Adoption (Religious)領養(宗教)

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Adoption is the giving to any one the name and place and privileges of a son who is not a son by birth.收養是給任何一個的名稱,地點和權限的一個兒子出生的兒子是誰。 (1.) Natural. (1)自然。 Thus Pharaoh's daughter adopted Moses (Ex. 2:10), and Mordecai Esther (Esther 2:7).因此,法老的女兒通過摩西(出埃及記2:10)和末底改,以斯帖記(以斯帖記2:7)。 (2.) National. (2)國家。 God adopted Israel (Ex. 4:22; Deut. 7:6; Hos. 11:1; Rom. 9:4).神通過以色列(出埃及記4:22;申命記7:6;何西阿11:1;羅馬書9:4)。 (3.) Spiritual. (3) 精神。 An act of God's grace by which he brings men into the number of his redeemed family, and makes them partakers of all the blessings he has provided for them. Adoption represents the new relations into which the believer is introduced by justification, and the privileges connected therewith, viz., an interest in God's peculiar love (John 17:23; Rom. 5:5-8), a spiritual nature (2 Pet. 1:4; John 1:13), the possession of a spirit becoming children of God (1 Pet. 1:14; 2 John 4; Rom. 8:15-21; Gal. 5:1; Heb. 2:15), present protection, consolation, supplies (Luke 12:27-32; John 14:18; 1 Cor. 3:21-23; 2 Cor. 1:4), fatherly chastisements (Heb. 12:5-11), and a future glorious inheritance (Rom. 8:17,23; James 2:5; Phil. 3:21). 一個法神的恩典,由他帶來的人到他的贖回家庭的數量,並使得他們的所有的祝福,他已提供了為他們有分。採納代表的新關係到其中的信徒,是引進的理由,和連接的權限於是,即在上帝的特殊的愛(約翰福音17:23,羅5:5-8),有興趣,精神性(彼後1:4;約翰福音1:13),擁有的精神成為兒童的神(彼前1:14;約翰二書4;羅馬書8:15-21,加拉太書5:1;希伯來書2:15),目前的保護,安慰,用品(路加福音12:27-32;約翰14:18;哥林多前書3:21-23;哥林多後書1:4),慈父般的責備(希伯來書12:5-11),和未來的光榮繼承(羅8:17,23;詹姆斯2: 5,腓立比書3:21)。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (伊斯頓畫報字典)

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Adoption (Religious)領養(宗教)

Advanced Information 先進的信息

A relatively infrequent term in the Scriptures, "adoption" is of theological importance, for it relates to how Israel and the Christian may be "sons" and "heirs" of God although they are not uniquely or by nature so, as in the case of Christ.一種比較罕見的術語在“聖經”,“收養”是神學的重要性,因為它涉及到以色列和基督教是“兒子”和“繼承者”的神,雖然他們不是唯一或性質的情況下,基督。

In the OT在OT

The term "adoption" does not appear in the OT. “領養”一詞沒有出現在OT。 There are no provisions for adoption in Israelite law, and the examples which do occur come from outside the Israelite culture (Eliezer, Gen. 15:1-4; Moses, Exod. 2:10; Genubath, 1 Kings 11:20; Esther, Esth. 2:7, 15).有沒有通過在以色列的法律,規定和例子,不發生來自以色列的文化外(創15:1-4;摩西出埃及記2:10; Genubath,1國王11:20;埃絲特·埃利澤, ESTH。2:7,15)。 For the Israelites polygamy and levirate marriage were the more common solutions to infertility.對於以色列人一夫多妻制,娶寡嫂不孕不育比較常見的解決方案。 Yet adoption was not unknown in their literature (cf. Prov. 17:2; 19:10; 29:21, which may all refer to adoption of slaves), and it may have been the means by which children fathered by a master on a slave mother inherited property (Gen. 16:1-4; 21:1-10; 30:1-13).然而,通過在他們的文學並不陌生(參箴17:2; 19:10; 29:21,這可能採用的奴隸),它可能一直是這孩子的父親由一個主一個奴隸的母親繼承的財產(創16:1-4; 21:1-10 30:1-13)。 Outside of Israel adoption was common enough to be regulated in the law codes of Babylon (eg, Hammurabi's Code, sect. 185-86), Nuzi, and Ugarit.以色列之外的採用是常見的,在巴比倫的法律加以規範(例如,漢謨拉比的代碼,節185-86),努奇,烏加里特。 Not infrequently these refer to the adoption of a slave as an heir.這些不經常通過的奴隸作為繼承人。

