Authority in the Bible在“聖經”的權力

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Authority is the concept of rightful power.管理局是合法權力的概念。 It is used in the Bible with a good deal of elasticity.這是在聖經中使用了大量的彈性。 Although the English term itself is not used of God in the OT as it is in the NT (usually for exousia), the assumption permeating both testaments is that God alone is the ultimate authority and he alone the ultimate source of authority for others.雖然英文詞本身是沒有用的神在舊約是在NT(通常為exousia),假設滲透都證明了只有上帝是最終的權威和他單獨為他人權力的最終來源。

God's Authority神的權柄

His sovereign, universal, and eternal rule over the entire universe gives evidence of his authority (eg, Exod. 15:18; Job 26:12; Pss. 29:10; 47; 93:1-2; 95:3-5; 103:19; 146:10; 147:5; Isa. 40:12ff.; 50:2).他的主權,普遍的,永恆的法則,在整個宇宙賦予其權限的證據(例如,出埃及記15:18;就業26:12; PSS的。29:10; 47; 93:1-2; 95:3-5 103:19; 146:10 147:5,以賽亞書40:12 FF。50:2)。 He has fixed by his authority times or epochs (Acts. 1:7) and "does according to his will in the host of heaven and among the inhabitants of the earth" (Dan. 4:34-35).他有固定他的權威時間或時代(Acts. 1:7)和“根據他的意志在天上的萬象和居民之間的地球”(但以理書4:34-35)。 This authority over man is compared to that of a potter over his clay (Rom. 9:20-23).此人的權力相比,在他的粘土窯匠(羅9:20-23)。 So ultimate is God's authority that all authority among humans comes from God alone (Rom. 13:1).因此,最終是神的權威,那時人類之間所有的權力來自上帝單(羅馬書13:1)。 God's authority includes not only the authority of providence and history, but also the demand for submission and accountability from man, expressed, eg, in the garden of Eden, the Ten Commandments, the gospel and its evangelical demands.上帝的權威不僅是權威的普羅維登斯和歷史,但也從人的需求提交和問責制,表示,例如,在伊甸園,十誡,福音,福音派要求。 Inherent in God's authority is the awesome power to cast the one who does not fear him into hell (Luke 12:5) and the glorious power to forgive sins and declare righteous those in Christ (Rom. 3:21-26).在上帝的權威是內在的的真棒力量投誰不敬畏他到地獄(路12:5)和光榮的赦罪的權柄,並宣布公義那些在基督裡(羅3:21-26)。 In the day of God's wrath and mercy, God's rightful authority as Creator (Rev. 4:11) and Redeemer in Christ (Rev. 5:12-13) will be acknowledged in an undisputed way.在這一天,上帝的憤怒和憐憫,神的合法權威的造物主“(啟示錄4:11)在基督的救贖(啟示錄5:12-13)將得到承認,在一個不爭的方式。

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Jesus Christ's Authority耶穌基督的權威

As the God-man, the incarnate Son of God, Jesus Christ manifests his authority in a dual capacity.神人,道成肉身的神的兒子,耶穌基督體現了他的權威,具有雙重身份。 On the one hand, his authority is that of one who is the Son of God and is intrinsic to him and not derived.一方面,他的權威是一個誰是神的兒子,他是內在的,而不是派生。 On the other hand, as the incarnate Son, who is the Son of man, he acts in submission and obedience to the Father.另一方面,作為肉身的兒子,誰是人子,他在提交和服從父的行為。 So he can say in one and the same breath concerning his plans to lay down his life: "No one has taken it away from me, but I lay it down on my own initiative. I have authority to lay it down, and I have authority to take it up again," and "this commandment I received from my Father" (John 10:18).所以他可以在同一個關於他的計劃,獻出自己的生命的氣息說:“沒有人離我而去,但我把它放下我自己的,我有權柄舍了,和我有權力,好再取回來,這誡命“和”我收到了來自我的父親“(約翰福音10:18)。 But because his life as the promised Son of man is one of acting representatively for God on behalf of men as one who is also a man (cf. Dan. 7:13-14), Jesus speaks almost always of his authority in terms of acting for God the Father.但是,因為他的生活的承諾人子是其中的代表性,為代表神的男人也是男人(參見丹。7:13-14),耶穌說他的權力幾乎總是在代表上帝的父親。 In doing so he exercises all the prerogatives of God eg, forgives sins (Mark 2:5-8), heals (Mark 1:34), exorcises demons (Mark 1:27), controls the power of nature (Luke 8:24-25), raises the dead (Luke 7:11-17; John 11:38-44), teaches with authority (Matt. 7:28-29; cf. his "I say," Matt. 5:21-48), and demands that men submit to his authority both on earth (Luke 14:25-35) and at the judgment (Matt. 7:22-23).他這樣做演習的所有特權神例如,赦免人的罪(馬可福音2:5-8),癒合(馬可福音1:34),exorcises惡魔(馬可福音1:27),控制自然的力量(路加福音8:24 -25),使死人復活(路加福音7:11-17,約翰福音11:38-44),教導的權柄(馬太福音7:28-29;比照他的“我說,”馬太福音5:21-48 ),並要求男子向他的權威在地球上(路加福音14:25-35)和判斷(馬太福音7:22-23)。 As the obedient Son he acknowledges and follows the word of his Father, the Scriptures, and appeals to them as the final authority (Matt. 4:1-10; 22:23-46; John 10:33-36).由於聽話的兒子,他也承認,跟隨他的父親的話,“聖經”,並呼籲他們的最終決定權(太4:1-10; 22:23-46;約翰福音10:33-36)。

