上帝居住在處於他聖人誰享有完全的幸福。 The new Jerusalem is the spouse of the lamb.新耶路撒冷是配偶的羔羊。 The names of the Twelve Tribes and the Twelve Apostles are written on its gates.姓名的十二個部族和十二門徒寫在大門。 God and the lamb are the sanctuary in this new city. Epilogue.上帝和羔羊的庇護在這個新的城市。尾聲。 Verses 18-21詩18-21

The prophecy of the book is soon to be fulfilled.預言的書,不久將實現。 The Seer warns the reader not to add anything to it or take away from it under pain of forfeiting his share in the heavenly city.在先知警告讀者沒有任何補充或採取遠離它的痛苦,沒收其份額在天上的城市。


From this cursory perusal of the book, it is evident that the Seer was influenced by the prophecies of Daniel more than by any other book.從這個粗略的閱讀這本書,很明顯,影響了先知的預言丹尼爾超過任何其他的書。 Daniel was written with the object of comforting the Jews under the cruel persecution of Antiochus Epiphanes.丹尼爾寫,目的是安慰下的猶太人的殘酷迫害安提阿哥伊皮法尼斯。 The Seer in the Apocalypse had a similar purpose.在先知的啟示也有類似的目的。 The Christians were fiercely persecuted in the reign of Domitian.激烈的基督信徒被迫害時期多米提安。 The danger of apostasy was great.叛教的危險是巨大的。 False prophets went about, trying to seduce the people to conform to the heathen practices and to take part in the Caesar-worship.假先知了約,試圖引誘人們以符合異教徒的做法,並參加了凱撒崇拜。 The Seer urges his Christians to remain true to their faith and to bear their troubles with fortitude.他的先知敦促基督徒忠於自己的信仰,並承擔他們的麻煩與毅力。 He encourages them with the promise of an ample and speedy reward.他鼓勵他們的承諾,充足的和迅速的回報。 He assures them that Christ's triumphant coming is at hand.他保證他們,基督的勝利在手來。 Both in the beginning and at the end of his book the Seer is most emphatic in telling his people that the hour of victory is nigh.無論是在開始和結束時,他的著作的先知是最有力的告訴人們,一個小時的勝利是近。 He begins, saying: "Blessed is he that . . . keepeth those things which are written in it; for the time is at hand" (i. 3).他開始說: “是他的祝福。 。 。 keepeth這些東西寫的是它的時間是在手” (一, 3 ) 。 He closes his visions with the pathetic words: "He that giveth testimony of these things saith, Surely I come quickly: Amen. Come, Lord Jesus". With the coming of Christ the woes of the Christians will be avenged.他結束他的遠見與可悲的話: “他說, giveth證詞saith這些東西,我肯定很快來臨:阿門。來吧,主耶穌” 。隨著基督困境的基督徒將仇。 Their oppressors will be given up to the judgment and the everlasting torments.壓迫者將得到最多的判斷和永恆的折磨。 The martyrs that have fallen will be raised to life, that they may share the pleasures of Christ's kingdom, the millennium.烈士下降將提高到生命,他們可以分享快樂的基督的王國,千年。 Yet this is but a prelude to the everlasting beatitude which follows after the general resurrection.然而,這只是一個前奏如下永恆beatitude後一般復活。 It is an article of faith that Christ will return at the end of time to judge the living and the dead.這是一篇文章的信仰,基督將在年底返回的時間來判斷的生活和死者。 But the time of His second advent is unknown.但他第二次出現不明。 "But of that day and hour no one knoweth, no, not the angels of heaven, but the Father alone" (Matthew 24:36). “但該日期和時間沒有人knoweth ,不,不是天使的天堂,而是單獨的父親” (馬太24:36 ) 。 It would appear, and is so held by many that the Christians of the Apostolic age expected that Christ would return during their own lifetime or generation.這樣看來,是使許多持有的基督徒使徒年齡預計將返回基督在自己的有生之年或代。 This seems to be the more obvious meaning of several passages both in the Epistles and Gospels (cf. John 21:21-23, 1 Thessalonians 4:13-18).這似乎是較明顯的含義,在一些段落的書信和福音(參見約翰21:21-23 ,帖撒羅尼迦前書4:13-18 ) 。 The Christians of Asia Minor and the Seer with them, appear to have shared this fallacious expectation.基督徒小亞細亞和先知與他們似乎贊同這一荒謬的期望。 Their mistaken hope, however, did not affect the soundness of their belief in the essential part of the dogma.他們錯了希望,然而,並沒有影響他們的信仰健全的重要組成部分的教條。 Their views of a millennial period of corporal happiness were equally erroneous.他們的意見千年期間下士幸福同樣錯誤的。 The Church has wholly cast aside the doctrine of a millennium previous to the resurrection.教會完全拋開理論的一個千年前的復活。 St. Augustine has perhaps more than any one else helped to free the Church from all crude fancies as regards its pleasures.聖奧古斯丁也許超過任何其他幫助免費教會所有原油幻想至於它的樂趣。 He explained the millennium allegorically and applied it to the Church of Christ on earth.他解釋了千年allegorically和應用它的基督教會在地球上。 With the foundation of the Church the millennium began.與該基金會的教會千年開始。 The first resurrection is the spiritual resurrection of the soul from sin (De Civ. Dei Lib. XX).第一次復活是精神的靈魂復活的罪惡(者文明。上帝庫。二十) 。 Thus the number 1,000 is to be taken indefinitely.因此, 1000名是將要採取無限期。


