Second Vatican Council第二次梵蒂岡會議

General Information 一般信息

The Second Vatican Council, the 21st ecumenical council of the Roman Catholic church, was announced by Pope John XXIII on Jan. 25, 1959.第二次梵蒂岡會議,安理會21基督教的羅馬天主教會,宣布了教皇約翰二十三世1月25日, 1959年。 On Oct. 11, 1962, after four years of preparation, the council formally opened. 10月11日, 1962年,在經過四年的準備,安理會正式開幕。 Four sessions convened; the last three (1963-65) were presided over by Pope Paul VI, who succeeded John as pontiff in June 1963. The council ended on Dec. 8, 1965.四屆召開;過去三年( 1963年至1965年)的主持教皇保羅六世,誰成功地為教皇約翰在1963年6月。安理會12月8日結束, 1965年。

Unlike previous ecumenical councils, the Second Vatican Council was not held to combat contemporary heresies or deal with awkward disciplinary questions but simply, in the words of Pope John's opening message, to renew "ourselves and the flocks committed to us, so that there may radiate before all men the lovable features of Jesus Christ, who shines in our hearts that God's splendor may be revealed."與往年不同基督教議會,梵蒂岡第二次會議沒有舉行打擊當代邪說或處理棘手問題,而只是紀律的話來說,教皇約翰的開幕消息,重申“我們和成群承諾給我們,以便有可能輻射在所有男人的可愛特徵耶穌基督,誰閃耀在我們心中的上帝的輝煌可能會發現。 “

The participants with full voting rights were all the bishops of the Roman Catholic church, of both the Western and Eastern rites, superiors-general of exempt religious orders, and prelates with their own special spheres of jurisdiction.學員們充分的投票權是所有的主教,羅馬天主教會,雙方的西歐和東歐儀式,上級關於免除宗教命令,主教用自己的特殊領域的管轄權。 Non-Catholic Christian churches and alliances and Catholic lay organizations were invited to send observers.非天主教基督教教堂和聯盟和天主教奠定組織應邀派觀察員出席會議。 These observers, however, had neither voice nor vote in the council deliberations.這些觀察員,然而,既沒有發言權,也沒有在安理會表決審議。

BELIEVE Religious Information Source web-site相信宗教信息來源
Our List of 2,300 Religious Subjects我們所列出的2300名宗教科目
The council produced 16 documents--all of which had to be approved by the pope before they became official--on such subjects as divine revelation, the sacred liturgy, the church in the modern world, the instruments of social communication, ecumenism, Eastern Catholic churches, renewal of religious life, the laity, the ministry and life of priests, missionary activity, Christian education, the relationship of the church to non-Christian religions, and religious freedom.安理會16日生產的文件-所有這些都得到批准之前,由教皇成為官方-論等問題天啟,神聖的禮儀,教會在現代世界中,這些文書的社會交流,合一,東歐天主教教堂,續期的宗教生活,俗人,內政部和生活神父,傳教活動,基督教教育的關係,教會對非基督宗教和宗教的自由。 Of these, the most important and influential for the subsequent life of the Roman Catholic church have been the Dogmatic Constitution on the Church, which gave renewed importance to the role of the bishops; the Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy, which authorized vernacularization of the liturgy and greater lay participation; the Pastoral Constitution on the Church in the Modern World, which acknowledged the need for the church to adapt itself to the contemporary world; the Decree on Ecumenism; and the Declaration on Religious Freedom.其中,最重要和最有影響力的為以後的生活羅馬天主教教義已憲法的教會,使新的重要的作用主教;憲法的神聖禮儀,授權vernacularization的禮儀和更大的在於參與;田園憲法對教會在現代世界,它承認有必要教會適應當代世界;普世的法令和宣言的宗教自由。 Together these documents present a church that is primarily a worshiping and serving community open to various points of view and religious traditions.這些文件共同提出了教會主要是一個崇拜和服務社會的開放,各種觀點和宗教傳統。

Although the Second Vatican Council had enormous impact, it cannot be isolated from prior and parallel liturgical, theological, biblical, and social developments.雖然第二次梵蒂岡會議已產生巨大的影響,但不能脫離事先和平行禮儀,神學,聖經,和社會發展情況。 In few instances did the council initiate a new way of thinking for the church.但在少數情況下,安理會開始一種新的思維方式的教堂。 It endorsed specific approaches, tentatively in some cases, and planted seeds for other, possibly more radical, changes in the future.它贊同具體辦法,時間暫定在某些情況下,種植的種子和其他可能更激進,變化中的未來。

Richard P. Mcbrien理查德P Mcbrien

Bibliography 參考書目
Abbott, WA, ed., The Documents of Vatican II (1966); Deretz, Jacques, and Nocent, Adrien, eds., Dictionary of the Council (1968); Miller, JH, ed., Vatican II: An Interfaith Appraisal (1966); Vorgrimler, Herbert, ed., Commentary on the Documents of Vatican II, 5 vols.雅培,美國華盛頓,教育署。 ,這些文件的梵二( 1966年) ; Deretz ,雅克,和Nocent ,阿德里安合編。 ,詞典理事會( 1968年) ;米勒華,教育署。 ,梵二:宗教間評價( 1966年) ; Vorgrimler ,赫伯特,教育署。 ,評注的文件的梵二, 5卷。 (1967-69). ( 1967年至1969年) 。

Second Vatican Council第二次梵蒂岡會議

General Information 一般信息

The Second Vatican Council was the 21st ecumenical council recognized by the Roman Catholic church, which became the symbol of the church's openness to the modern world.梵二大公會議是安理會21普世承認羅馬天主教,成為象徵教會的開放的現代世界。 The council was announced by Pope John XXIII on January 25, 1959, and held 178 meetings in the autumn of each of four successive years.安理會宣布教皇約翰二十三世於1959年1月25日,並舉行了178次會議在秋季的每一個連續四年。 The first gathering was on October 11, 1962, and the last on December 8, 1965.第一次聚會是在1962年10月11號,和過去的65年12月8日。

Of 2908 bishops and others eligible to attend, 2540 from all parts of the world participated in the opening meeting. 2908年的主教和其他有資格參加, 2540年來自世界各地參加了會議開幕式。 The US delegation of 241 members was second in size only to that of Italy.美國代表團的241名成員是第二次的大小只有意大利。 Asian and African bishops played a prominent role in the council's deliberations.亞洲和非洲的主教發揮了突出的作用,安理會的審議工作。

Only Communist nations were sparsely represented, the result of government pressures.唯一共產主義國家的人口稀少的代表,由於政府的壓力。 The average attendance at the meetings was 2200.平均出席會議是2200年。

Preparations for the council began in May 1959, when the world's Roman Catholic bishops, theological faculties, and universities were asked to make recommendations for the agenda.籌備委員會於1959年5月,當世界的羅馬天主教主教,神學院和大學被要求提出建議的議程。 Thirteen preparatory commissions with more than 1000 members were appointed to write draft proposals on a wide range of topics. 13籌備委員會, 1000個以上的成員被任命為寫提案草案,就廣泛的議題。 They prepared 67 documents called schemata, a number reduced to 17 by a special commission convoked between the council's 1962 and 1963 sessions.他們編寫的文件要求67式,一些減少至17日由一個特別委員會之間召集安理會的1962年和1963年會議。 Voting members of the council were Roman Catholic bishops and heads of male religious orders, but, in a radical departure from past practice, Orthodox and Protestant churches were invited to send official delegate-observers.參加表決的安理會成員的羅馬天主教主教和宗教男性元首的命令,但是,從根本上背離了以往的慣例,東正教和新教教堂被邀請派官方代表,觀察員出席了會議。 Male lay Roman Catholic auditors were invited to the 1963 session, during which two of them addressed the council.男性奠定羅馬天主教審計被邀請參加1963年會議,在此期間,其中兩個在安理會發言。 Women auditors were added in 1964. The agenda was extensive, and topics discussed included modern communications media, relations between Christians and Jews, religious freedom, the role of laity in the church, liturgical worship, contacts with other Christians and with non-Christians, both theists and atheists, and the role and education of priests and bishops.婦女增加了審計在1964年。議程廣泛,討論的題目包括現代通訊媒體,關係基督徒和猶太人,宗教自由,所起的作用俗人在教堂裡,禮儀崇拜,與其他基督徒和非基督徒,無論有神論者和無神論者的作用和教育的司鐸和主教。

Major Documents and Conclusions主要文件和結論

The council issued 16 documents, notably the constitutions on divine revelation (Dei Verbum, November 18, 1965) and on the church ( Lumen Gentium, November 11, 1964) and the pastoral constitution on the church in the modern world (Gaudium et Spes, December 7, 1965).安理會16日發表的文件,特別是憲法對天啟(上帝Verbum , 1965年11月18號)和教堂(流明Gentium , 1964年11月11號)和畜牧憲法對教會在現代世界( Gaudium等Spes , 1965年12月7日) 。 The constitution on divine revelation was informed by the best modern biblical scholarship.憲法關於天啟獲悉的最佳現代聖經獎學金。 The council explained the Roman Catholic understanding of how the Bible, tradition, and church authority relate to one another in the exposition of divine revelation.安理會解釋了羅馬天主教的了解聖經,傳統,和教會的權力之間的相互關係的論述天啟。

The constitution on the church stressed a biblical understanding of the Christian community's organization, rather than the juridical model that had more recently been dominant.憲法對教會強調一個聖經了解基督教社區的組織,而不是司法的模式,最近也得到了優勢。 Terming the church the "people of God," it emphasized the servant nature of offices such as those of priest and bishop, the collegial, or shared, responsibility of all bishops for the entire church, and the call of all church members to holiness and to participation in the church's mission of spreading the gospel of Christ. Terming教會的“神人” ,它強調了公務員性質的辦事處,如神父和主教的合議,或與他人共享,責任,所有主教整個教堂,並呼籲所有教會成員和成聖參加教會的使命是傳播基督的福音。 The tone of the pastoral constitution on the church in the modern world was set in its opening words, which declared that the church shared the "joy and hope, the grief and anguish of contemporary humanity, particularly of the poor and afflicted."的基調畜牧憲法對教會在現代世界中是在其開頭語,它宣稱,教會同意“喜悅和希望,悲傷和痛苦的現代人類,尤其是窮人和受影響。 ” It began with a theological analysis of humanity and the world, then turned to specific areas such as marriage and family, cultural, social, and economic life, the political community, war and peace, and international relations.它一開始的神學分析人類和世界,接著具體領域,如婚姻和家庭,文化,社會和經濟生活,政治社會,戰爭與和平,和國際關係。

A constitution on liturgy promoted more active communal participation in the Mass as the central act of Roman Catholic public worship and was the initial step in changes that by 1971 included the replacement of Latin, the ancient language of the service, by vernacular languages. Other documents sought common ground in dealings with Orthodox and Protestant Christians and with those who are not Christians. In a rare departure from its deliberate policy of avoiding condemnations, the council deplored "all hatreds, persecutions, and displays of anti-Semitism leveled at any time or from any source against the Jews."憲法的禮儀更積極推動社區參與的群眾為中心的行為,羅馬天主教公共崇拜,是第一步,到1971年的變化,包括更換拉丁,古代語言的服務,通過本地語言。其他文件尋求共同點,在處理與東正教和新教基督徒和與誰不是基督徒。在一次罕見的背離其深思熟慮的政策,避免譴責,安理會譴責“一切仇恨,迫害,並顯示了反猶太主義層次在任何時候,從任何來源反對猶太人。 “ American delegates played a significant role in shaping the council's declaration upholding the universal right of religious freedom, a document in which the thought of the American theologian John Courtney Murray figured prominently.美國代表團中發揮了重要作用塑造安理會的聲明堅持普遍的宗教信仰自由權利,在該文件思想的美國神學家約翰考默里突出。

Pope John had launched the Second Vatican Council on a positive note, setting as its purposes the updating and renewal (aggiornamento) of the Roman Catholic church and achievement of Christian and human unity.教皇約翰發起了第二次梵蒂岡會議在積極的方面,其目的設置的更新和重建( aggiornamento )羅馬天主教和基督教的實現和人類的團結。 Pope Paul VI, who continued the council after John's death in 1963, endorsed those purposes and added that of dialogue with the modern world.教皇保羅六世,誰續後,理事會約翰的死亡在1963年,批准了這些宗旨和補充說,對話與現代世界。