By Christ's victory over sin and death in his death and resurrection, the usurped authority of the evil one and his angels is broken (Heb. 2:14-15; I John 3:8; Col. 2:15).基督戰勝罪惡和死亡在他的死亡和復活,篡奪邪惡的權威和他的使者壞了(希伯來書2:14-15;約翰一書3:8,歌羅西書2:15)。 Thus all authority in heaven and on earth is given to Jesus to exercise in his messianic role (Matt. 28:18-20) until he has completed his task of finally subduing all God's enemies and delivering up the kingdom to God the Father (I Cor. 15:24-28).因此,天上和地上所有的權柄,給耶穌行使他的救世主的角色(馬太福音28:18-20),直到他已經完成了他的任務,終於征服了所有上帝的敵人,並提供了英國的神的父親(我哥林多前書15:24-28)。 In the interim Christ exercises leadership and authority in a providential way over all things for the good of his church (Eph. 1:20-23).在中期基督演習的領導和權威在一個天賜的方式對所有的事情,他的教會(以弗所書1:20-23)。 With a redeeming authority and power that enables as well as commands, he authoritatively demands both evangelization of all the nations and obedience to all his commandments (Matt. 28:19-20; Acts 1:8; Rom. 6:1ff.; 8:1ff.; Phil. 2:12-13).贖回的權威和權力,使以及命令,他權威性的要求都傳福音的所有國家和服從他的一切誡命(太28:19-20;使徒行傳1:8,羅6:1 FF。; :1FF。腓立比書2:12-13)。

The Apostles' Authority使徒管理局

The authority of God is exercised in the OT not only by various direct means but also through those to whom he gave authority to act in his behalf priests, prophets, judges, and kings. OT不僅通過各種直接的手段,但也通過他自己的權柄給在他的代表祭司,先知,法官和國王行使神的權柄。 In the NT the authority of the Father and especially of Jesus Christ is expressed in a unique way through the apostles, who are by definition the direct and personal ambassadors of Jesus Christ (Matt. 10:1, 40; Mark 3:14; John 17:18; 20:21; Acts 1:1-8; II Cor. 5:20; Gal. 1:1; 2:8), speaking and acting with his authority (Ga. 1:11ff.; 2:7-9). NT以獨特的方式表達通過權威的父親,尤其是耶穌基督的使徒,是由定義的直接和個人大使的耶穌基督(馬太福音10:1,40; 3:14;約翰17:18,20:21,使徒行傳1:1-8;哥林多後書5:20;加拉太書1:1,2:8),和與他的權威(佐治亞州1:11 FF。2:7 -9)。 They claim to speak authority (Gal. 1:11ff.; 2:7-9).他們聲稱代表機構(加拉太書1:11起; 2:7-9)。 They claim to speak for Christ and under the Spirit's direction in terms of both content and form of expression (I Cor. 2:10-13; I Thess. 2:13), to give the permanent norm for faith (Gal. 1:8; II Thess. 2:15) and conduct (I Cor. 11:2; II Thess. 3:4, 6, 14), as is indicated also by the self-conscious reference to "all the churches" (cf., eg, I Cor. 7:17; 14:34), and even to designate their rulings on a question as "the commandment of the Lord" (I Cor. 14:37).他們聲稱代表基督和聖靈的指導下,在內容和表現形式(林前2:10-13;帖前2:13),給予永久的規範,信仰(加1: II帖前2:15)和行為(哥林多前書11:2;第二帖。3:4,6,14),表示自覺的提到“教會”(見8; ,例如,我哥林多前書7:17; 14:34),甚至指定其裁決的問題“戒律的主”(林前14:37)。