The subject-matter of the Apocalypse required a threefold division.的主題事項的啟示需要三個司。

The first part comprises the seven exhortatory letters.第一部分包括7勸誡信。

The leading idea in the second part is the wisdom of Christ.領導觀念的第二部分是人的智慧基督。 It is symbolized by the book with seven seals.這是這本書象徵七封條。 In it are written the eternal decrees of God touching the end of the world, and the final victory of good over evil.它是永恆的書面法令上帝感動世界的盡頭,最後勝利的良好戰勝邪惡。 No one except Jesus, the lamb slain for the sins of the world, is worthy to break the seals and read its contents.任何人,除非耶穌,羔羊被殺的罪惡的世界,是值得的封條,並閱讀其內容。

The third part describes the power of Christ over Satan and his kingdom.第三部分介紹了功率超過撒旦是耶穌和他的王國。 The lamb defeats the dragon and the beast.羔羊的舞龍隊和野獸。 This idea is developed in a drama of five acts.這個想法是在話劇五個行為。 In five successive scenes we see before us the struggle, the fall of Babylon the harlot, the victory, and final beatitude.在連續5場面,我們看到的鬥爭擺在我們面前,秋天巴比倫的妓女來說,這場勝利,並最終beatitude 。

The third part is not only the most important, but also the most successful from a literary point of view.第三部分,不僅是最重要的,但也最成功的從文學的角度來看。 The drama of the lamb contains several beautiful thoughts of lasting value.戲劇的羔羊包含幾個漂亮的思考持久價值。 The lamb, symbolizing gentleness and purity, conquers the beast, the personification of lust and cruelty.羔羊,象徵溫柔和純潔性,征服野獸,慾望的人格化和殘酷。 The harlot signifies idolatry.妓女崇拜的象徵。 The fornication which the rulers and the nations of the earth commit with her signifies the worship they pay to the images of Caesar and the tokens of his power.該私通的統治者和國家的承諾與她的地球標誌的崇拜,他們支付的形象凱撒和他的權力憑證。 The second part is inferior in literary beauty.第二部分是劣質的文學之美。 It contains much that is taken from the Old Testament, and it is full of extravagant imagery.它包含許多取自舊約,它充滿了奢侈的圖像。 The Seer shows a fanciful taste for all that is weird and grotesque.在先知顯示幻想味道的一切怪異和荒誕。 He delights in portraying locusts with hair like that of women and horses with tails like serpents.他在描繪蝗蟲美食與頭髮一樣,婦女和馬匹的尾巴像蛇。 There are occasional passages revealing a sense of literary beauty. God removes the curtain of the firmament as a scribe rolls up his scrolls.有偶爾通道揭示一種文學之美。上帝刪除帷幕蒼穹作為抄卷,他春聯。 The stars fall from the heavens like figs from the fig-tree shaken by the storm (vi, 12-14).星星掉下來的天空一樣的無花果無花果樹動搖風暴(六, 12月14日) 。 On the whole, however the Seer shows more love for Oriental splendour than the appreciation of true beauty.總體上,但更多的先知表明愛比東方輝煌的讚賞真正美麗。