Reception and Opposition接待和反對派

Initial reaction to the council was generally favorable.最初的反應是向安理會普遍良好。 One major result was the development of closer relations among Christian churches.一個主要的結果是發展更密切的關係之間的基督教教堂。 But as currents of change, some of them unrelated to anything that had occurred at the council, continued to sweep through the church, conservative Roman Catholic groups began to fear that the reforms had become too radical.但是,隨著電流的變化,其中一些無關的事情發生在安理會繼續橫掃通過教會,保守的羅馬天主教團體開始擔心,已經成為改革過於激進。 Organized dissent surfaced, and some critics challenged the authority both of the council and of the popes who carried out its decrees.有組織的持不同政見者浮出水面,一些批評者質疑管理局兩個安理會和教皇誰進行了法令。 Opposition to changes in the church's liturgy became a rallying point for those whose discontent with change ran far deeper.反對改變了教會的禮儀成為一個集合點那些不滿改變了深遠更深。

The most prominent leader of the "Catholic traditionalists" who rejected the doctrinal and disciplinary reforms instituted by Vatican Council II was a retired French archbishop, Marcel Lefebvre, who in 1970 founded an international group known as the Priestly Fraternity of St. Pius X. He declared that the council's reforms "spring from heresy and end in heresy."最突出的領導人“天主教的傳統”誰拒絕了理論和紀律改革梵蒂岡理事會二是退休法國大主教,馬塞爾菲弗爾,誰在1970年成立的一個國際小組被稱為祭司博愛的聖皮烏斯十,他宣布,安理會的改革, “春天的異端邪說和目的。 ” Efforts at reconciliation between Rome and Archbishop Lefebvre were unsuccessful. Pope Paul VI suspended him from the exercise of his functions as priest and bishop in 1976, but he continued his activities, including ordination of priests to serve traditionalist churches.之間的和解努力和羅馬大主教菲弗爾都沒有成功。教皇保羅六世暫停他行使其職能的司鐸和主教在1976年,但他繼續他的活動,包括協調服務神父傳統教堂。 Lefebvre was excommunicated in 1988.勒費弗爾是逐出教會於1988年。

James Hennesey詹姆斯Hennesey

Second Vatican Council (1962-1965)梵蒂岡第二次會議( 1962至1965年)

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Regarded by Roman Catholics as the twenty-first ecumenical church council, Vatican II was a deliberate attempt to renew and bring up to date (aggiornamento) all facets of church faith and life.被羅馬天主教作為第二十一基督教教會理事會,梵二是蓄意延長,使最新( aggiornamento )的各個方面,教會的信仰和生活。 It was convened in October of 1962 by Pope John XXIII, and reconvened in September 1963 by his successor, Pope Paul VI.這是在10月召開的1962年由教皇約翰二十三世,並重新在1963年9月由他的繼任者,教皇保羅六世。 Altogether the council held four annual fall sessions, finally adjourning after approving sixteen major texts that were promulgated by the pope.共舉行了四次理事會每年秋季會議,最後宣布批准16大後的案文是教皇頒布的。 At the opening session 2,540 bishops and other clerical members of council attended, and an average of 2,300 members were present for most major votes.在開幕式上2540年的主教和其他文書理事會成員出席了會議,和2300年的平均成員出席了會議的最重要的選票。 The council took on a profound and electrifying life of its own. Before the eyes of the world it succeeded in initiating an extraordinary transformation of the Roman Catholic Church.安理會採取有深刻和通電自己的生命。面前的世界中,成功地在不尋常的變革開始的羅馬天主教會。

Occasion and Characteristics場合和特點

In January, 1959, Pope John XXIII announced his intention to convene an ecumenical council.今年1月, 1959年,教皇約翰二十三世宣布,他打算召集一個基督教理事會。 After one full year of gathering suggestions throughout the church he established ten commissions to prepare draft documents for the council to consider. He formally called the council in December, 1961, and opened it in St. Peter's Basilica, Rome, on October 11, 1962.經過整整一年的收集建議整個教會他成立十委員會準備的文件草案,安理會應考慮。他正式要求安理會在12月, 1961年,打開了它在聖彼得大教堂,羅馬,在1962年10月11號。

In various communications, including his opening speech, Pope John indicated the needs of the hour.在各種通信,包括他的開幕辭中,教皇約翰指出的問題需要時間。 The Western world had experienced during the 1950s stupefying technical, scientific, and economic expansion that had given countless people occasion to put their trust in material goods even while other millions of people lived in devastating poverty and suffering.西方世界經歷了20世紀50年代stupefying技術,科學和經濟擴張,使無數人時刻把他們的信任,甚至物資,而其他數以百萬計的人生活在嚴重貧困和痛苦。 Militant atheism abounded, and the world was undergoing grave spiritual crisis.激進無神論abounded ,世界正在經歷著嚴重的精神危機。 But, proclaimed Pope John, and herewith he set the character of the entire council, the world needs not the condemnation of its errors but the full supply of "the medicine of mercy."但是,宣布教皇約翰,並隨他的性質,整個安理會,世界需要的不是譴責,但其錯誤的充分供應“的醫學憐憫。 ” The church, via the council, aimed to help the world by rejuvenating its own faith and life in Christ, by updating itself, by promoting the unity of all Christians, and by directing Christian presence in the world to the works of peace, justice, and well-being.教堂,通過理事會,旨在幫助世界上的振興自己的信仰和生活在基督,更新自己,促進團結所有基督教徒,並通過引導基督教在世界上的作品,和平,正義,和福祉。

Chief among the council's characteristics was a pastoral spirit which dominated throughout.其中最主要安理會的特點是牧區主導整個精神。 There was also a biblical spirit.也有聖經的精神。 From the very beginning the bishops indicated that they would not accept the rather abstract and theologically exact drafts prepared for them.從一開始就主教表示,他們將不接受而不是抽象的,神學確切草案做好準備。 Instead, they desired to express themselves in direct biblical language. Moreover, there was an evident awareness of history, the history of salvation, the pilgrim church, the ongoing tradition, the development of doctrine, the openness to the future.相反,他們希望表達自己的直接聖經語言。此外,有一個明顯的認識歷史,歷史的見證,教會的朝聖者,目前傳統的發展理論,開放的未來。 The council was ecumenical in its outreach to non-Catholic Christians (represented by observers from twenty-eight denominations) and humble in relation to non-Christian religions.安理會基督教在其延伸到非天主教基督教徒(派觀察員出席了會議從2008年面值)和謙遜與非基督宗教。 It was remarkably open to the whole world, especially through massive global press coverage and by directly addressing the world in an opening "Message to Humanity," and in a series of closing messages to political rulers, intellectuals and scientists, artists, women, the poor, workers, and youth.這是非常開放的整個世界,特別是通過大規模的全球性的新聞報導,並直接解決世界的開幕式“訊息給人類” ,並在一系列的關閉消息的政治統治者,知識分子和科學家,藝術家,婦女,貧困者,工人,青年。 Yet the council kept the church thoroughly consistent with its Roman Catholic identity and tradition.然而,安理會一直教會徹底符合其身份和羅馬天主教的傳統。

On the Church教會問題

Undoubtedly the central theme of the promulgated documents was the church.毫無疑問的中心主題文件的頒布是教會。 The "Dogmatic Constitution on the Church" (Nov. 1964) was the pivotal doctrinal statement of the entire council. A second dogmatic constitution was "On Divine Revelation."該“教條主義憲法的教會” ( 1964年11月)是關鍵的理論說明整個安理會。第二教條憲法“在神聖的啟示。 ” A third, called simply a constitution, was "On Liturgy," and a fourth, called a pastoral constitution, was "On the Church in the Modern World."第三,所謂的僅僅是憲法,是“論禮儀”和第四,所謂的田園憲法,是“論教會在現代世界的挑戰。 ” In addition, nine practical decrees and three declarations of principle were promulgated.此外,還有9個實際法令和三個原則聲明頒布。 Of these, five concerned the vocations of the church as fulfilled by bishops, priests (two), members of religious orders, and the media.其中,五年的職業有關的教會履行主教,司鐸( 2 ) ,成員的宗教命令,以及媒體。 Four covered the church's relations with Eastern Catholics, ecumenism, non-Christian religions, and civil governments (religious liberty).四涉及教會的關係,東歐天主教徒,基督信仰合一,非基督宗教和民間政府(宗教自由) 。

The constitution "On the Church," in eight chapters (also called Lumen gentium), was the first ever issued on the subject by a council.憲法“對教會” ,在八個章節(也稱為流明萬民法) ,是第一次發表的關於這一問題的安理會。 In a direct way it explicitly continued and completed the work of Vatican I. In particular it incorporated (ch. 3) almost verbatim the controversial statement on papal infallibility, with the addition that infallibility also resided in the body of bishops when exercising the magisterium (doctrinal authority) in conjunction with the pope.在一個直接的方式明確繼續進行和完成的工作,特別是梵蒂岡一納入(第三章)幾乎逐字爭議聲明教皇犯錯誤,再加上犯錯誤也居住在該機構的主教時,行使magisterium (理論權威)與教皇。 The primacy of the Roman pontiff was again affirmed, but, significantly, the centrality of the bishops was also affirmed.首要的羅馬教皇再次肯定,但值得注意的是,中心的主教也肯定。 This was the principle of collegiality, that the bishops as a whole were the continuation of the body of the apostles of which Peter was head.這是集體的原則,即主教作為一個整體繼續進行機構使徒的彼得是頭部。 By placing episcopal collegiality in union with papal primacy and by shared infallibility the council resolved the ancient tension of pope versus councils.主教共事放置在聯盟教皇至高無上和共享犯錯誤安理會解決了古老的緊張教皇與議會。

The same document (ch. 4) introduced the biblical teaching that the church as a whole was the people of God, including both clergy and laity.同一文件(章4 )介紹了聖經教學,教會作為一個整體在天主的子民,包括教士和俗人。 This reversed centuries of virtually explicit assertion that the clergy alone were the church.這扭轉百年幾乎明確斷言,神職人員僅教堂。 Both laity and clergy, the document affirmed, shared in the priestly, prophetic, and kingly functions of Christ.這兩個俗人和神職人員,該文件確認,共同的祭司,先知,王職能基督。 The decree "On the Laity" and the constitution "On the Church in the Modern World" (also called Gaudium et spes) charged lay people to undertake their work in the world in all walks of life as Christian vocations, as a lay apostolate which shared directly in the continuation of the work of the apostles of Christ.該法令“關於萊提”和憲法“論教會在現代世界” (也稱為特殊目的實體Gaudium等) ,負責人進行奠定他們的工作在世界上各行各業的基督教職業,作為奠定牧靈其中共同的直接在繼續工作的使徒基督。 This too undid centuries of emphasis on the clergy, monks, and nuns as virtually the sole possessors of Christian calling.這也解開世紀的重點是神職人員,僧侶和尼姑幾乎唯一擁有基督教要求。

On Divine Revelation關於天啟

This second dogmatic constitution continued the work of Vatican I, but profoundly modified it.這第二個教條憲法繼續梵蒂岡工作的我,而是深刻地修改它。 As continuation, it stressed the necessity of the magisterium of the church functioning within the ongoing sacred tradition "which comes from the apostles [and] develops in the Church with the help of the Holy Spirit."作為繼續,它強調的必要性magisterium運作的教會內正在進行的神聖傳統“來自使徒[和]開發在教會的幫助下聖靈。 ” The profound modification was the new de facto primacy given to sacred Scripture.深刻修改新的事實上的首要考慮聖經。 Four of the six chapters define the Scriptures of the OT and the NT as the sacred communication by God, under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit, of "those things which he wanted."四個六章確定了聖經的催產素和NT作為神聖的上帝的溝通,根據啟示聖靈的“那些東西,他想。 ” While use of critical methods is appropriate, "serious attention must be given to the content and unity of the whole of Scripture."雖然使用的重要方法是適當的, “嚴重注意必須考慮到的內容和團結全體聖經。 ” Sacred Scripture is properly interpreted within the context of the sacred tradition and of the magisterium of the church; all three together and each differently are due to the action of the same Holy Spirit.聖經的解釋是正確的範圍內的神聖傳統和magisterium教會;所有三個在一起,每一個不同的是由於所採取的行動同樣聖靈。 The biblical emphasis is made explicit here and in other decrees by the centrality given to Scripture in the revised liturgy, in the education of clergy, in the exposition of the council's teachings, and in the insistence that all persons be given full and easy access to Scripture.聖經強調的是明確在這裡和其他法令的中心給予聖經修訂後的禮儀,在教育的神職人員,在闡述了安理會的教導,在堅持說,所有的人給予充分的,方便的聖經。 The results were immediately experienced most dramatically in the transformation of parish worship into the vernacular languages throughout the world.結果立即有經驗的最顯著的轉變堂崇拜到方言在世界各地。