They establish the order or government of the church so that a shared rule by a group of men, often but not always designated as bishops or elders, is universal in the NT period, as evidenced not only in the meeting at Jerusalem (Acts 15) but also in the various writings and geographical locations (Acts 14:23; I Tim. 3:1ff.; I Pet. 5:1ff.; cf. 1:1; Phil. 1:1; I Thess. 5:12-13; Heb. 13:7, 17; James 5:14).他們建立的順序或政府,教會,這樣的一群人,通常但​​不總是指定的主教或長老,是一個共享的規則普及在NT期,證明不僅在會議在耶路撒冷(使徒行傳15章)但也是在各種著作和地理位置(使徒行傳14:23;我添。3:1 FF,我的寵物。5:1 FF。比照1:1;腓1:1,我帖前5:12 - 13希伯來書13:7,17;雅各書5:14)。 Alongside this leadership a diaconal ministry is established by the apostles (Acts 6:1-6; Phil. 1:1; I Tim. 3:8-13).除了領導的助祭部的成立由使徒(使徒行傳6:1-6;腓1:1;提摩太前書3:8-13)。 Not only do they set the order of the church, they also prescribe discipline in Christ's name and with his authority (I Cor. 5:4; II Thess. 3:6).他們不僅設置順序的教會,他們還規定在基督的名字和他的權威(我肺心病。5:4的紀律; II帖撒羅尼迦後書3:6)。 In so acting they have functioned as the foundation of the church (Eph. 2:20; 3:5; cf. I Cor. 12:28) who have no successors and whose foundational authority has been put permanently in place by their writings, which have conveyed, at Christ's command and in fullment of his promise, the truth he would have the church always teach and obey (cf. John 14:26; 16:13).在如此行事時,他們的運作為基礎的教會(以弗所書2:20; 3:5;比照我哥林多前書12:28),沒有繼承人和永久的地方,他們的著作的基本權力,傳達,在基督的命令,fullment了他的諾言,真理,他總是有教會的教導,服從(參見約翰福音14:26; 16:13)。 So they are recognized as authoritative alongside "the rest of the Scripture," ie, the OT (II Pet. 3:15-16).因此,他們公認的權威沿著“其餘的聖經”,即OT(II寵物。3:15-16)。

Various Spheres of Authority各個領域的權力

The Bible recognizes within its pages various spheres in which God has entrusted authority into the hands of leaders. “聖經”承認在其網頁的各個領域中,上帝已委託權威領導人的手中。

The Church教會

Christ has given authority to certain men to be leaders (often termed elders or bishops) in his church.基督的權柄賜給某些人成為領導者(通常被稱為長老或主教)在他的教會。 Their task is to shepherd the church with love and humility as the servants of Christ and his people (I Tim. 3:5; I Pet. 5:1-4).他們的任務是牧羊人的愛和謙卑,教會與基督的僕人和他的人(提前3:5;我的寵物。5:1-4)。 A loving submission to their leadership is urged on Christians (I Thess. 5:12-13; Heb. 13:7, 17).一個充滿愛提交他們的領導呼籲基督徒(帖前5:12-13;希伯來書13:7,17)。