It would be alike wearisome and useless to enumerate even the more prominent applications made of the Apocalypse.這將是一樣非常累和無用列舉甚至更加突出的申請作出的啟示。 Racial hatred and religious rancour have at all times found in its vision much suitable and gratifying matter.種族仇恨和宗教仇恨在任何時候都發現在其遠景更適合和令人滿意的問題。 Such persons as Mohammed, the Pope, Napoleon, etc., have in turn been identified with the beast and the harlot.穆罕默德的人,教宗,拿破崙等,反過來被確定與野獸和娼妓。 To the "reformers" particularly the Apocalypse was an inexhaustible quarry where to dig for invectives that they might hurl then against the Roman hierarchy.到“改革者”特別的啟示是一個取之不盡的採石場在挖掘的謾罵,他們可能投擲然後對羅馬等級。 The seven hills of Rome, the scarlet robes of the cardinals, and the unfortunate abuses of the papal court made the application easy and tempting.七個山丘羅馬,紅色長袍的樞機主教,和不幸的踐踏教皇法院提出申請容易和誘人的。 Owing to the patient and strenuous research of scholars, the interpretation of the Apocalypse has been transferred to a field free from the odium theologicum.由於病人和艱苦的研究學者,解釋的啟示已轉移到外地免費從odium theologicum 。 But then the meaning of the Seer is determined by the rules of common exegesis.但隨後的含義先知是由規則的共同註釋。 Apart from the resurrection, the millennium, and the plagues preceding the final consummation, they see in his visions references to the leading events of his time.除了復活千年,和瘟疫前最後圓滿,他們看到在他的設想提到領導活動的時間。 Their method of interpretation may be called historic as compared with the theological and political application of former ages.他們的方法解釋可稱為歷史相比,神學和政治的應用前年齡。 The key to the mysteries of the book they find in 17:8-14.關鍵的奧秘,他們發現這本書在17:8-14 。 For thus says the Seer: "Let here the mind that hath understanding give heed".對於這樣的先知說: “讓我們在這裡,記住,上帝給予理解傾聽” 。

The beast from the sea that had received plenitude of power from the dragon, or Satan, is the Roman Empire, or rather, Caesar, its supreme representative.野獸從海上得到了完滿的權力龍,又叫撒但,是羅馬帝國,或相反,愷撒,其最高代表。 The token of the beast with which its servants are marked is the image of the emperor on the coins of the realm.令牌野獸與公務員被標記的形象,是皇帝的硬幣的境界。 This seems to be the obvious meaning of the passage, that all business transactions, all buying and selling were impossible to them that had not the mark of the beast (Apocalypse 13:17).這似乎是顯而易見的意義上的通行,所有的商業交易,所有的買賣是不可能的他們,沒有商標的野獸(啟示錄13:17 ) 。 Against this interpretation it is objected that the Jews at the time of Christ had no scruple in handling money on which the image of Caesar was stamped (Matthew 22:15-22). But it should be borne in mind that the horror of the Jews for the imperial images was principally due to the policy of Caligula.對這種解釋是反對猶太人的時候,基督沒有顧忌處理金錢上的形象,凱撒印章(馬太22:15-22 ) 。但是,應該銘記的是,恐怖的猶太人帝國形象的主要原因是政策古拉。 He confiscated several of their synagogues, changing them into heathen temples by placing his statue in them.他沒收了一些他們的猶太教堂,改變成異教徒寺廟的雕像放置在它們。 He even sought to erect an image of himself in the Temple of Jerusalem (Josephus, Ant., XVIII, viii, 2).他甚至試圖樹立自己的形象在耶路撒冷的聖殿(約瑟夫,螞蟻。 ,十八,八, 2 ) 。