On Ecumenism論普世

The decree "On Ecumenism" likewise continued traditional teaching, but adapted it dramatically.該法令“論普世”同樣繼續傳統的教學,但它極大地適應。 The council reaffirmed that "it is through Christ's Catholic Church alone, which is the all-embracing means of salvation, that the fullness of the means of salvation can be obtained."安理會重申, “這是基督的教會獨立,這是包羅萬象的手段救贖,該豐滿的手段可以得到拯救。 ” Yet for the first time Protestants and Anglicans are explicitly regarded as Christians ("separated brethren"), and Eastern Orthodox are treated as directly descendant from the apostles.然而,第一次新教徒和聖公會明確視為基督徒( “失散的兄弟” ) ,和東正教會被視為直接後裔從宗徒。 Most significantly, the Catholic Church, for the first time, did not claim that the solution to these divisions lies in a "return" of these churches to Rome, but in an open future in which all may be "tending toward that fullness with which our Lord wants His body to be endowed in the course of time."最重要的是,天主教會,第一次,沒有要求,解決這些分歧在於“重返”這些教堂去羅馬,但在一個開放的未來,讓所有可能是“走向的豐滿與我們的上帝希望他的身體賦予的過程中的時間。 “ Pope Paul made the point concrete by creating a permanent Secretariat for Promoting Christian Unity, and by issuing (Dec. 1965) with Patriarch Athenagoras, head of Eastern Orthodoxy, a declaration committing the mutual excommunications of AD 1054 to oblivion and hoping for restoration of full communion of faith and sacramental life.教皇保羅指出具體通過建立一個常設秘書處促進基督教會統一,並通過發行( 1965年12月)的主教那哥拉團長東正教,宣言承諾的相互excommunications遺忘公元1054年,並希望恢復全面共融的信仰和聖事生活。

CT McIntire電腦斷層麥金太爾
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (規矩福音字典)

Bibliography 參考書目
Walter M. Abbott, ed., The Documents of Vatican II; JH Miller, ed., Vatican II: An Interfaith Appraisal; B. Pawley, ed., The Second Vatican Council; GC Berkouwer, Reflections on the Vatican Council; AC Outler, Methodist Observer at Vatican II; E. Schillebeeckx, The Real Achievement of Vatican II.沃爾特先生雅培,教育署。 ,這些文件的梵二;紅米勒,教育署。 ,梵二:宗教間評價;灣Pawley ,教育署。 ,梵二大公會議;氣相色譜Berkouwer ,思考梵蒂岡理事會;交流Outler ,衛理公會觀察員在梵二;體育Schillebeeckx ,真正實現梵二。

The Second Vatican Ecumenical Council梵蒂岡第二屆大公基督教理事會
Dedicated to "The Immaculate".奉獻給了“聖” 。

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Sweet is the Providence that Overrules Us." Seton甜是普羅維登斯的Overrules我們。 “瑟頓

Opened Under Pope John XXIII in 1962開設的教皇約翰二十三世在1962年
Closed by Pope Paul VI in 1965關閉了教皇保羅六世於1965年
+ Jesus - Mary - Joseph + +耶穌-瑪麗-約瑟夫+

"I am aware that I owe this to God... “我知道,我欠這個上帝...
as the chief duty of my life...作為主要的責任我的生活...
That my every word and thought may speak of Him..."我的每一個字,並認為他的發言... “
St. Hillary聖希拉里






These notes are intended as an AID to study by Catholic Students of the Second Vatican Council. 這些說明的目的是作為一種輔助手段的研究天主教學生的第二次梵蒂岡會議。 They contain material, some written in a journalistic style, for the American reader. 它們包含的材料,撰寫的一些新聞報導風格,為美國讀者。 To that extent they are biased; but they 'set the stage' and 'wet the appetite' for further study of this crucial historical event. 在這個程度上,他們有偏見,但他們'搭建了舞台'和'濕的胃口,為進一步研究這一重要的歷史事件。

Thirty odd years on the 'Aggiornamento' is still fermenting, the fresh air of the Holy Spirit still blowing, a self-destructive 'Civil War' still raging .... But His Peace will come to us all ... 30多年的' Aggiornamento '仍在發酵,清新的空氣聖靈仍然吹,一個自我毀滅的'民間戰爭'仍在激烈....但他的和平將會給我們所有人...

Students are reminded that, as with all serious study, research is necessary and recourse must be had, wherever possible, to original documentation.教育署提醒學生,作為與所有認真研究,研究是必要的,必須在有可能的情況下,以原始文件。

These notes should lead the serious student to the libraries of our Catholic Colleges and Universities and to resources no computer system yet devised can replace.這些說明應導致嚴重的學生到圖書館的天主教和高校資源的計算機系統還沒有制定可以取代。

The First Vatican Council was adjourned in 1870, following the solemn definition of papal infallibility.第一屆梵蒂岡理事會在1870年被推遲後,莊嚴的定義教皇犯錯誤。 Only a part of its task had been accomplished, but it was destined never to meet again.只有一部分的任務已經完成,但它注定不會再次會晤。 Pope Pius IX died in 1878, and five popes had come and gone before the Second Vatican Council was proclaimed by Pope John XXIII.教宗碧岳九死在1878年,五個教皇已經和前面的是第二次梵蒂岡會議所宣布教皇約翰二十三世。

Pope John announced his intention of summoning the Oecumenical Council in January, 1959, within three months of his election to the Chair of Peter; he signed the Apostolic Constitution, Humane Salutis, on Christmas Day in 1961.教皇約翰宣布,他打算傳喚的Oecumenical理事會1月, 1959年,在3個月內,他當選為主席的彼得,他簽署了使徒憲法,人道薩魯提斯,在聖誕節期間於1961年。 Meanwhile, ten commissions had been formed to prepare draft decrees to be debated in the Council.與此同時, 10個委員會已經成立準備法令草案進行辯論在安理會。 At first, seventy decrees were proposed, but gradually their number was reduced to seventeen.首先,提出了70法令,但他們的人數逐漸減少到17 。

Pope John wished the Council "to increase the fervour and energy of Catholics, to serve the needs of Christian people."教皇約翰希望理事會“ ,以增加熱情和精力的天主教徒,以滿足基督教的人。 ” To achieve this purpose, bishops and priests must grow in holiness; the laity must be given effective instruction in Christian faith and morals; adequate provision must be made for the education of children; Christian social activity must increase; and all Christians must have missionary hearts. In Italian, he was bale to express his desire in one word -- Aggiornamento -- the Church must be brought up to date, must adapt itself to meet the challenged conditions of modern times.為了實現這一目的,主教和司鐸必須發展壯大,在聖潔的俗人必須得到有效的教學在基督信仰和道德的需要;必須充分加以提供,為兒童的教育;基督教社會活動必須增加;和所有基督徒必須有傳教士的心。在意大利,他被抓來表達自己願望的一個詞- Aggiornamento -教會必須把最新的,必須調整自己,以應付挑戰的現代社會條件。 More than words, Italians appreciate expressive gestures; so also Pope John, when asked to reveal his intentions, simply moved to a window and threw it open, to let in a draught of fresh air.超過的話,意大利人表現的姿態表示讚賞,所以也教皇約翰,當記者問透露他的意圖,只是轉移到一個窗口,並把它開放,讓一個吃水的新鮮空氣。

Eighteen months before the Council assembled, the Pope himself showed how very fresh and new the air was to be. 18個月之前,安理會組裝,顯示教宗自己多麼新鮮的空氣和新的要。 He established a special Secretariat "for promoting Christian Unity" and authorized this Secretariat to take part in the prepatory work of the Council so that schemes, drafted for debate, would take into account the truly Oecumencial spirit -- that is, the desire to understand the beliefs and practices of other Christian bodies, and the need to work for the union of all in Christ.他設立了一個特別秘書處“促進基督教會統一” ,並授權該秘書處參加的籌備工作,以便安理會的計劃,起草的辯論中,將考慮到真正Oecumencial精神-這就是,希望理解的信仰和習俗的其他基督教機構,並需要對工會工作的所有在基督。

Preparation for the Council籌備委員會

Long before the Council began, the bishops of the Catholic world were asked to submit their proposals for subjects to be raised in the Council sessions.早在安理會開始,主教的天主教世界被要求提交其建議的議題是中提出的理事會會議。 More than two thousand lists of proposals were received together with detailed opinions from sixty theological faculties and universities. All of this material was studied and summarized, and suggestions made by the Congregations of the Roman Curia were also examined.超過2000名單的建議,並附上詳細的收到意見60神學學院和大學。所有這些材料進行了研究和總結,並提出的建議公理羅馬教廷也審查。

In June 1960, Pope John established ten commissions, entrusting to each commission the task of studying particular questions.在1960年6月,教皇約翰成立10委員會,每個委員會委託的任務是研究具體問題。 In this way the Theological Commission examined problems of scripture, tradition, faith and morals; other commissions considered bishops and the control of dioceses, religious orders, the Liturgy of the Church, seminaries and ecclesiastical studies, the missions, the Eastern Churches and the lay apostolate.在這樣的神學委員會經審查的問題,傳統,信仰和道德的需要;其他委員會審議的主教和控制的教區,宗教命令,禮儀的教會,神學院和教會研究,任務,東方教會和世俗牧靈工作。 A central commission worked to coordinate the labours of individual commissions, assisted the Pope to decide the subjects for debate in the Council, and suggested rules of procedure.一個中央委員會的工作,以協調勞動個別委員會,協助教宗決定的主題辯論中,安理會和建議的議事規則。

The Council Opens理事會開幕

The Second Vatican Council opened on October 11th, 1962.梵二大公會議開幕1962年10月11號。 More than two thousand five hundred Fathers were present at the opening Mass -- the greatest gathering at any Council in the history of the Church.超過2500父輩人出席了開幕質譜-最大聚集在任何安理會歷史上的教會。 After the Mass, Pope John addressed the Fathers, showing them the way in which the Council must move, and the spirit which must animate it.在地下,教皇約翰給父親,顯示他們的方式,安理會必須採取行動,和精神,必須動畫它。 The way was to be a renewal, the spirit was to be that of men who place all their trust in God.的方式將是一個延續的精神將被男子誰把所有他們對上帝的信仰。 In the past, Pope John said, the Church felt it necessary to use severity and condemnation.在過去,教皇約翰說,教會認為有必要使用的嚴重性和譴責。 What is required now is mercy and understanding and, above all, an outpouring of the riches which the Church has received from Christ.現在需要的是憐憫和理解,首先是一個源源不斷的財富該教會已收到來自基督。 The task of the Council must be to find ways by which the Church can present itself to the world of today, and can reach into the minds and hearts of men.的任務,安理會必須設法其中教會可以提出自己今天的世界,並能進入心中男子。 The Council must not become a school where theologians can perfect their formulation of Catholic truth.安理會決不能成為學校神學可以完善其制定天主教真理。

Inspired by the words of Pope John, the Fathers began their work.靈感的話,教皇約翰,父親開始工作。 Viewed from outside, in the manner in which a reporter might comment on Parliamentary debates, the impression was of two groups -- the "progressives" and the "reactionaries," radically and bitterly opposed to one another.從外面看,在以何種方式在記者會發表評論議會辯論,給人的印象是兩個團體- “進步”和“反動派” ,從根本上和強烈反對彼此。 Those bishops whose only concern, it seemed, was to safeguard the Church's teaching were labelled reactionaries; those, on the other hand, who showed concern for pastoral needs were called progressives.這些主教們,他們的唯一關心的,似乎是為了維護教會的教學標記反動派;這些,另一方面,誰表明牧區需要關注的被稱為進步。 In reality, however, a Council is not a parliament.但在現實中,安理會不是一個議會。 The bishops are united in the Faith and in their love of Christ. ,主教是聯合國的信仰,並在基督的愛。 In the second Vatican Council, all have tried to find, in the riches of the Church's teaching, those truths which must be stressed and emphasized in the modern world, and to decide how these truths may best be set forth for the good of all -- of those who are unbelievers as well as those who believe in Christ.在第二次梵蒂岡會議,大家都試圖尋找,在財富的教會的教學,這些事實必須加以強調,並強調在現代世界,並決定如何將這些真理可能最好規定為所有人的利益- -誰是這些信教以及誰相信基督。