Marriage and the Family婚姻與家庭

Women as equals of men in both creation and redemption (cf. I Pet. 3:7; Gal. 3:28) are asked to submit to their own husbands as heads of the home because of the pattern established by God at creation (I Cor. 11:3, 8-9; I Tim. 2:12-15; Eph. 5:22; I Pet. 3:1-6).婦女平等的男子在增設及贖回(參見我寵物。3:7;加拉太書3:28)被要求提交自己的丈夫的家裡,因為神所建立的模式,在創建負責人(我哥林多前書11:3,第8-9頁;我添。2:12-15,弗5:22,我的寵物。3:1-6)。 Both husbands and wives are asked to offset the effects of sin on this God-ordained authority relationship by their attitude and conduct, ie, the husband exercising headship with love, honor, and without bitterness (Eph. 5:28; Col. 3:19; I Pet. 3:7) and the wives, with respect, as unto the Lord, and with a gentle spirit (Eph. 5:22, 33; I Pet. 3:4).丈夫和妻子都被要求以抵消單就這神命定的權力關係,他們的態度和行為,也就是說,丈夫行使校長與愛情,榮譽,和無苦味(以弗所書5:28;第3欄: 19,我的寵物。3:7)和妻子,就如同順服主,用溫柔的精神(以弗所書5:22,33;我的寵物。3:4)。 Children are commanded to obey their parents (Eph. 6:1-3; Col. 3:20) and to care for them in times of need (I Tim. 5:4).孩子們指揮,服從他們的父母(弗6:1-3;歌羅西書3:20),和照顧他們的需要的時候(我添。5:4)。

Civil Government公民政府

Christians are to recognize that God has granted authority in this realm to those who by his providence "exist" (Rom. 13:1; cf. John 19:11).基督徒認識到,上帝已經授權在這一領域由他的普羅維登斯“存在”(羅13:1;比照約翰福音19:11)。 Thus they are called dutifully to subject themselves to civil authorities (I Pet. 2:13-17) who are described as God's servants to prevent evildoers and to encourage good behavior (Rom. 13:1ff.).因此,他們被稱為盡職盡責,服從公務員主管部門(彼前2:13-17),被描述為神的僕人,防止壞人和鼓勵良好的行為(羅13:1 FF)。 This authority requires not only subjection but also the rendering of various taxes, respect, and honor (Rom. 13:7).當局的要求不僅是服從,但也呈現各種稅費,尊重,榮譽(羅馬書13:7)。

Other Authorities in Human Life在人類生活中的其他機構

The NT recognizes human institutions that will exist within human society, among which civil government is the prime example. NT認識到人類的機構將存在於人類社會,其中公務員,政府是最好的例子。 Its word of instruction is that Christians, for the Lord's sake, should submit to every appropriate human institution (I Pet. 2:13).它的指令的話是基督徒,為了主的緣故,應提交的每一個適當的人力機構(彼前2:13)。 The word of qualification assumed but not stated in every one of these spheres is found explicitly in Acts 5:29 in reference to the civil and religious sphere; namely, "we must obey God rather than men" (cf.4:19).這個詞的資格假設,但沒有說明這些領域中的每一個明確的公民和宗教領域的使徒行傳5:29,“我們必須服從上帝而不是男人”(cf.4:19)。 When the human authority clearly contravenes one's allegiance to God's authority, one is authorized to appeal to God's authority and obey it in contradistinction to that of any human authority.當人的權力明顯違背一個人的效忠於神的權威,一個是授權呼籲上帝的權威和服從任何人的權力對比。 For in that situation the authority structure has so opposed the one who gives it its validity that it forfeits its authority.在這種情況下,權威結構而不是一個誰給它的有效性,它放棄權力。

Satan's Authority撒旦的權力

The exercise of power by the evil one and the demons is also regarded as a power or authority, but a usurped one which is only under God's ultimate authority (Luke 4:6; Acts 26:18; Col. 1:13; cf. Job 1).行使權力的惡者,惡魔也被視為權力或權能,但只有在上帝的最終權威(路4:6;這是一個篡奪使徒行傳26:18,歌羅西書1:13;比照。作業1)。 Such angelic beings, who are called powers or authorities, have been disarmed by Christ (Col. 2:15) and have no other final outcome than that of the devil's final doom (Rev. 20:10).這樣的天使,誰是所謂的權力或權限,已被解除武裝的基督(歌羅西書2:15),有沒有其他的最終結果,而不是魔鬼的末劫時期(啟20:10)。

