Biblical Archaeology聖經考古學

General Information 一般資料

The term biblical archaeology refers to archaeological investigations that serve to clarify, enlighten, and enhance the biblical record.聖經考古學是指考古調查服務,以澄清,光照,並加強聖經記錄。 Its development, from the 19th century, has been largely tied to the history of research and excavation in ancient Palestine.從19世紀,它的發展,在很大程度上依賴於巴勒斯坦古代歷史的研究和發掘。

The American clergyman and biblical scholar Edward Robinson played a fundamental role in recognizing that an acquaintance with the Holy Land was essential to an understanding of biblical literature.美國牧師,聖經學者愛德華羅賓遜發揮了重要作用,認識到一個熟人與聖地是必不可少的了解聖經文學。 After traveling in Sinai and Palestine, he published Biblical Researches in Palestine (1841), which inspired many other scholars to follow his lead.在西奈半島和巴勒斯坦後,巴勒斯坦(1841年),它激勵著許多其他學者來追隨他的帶動下,他發表了研究聖經。 The British founded the Palestine Exploration Fund (PEF) in 1865, and in 1867 the first PEF expedition was sent to Jerusalem to search for specific biblical sites, among them the location of Solomon's temple.英國於1865年創立了巴勒斯坦勘探基金(PEF),並在1867年首次最大呼氣流速加快送往耶路撒冷去尋找聖經中的具體地點,其中包括所羅門聖殿的位置。

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Pioneering excavations were undertaken in 1890 by Flinders Petrie at Tell el-Hesi, 26 km (16 mi) east of Gaza.創業的發掘分別在1890年由弗林德斯特里在告訴EL-河西,26公里(16英里)處的加沙。 His development of a relative scale of dating based on changes in pottery at successive levels of excavation was of immense importance for biblical archaeology, since sites in Palestine have yielded relatively few historical monuments or records.聖經考古學是極為重要的,因為他開發的一種相對​​規模的基礎上,陶器,在歷屆層次的挖掘約會地點在巴勒斯坦取得了幾個歷史古蹟或記錄。 A notable exception is the site of Qumran on the Dead Sea, where the first of the important Hebrew and Aramaic manuscripts known as the Dead Sea Scrolls were discovered (1947).一個顯著的例外是該網站的庫姆蘭死海,其中的第一個重要的希伯來文和阿拉姆語的手稿被稱為死海古卷被發現(1947年)。

By the early 1900s, American, German, and French archaeological teams also began excavations in Palestine, directed primarily toward those cities mentioned in the Bible.到20世紀初,美國,德國和法國的考古隊也開始了挖掘工作,在巴勒斯坦,主要面向“聖經”中提到的那些城市。 Pre-World War I excavations included work at Gezer, Jericho, Megiddo, Ta'anach, Samaria, and Beth-shemesh.第一次世界大戰前,我發掘包括工作基色,傑里科,米吉多,Ta'anach,撒瑪利亞,和伯示麥。 William Foxwell Albright directed the American School of Oriental Research in Jerusalem (founded 1910) in 1920-29 and 1933-36.威廉foxwell奧爾布賴特是針對美國東方研究學院在1920年至1929年和1933年至1936年在耶路撒冷(1910年創立)。 His excavations at Tell Beit Mirsim (1926-32), supplied the framework for establishing the chronology of ancient Palestine based on ceramic typology, which is still used today with only minor changes.他的挖掘,告訴拜Mirsim(1926至1932年),供應商的框架建立時序巴勒斯坦古代陶瓷基類型,它仍然是使用的今天,只有輕微的變化。 The Palestine Department of Antiquities, established in 1918, played a major role in archaeological research until the state of Israel was formed in 1948.巴勒斯坦文物局,成立於1918年,發揮了重要作用,在考古學研究,直到以色列國成立於1948年。 Since then, Israeli archaeologists have conducted several important excavations, including Yigael Yadin's work at Hazor (1955-58 and 1968-70) and at MASADA (1963-65), Yohanon Aharoni and Ruth Amiran's work at Arad (1962-67), and Yigal Shiloh's finds at the City of David in Jerusalem (1978-85).自那時以來,以色列考古學家進行了幾項重要的發掘,包括以色列學者也雅丁的工作,在夏瑣(1955-58和1968-70)和MASADA(1963-65),Yohanon Aharoni和露絲阿米蘭的工作在阿拉德(1962-67),和yigal希洛發現在大衛城在耶路撒冷(1978-85)。