Cardinal Montini (who was soon to succeed Pope John in the chair of Peter) wrote to his people in Milan on November 18th, 1962, to explain the two "tendencies" of the bishop.紅衣主教Montini (誰很快成功教皇約翰在主席彼得)寫信給他的人民在米蘭的1962年11月18號,解釋的兩個“趨勢”的主教。 The Council, he said, was an assembly of many with complex religious problems.理事會,他說,這是大會的許多複雜的宗教問題。 The unity of the Church, and its universality; the old and the new; what is fixed and what develops; the inner value of a truth, and the way in which it is to be expressed; the search for what is essential and care for particular details; principles and their practical application -- religious problems can be considered from so many different aspects.教會合一,和它的普遍性;新舊;什麼是固定和發展的內在價值的真相,並的方式,它是能夠得到表述;尋找什麼是至關重要的和護理尤其是細節;原則和其實際應用-宗教問題可以被視為由許多不同的方面。 Discussion of these problems will often be animated and lively -- yet all the bishops are united by that very love which they have for the truth.討論這些問題往往是動畫片和生動的-然而,所有的主教都是聯合國的這一非常喜歡他們的真相。

Another observer shows how the two "tendencies" were like two voices. One voice was uttered by those bishops who wanted, above all else, to preserve the Faith whole and entire; the other voice spoke for the bishops who had the same concern for preserving the Faith committed by Christ, but who also felt the great pastoral need to express that faith in a language which the modern world could understand and appreciate. This observer (Jean Guitton) found in the two voices a poetic image of the Cross of Christ.另一位觀察員說明“兩個傾向”就像兩個聲音。一個聲音是由那些主教說出誰想要的,高於一切,維護信仰和整個整個的其他聲音以誰的主教有同樣的關切維護所犯下的信仰基督,但誰也感受到了巨大的牧區需要表達的信念,一種語言的現代世界可以理解和欣賞。這種觀察員(讓•吉東)發現在這兩個聲音詩意形象基督的十字架。 The upright pillar of the Cross, fixed into the ground, tells the Christian of the unity, integrity and unchanging truth of the Faith; the cross-bar, on which Christ stretched out his arms, tells the Christian that the Faith is open to all men, that it is universal.垂直支柱交叉,固定到地面,講述了基督教的統一,完整和不變的真理的信仰;兩岸酒吧,在基督伸出手臂,講述了基督教的信仰是向所有人開放男人,這是普遍的。 Just as the Cross unites its two parts, so also the two "voices" or tendencies are united in the Christian faith.正如跨團結其分為兩部分,因此也是兩個“聲音”或傾向美國的基督教信仰。

From the beginning, the Second Vatican Council has shown that the great majority of the bishops are concerned with the pastoral needs of the Church.從一開始,第二次梵蒂岡會議已經表明,絕大多數的主教們所關注的牧區需要教會。 They have shown that concern in many different ways -- in the enthusiasm with which they have welcomed Oecumenical dialogue with non- catholic Christians and with Orthodox Churches; in the interest with which they have followed the historic visits of Pope John Paul VI to the Holy Land and to India; and above all in the overwhelming approval which they gave to the "Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy," in the second session of the Council (December 1962).他們表現出這種關切在許多不同的方式-在的熱情,他們歡迎Oecumenical對話,非天主教基督教徒和東正教教堂;的利益,與它們遵循了歷史性訪問的教皇約翰保羅六世羅馬土地和印度;及以上所有的絕大多數批准了他們的“憲法的神聖禮儀, ”在第二屆理事會( 1962年12月) 。

The Council and the Liturgy安理會和禮儀

The changes in the Liturgy of the Church show how the work of the Council affects every Catholic.的變化,禮儀的教會表明了安理會的工作影響到每一個天主教徒。 In earlier ages of Christendom changes were made in Canon Law and in the Christian Life itself.在較早的年齡變化了基督教教會法典和基督徒的生活本身。 But these changes usually took place so slowly and gradually that each man in his own brief life-time hardly noticed them; if he did take heed of change, he did not find the change disturbing.但是,這些變化通常發生的非常緩慢,並逐步,每個人在自己短暫的生命時間很難發現他們,如果他沒有留意變化,他還沒有找到的變化令人不安。 But in modern times -- above all in the middle of the twentieth Century -- the whole tempo and movement of secular history has increased in every sphere of life, and with the greatest rapidity.但是,在現代社會-尤其是在二十世紀中葉-整個運動的節奏和世俗的歷史增加了在各個領域的生活,並以最大的速度。 The Church is new as well as old.教會是新的和老。 If it is to remain up to date and in touch with the urgent needs of modern life, then the Church, too, must undergo change. Clearly, changes and adaptations must be accomplished with great prudence.如果要保持更新和聯繫的迫切需要,現代生活,然後教會,也必須加以改變。顯然,改變和調整必須完成非常謹慎。 Clearly, too, great courage is needed, if the ancient and unchanging truths and ways of life and worship are to take on new forms.顯然,也需要極大的勇氣,如果古不變的真理和生活方式和宗教是採取新的形式。

Inevitably, many Catholics have found the liturgical changes disturbing. Older Catholics, in particular, have over the years grown deeply attached to the words and actions of the Latin Mass; they have learned to love it, in its Latin form, and it has become for them a permanent and unchanging reality in a rapidly changing world.不可避免的是,許多天主教徒發現了禮儀的變化令人不安。老年人天主教徒,特別是多年來增長深深依戀的話和行動的拉丁美洲質量;他們已經學會喜歡它,在拉丁美洲的形式,它已成為為他們建立一個永久性的和不變的現實,一個迅速變化的世界。 Latin was the common tongue -- the lingua franca -- of the Western world, used by clerics, statesmen and scholars.拉丁美洲的共同母語-通用語-西方世界,使用的神職人員,政治家和學者。 Since the Mass is the common prayer of the whole Church, many feel that Latin should still be retained.由於大眾的共同祈禱整個教會,許多人認為拉丁美洲仍應該予以保留。 This view was expressed in the first great Decree to issue from the Council -- the "Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy."這有人在第一個偉大的法令問題從安理會- “憲法的神聖禮儀。 ” The Decree states "the use of the Latin language is to be preserved in the Latin rites."該法令指出, “使用拉丁語要保存在拉丁美洲儀式。 ”

The change from Latin to English, in parts of the Mass, has been singled out because it appears to many to be the most striking result of the Council's work.來自拉丁美洲的變化,以英文,部分地區的地下,已經挑出來,因為它似乎是許多人最突出的結果,安理會的工作。 But the Council has authorized the use of the vernacular, or mother-tongue, not only for parts of the Mass but also for the administration of every sacrament and sacramental.但是,安理會已授權使用方言,或者母語,不僅是對地方的群眾,而且對每一個行政聖禮和聖事。 It has directed national councils of bishops to establish liturgical commissions whose task is to produce suitable translations of liturgical texts, and to promote knowledge and love of the sacred liturgy.它已指示全國理事會主教建立禮儀委員會,其任務是生產適合禮儀翻譯文本,並促進知識和愛的神聖禮儀。

While local commissions are engaged upon this work, the Central Liturgical Commission meets in Rome.儘管地方委員會正在從事這項工作時,中央禮儀委員會會議在羅馬舉行。 Its primary function is the revision of the liturgical books.其主要職能是修訂禮儀圖書。 Its secondary function is to adapt the liturgy to the needs of modern times, and to enable all Catholics to take part actively in the official worship which the Church offers to God.二級功能是適應禮儀的需要,當今時代,並讓所有天主教徒積極參加官方教會的禮拜提供上帝。 However rapid and unexpected these changes might appear, they are in fact intended to be gradual, step by step, until eventually the renewal of the liturgy has been completed.然而意想不到的快速和可能出現的這些變化,它們實際上是要循序漸進,一步一步,直到最後延長禮儀已經完成。

The first major result of this work by the Central Commission was the promulgation, in September 1964, of an Instruction for putting into effect the "Constitution of the sacred Liturgy."第一個重大成果這項工作,由中央委員會頒布,於1964年9月,一個教學落實“憲法的神聖禮儀。 ” This instruction drew attention to the fact that changes are taking place, not for the sake of change, but because the Liturgy is at the centre of Christian life and worship.這一指示提請注意這樣一個事實,即正在發生變化,不是為了改變,但由於是禮儀的中心基督徒的生活和宗教生活。 It is through the active sharing in these sacred rites that the faithful, the People of God, "will drink deeply from the source of divine life. They will become the leaven of Christ, the salt of the earth. They will bear witness to that divine life; the will be instrumental in passing it on to others."正是通過積極的交流儀式在這些神聖的忠誠,在天主的子民“ ,將飲料深受源的神聖的生命。他們將成為酵基督,鹽地球。他們將見證這一神聖的生命;的將有助於通過它給他人。 “

By modern standards, florid and elaborate ceremonies, dress and ornament are seldom esteemed.現代的標準,華麗和闡述儀式,服裝和飾品很少尊敬。 During the course of centuries, many features or details had crept into the liturgy, and these features are now regarded as unsuited to the worship of God and out of keeping with the real nature and dignity of that worship.過程中世紀以來,許多功能或細節已經悄悄進入了禮儀,而這些功能已被視為不適合的崇拜上帝和不符合的真實性質和尊嚴的崇拜。 For this reason the liturgical books are being revised and the rites simplified.由於這個原因,禮儀的書籍正在修訂和儀式簡化。 The first book to appear, following the Council's decree, is known as the Ordo Missae. Issued in January 1961, this book sets forth the rite which is to be followed, in keeping with the changes introduced by the Council and by the Liturgical Commission.第一本書出現之後,安理會的命令,被稱為秩序彌撒。發行在1961年1月,這本書闡述了儀式是應遵循的,符合變化所介紹的理事會和委員會的禮儀。

The Altar祭壇

Where possible, the high altar is to be placed in such a way that Mass may be offered by the priest facing the people; the altar should stand away from the wall of the sanctuary, so that room is left to allow the priest to move around it.在可能的情況下,高壇放在這樣一種方式,大規模可提供的神父人民面臨的祭壇應該站在離牆的庇護,因此,留下一定空間,允許神父走動它。 The Blessed Sacrament should be reserved in a strong tabernacle, placed at the centre of the high altar; but it maybe placed upon a side altar, if that side altar is dignified and easily seen.聖應保留在一個強有力幕,放置在中心的高壇;但也許放在側祭壇,如果一方祭壇是尊嚴和容易看到。 Again, the tabernacle may be placed on the altar at which Mass is said facing the people; in this case the tabernacle should be small.同樣,幕可放在祭台上是說,面對群眾的人;在這種情況下,幕應小。

The cross and candlesticks will be placed upon the altar in the customary way; in certain circumstances, however, the bishop may allow them to be placed alongside the altar.交叉和燭台將放在祭壇的習慣方式;在某些情況下,然而,主教可能讓他們放在旁邊的祭壇。 The sedilia, or seats for the celebrant and sacred ministers, should be easily seen by the faithful, and the celebrant's sedile should be so placed as to show that he is presiding over the Mass as the assembly of the People of God.該sedilia ,或席位禮和神聖的部長,應該很容易看到的忠誠,以及禮的sedile應放置,以表明他主持的彌撒大會在天主的子民。 There should be an ambo (lectern or reading-desk) -- clearly visible to the faithful; from which the readings from Scripture are to be made.應該有一個安博(講台或閱讀服務台) -清楚地看到信徒;從中讀經文是必須作出。 It should be observed that many of these changes can be effected only when new churches are planned; where possible, the sanctuary of an existing church should be adapted in accordance with the Instruction of the Central Commission.應當指出,許多這些變化可能會影響只有當新教堂計劃;在可能的情況下,聖殿現有教會應適應根據的指示,中央委員會。

The sacrifice of the Mass犧牲質量

In the rite of the Mass, the following are the changes already announced:在儀式的群眾,以下是已經宣布的變化:

1. 1 。 The celebrant does not say privately those parts of the Proper of the Mass which are sung by the choir, recited by the people, or proclaimed by the deacon, sub-deacon or lector.在禮不說,私人的部分適當的量,是宋代的歌唱,朗誦的人,或所宣布的執事,分執事或講師。 The celebrant may, however, join with the people in singing or reciting parts of the Ordinary of the Mass --as, for example, the Gloria and the Credo.可能的禮,但是,同人民在歌唱或背誦部分普通大眾-例如,凱萊和的信條。