GW Knight, III GW騎士,III
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 參考書目
W. Foerster, TDNT, II, 562-75; O. Betz and C. Blendingen, NIDNTT, II, 606-11; T. Rees, ISBE, I, 333-40; J. Denney, "Of Christ," HDCG; WM McPheeters, "In Religion," HDCG; J. Rea, WBE, I, 179-80; HD McDonald, ZPEB,I, 420-21; JI Packer, IBD; GW Bromiley, ISBE (rev.), I, 364-70; JN Geldenhuys, Supreme Authority; B. Ramm, Patterns of Authority. W.美富律師事務所,TDNT,II,562-75; O.貝茨和C. Blendingen,NIDNTT,II,606-11,T.里斯,ISBE,我333-40的J.丹尼,“基​​督”,HDCG WM McPheeters,“宗教”,HDCG“; J.意圖,WBE,我,179-80;高清麥當勞,中原石油勘探局,我,420-21,巴刻,雞傳染性法氏囊病;毛重Bromiley,ISBE(修訂版),I, 364-70; JN赫爾登赫伊斯,最高權威; B.拉姆,管理局的模式。

Authority of the Bible權威的聖經

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In its personal reference authority is the right and capacity of an individual to perform what he wills and who, by virtue of his position or office, can command obedience.在其個人參考權威是個人的權利和能力來執行他的遺囑,誰,憑藉他的職位或其他職位,可以指揮服從。 It has also an application to words spoken or written whose accuracy has been established and whose information can consequently be trusted.它也是一個應用程序的口頭或書面的精度已經成立,並因此被信任的信息可以的話。

In the NT the Greek word exousia is sometimes translated "right" (NEB), or "power" (AV; eg, Matt. 9:6; John 1:12; 17:2; 19:10), and sometimes "authority" (eg Matt. 7:29; 8:9; 21:23; John 5:27; Acts 9:14).在NT的的希臘字exousia有時翻譯成“權利”(NEB),或“權力”(AV,例如,馬特。9:6;約翰福音1:12; 17:2; 19:10),有時“權威(例如,馬特。7:29; 8:9; 21:23;約翰5:27;使徒行傳9:14)。 What emerges from its various occurrences is that the possession of exousia is of a power held by right.從它的各種出現的是擁有exousia的權力的權利。 In some contexts the emphasis falls on the authority which the possession of power rightfully gives; in other instances it falls on the reality of the power which conditions the right use of authority.在某些情況下,重點落在機關擁有的權力理所當然地,在其他情況下,它落在的現實條件下,正確使用權力的權力。

Authority may be bestowed or inherent. When Jesus was asked by what authority he taught and acted (Matt. 21:23-24) the implication was that his authority was external. 管理局可被賦予的或固有的,當耶穌被問什麼權威,他任教,並擔任(馬太福音21:23-24)的含義是,他的權力是外部。 His questioners supposed him to be exercising a representative in the declaration that Jesus taught with authority (Matt. 7:29) and "with authority and power" expelled unclean spirits (Luke 4:36) the locus of such authority was in his own being.他以為他行使代表在聲明中,耶穌教導的權柄(馬太福音7:29)和“權威和權力”驅逐污穢的靈,(路4:36)的軌跡這種權威是在他自己的發問。 It was, that is to say, an ontological authority.這是,這是說,一個本體論的權威。 Thus, while the authority for his words and acts was not his own but came from the one who sent him (John 14:10; 17:8), yet these same words and acts had their raison d'etre in his own person because grounded in his filial relationship with God his Father.因此,雖然他的話和行為的權力是不是自己的,而是來自一個人給他(約翰福音14:10; 17:8),但這些相同的言論和行為有其存在的理由,在他自己的人,因為接地與神的關係,他的父親在他的孝順。