The seven heads of the beast are seven emperors.七個元首野獸七個皇帝。 Five of them the Seer says are fallen.其中5人的先知說是下降了。 They are Augustus Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, and Nero.他們是奧古斯厄斯,古拉,克勞迪烏斯,和Nero 。 The year of Nero's death is AD 68.這一年的Nero的死亡是廣告68 。 The Seer goes on to say "One is", namely Vespasian, AD 70-79.在先知接著說: “一個是” ,即維斯帕先,公元70-79 。 He is the sixth emperor.他是第六屆皇帝。 The seventh, we are told by the Seer, "is not yet come. But when he comes his reign will be short".第七屆我們被告知的先知, “還沒有來。但是,當他將是他的統治是短暫” 。 Titus is meant, who reigned but two years (79-81).提圖斯是指,誰佔主導地位,但兩年( 79-81 ) 。 The eighth emperor is Domitian (81-96).第八個皇帝是多米田( 81-96 ) 。 Of him the Seer has something very peculiar to say.他的預言家也很奇特地說。 He is identified with the beast.他是確定的野獸。 He is described as the one that "was and is not and shall come up out of the bottomless pit" (17:8).他被描述為一個“過去和現在都沒有,並應拿出擺脫無底洞” ( 17點08分) 。 In verse 11 it is added: "And the beast which was and is not: the same also is the eighth, and is of the seven, and goeth into destruction". 11詩是說: “與野獸這是與不是:同樣也是第八,是七個,並goeth到銷毀” 。

All this sounds like oracular language.這一切聽起來像oracular語言。 But the clue to its solution is furnished by a popular belief largely spread at the time.但是,線索提供其解決方案是由一個民間信仰主要蔓延的時候。 The death of Nero had been witnessed by few.死亡的尼祿目睹了幾個。 Chiefly in the East a notion had taken hold of the mind of the people that Nero was still alive.主要是在東方的概念已掌握到的人,尼祿還活著。 Gentiles, Jews, and Christians were under the illusion that he was hiding himself, and as was commonly thought, he had gone over to the Parthians, the most troublesome foes of the empire.猶太人,猶太人和基督徒都在幻想,他是隱藏自己,並普遍認為,他已經到帕提亞,最棘手的敵人帝國。 From there they expected him to return at the head of a mighty army to avenge himself on his enemies.從那裡,他們預計他返回的首長威武之師,以報復他對他的敵人。 The existence of this fanciful belief is a well-attested historic fact.有這種幻想的信念是一個確鑿的歷史事實。 Tacitus speaks of it: "Achaia atque Asia falso exterrit velut Nero adventaret, vario super ejus exitu rumore eoque pluribus vivere eum fingentibus credentibusque" (Hist., II, 8).塔西佗談到的那樣: “亞該亞atque亞洲假exterrit velut尼祿adventaret ,蔡司超級ejus exitu rumore eoque合眾活躍eum fingentibus credentibusque ” ( Hist. ,二, 8 ) 。 So also Dio Chrysostomus: kai nyn (about AD 100) eti pantes epithymousi zen oi de pleistoi kai oiontai (Orat., 21, 10; cf. Suetonius, "Vit. Caes."; sv NERO and the SIBYLINE ORACLES).所以也迪奧Chrysostomus :啟nyn (約公元100 )的ETI pantes epithymousi禪愛日pleistoi啟oiontai ( Orat. , 21 , 10 ;比照。蘇維托尼烏斯, “維生素。 Caes 。 ” ;希沃特NERO和SIBYLINE ORACLES ) 。 Thus the contemporaries of the Seer believed Nero to be alive and expected his return.因此,當代的預言家認為尼祿還活著,並預計他返回。 The Seer either shared their belief or utilized it for his own purpose. Nero had made a name for himself by his cruelty and licentiousness.在先知要么共同的信仰或利用它為自己的目的。尼祿作出了自己的名字,他的殘酷和淫。 The Christians in particular had reason to dread him.基督教徒特別是有理由害怕他。 Under him the first persecution took place.在他第一次發生的迫害。 The second occurred under Domitian.第二次發生在多米提安。 But unlike the previous one, it was not confined to Italy, but spread throughout the provinces. Many Christians were put to death, many were banished (Eusebius, Hist. Eccl., III, 17-19).但與上一次,它並不局限於意大利,但遍布各省。許多基督信徒被處決,其中許多被放逐(優西比烏,組織胺。 Eccl 。 ,三, 17日至19日) 。 In this way the Seer was led to regard Domitian as a second Nero, "Nero redivivus".這樣,先知是導致方面多米提安作為第二尼祿, “尼祿redivivus ” 。 Hence he described him as "the one that was, that is not, and that is to return".因此,他形容他是“一個是,這不是,這是返回” 。 Hence also he counts him as the eighth and at the same time makes him one of the preceding seven, viz.因此,他也罪狀他是第八和在同一時間讓他的一個前7 ,即。 the fifth, Nero.第五,尼祿。 The identification of the two emperors suggested itself all the more readily since even pagan authors called Domitian a second Nero (calvus Nero, Juvenal. IV, 38).確定這兩個皇帝建議本身更加容易,因為即使異教作者呼籲多米提安第二尼祿( Nero的calvus ,韋納爾。四, 38 ) 。 The popular belief concerning Nero's death and return seems to be referred to also in the passage (13:3): "And I saw one of its heads as it were slain to death: and its death's wound was healed".在民間信仰有關Nero的死亡和回報似乎也提到通過( 13時03分) : “我看到它的一個頭,因為它是被殺害的人:其死亡的傷口癒合。 ”