2. 2 。 Psalm 42 is omitted from the prayers to be said at the foot of the altar at the beginning of Mass. Whenever another liturgical service immediately precedes the Mass, all these opening prayers are omitted.詩篇42省略從祈禱說腳下的祭壇開始馬薩諸塞每當另一之前立即禮儀服務的質量,所有這些開放祈禱省略。

3. 3 。 The "secret" prayer before the preface is to be said or sung aloud.的“秘密”前祈禱的前言是這樣說或唱大聲。

4. 4 。 The "Doxology" at the end of the Canon of the Mass (that is, the prayer "Through him, and with him . . . ") is to be said or sung in a loud voice.該“ Doxology ”結束時的佳能地下(即祈禱“通過他,與他。 。 。 ” )是說或唱,響亮的聲音。 The signs of the Cross, formerly made during this prayer, are omitted, and the celebrant holds the host with the chalice, slightly raised above the corporal.標誌的十字架,在此以前作出的祈禱,都省略,和禮認為,東道國的聖杯,稍上文提到的體罰。 The "Our Father" is said or sung in the vernacular by the people together with the priest. “我們的父親”是說或唱白話人民一起牧師。 The prayer which follows -- is called the Embolism (that is, an insertion or interpolation) and was originally added to the Mass as an extension of the last petition in the "Our Father:" a prayer to be freed from evil, and for our sins to be forgiven.祈禱如下-被稱為栓塞(即插入或插值)和原來增加了大眾的延伸過去請願在“我們的父親: ”祈禱,以擺脫邪惡,並我們的罪被寬恕。 This prayer is also to be said or sung aloud by the celebrant.這祈禱也可以說或唱大聲的禮。

5. 5 。 The words spoken by the priest when giving Holy Communion have been shortened to "Corpus Christ" -- "The Body of Christ;" the person communicating says "Amen" before receiving Holy Communion; and the priest no longer makes the sign of the Cross with the host.所說的話時,由神父給予聖餐已經縮短到“語料庫基督” - “基督的身體, ”溝通的人說“阿門”前接受聖餐;和牧師不再使標誌的十字架與東道國。

6. 6 。 The Last Gospel is omitted, and the prayers formerly recited at the end of the Mass (the "Leonine" prayers) are no longer said.最後福音省略,並祈禱前背誦結束時的質量(以下簡稱“ Leonine ”祈禱)不再說。

7. 7 。 Provision is made for the Epistle to be read by a lector of by one of the servers; the Gospel must be proclaimed by the celebrant or by a deacon.這筆經費用於書信來閱讀的演說者的一個服務器;福音必須所宣布禮或執事。

8. 8 。 At all Masses attended by the faithful on Sundays and Holydays, the Gospel is to be followed by a homily, or explanation reading from the Scriptures.在所有參加的群眾忠實於星期日及Holydays ,福音是應遵循的講道,或解釋讀了聖經。 This homily may be based upon some other text of the Mass, taking account of the feast or mystery which is being celebrated.這講道可根據其他一些文字的質量,同時考慮到節日或神秘而正在慶祝。

9. 9 。 After the Creed, provision is made for what is called the "community prayer" sometimes called the "prayer of the faithful."在信仰,這筆經費用於所謂的“社會祈禱”有時被稱為“祈禱的信徒。 ” In some countries this prayer is already customary; in most places, however, it has not yet been introduced.在一些國家,這個祈禱已經習慣;在大多數地方,但是,它尚未推出。 In due course the form of this community prayer will be announced by the Central Liturgical Commission.在適當的時候的形式,這個社區的祈禱時間將另行通知,由中央委員會禮儀。

10. 10 。 In accordance with the changes outlined above, the Ordo Missae issued in January 1965 states that, as a general rule, the celebrant will say the opening prayers at the foot of the altar; when he has kissed the altar, he will go tot he sedile or seat and remain there until the prayer of the faithful has been said before the offertory leaving it for the ambo if he himself is to read the Epistle and Gospel but returning to it for the Creed.按照上面概述的變化,在秩序彌撒1965年1月發行的國家,作為一般規則,會說的禮開幕祈禱腳下的祭壇上,當他親吻的祭壇,他將繼續他sedile因子或座位,直至祈禱的教友已經說過,奉獻留的安博如果他本人是閱讀書信和福音,但回到它的信條。

11. 11 。 At a High Mass the subdeacon no longer wears the humeral veil; the paten is left upon the altar, and the subdeacon joins the deacon in assisting the celebrant.在較高質量的subdeacon不再穿肱骨面紗;的專利後留下的祭壇,和subdeacon加入執事協助禮。

12. 12 。 Suitable translations of parts of the Mass are to be prepared by regional or national councils of bishops.合適的翻譯部分的質量是將要編寫的區域或國家議會的主教。 When these translations have been confirmed by the Holy See, they may be used when Mass is said in the vernacular.當這些翻譯證實了羅馬教廷,他們可能會使用質量時說白話。 The extent to which the vernacular is used varies greatly.在何種程度上使用方言差別很大。 Generally speaking, its use is permitted for the first part of the Mass -- the "Service of the Word" -- and for certain prayers in the second part -- the Eucharistic Sacrifice.一般來說,它的使用是允許的第一部分群眾- “服務的Word ” -和某些祈禱的第二部分-聖體聖事的犧牲。

Another important change concerns the Eucharistic Fast.另一個重要變化問題的聖體快速。 Until recent years, this Fast was from midnight.直到最近幾年,這個快速是從午夜。 Then it was reduced to three hours. Finally it was altered to a fast of one hour from food and drink; this hour is to be reckoned from the time when Holy Communion is to be received, and not from the time Mass starts.然後人口減少到3個小時。最後這是一個快速改變的一個小時從食物和飲料;這一小時是不可忽視之時起,聖餐是得到,而不是從量開始的時間。 Those who receive Communion in the Mass of the Easter Vigil, or at the Midnight mass of Christmas, may also receive Communion on the following morning (That is, Easter Sunday or Christmas Day).這些誰收到聖餐大眾復活節守夜活動,或在聖誕午夜彌撒,也可能會收到聖餐的第二天上午(即復活節後的星期日或聖誕節) 。

The Sacraments and Sacramentals聖和Sacramentals

Among the changes which have been introduced into the rites for the administration of sacraments, the following points should be noted.其中的變化已引入儀式的行政管理聖禮,以下幾點應該指出的。

1. 1 。 The rites themselves are to be modified and adapted to the needs of modern times, so that the true meaning of sacramental signs may be readily grasped.儀式本身也需要修改和調整,以適應現代社會需要的,這樣的真正含義聖禮跡象可以隨時掌握。

2. 2 。 The vernacular may be used (a) throughout the rites of Baptism, Confirmation, Penance, the Anointing of the Sick, and Matrimony; and in the distribution of Holy Communion; (b) in conferring Holy Orders, for the allocution, or opening address, for the "admonitions" to those receiving Orders, and for the ritual "interrogation" of a priest who is about to receive consecration as a bishop; (c) in funeral ceremonies, and in all blessings known as "sacramentals."白話可以使用(一)在整個儀式的洗禮,確認,懺悔,在輔之以抹的病人和婚姻;和分配中的聖餐; ( b )在賦予神聖訂單,為allocution ,或開幕式講話,為“警告”那些接受訂單,並為儀式“審問”了一名牧師誰將收到奉獻作為主教; ( c )在葬禮儀式,並在所有的祝福稱為“ sacramentals 。 ”

3. 3 。 The ancient ritual for adults who are receiving instruction in the Catholic faith was called the "catechumenate."在古老的儀式為成人誰正在接受指令的天主教信仰被稱為“慕道。 ” This ritual is to be brought into use once more, and will extend through several distinct stages, with an interval of time between each stage.這個儀式是為了把更多的投入使用後,將延長到幾個不同的階段,其之間的時間間隔的每一個階段。 In missionary regions some features of local "initiation rites" may be introduced, provided that they can be adapted to Christian principles.在傳教地區的某些功能,當地的“啟動儀式” 5月推出,只要他們能夠適應基督教原則。

4. 4 。 The rite of infant baptism is to be altered, to express the fact that an infant is receiving the sacrament, and to emphasize the duties of parents and godparents.禮儀的嬰兒洗禮改變,表達的是,一個嬰兒正在接受聖禮,並強調職責的父母和教父母包括挪威。

5. 5 。 Confirmation should be administered within the Mass, following the Gospel and sermon.確認應在質量管理之後,福音和講道。 Those to be confirmed should renew the promises made at baptism.那些被證實應當重新作出的承諾上的洗禮。

6. 6 。 The rite and formula for the Sacrament of Penance are to be altered, to give clearer expression to the nature and effects of this sacrament.禮儀和公式聖懺悔的改變,使表達更清晰的性質和影響這一聖禮。

7. 7 。 Similar revisions are to be made in the Sacrament of the "Anointing of the Sick."類似的修改將在聖的“輔之以抹的病人。 ” The Council has ruled that this phrase should be used in preference to the former name, "Extreme Unction."安理會裁決,這句話應優先使用前的名字, “臨終” 。 The prayers and the number of the annointings will be altered, to correspond with the changing conditions of the sick person.祈禱和一些annointings將改變,以符合不斷變化的條件,有病的人。 In countries where provision has not yet been made for a continuous rite for the Sacraments of he Sick (that is, when the illness is such that the sick person is to receive the Last Blessing and Holy Viaticum) instructions have now been given for the for the use of this continuous rite.在有些國家規定尚未取得連續儀式的聖禮,他病(也就是,當疾病是這樣,有病的人將獲得最後的祝福和聖Viaticum )指示已經給予的使用這種連續儀式。

8. 8 。 The Sacrament of Matrimony is to be celebrated within Mass, unless there is a good reason for the marriage to take place outside Mass. The Mass known as the "Nuptial Mass" (Missa pro Sponsis) must be said, or at least commemorated.聖禮的婚姻關係是在慶祝彌撒,除非有充分的理由採取的婚姻以外的地方馬薩諸塞群眾稱為“婚大眾” (彌撒親Sponsis )必須指出,或至少紀念。 The homily, or address, may never be omitted, and the Nuptial Blessing is always to be given, even during those times when the solemnization of marriage has been excluded, and even if one or both of the parties has already been married.講道,或地址,可能永遠不會遺漏,並婚姻祝福總是給予,即使在那些時候儀式的婚姻已被排除,即使一方或雙方當事人的已經結婚了。

A new rite has been introduced for the celebration of Matrimony outside Mass.一種新的禮儀介紹了為慶祝婚姻以外馬薩諸塞州 This rite consists of a short address, the reading of the Epistle and Gospel (taken from the Missa pro Sponsis), a homily, the celebration of the marriage, and the Nuptial Blessing.這儀式由一個短期解決,閱讀書信和福音(摘自彌撒親Sponsis ) ,一個講道,慶祝活動的婚姻,婚姻幸福。 A hymn or other chant may be sung, and the "prayer of the faithful" -- adapted to include prayers for the newly married couple -- may be said before the Nuptial Blessing is given.阿讚美詩或其他可唱聖歌,以及“祈禱的教友” -適應包括祈禱,新婚夫婦-可以說在婚姻祝福給出。

These instructions concerning marriage have been made for Catholic weddings; that is, when both parties are Catholics.這些指示有關婚姻已作出天主教婚禮,也就是說,當雙方都天主教徒。

9. 9 。 In the past, the right to give many blessings had been reserved, in such a way that without special authority a priest could not give these blessings, With some exceptions these blessings may now be give by any priest.在過去的權利,給予了許多祝福保留,以這樣一種方式,如果沒有特殊的權力神父不能讓這些祝福,但有一些例外這些祝福現在可能給予的任何司鐸。 The exceptions are: the blessing of Stations of the Cross; the blessing of a church bell of the foundation stone of a church; the blessing of a new church or public oratory, or of a new cemetery.例外情況是:祝福監測站十字架;的祝福教堂鐘聲的基石教堂;的祝福新教堂或公共演講,或一個新的墓地。 Papal blessings are still reserved.教皇祝福仍然保留。