As in the case of Christ in whom both aspects of authority, the bestowed and the inherent, combined, so is it with the Bible.正如在基督的情況下,在這兩個方面的權威,賦予固有的,合併的,所以它與“聖經”。 Because the Bible points beyond itself to God, it has a conferred authority.因為“聖經”超越自身神,它有一個賦予的權力。 Yet the Bible has a real authority in itself as the authentic embodiment of God's self-disclosure.然而,“聖經”本身的真實體現上帝的自我披露有一個真正的權威。 Liberal theologians refuse the Bible this ontological authority, granting it at most a borrowed authority.自由神學家拒絕這種本體論的權威,“聖經”給予最借來的權威。 Some, like Karl Barth, allow this authority to be bestowed by God while insisting that the Bible itself is essentially a human product.有些人,像巴特(Karl Barth),讓這個權力被賦予上帝,而堅持認為“聖經”本身本質上是一個人性化的產品。 Others, eg, Rudolf Bultmann and Paul Tillich, regard the Bible as a fallible collection of religious writings on which the early church arbitarily imposed an authority which evangelical piety has continued to uphold.其他,例如,魯道夫布特曼和保羅·蒂利希的,把“聖經”的宗教著作早期的教會任意截面施加的權威,福音派的虔誠繼續堅持一個會犯錯誤的集合。 But by refusing to the Bible an ontological authority, liberal theology uncovers its fundamental inconsistency, thereby pronouncing its own condemnation.但拒絕“聖經”的本體論權威,自由派神學揭示其根本不一致,從而宣告了自己的譴責。 For insofar as it wishes the acceptance of its own unbiblical speculations, it has to decry the authority of the Bible.只要它希望接受自己的不符合聖經的猜測,譴責“聖經”的權威。 Yet insofar as it is concerned to retain the label Christian, it appeals to the Bible as its authoritative source.然而,因為它關心的是如何保留標籤基督教,它呼籲“聖經”作為其權威性的來源。

An approach to the subject of biblical authority must begin with God himself. For in him all authority is finally located. 的主題,聖經的權威的一種方法,必須從神自己。在他所有的權力,最後被定位。 And he is his own authority for there is nothing outside him on which his authority is founded.他是外他有沒有上他的權威是建立自己的權威。 Thus, in making his promise to Abraham, he pledged his own name since he had no greater by whom to swear (Heb. 6:13).因此,在他的承諾,亞伯拉罕,他承諾自己的名字,因為他沒有由誰來宣誓(希伯來書6:13)。 This authority of God is, then, the authority of what God is.這種權力的上帝,那麼,神的權威。 But what God is, is made known in his self-disclosure, since only in his revelation can God be known.但神是什麼,在他的自我披露,在他的啟示,因為只有神知道。 Revelation is therefore the key to God's authority, so that the two, revelation and authority, may be regarded as two sides of the same reality.因此,啟示錄是關鍵,以上帝的權威,使二,啟示性和權威性,可能會被視為雙方是同樣的現實。 In revelation God declares his authority.在啟示錄中,神宣告他的權威。

The prophets of the OT found their certainty in God's revelation. In uttering their message they knew themselves to be declaring God's authoritative will. 在神的啟示的先知的OT發現了他們的肯定。說出他們的信息,他們知道自己被宣告神的權威。 As God's ambassadors they proclaimed what God required of his people.作為神的使者,他們宣布上帝要求他的人。 For Christian faith Christ is known as God's final revelation.基督教信仰基督被稱為神的最終啟示。 In him God's imperial authority is most graciously expressed.在他神的皇權是最殷勤地表示。 Thus is Christ the sum of all that is divinely authoritative for the life of man.因此,是基督的總和,人的生命是神聖的權威。 But this progressive unveiling of God, which culminated in Christ, has been given perpetual form in the biblical writings.但是這種漸進的揭幕儀式,終於在基督裡的神,已經被賦予永恆的形式,在“聖經”的著作。 Scripture consequently participates in God's authority, so that Christ's relation thereto is decisive as vindicating its authority.聖經神的權柄,因此參與平反其權力,使基督的就該是決定性的。

Jesus read "all the Scriptures" of the OT as a prophetic outline of what he came to accomplish; and he took its very language to be the natural, and at the same time the supernatural, expression of his Father's will. 耶穌讀“聖經”的OT作為一個先知的輪廓是什麼,他來完成 ,他花了很是自然的語言,和超自然的力量,同時表達了他父親的意志。 By his attitude to and use of the OT Christ truly validated its divinity.他的態度和使用OT基督真正驗證了其神。 With the same conviction of its divine authority the NT writers accepted it and quoted it; and in its light they themselves, as the inspired interpreters of the saving significance of Christ's person and work, put their own writings on an equal footing with the OT Scriptures as divinely authoritative.使用的相同的信念,其神聖權威新台幣作家接受和引用它,並在它的光,他們自己的啟發口譯的節能意義的基督的人與工作,把自己的著作在一個平等的地位與舊約聖經作為神聖的權威。 In the words of his elect apostles the full measure of God's revelation in Christ was brought to completion so that Paul could declare, "In the sight of God speak we in Christ" (II Cor. 12:19).在他的選民的話使徒全面衡量神的啟示,在基督的完成,使保羅可以宣布,“在神面前說我們在基督裡”(哥林多後書12:19)。 Thus do the apostles claim an absolute authority for their writings (eg, II Cor. 10:11; 1 Thess. 2:13; 5:27; II Thess. 2:15; 3:14).我這樣的使徒聲稱絕對的權威,他們的著作(例如,哥林多後書10:11;帖撒羅尼迦前書2:13; 5:27;帖撒羅尼迦前書2:15; 3:14)。