The ten horns are commonly explained as the vassal rulers under the supremacy of Rome.這10個喇叭通常解釋為統治者的附庸下至上的羅馬。 They are described as kings (basileis), here to be taken in a wider sense, that they are not real kings, but received power to rule with the beast.他們被稱為國王( basileis ) ,這裡將要採取的更廣泛的意義上說,他們不是真正的國王,但沒有收到權力法治與野獸。 Their power, moreover, is but for one hour, signifying its short duration and instability (17:17).他們的權力,而且,不過是一個小時,這標誌著其期限短,且不穩定( 17:17 ) 。 The Seer has marked the beast with the number 666.有明顯的先知野獸的數量666 。 His purpose was that by this number people may know it.他的目的是,通過這個號碼的人可能知道這一點。 He that has understanding, let him count the number of the beast.他說,已了解,讓他的數量野獸。 For it is the number of a man: and his number is six hundred and sixty-six.因為這是一些人:和他的號碼是666 。 A human number, ie intelligible by the common rules of investigation.人類號碼,即可理解的共同規則的調查。 We have here an instance of Jewish gematria.我們這裡有一個實例的猶太gematria 。 Its object is to conceal a name by substituting for it a cipher of equal numerical value to the letters composing it.其目的是掩蓋了一個名稱取代了密碼同等數值的信件撰寫它。 For a long time interpreters tried to decipher the number 666 by means of the Greek alphabet, eg Irenæus, "Adv. Haer.", V, 33.很長一段時間試圖破譯口譯人數666通過希臘字母,如Irenæus , “腺病毒。 Haer 。 ”五, 33 。 Their efforts have yielded no satisfactory result.他們的努力沒有取得令人滿意的結果。 Better success has been obtained by using the Hebrew alphabet.比較成功,已獲得使用希伯來字母。 Many scholars have come to the conclusion that Nero is meant.許多學者得出的結論是, Nero的是。 For when the name "Nero Caesar" is spelled with Hebrew letters, it yields the cipher 666.當時的名稱為“尼祿凱撒”拼寫與希伯來字母,它產生的密碼666 。