Further instances of the adaptation and simplification desired by the Council are the abbreviations in the elaborate ceremonial which, in the course of centuries, had been built around the Cardinalate.進一步情況下的適應和簡化所期望的安理會中的縮寫闡述禮儀的過程中,百年來,一直圍繞紅衣主教。 While the number of cardinals has greatly increased, the ceremonies have been shortened.雖然紅雀的人數大為增加,儀式已被縮短。 The Pope no longer places the large red hat on the head of a new cardinal; instead, the hat is delivered to his residence in Rome by a Vatican messenger.教宗不再地方大紅帽的頭一個新的樞機;相反,帽子是交付給他的住所在羅馬的梵蒂岡信使。 The ceremony, in which the Pope places the red biretta upon the cardinal's head, has now been incorporated within one comprehensive ceremony, which is still called a "public consistory," during which the Pope and the newly-created cardinals join together to concelebrate Mass. Some simplification of the ecclesiastical dress of cardinals, bishops and other prelates, as well as simplification of the ceremonies at which they pontificate, also indicates the manner in which the Church is anxious to adapt itself to present-day values.儀式上,中,教宗的地方紅色biretta的樞機的頭,已被納入一個全面的儀式上,仍然是所謂的“公共一致性” ,在此期間,教宗和新成立的樞機主教共同concelebrate質量。一些簡化教會穿著樞機,主教和其他主教,以及簡化儀式上,他們的教皇,也表明以何種方式教會急於使自己適應當今的價值觀。

The concelebration of Mass大規模的concelebration

a custom which has always been found in the Church -- signifies the unity of the priesthood.自定義一直在教會-象徵團結的祭司。 Until the Second Vatican Council, however, the custom had usually been restricted to the Mass for the ordination of a priest or the consecration of a bishop. The Council has extend the custom of concelebration to other occasions, such as the Mass on the evening of Maundy Thursday, and Masses celebrated at meetings of priests.直到第二次梵蒂岡會議,但是,自定義通常被限制在大眾的協調,一名牧師或神聖的主教。安理會擴大的習俗concelebration其他場合,如大眾的晚上濯足節和人民群眾慶祝會議上牧師。 Similarly, the Council has recognized that in certain cases, clerics, religious and lay people may receive Holy Communion under the species of wine as well as of bread. Examples given in the Constitution on the Liturgy are: newly ordained clerics in the Mass of Ordination; newly professed religious, in the Mass of profession; and newly baptized adults in the Mass which maybe said following their baptism.同樣,安理會已經認識到,在某些情況下,神職人員,宗教和非專業的人可能會收到聖餐的種葡萄酒以及麵包。例子在憲法上的禮儀是:新祝神職人員的質量排序;新聲稱宗教,在大眾的專業;和慕道成人量,也許說的洗禮之後。 The Apostolic See reserves the right to determine these cases, and to issue rules both for concelebration and for receiving Holy Communion under both kinds.使徒見保留權利,以確定這些案件,並發布規則為concelebration和接受聖餐根據兩種。

The Divine Office神辦公室

The following are the main changes introduced by the Council in the signing or recitation of the Divine Office.以下是主要的變化,安理會在簽署或背誦神聖辦公室。

1. 1 。 The sequence of the "hours" of the Office is to be restored to its traditional form, so that each hour is in fact related to the time of day at which it is said; in this way the recitation of the Office will better express its purpose, to sanctify the whole course of the day.的順序, “小時” ,該辦公室要恢復其傳統的形式,使每個小時實際上是涉及到時間在它說,這樣的背誦廳將能更好地表達其為此,認可的整個過程的一天。

2. 2 。 The hour of Lauds represents the morning prayer of the Church; while Vespers is the hour of evening prayer.一個小時的早課代表今天上午祈禱的教會;而晚禱是小時晚上祈禱。 These two hours are to become once again the principal hours of the day's Office.這兩個小時,以再次成為主要的時間為一天的辦公室。 Compline is to be revised so that it will become a suitable prayer for the end of the day. Compline是加以修訂,使之成為一個合適的祈禱結束的一天。

3. 3 。 The hour of Prime is suppressed.時刻總理是壓制。 When the office is recited in choir, the three "little hours" of Terce, Sext and None are to be said.當Office是背誦的合唱團, 3個“小分”的Terce , Sext和無應說。 Those who are not obliged to recite the Office in choir may select any one of these three hours, according to the time of day.這些誰沒有義務朗誦辦公室在合唱團可以選擇其中任何一項3個小時,根據一天中的時間。

4. 4 。 When recited in choir, the hour of Matins is to be regarded as the night prayer of the Church; but this hour is to be reconstructed with longer scriptural and other readings and fewer psalms, and adapted so that it may be recited at any time of the day.當背誦的合唱團,一個小時的晨禱被視為是晚上祈禱的教會;但每小時要重建不再聖經和其他讀物少詩篇,並適應,以便它可以在任何時間背誦的一天。

5. 5 。 The Latin language remains the official language of the Western Church; but in individual cases, where Latin is an obstacle, bishops and other superiors may authorize the recitation of the Office in the vernacular.在拉丁語仍然是官方語言,西方教會,但在個別情況下,拉美是一個障礙,主教和其他上級可授權背誦辦公室白話。 This is because the Divine Office is, first and foremost, a prayer offered to God.這是因為神的辦公室,首先,向上帝祈禱。

The Council has recognized that, in some cases, the use of the Latin tongue can be a hindrance of devotion and can make it difficult for a person to pray the Office as it should be prayed.安理會已認識到,在某些情況下,利用拉丁美洲舌頭可以成為一種障礙的獻身精神,可以使人們難以對一個人祈禱的辦公室,因為它應該祈禱。

The Liturgical Year年的禮儀

1. 1 。 The Constitution recalls the unchanging practice of the Church of celebrating every Sunday the paschal mystery -- the mystery of the passion, death, resurrection and glorifying of Christ the Lord.憲法回顧不變實踐教會每個星期日慶祝巴斯卦逾越奧秘-的奧秘的熱情,死亡,復活和美化基督上帝。 Sunday is the original feast day, the center of the whole liturgical year.星期日是原來的節日,該中心的整個禮儀一年。

2. 2 。 The liturgical year is to be revised, both to preserve the age-old customs and instructions of the holy seasons, and also to adapt those customs, where necessary, to the conditions of modern times.今年的禮儀加以修訂,以維護雙方的古老習俗和指示神聖季節,同時也使這些習俗,並在必要時的條件,現代。 Detailed rules are provided for this revision; the rules are based upon the pastoral nature of the liturgy -- the need to keep before the minds of Christians the mysteries of salvation in Christ.詳細的規則規定了這次修訂的規則所依據的牧區性質禮儀-需要保持在基督徒心目中的奧秘在基督的救恩。

3. 3 。 The Constitution declares that there is no objection to fixing the date of Easter -- provided other non-Catholic Christian communities reach agreement.憲法申明,沒有人反對固定的日期復活節-提供其他非天主教基督教社區達成協議。 Similarly, a "perpetual calendar" is acceptable, if it is based upon a reckoning which retains a seven-day week with Sunday, and provided that it does not insert extra days which are considered to belong to no week.同樣, “萬年曆”是可以接受的,如果它是根據推算保留為期7天的每週星期天,只要它不插入額外的天,認為這是不屬於任何一周。

Sacred Music宗教音樂

1. 1 。 The Council drew attention to the age-old tradition of sacred music and singing, closely linked to the liturgy; and the Constitution declares that worship becomes more noble when it is carried out with solemn singing, especially when the celebrant, ministers and people take an active part.安理會提請注意古老傳統的宗教音樂和唱歌,緊密聯繫在一起的禮儀;和憲法宣布,崇拜變得更加崇高時,進行了莊嚴的歌聲,特別是當禮,部長和人民採取了積極參與。

2. 2 。 Great attention is to be paid to the teaching and practice of sacred music, in harmony with training and instruction in the liturgy.高度重視是需支付給教學和實踐的神聖的音樂,在和諧的訓練和教學中的禮儀。

3. 3 。 Gregorian chant is especially suited to the Roman liturgy, but other kinds of sacred music must not be excluded.格列高利聖詠尤其適合羅馬禮儀,但其他種類的神聖的音樂不能被排除在外。 In mission lands where the people have their own characteristic musical traditions, these traditions also should be incorporated into Christian worship.在團的土地的人有自己的特色音樂的傳統,這些傳統也應納入基督教禮拜。

4. 4 。 In the Latin Church, the pipe organ is recognized as the traditional musical instrument, but other instruments maybe used provided that they can be adapted for use in divine worship.在拉丁美洲教會,管風琴是公認的傳統樂器,但可能使用的其他文書的規定,可以適用於使用神聖的崇拜。

Sacred Art神聖的藝術

1. 1 。 Things that are set apart for use in divine worship should have dignity and beauty, because they serve as symbols and signs of the supernatural world.事情是分開使用的神聖崇拜應該有尊嚴和美麗,因為它們的象徵和標誌的超自然世界。 The highest achievement of the fine arts is sacred art, which is man's attempt to express the infinite beauty of God and to direct his mind to God.最高成就的藝術是神聖的藝術,這是男人的企圖表示無限美麗的上帝,並直接了主意上帝。

2. 2 。 The Church has always been the patron of the fine arts.教會一直贊助美術。 The Church reserves the right to decide whether an artist's work is in keeping with divine worship.教會有權決定是否一個藝術家的工作是符合神的崇拜。

3. 3 。 Artistic styles vary from one time and place to another.藝術風格各不相同的時間和從一個地方運送到另一個地方。 Modern art is the expression of our times; provided that it is in keeping with divine worship, a work of modern art and may be used for sacred use.現代藝術是表達我們的時代;只要它是符合神的崇拜,一個的現代藝術作品,並可能使用於神聖使用。

4. 4 。 Bishops and others responsible for churches and holy places should remove from those places all objects which lack true artistic value, or which may be out of keeping with divine worship.主教和其他負責教會和聖地應消除這些地方的所有對象,缺乏真正的藝術價值,或可能不符合神的崇拜。 Similarly, they should see that the number of statues and pictures should be moderate, and that they should be placed in such a way that a true sense of proportion is observed.同樣的,他們應該看到,一些雕像和照片應適度,而且應該放在以這樣一種方式,一個真正意義上的比例是觀察。

5. 5 。 All things destined for use in divine worship should have simple dignity; lavish display doe snot accord with the worship of God.一切事物擬用於神崇拜應該有簡單的尊嚴;豪華顯示能源部青鼻涕符合崇拜上帝。 Each diocese should have its own Commission of Sacred Art; ecclesiastical laws, relating to the building of churches, are to be revised wherever necessary.各教區應該有自己的委員會,宗教藝術,宗教的法律,有關建立教會,是在必要時加以修訂。

The Constitution on the Church憲法關於教會

The First Vatican Council, ending so abruptly in 1870, is known as the Pope's Council, for it defined the dogma of papal infallibility and stressed the supremacy of the Holy See.第一屆梵蒂岡理事會,突然結束,以便在1870年,被稱為教宗的安理會,因為它確定了教條的教皇犯錯誤,並強調至高無上的羅馬教廷。 It is likely that the Second Vatican Council will go down in history as the Council which explained the organic structure of the Church.可能是第二次梵蒂岡會議將永垂史冊安理會解釋了有機結構的教堂。 This explanation is centred upon the Constitution De Ecclesia -- dealing with the Church itself.這種解釋是集中在憲法者教會-處理教會本身。 The main points of this Constitution are outlined below.要點本憲法概述如下。

1. 1 。 Too often in the past, the sacramental nature of the Church has been lost to view.往往在過去的聖事的性質,教會已遺失,以查看。 Some theologians used to describe the Church in terms of a perfect, independent society, often in competition with other social systems.某些神學用來描述教會方面的一個完美的,獨立的社會,往往在競爭中與其他社會制度。 Others preferred to see it as a complexity of legal systems, issuing laws to control man's spiritual destiny.另外一些與會者則傾向於把它看作是一個複雜的法律制度中,發放法律,以控制人的精神的命運。 Others, again, looked at age-old institutions, its fine buildings and palaces, the splendour of its ornaments, vestments and ceremonies, and saw in all these things evidence of triumph and victory -- "ecclesiastical triumphalism."其他人,再次,看著古老的機構,其優良的建築物和宮殿,它的輝煌飾品,法衣和儀式,並認為在所有這些事情的證據的勝利和勝利- “教會勝利。 ”

2. 2 。 The Constitution sees the Church, not as any of those things, but as "the sacrament of union with God, the sacrament of the unity of the whole of the human race."憲法認為,教會,而不是任何的事情,但為“聖聯盟與上帝,聖禮的團結整個人類。 ” A sacrament is a sign which brings about what it signifies.阿聖是一個跡象,使這意味著什麼。 The Church is the sign of unity.教會的標誌團結。 Through it, Christ, its founder, shows the power and presence of God, acting upon society, upon mankind, upon the world itself; and the action is the same as Christ's action on Cavalry -- bringing mercy and pardon to men.通過它,基督,它的創始人,顯示力量和存在的上帝,按照社會,呼籲全人類,對世界本身;和行動是一樣的基督的行動騎兵-使仁慈和寬恕男子。