For Israel as a whole there was a consciousness of having been chosen by God as his "son" (Hos. 11:1; Isa. 1:2; Jer. 3:19).對於以色列作為一個整體的意識已被神所揀選為自己的“兒子”(何西阿書11:1,以賽亞書1:2;耶利米書3:19)。 Since Israel had no myth of descent from the gods as the surrounding cultures did, adoption was the obvious category into which this act, as well as the deliverance from slavery in Egypt, would fit, as Paul indicates in Rom.由於以色列沒有下降神話的神周圍的文化,收養是顯而易見的類別到這樣的行為,以及拯救從埃及的奴役中,將適合,因為保羅表示在ROM中。 9:4. 9:4。 Likewise the kings succeeding David were God's "son" (II Sam. 7:14; I Chr. 28:6; Ps. 89:19).同樣,接替大衛國王是神的“兒子”(二,三7:14,我代上28:6;詩89:19)。 Ps.詩。 2:7, eg, uses "You are my son," which is probably the adoption formula used in the enthronement ceremony of each successive Davidic ruler. 2:7,例如,使用“你是我的兒子,”這可能是通過公式中使用的每個連續的大衛統治者的坐床典禮。 Together these ideas laid the basis for later NT usage of adoption imagery.這些思想結合起來,通過圖像後用NT的使用奠定了基礎。

In the NT在NT

In the NT the term "adoption" (huiothesia) is strictly a Pauline idea, occurring only in Rom.在NT“領養”(huiothesia)的嚴格意義上的寶蓮的想法,只發生在羅。 8:15, 23; 9:4; Gal. 8時15分,23歲; 9:4;加侖。 4:5; and Eph. 4:5;弗。 1:5. 1:5。 While John and Peter prefer the picture of regeneration to portray the Christian sonship, Paul has characteristically chosen a legal image (as in justification), perhaps due to his contact with the Roman world.雖然約翰和彼得喜歡的圖片再生描繪的基督教兒子的名分,保羅特徵選擇的法律圖像(理由),也許是因為他所接觸的羅馬世界。

In Greek and Roman society adoption was, at least among the upper classes, a relatively common practice.在希臘和羅馬社會採用,至少在上層階級,一個比較普遍的做法。 Unlike the oriental cultures in which slaves were sometimes adopted, these people normally limited adoption to free citizens.東方文化中,奴隸們有時採用不同的是,這些人通常僅限於通過自由公民。 But, at least in Roman law, the citizen so adopted became a virtual slave, for he came under the paternal authority of his adoptive father.但是,至少在羅馬法中,所以通過公民成為一個虛擬的奴隸,他受到父親的權威,他的養父。 Adoption conferred rights, but it came with a list of duties as well.採用賦予的權利,但它的職責,以及附帶的列表。

Paul combines several of these pictures in his thought.保羅結合這些圖片在他的思想。 While Gal.而GAL。 4 begins with a picture of the law enslaving the heirs until a given date (eg, majority or the death of the father), there is a shift in vs. 4 to the adoption image in which one who was truly a slave (not a minor as in vss. 1-3) becomes a son and thus an heir through redemption. 4開始的法律奴役的繼承人,直到一個給定的日期(例如,多數或死亡的父親)的照片,有一個轉變,比4通過圖像,其中一人是一個真正的奴隸(而不是未成年人在VSS。1-3)變成一個兒子和繼承人通過贖回。 The former slave, empowered by the Spirit, now uses the address of a son, "Abba! Father!"前奴隸,聖靈授權的兒子,現在使用的地址:“阿爸,父!”