The authority of the Bible is established by its own claims. It is the word of God. “聖經”的權威,建立了自己的要求,這是神的話語。 Such declarations as, "Thus says the Lord," or its equivalent, occur so frequently in the OT that it can confidently be asserted that the whole account is dominated by the claim.這樣的聲明,“因此,主耶和華說的,”或有同等作用,在OT發生得如此頻繁,它可以有信心地斷言,整個帳戶的要求主要是。 The NT writers also refer to these Scriptures as having God for their source.新台幣作家也引用這些聖經作為上帝對他們的源。 In the NT itself both Christ and the gospel are spoken of as "the word of God" and so demonstrate the fact that the tie between the two is a vital and necessary one.在NT本身基督和福音所說的“上帝的話”等證明的事實,兩者之間的紐帶是一個重要和必要的。 Specifically is the gospel in its central content and many aspects, through the action of the Holy Spirit, brought into written form by Christ's appointees as God's authoritative word for the church and in the world.特別是在聖靈的作用,其核心內容等諸多方面,通過書面形式帶入基督的任命的神的權威字為教會和世界的福音。 Both testaments therefore belong together under the one designation, "the word of God."這兩個見證,因此屬於一起的一個稱號,“神的話”。 As God's word the Bible consequently carries in itself God's authority.作為神的話語“聖經”因此本身就是上帝的權威。

It is the scripture of truth. In the OT the Hebrew word 'emet, rendered "truth" in the AV and frequently translated "faithfulness" in the RSV (eg, Deut. 32:4; Ps. 108:4; Hos. 2:20), is constantly predicted of God. 這是聖經的真理。在舊約的希伯來字埃梅特,呈現“真理”的AV,常常翻譯中的“信”呼吸道合胞病毒(例如,申命記32:4;詩108:4;何氏2 :20),不斷預言的神。 God as true is absolutely faithful (cf. Ps. 117:2), and this absolute faithfulness of God assures his complete trustworthiness.作為真正的上帝是絕對忠實(參見詩117:2),這絕對信實的上帝保證他完整的可信性。 This truthfulness of God passes over as an attribute of what God is in himself to characterize all his works (cf. Ps. 57:3) and especially his word.真實的上帝通過屬性的神是什麼,自己的特點他所有的作品(參見詩。57:3),尤其是他的話。 Thus is his word both true and faithful (cf. Ps. 119:89).因此,他的話是真實和忠實的(參見詩119:89)。 The whole OT, then, as "the word of God" is to be designated "the scripture of truth" (Dan. 10:21 AV).整個OT,那麼,作為“上帝的話”,是“聖經的真理”(但以理書10:21 AV)。 It partakes of God's own chracter, of the fundamental truthfulness of him who declares himself to be "not a man, that he should lie" (Num. 23:19; cf. 1 Sam. 15:29; Ps. 89:35).它參與大神自己的chracter的,他宣稱自己“不是一個人,他應該謊言”(民數記23:19;比照撒上15:29;詩的基本真實性。89:35) 。 Ps.詩。 31:5 declares that the Lord is the God of truth, while Ps. 31:5宣稱耶和華是上帝的真理,而PS。 119:160 affirms his word as the word of truth. 119:160申明他的話為真理的話。 In both places the same Hebrew term is employed.在這兩個地方,同一個希伯來文的。 The same truth is thus predicated of God and his word.同樣的道理,從而前提的上帝和他的話語。