3. 3 。 The Church is the sign because it is the community of the People o God.教會的標誌,因為它是社會的人上帝啊。 Divine redemption and the power of the Holy Ghost, act in and through God's people to save all mankind.神聖的贖回和權力的聖靈,採取行動,並通過上帝的子民拯救全人類。 The People of God are being sanctified; yet they remain weak and human, subject to temptation, liable to sin.在天主的子民正在聖潔;但他們仍然很薄弱和人力,但誘惑,即屬犯罪。 This is not a Church of triumph, whose members can lord it over others, while remaining secure within its walls.這不是一個教會的勝利,其成員可以稱王稱霸他人,而其餘的安全圍牆之內。 It does not compete with other social systems and other cultures; it adapts itself to these systems, because it is an instrument which God uses to save mankind.它不與其他社會制度和其他文化;它適應這些系統本身,因為它是一項文書,上帝用來拯救人類。 It is a missionary Church -- the People of God are missionaries.這是一個傳教士的教會-在天主的子民是傳教士。 They seek that union with God which is true holiness; they are the instruments through whom God unites and sanctifies mankind.他們要求該聯盟與上帝是如此聖潔,他們通過他們的文書上帝人類團結和認可。

4. 4 。 The Catholic Church professes that it is the one, holy catholic and apostolic Church of Christ; this it does not and could not deny.天主教會聲稱,這是一個,羅馬天主教和基督的使徒教會,這不並不能否認。 But in its Constitution the Church now solemnly acknowledges that the Holy Ghost is truly active in the churches and communities separated from itself.但在其憲法中莊嚴現在教會承認,聖靈是真正活躍在教會和社區分開本身。 To these other Christian Churches the Catholic Church is bound in many ways: through reverence for God's word in the Scriptures; through the fact of baptism; through other sacraments which they recognize.這些其他基督教,天主教會必將在許多方面:通過敬畏上帝的詞在聖經;通過事實洗禮;通過其他聖禮他們承認。

5. 5 。 The non-Christian may not be blamed for his ignorance of Christ and his Church; salvation is open to him also, if he seeks God sincerely and if he follows the commands of his conscience, for through this means the Holy Ghost acts upon all men; this divine action is not confined within the limited boundaries of the visible Church.非基督教不得歸咎於他的無知是耶穌和他的教會;救恩是開放給他還,如果他真誠地尋求上帝,如果他如下的命令,他的良知,為通過這意味著聖靈行為籲請所有男人這神聖的行動不僅限於在有限的邊界可見教會。

6. 6 。 The Constitution then turns to the structure of the hierarchy which Christ established in his Church.憲法然後輪流的結構層次基督建立在他的教會。 It uses the word "college" in the sense of a unified, corporate body of men (just as cardinals are said to belong to a "sacred college").它使用“大學”意義上的統一,法人團體的男子(正如紅雀據說屬於一個“神聖的大學” ) 。 Christ formed his Apostles "after the manner of a college," and over this college he placed Peter, whom he had chosen from their midst.形成了基督使徒“的方式後,大學” ,並在這個學院,他把彼得,他選擇了從他們中間。 The mission which Christ entrusted to the Apostles must last until the end of the world; accordingly the Apostles chose others to succeed them.基督的使命託付給使徒必須月底為止的世界;因此使徒選擇其他接替他們。 It is therefore by divine institution that bishops have succeeded the Apostles.因此,由神聖的機構,已成功主教的宗徒。 The college or body of bishops, however, has authority together with the Pope as its head.學院或機構的主教,不過,當局與教宗作為其頭部。 The Pope is the foundation of unity, of bishops as well as of the Faithful; so that supreme authority can be exercised by the college of bishops only in union with the Pope and with his consent.教宗的基礎是團結,主教以及信徒;使最高權力機構可以行使學院主教只有在聯盟與教宗和他的同意。

7. 7 。 Bishops give to other individuals a share in the ministry.主教給其他個人分擔部。 Priests and bishops are united in the priestly office.司鐸和主教是聯合國在祭司辦公室。 At a lower level is the hierarchy are deacons.在一個較低的水平是層次執事。 When regional conference of bishops deem it necessary--and when the Pope consents--bishops can confer the diaconate upon men of mature years, even if these men are married.當區域會議的主教們認為有必要-當教皇同意-主教可以賦予diaconate成熟後,男子年,即使這些人已經結婚。

In the third session of the Council, practical applications of the principle of collegiality were left over to await discussion in the draft scheme concerning bishops.在第三次會議的理事會,實際應用的原則,集體被留下來,等待討論計劃草案中關於主教。 These practical applications affect such problems as the division of dioceses and the powers to be used by episcopal conferences.這些實際應用的影響等問題,該司的教區和權力使用的主教會議。 Another important problem, related to the principle that the bishops and the Pope together form a "college," is the establishment of a central advisory council of bishops.另一個重要的問題,有關的原則,主教和教皇一起形成了“學院” ,是建立一個中央顧問委員會的主教。 The form which this advisory council takes is likely to resemble a "cabinet" in a civil state, in which the president or prime minister chooses a group of ministers and advisers.形式此諮詢理事會很可能類似於一個“內閣”在民事國家,其中立法會主席或總理選擇了一批部長和顧問。 When Pope Paul VI, in February 1965, created many new cardinals and greatly increased the number in the "Sacred College" of cardinals, he spoke of the great importance of this senate of the Church.當教皇保羅六世1965年2月,創造了許多新的樞機主教,並大大增加了在“神聖的大學”的樞機主教,他說,非常重視這一參議院的教會。 Since each cardinal is consecrated bishop (if he is not already a bishop), and since the College of Cardinals includes representatives from every part of the world, it seems to many observers that the cardinals themselves will form the "central advisory council," in which the collegiate responsibility of the bishops will be expressed.由於每個樞機主教是神聖的(如果他不是已經主教) ,並自樞機主教包括來自世界每一個地方,似乎許多觀察家認為,紅雀自己將成為“中央顧問委員會” ,在該學院負責將主教表示。

The Holy See has also continued the work of "reforming" the roman Curia, adapting its structure and activities to bring it into harmony with the needs of modern times and including among its officials a greater proportion of non-Italians.羅馬教廷還繼續工作的“改革”羅馬教廷,調整其結構和活動,使之和諧的需要,包括現代和官員之間的更大比例的非意大利人。 An important instance of this reform is in the Holy Office, which now includes bishops of dioceses in France and in the United States.一個重要的實例,這種改革是在羅馬辦公室,現在包括教區主教在法國和美國。

The Decree On The Eastern Churches法令東方教會

At the close of the third session, the Vatican Council gave overwhelming approval to the Decree on the Eastern Churches.在結束的第三屆會議,梵蒂岡理事會批准了壓倒性的法令東方教會。

1. 1 。 The Catholic Church reveres these Eastern Churches, which are "living witnesses to the tradition which has been handed down from the apostles through the Fathers."天主教教會reveres這些東方教會,這是“活著的證人的傳統一直流傳下來的使徒的父親。 ” The whole Church of Christ is made up of a number of particular Churches or rites; many of these Eastern Churches are joined in full communion with the Apostolic See.整個教會的基督是由一些特別的教會或儀式;許多東方教會的加入完全共融的使徒見。

2. 2 。 The traditions of each Church should be preserved intact, while adapting itself to the different necessities of time and place.傳統的每一個教會應當保存完好,同時使自己適應不同需要的時間和地點。 Each Church has the duty and the right to govern itself according to its traditional discipline.每個教堂都有義務,並有權管理自己根據其傳統的紀律。 In each Church the rights and privileges of patriarchs must be preserved and, where necessary, restored.在每一個教會的權利和特權,始祖必須得到維護,並在必要時恢復。 But all Churches are entrusted tot he supreme pastoral care of the Roman Pontiff as the successor of Saint Peter.但是,所有的教會委託托特他最高法院牧靈羅馬教皇的繼承的聖彼得。

3. 3 。 All Eastern Catholic Christians must follow the rite, as well as the discipline, of their respective Churches.所有東歐天主教基督教徒必須遵循的禮儀,以及紀律,各自的教會。 In many places, Catholics of different rites are intermingled.在許多地方,天主教徒的不同習俗相互交織。 in those places, priests should have faculties for hearing confession may absolve the faithful who belong to other rites.在這些地方,牧師應該院系聽證招供可免除忠實誰屬於其他儀式。 In certain circumstances Baptism and Confirmation may be administered to people of other rites, and marriages contracted between Christians of different rites may also be valid, when the marriage contract is made in the presence of a sacred minister.在某些情況下洗禮和確認可能的人管理的其他儀式,和基督教徒之間的婚姻儀式的不同也可能是有效的,當婚姻合同是在存在一個神聖的部長。 Similarly, the Council recognizes the validity of Holy Orders conferred in the Eastern Churches, and permits Catholics to receive Holy Communion and the Anointing of the Sick from priests of other rites, when the need arises and when no Catholic priest is available.同樣,安理會承認的有效性,在神聖的命令授予東方教會,並允許天主教徒接受聖餐和輔之以抹病人從其他儀式的祭司,在有需要時,並沒有天主教神父時可用。 These permissions express the desire of the Catholic Church to promote union with the Eastern churches which are separated from Catholic unity.這些權限表達的願望,天主教會,以促進歐盟與東歐的教堂是脫離天主教團結。

The importance which the Holy See attaches to the Eastern Churches, and the great desire for reunion, were evident throughout the sessions of the Council.重視教廷重視東方教會,偉大的渴望團聚,是顯而易見的整個理事會會議。 Apart from the Greek Orthodox Church, all the separated Eastern Churches sent observers to the Council.除了希臘東正教,所有失散東方教會派觀察員出席了安理會。 Patriarchs of Eastern Catholic Churches were given a special place of honour, and some took a prominent part in Council debates.始祖東天主教會得到一個特殊的地方的榮譽,並採取了一些突出的部分在安理會辯論。 The Consistory held in February 1965 for the creation of new cardinals, raised the number of cardinals of Eastern rites to six.舉行的一致性在1965年2月成立新的紅雀,提出了一些紅雀東儀式6 。 The Eastern patriarchs ranks as cardinal bishops.排名東部始祖為樞機主教。

Unlike other cardinals, they are not allotted titular churches in Rome, nor are they given titular sees in the province of Rome; instead, they retain the title of their patriarchal sees.與其他樞機主教,他們沒有分配領銜教堂在羅馬,也不是給領銜看到省的羅馬,而是保留的標題,看到他們的重男輕女。 This compromise has not been welcomed by every Eastern Catholic; for, in the hierarchy of the Church, a patriarch possesses the highest authority, to which the cardinalate can add nothing.這沒有妥協的歡迎每一個東歐天主教;的,層次結構中的教堂,主教擁有最高權威,這是紅衣主教可以添加什麼。

Similarly, the decree on the Eastern Churches has been criticized on the grounds that, while it is ostensibly addressed to the Churches which are in full communion with the Holy See, in reality it is directed to the Orthodox Churches whose members consider that the Eastern catholic Churches are obstacles to reunion.同樣,這項法令對東方教會了批評,理由是,雖然表面上給教會這是完全與聖座共融,但在現實中它是向東正教會的成員認為,東歐天主教教會障礙團聚。

The Decree On Ecuminism法令Ecuminism

Over the centuries differences between Christians have led to profound divisions, but modern times have seen a great movement towards unity; and the decree begins by saying, "Christ the Lord founded one Church and one Church only. One of the principal concerns of this Council is the restoration of unity among all Christians."千百年來,一直有基督徒之間的差異導致了深刻的分歧,但現代的時代已經看到了一個偉大的走向團結;和法令開始,他說: “基督上帝成立一個教會和教會只有一個。關注的主要問題之一,本局是恢復所有基督徒之間的團結。 “

1. 1 。 All who have been "justified by faith in baptism" are members of the Body of Christ; they all have the right to be called Christian; the children of the Catholic Church accept them as brothers.所有誰是“有道理的信念洗禮”的成員,基督的身體,他們都有權被稱為基督教;兒童的天主教教會接受他們成為兄弟。