The second beast, that from the land, the pseudoprophet whose office was to assist the beast from the sea, probably signifies the work of seduction carried on by apostate Christians.第二個野獸,從土地, pseudoprophet他的辦公室是協助獸從海中,可能意味著工作的誘惑進行的叛教基督徒。 They endeavoured to make their fellow Christians adopt the heathen practices and submit themselves to the cultus of the Caesar. They are not unlikely the Nicolaitans of the seven Epistles.他們努力使他們的同胞基督徒通過異教徒的做法,並提交自己的宗教局的凱撒。他們不是不可能的Nicolaitans的七個書信。 For they are there compared to Balaam and Jezabel seducing the Israelites to idolatry and fornication.因為他們是有比較巴蘭和Jezabel引誘以色列人對偶像崇拜和私通。 The woman in travail is a personification of the synagogue or the church.這名婦女在勞動是人格化的猶太教堂或教堂。 Her first-born is Christ, her other seed is the community of the faithful.她的第一胎是基督,她的其他種子是社會的忠誠。

In this interpretation, of which we have given a summary, there are two difficulties:在這種解釋,我們給予了總結,有兩個困難:

In the enumeration of the emperors three are passed over, viz.在所列舉的三個皇帝過去了,即。 Galba, Otho, and Vitellius.加爾巴, Otho ,並Vitellius 。 But this omission may be explained by the shortness of their reigns.但是,這一疏忽可能是很短的時期。 Each one of the three reigned but a few months.每一個3年在位,但幾個月。

Tradition assigns the Apocalypse to the reign of Domitian.傳統分配啟示在位多米提安。 But according to the computation given above, the Seer himself assigns his work to the reign of Vespasian.但是,根據上述的計算,分配自己的預言家所做的工作統治維斯帕先。 For if this computation be correct, Vespasian is the emperor whom he designates as "the one that is".如果這一計算是正確的,維斯帕先皇帝是他指定為“這是一個” 。 To this objection, however, it may be answered that it was the custom of apocalyptic writers, eg, of Daniel, Enoch, and the Sibylline books, to cast their visions into the form of prophecies and give them the appearance of being the work of an earlier date. No literary fraud was thereby intended.這個反對意見,但是,它可能會回答說,這是自定義的世界末日的作家,如丹尼爾,伊諾克和Sibylline書籍,投下他們的夢想成讖語的形式,給他們的出現,正在工作的一個較早的日期。沒有文學欺詐從而打算。 It was merely a peculiar style of writing adopted as suiting their subject.這僅僅是一個獨特的文風通過適合自己的主題。 The Seer of the Apocalypse follows this practice.在先知的啟示如下這種做法。 Though actually banished to Patmos in the reign of Domitian, after the destruction of Jerusalem, he wrote as if he had been there and seen his visions in the reign of Vespasian when the temple perhaps yet existed.雖然實際放逐到帕特莫斯在多米提安統治後,銷毀耶路撒冷,他寫道,猶如他在那裡看到了他的看法,並在統治維斯帕先當寺也許還存在。 Cf. II, 1, 2.比照。二, 1 , 2 。

We cannot conclude without mentioning the theory advanced by the German scholar Vischer.我們不能不提的理論先進的德國學者Vischer 。 He holds the Apocalypse to have been originally a purely Jewish composition, and to have been changed into a Christian work by the insertion of those sections that deal with Christian subjects.他擁有的啟示已經原本是一個純粹的猶太人組成,並已經變成了一個基督教工作的插入這些板塊中涉及基督教主題。 From a doctrinal point of view, we think, it cannot be objected to.從理論的角度來看,我們認為,不能反對。 There are other instances where inspired writers have availed themselves of non-canonical literature. Intrinsically considered it is not improbable.還有其他一些情況下,激勵作家利用非正規的文獻。本質認為這不是不可能。 The Apocalypse abounds in passages which bear no specific Christian character but, on the contrary, show a decidedly Jewish complexion.啟示錄中的段落比比皆是負有任何具體的基督教性質,但與此相反,顯示出果斷猶太膚色。 Yet on the whole the theory is but a conjecture. (See also APOCRYPHA)然而,總體上的理論,只不過是猜想。 (又見偽經)

Publication information Written by C. Van Den Biesen.出版信息書面由C.范登韋恩Biesen 。 Transcribed by Michael C. Tinkler. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume I. Published 1907.轉錄的邁克爾C Tinkler 。天主教百科全書,體積一發布1907年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, March 1, 1907. Nihil Obstat , 1907年3月1號。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.雷米Lafort ,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York認可。 +約翰法利紅衣主教,大主教紐約

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