The reason for adoption is given in Eph.採納的原因,是在弗。 1:5: God's love. 1:5:神的愛。 It was not due to his nature or merit that the Christian was adopted (and thus receives the Spirit and the inheritance, Eph. 1:14-15), but to God's will acting through Christ.這是不是因為他的本性或優點,基督教是通過(並因此領受了聖靈的繼承,弗1:14-15),但神的旨意透過基督。 Adoption is a free grant to undeserving people solely from God's grace.收養是一個免費的撥款,以完全不值得的人從神的恩典。

As in Galatians and Ephesians, adoption is connected to the Spirit in Romans as well.在加拉太書和以弗所書,通過連接以及在羅馬的精神。 It is those who are "led by the Spirit" who are sons, who have received the "spirit of sonship," not that of slavery (Rom. 8:14-15).這是誰是“本著”誰是兒子,誰獲得了“精神的sonship的帶領下,”不,奴役(羅8:14-15)。 Again the Spirit produces the cry "Abba!"同樣的精神生產的呼聲:“阿爸!” and indicates by his presence the reality of the coming inheritance.並表示他的存在的現實來繼承。

Adoption, however, is not entirely a past event.採納,但是,不完全是過去的事件。 The legal declaration may have been made, and the Spirit may have been given as a down payment, but the consummation of the adoption awaits the future, for the adoption of sons includes "the redemption of our bodies" (Rom. 8:23).法律聲明,精神可能已經作為首付,但通過完善的等待著兒子的名分未來,包括我們的身體“贖回”(羅8:23) 。 Thus adoption is something hoped for as well as something already possessed.因此,採納以及已經擁有的東西是什麼希望。

Adoption, then, is deliverance from the past (similar to regeneration and justification), a status and way of life in the present (walking by the Spirit, sanctification), and a hope for the future (salvation, resurrection).採用的話,是救我們從過去的(類似的再生和理由),在目前的生活狀態和方式(步行的精神,成聖),和對未來的希望(救恩,復活)。 It describes the process of becoming a son of God (cf. John 1:12; 1 John 3:1-2) and receiving an inheritance from God (cf. Col. 3:24).它描述的過程中,成為神(參見約翰福音1:12的兒子約翰一書3:1-2)和繼承神(參見歌羅西書3:24)。

PH Davids PH戴維斯
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 參考書目
JI Cook, "The Concept of Adoption in the Theology of Paul," in Saved by Hope, ed.姬庫克,在保羅的神學“的理念,採用”中保存的希望,編輯。 JI Cook; F. Lyall, "Roman Law in the Writings of Paul, Adoption," JBL 88:458-66; LH Marshall, The Challenge of NT Ethics; W. v. Martitz and E. Schweizer, TDNT, VIII, 397-99; WH Rossell, "New Testament Adoption, Graeco-Roman or Semitic?" JI庫克F.萊爾,保羅,通過寫作中的羅馬法“,”JBL 88:458-66,LH馬歇爾,NT倫理的挑戰,TDNT W.五Martitz和E.施魏策爾,VIII,397 -99,希臘羅馬,“新約全書採用WH羅塞爾或猶太人嗎?” JBL 71:233-34; DJ Theron, "Adoption' in the Pauline Corpus," EvQ 28:6-14; J. van Seters, "The Problem of Childlessness in Near Eastern Law and the Patriarchs of Israel," JBL 87:401-8. JBL 71:233-34“DJ·塞隆,”收養法“的寶蓮語料庫”,EVQ 28:6-14; J.麵包車Seters,“無子女在近東法和以色列的始祖,”JBL 87的問題: 401-8。

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