2. 2 。 The Catholic Church believes that the separated Churches and communities "are efficient in some respects."天主教會認為,分離教會和社區“是有效率在某些方面。 ” But the Holy Ghost makes use of these Churches; they are means of salvation to their members.但是,聖靈利用這些教會,他們的手段拯救他們的成員。

3. 3 。 Catholics are encouraged to join in Oecumenical activity, and to meet non-Catholic Christians in truth and love.天主教徒鼓勵參加Oecumenical活動,以滿足非天主教基督教徒在真理和愛。 The task of "Oecumenical dialogue" belongs to theologians, competent authorities representing different Churches.其任務是“ Oecumenical對話”屬於神學,主管部門代表著不同的教會。

4. 4 。 Catholics should not ignore their duty to other Christians --- they should make the first approach.天主教徒不應忽視它們有義務其他基督徒---他們應該使第一種辦法。 Even so, the primary duty of the Church at the present time is to discover what must be done within the catholic Church itself; to renew itself, to put its own house in order.即使如此,首要責任是教會目前是發現必須做什麼的天主教會本身;革新自己,把自己的房子,以便。 Catholics sincerely believe that theirs is the Church of Christ; everything necessary must be done that others also may clearly recognize it as Christ's Church.天主教會真誠地相信,他們是基督教會;一切必要必須做,其他人也可以清楚地認識到它是基督的教會。

5. 5 。 The ecumenical movement can make no progress without a real change of heart.普世運動可以使沒有任何進展的真正改變了主意。 Theologians and other competent Catholics should study the history, teaching and liturgy of separated Churches.神學家和其他主管天主教徒應該研究的歷史,教學和禮儀失散教會。 All Christians have a common purpose -- to confess Christ before men.所有基督徒都有一個共同的目的-承認基督面前男子。 Practical expression must be given to this, by relieving the distress which afflicts so many of the human race: famine, poverty, illiteracy, the unequal distribution of wealth, housing shortage.實際表現必須考慮到這一點,以減輕痛苦的折磨著如此眾多的人類:飢荒,貧困,文盲,財富分配不均,住房短缺。

6. 6 。 In appropriate circumstances prayers for unity should be recited jointly with non-Catholic Christians.在適當的情況下祈禱應團結共同朗誦非天主教基督教徒。 Catholics are to be directed in this by their bishops, subject to the decisions of the Holy see.天主教徒要針對這一點,他們的主教,但須以決定羅馬教廷。

7. 7 。 Between the catholic Church and Western non-Catholic Christian communities, important differences remain; these differences are most evident in the interpretation of truth revealed by God.之間的天主教會和西方非天主教基督教社區,重要的分歧依然存在;這些分歧最為明顯的解釋所揭示的真理的上帝。 But the bonds of unity are already strong; their strength must be put to use.但是,債券的團結已經有力;其強度必須投入使用。 The bonds are, chiefly, the fact that Christians believe in the divinity of Christ and the fact of reverence for God's word revealed in the Bible.該債券,主要是,一個事實,即基督徒相信基督的神的事實敬畏上帝的字顯示的聖經。

8. 8 。 In the cause of ecumenism, the Catholic must always remain true to the Faith that he has received.事業的合一,天主教必須始終保持真正的信仰,他已收到。 Impudent zeal in this matter is a hindrance to unity and not a help.放肆的熱情,在此問題上的障礙,而不是一個統一的幫助。 So also is any attempt to achieve a merely superficial unity.所以也是任何企圖實現只是表面上的團結。

Other Problems其他問題

By the close of the third session, in November of 1964, the Council had voted in favour of two Constitutions and three Decrees.會議結束的第三屆會議, 1964年11月,安理會投了贊成票,兩個憲法和三項法令。 The Constitutions were those dealing with the liturgy and with the Church; the Decrees were on Oecumenism, on the Eastern Churches, and on "Means of Communication" (dealing with modern mass media, such as the Press, cinema, radio and television; this Decree was generally regarded as excessively clerical, abstract and unworthy of its important subject).憲法是那些涉及禮儀和教會的法令,對Oecumenism ,關於東方教會,並在“通信手段” (處理現代大眾傳播媒介,如新聞,電影,廣播和電視;這令,通常被視為過於文書,摘要和不配其重要議題) 。

Of the schemata outstanding at the end of the third session, the principal ones were those dealing with priests and seminaries, religious, the missions, the "pastoral duties of bishops," Divine revelation, and "the Church and the Modern World."優秀的模式在第三屆會議結束時,主要的是那些涉及牧師和神學院,宗教,任務中, “牧區義務主教, ”神的啟示,和“教會與現代世界的挑戰。 ” Intensive and prolonged drafting, debating, amending, further debating followed by further amending, have marked the path of each of these topics.密集和長期的起草,討論,修改,進一步討論之後,進一步修改,有顯著的道路,每一個主題。 They have also manifested the will of the Council that everything possible must be done to make this the Council of renewal in the Church.他們還表現的意願,安理會必須盡一切可能使這一安理會延長在教會。

Among the outstanding topics, those contained in Schema 13 command the greatest interest.在懸而未決的議題,載於13日命令模式的最大利益。 For this is the schema on the Church in the modern world.因為這是架構上的教會在現代世界。 The Council must show that in its debates it is not moving on the abstract plane; the Church is in this world, committed to it by a divine commission.安理會必須表明,在其辯論這不是移動的抽象平面;教會是在這個世界上,致力於通過一項神聖委員會。 Of all the topics discussed, probably none has been more widely awaited.所有討論的議題,很可能一個也沒有得到更廣泛的期待。 No schema has passed through more stages, none has suffered greater amendment.沒有架構已通過更多的階段,沒有遭受更大的修正案。 This schema is entrusted to two commissions working together -- the Commission for Theology and the Commission for the Lay Apostolate.此架構是委託給這兩個委員會一起工作-神學委員會和委員會的萊傳教。 In February 1965 the revised text (that is, the text in its fourth form) was examined by the mixed commission, and a further meeting was to be held before the text was to be sent to the bishops. 1965年2月修訂後的案文(即在其第四次文的形式)審查了混合委員會,並進一步會議之前舉行的案文送交主教。 In this text there are stated the questions and problems that the modern world puts to the Church, and the fields in which it seeks the Church's co-operation.在這一案文有問題,並指出問題,提出了現代世界的教會,並在該領域它試圖教會的合作。 Then the text outlines the things on which the Church is competent to pronounce, while a brief analysis of history shows how mistakes have been made in the past when the Church became involved in political systems.然後案文概述了的事情,這教會是主管發音,同時簡要分析了歷史表明,錯誤已在過去教會成為參與的政治制度。 Under the headings of anthropology, sociology and cosmology, the text then details the attitude of the Church to the modern world.項下的人類學,社會學和宇宙學,然後在文字細節的態度,教會在現代世界。

The extreme complexity of these problems is shown by the fact that seven distinct sub-committees are at work.的極端複雜性這些問題所表現出的事實, 7個不同的小組委員會的工作。 These sub-committees deal with這些小組委員會處理
(a) the basis in theology; (一)在神學的基礎;
(b) the general manner of presentation; ( b )在一般的方式表述;
(c) the question of man's presence in society; ( c )該問題的人在社會中的存在;
(d) marriage; (四)結婚;
(e) social and economic questions; ( e )社會和經濟問題;
(f) peace and war -- including nuclear war and disarmament; and finally ( F )的和平與戰爭-包括核戰爭與裁軍;和最後
(g) questions of modern culture. ( g )項問題的現代文化。

During the third session, many other important issues were raised.第三屆會議期間,許多其他重要問題提出。 Among them were the declaration on religious liberty, and a further declaration concerning those who are not Christians (including a declaration on those who belong to the Jewish faith).其中宣言的宗教自由,以及關於進一步聲明這些誰不是基督徒(包括一項聲明對這些誰屬於猶太信仰) 。

These declarations were returned for further revision, and action for approval was postponed until the fourth session.這些聲明被退回的進一步修訂,並採取行動批准推遲到第四次會議。

The question of mixed marriages was also raised (that is, marriages contracted between Catholic and non-Catholic Christians).問題的通婚也提出(即婚姻關係天主教和非天主教基督教徒) 。 The Council Fathers decided to submit this question to the Pope for a ruling, and expressed the hope that this ruling would be given in advance of the promulgation of the reform in Canon Law.安理會決定向父親,就此問題向教宗作出裁決,並表示希望這一裁決將考慮提前頒布了改革佳能法。 While the general question of marriage is included in the schema on the Church in the modern world, Pope Paul VI has reserved to himself the decision as to whether any change should be made in the teaching of Pope Pius XI (which was repeated by his successor, Pope Pius XII) concerning means of birth control.雖然一般的婚姻問題已被列入架構對教會在現代世界中,教皇保羅六世保留自己決定是否有任何改變應在教學中的教宗碧岳十一(這是重複了他的繼任者教宗碧岳十二)關於節育的手段。 Pope Paul enlisted aid from distinguished theologians and doctors to assist him in forming his judgement on this question.教皇保羅爭取援助傑出的神學家和醫生,協助他在形成自己的判斷這個問題。


The fourth and last session of the Council opened September 14th, 1965, and closed December 8th.第四次和最後一次會議,理事會開幕1965年9月14日和12月8日關閉。 By far the most active of the sessions, it issued two constitutions迄今為止,最活躍的會議,它發出兩個憲法
(divine revelation, modern problems of the Church), (神的啟示,現代問題的教會) ,
six decrees 6法令
(duties of bishops, seminaries, life of religious, apostolate of the laity, priestly life, missions), (義務的主教,神學院,生命的宗教,牧靈的俗人,司鐸的生活,特派團) ,
and three declarations三聲明
(the Church and non-Christian religions, Christian education, religious liberty). (教會和非基督宗教,基督教教育,宗教的自由) 。

The Council witnessed a dramatic demonstration of ecumenism on December 7th, when Pope Paul and the Orthodox Patriarch Athenagoras I formally expressed their regret for the mutual excommunications pronounced by their predecessors.安理會目睹了巨大的示範合一於12月7日,當教皇保羅和東正教主教那哥拉我正式表示遺憾相互excommunications宣布他們的前輩。 Pope Leo IX and Patriarch Cerularius, in 1054.教皇利奧九和牧瑟如拉留,在1054年。

The documentary work of the Council, the fruit of laborious committee study, many preliminary versions, and countless revisions, is represented by sixteen final drafts, as follows:該紀錄片工作委員會,委員會水果的艱苦研究,許多初步的版本,和無數的修訂,是由16最後草案,內容如下:

Four Constitutions四部憲法

"On the Sacred Liturgy" (Dec. 4, 1963), “的神聖禮儀” ( 12月4日, 1963年) ,
"On the Church" (Nov. 21, 1964), “教堂” ( 11月21日, 1964 ) ,
"Divine Revelation" (Nov. 18th, 1965) and “天啟” ( 11月18日, 1965年)和
"the Church in the Modern World" (Dec. 7, 1965) “教會在現代世界” ( 12月7日, 1965年)

Nine Decrees 9法令

"The Instruments of Social Communication" (Dec. 4, 1963), “文書的社會傳播” ( 12月4日, 1963年) ,
"Ecumenism" (Nov. 21, 1964), “普世” ( 11月21日, 1964 ) ,
"The Eastern Catholic Churches" (Nov. 21, 1964), “東方教會的大主教們” ( 11月21日, 1964 ) ,
"The Pastoral Duty of Bishops," (Oct. 18, 1965), “牧區主教的職責, ” ( 10月18日, 1965年) ,
"On Priestly Formation" (Oct. 28, 1965), “在祭司的形成” ( 10月28日, 1965年) ,
"On the Apostolate of the Laity" (Nov. 18, 1965), “在傳教的萊提” ( 11月18日, 1965年) ,
"On the Ministry and the Priestly Life" (Dec. 7, 1965), “在該部和祭司生活” ( 12月7日, 1965年) ,
"On the Missionary Activity of the Church" (Dec. 7, 1965), and他說: “傳教活動的教會” ( 12月7日, 1965年) ,和

Three Declarations三聲明

"On the Relationship ofthe Church to non-Christian Religions" (Oct. 26, 1965), “的關係之教會對非基督宗教” ( 10月26日, 1965年) ,
"On ChristianEducation" (Oct. 28, 1965) and “論ChristianEducation ” ( 10月28日, 1965年)和
"On Religious Freedom" (Dec. 7, 1965). “宗教信仰自由” ( 12月7日, 1965年) 。

Also, see:此外,見:
Ecumenical Councils 基督教理事會

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