Although biblical archaeology concentrates on excavating and interpreting biblical sites, archaeological material of either the pre- or post-biblical era is often uncovered as well. ,雖然聖經考古主要集中在挖掘和詮釋聖經遺址,考古材料,無論是前或後聖經時代,往往查出為好。 For example, the excavations of the American archaeologist James Pritchard at Gibeon, in addition to revealing the rock-cut water system mentioned in 2 Samuel, produced important pottery from a Bronze Age cemetery.例如,發掘工作的​​美國考古學家詹姆斯普里查德在基遍,除了揭示了岩石切割水系統中提到的第2薩穆埃爾,產生了重要的陶器,從青銅時代墓地。 Excavation at the important biblical site of Jericho has revealed little of significance dating from later than the 2d millennium BC.挖掘中的重要聖經網站的傑里科透露一點的意義,可以追溯到從不遲二維公元前。 Its remains from 6 millennia earlier, however, show a large walled city that is the oldest known settlement in the world.然而,它仍然是由6幾千年來比較一個帶圍牆的大的城市,是在世界上已知最古老的結算。

An important function of biblical archaeology has been to describe a setting in which the stories of the Old and New Testaments achieve a new and vivid meaning.聖經考古學的一個重要的功能,一直是形容一個設置在其中的舊約和新約的故事,達到一個新的,生動的意義。 Inevitably, however, more problems have been discovered than have been resolved.不可避免的,但是,更多的問題被發現比也得到了解決。 The question of the nature and date of the Exodus and the manner of the conquest of Palestine by the Israelites is still open to debate, despite the large number of excavated sites.的征服巴勒斯坦的以色列人出埃及記和方式的性質和日期的問題仍然是開放的辯論,儘管有大量的出土地點。 Since the Israelites left no characteristic artifacts during the early years of their settlement, it is virtually impossible to determine whether the destruction of a site in the 13th century BC was the work of the Israelites or the Egyptians.因為以色列人沒有留下任何特徵的文物,其解決在最初幾年,幾乎是不可能的,以確定是否銷毀工作的以色列人或埃及人在公元前13世紀的網站。 Sometimes the archaeological evidence seems to contradict the biblical record.有時,考古證據似乎違背了聖經的記錄。 Thus, although the city of Ai is recorded as having been captured by Joshua, no remains dating from the appropriate period were found during its excavation, which suggests that the site was unoccupied at the time of the supposed conquest.因此,雖然該市的愛已抓獲約書亞記錄,沒有適當時期的歷史文物中發現的挖掘,這表明該網站是在無人居住的時候,應該征服。

Jonathan N. Tubb喬納森·N. TUBB

Bibliography: Dever, William G., Archaeology and Biblical Studies (1974); Kenyon, Kathleen M., Archaeology in the Holy Land, 4th ed.參考書目:德弗,考古學與聖經研究(1974年),威廉·凱尼恩,凱瑟琳米,考古聖地,第4版。 (1979); Negev, Avrahem, ed., Archaeological Encyclopedia of the Holy Land (1974; repr. 1980); Millard, AR, Treasures from Bible Times (1985); Paul, Shalom, and Dever, William, eds., Biblical Archaeology (1973); Thomas, Winton D., Archaeology and Old Testament Study (1967); Wright, G. Ernest, Biblical Archaeology, rev. (1979年),內蓋夫,avrahem,版,考古百科全書的聖地(1974年再版,1980); Millard法,氬,從聖經時代(1985年),保羅·沙洛姆,並dever,威廉,EDS的寶藏,聖經考古學(1973年),托馬斯,考古與舊約研究(1967年),運通泰D.萊特,G.歐內斯特,聖經考古學,轉。 ed.編輯。 (1963). (1963)。

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