In the NT the word aletheia has the same fundamental meaning of genuineness and truthfulness as opposed to what is false and unreliable.在NT的“真理有相同的基本含義的真實性和真實性,而不是什麼是假的,不可靠的。 So God is both true (1 John 5:20; John 3:33; 7:28; 8:26; 17:3; 1 Thess. 1:9) and truthful (Rom. 3:7; 15:8, etc.).因此,上帝是真實的(約翰一書5:20;約翰3:33,7:28,8:26,17:3;帖撒羅​​尼迦前書1:9)和真實的(羅馬書3:7; 15:8,等)。 And as God is, so too is his word.作為神,他的話也同樣如此。 His word is truth (John 17:17).他的話就是真理(約17:17)。 The gospel is presented with truthful words (II Cor. 6:7; cf. Col. 15; James 1:18), and the truth of the gospel (Gal. 2:5) is identical with the truth of God (Rom. 3:7).的福音,是與真實的話(哥林多後書6:7;比照。上校15日;雅各書1:18),真理的福音(加拉太書2:5)神的真理(羅是相同的3:7)。

The Bible is, then, the book of God's truth; and such truth is, as the Westminster Catechism says, "infallible truth." ,那麼,“聖經”是神的真理的書;這樣的事實是,威斯敏斯特要理問答說,“犯錯的真理。” As it is wholly trustworthy regarding its truth, so must it be wholly reliable regarding its facts.關於它的道理,因為它是完全值得信賴的,所以它必須是完全可靠的關於它的事實。 And because it is both, it is our divine authority in all things that pertain to life and godliness.而且,因為它是兩個,這是我們的神聖的權威,所有的事情,涉及到生命和虔敬的。

HD McDonald高清麥當勞
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 參考書目
R. Abba, The Nature and Authority of the Bible; H. Cunliffe-Jones, The Authority of the of the Bible; H. Cunliffe-Jones, The Authority of the Biblical Revelation; RE Davies, The Problem of Authority in the Continental Reformers; CH Dodd, The Authority of the Bible; PT Forsyth, The Principle of Authority; N. Geldenhuys, Supreme Authority; FJA Hort, The Authority of the Bible; GH Hospers, The Reformed Principle of Authority; RC Johnson, Authority in Protestant Theology; DM Lloyd-Jones, Authority; HD McDonald, Theories of Revelation; L. Oswald, The Truth of the Bible; B. Ramm, Patterns of Authority; A. Richardson and W. Schweitzer, eds., Biblical Authority for Today; J. Rogers, ed., Biblical Authority; JWC Wand, The Authority of the Scriptures; BB Warfield, The Inspiration and Authority of the Bible; RR Williams, Authority in the Apostolic Age.性和權威性,“聖經”阿爸,R. H.坎利夫 - 瓊斯,“聖經”的權威; H.坎利夫 - 瓊斯,權威的聖經的啟示,RE戴維斯,管理局在大陸改革者的問題; CH多德,PT佛塞斯,原則的權力; N.赫爾登赫伊斯,最高權威; FJA園藝,權威的聖經; GH霍斯珀斯,改革原則的權力; RC約翰遜,權威的新教神學權威的聖經; DM勞埃德 - 瓊斯,權威,HD麥當勞,理論的啟示;·奧斯瓦爾德,“聖經”的真理; B.拉姆,管理局的模式; A.理查森·施魏策爾,編,今日聖經的權威研究。羅傑斯版,聖經的權威; JWC魔杖,權威的聖經; BB沃菲爾德,啟發性和權威的聖經; RR - 威廉姆斯,管理局在使徒時代。

Inspiration of the Bible “聖經”的啟示

Advanced Information 先進的信息

The theological idea of inspiration, like its correlative revelation, presupposes a personal mind and will, in Hebrew terminology, the "living God", acting to communicate with other spirits.的神學思想的靈感,喜歡它的相關啟示,預示著一個個人的心靈,在希伯來文的術語,“活著的上帝”,採取行動,溝通與其他烈酒。 The Christian belief in inspiration, not alone in revelation, rests both on explicit biblical assertions and on the pervading mood of the scriptural record.基督教信仰的靈感,而不是單獨的啟示,在於明確的聖經斷言和聖經的記錄上瀰漫的情緒。

Biblical Terminology聖經的術語

Today the English verb and noun "inspire" and "inspiration" bear many meanings.英語動詞和名詞的“鼓舞”和“靈感”今天有許多的含義。 This diverse connotation is already present in the Latin inspiro and inspiratio of the Vulgate Bible.這種多元化的內涵已經在武加大聖經的的拉丁inspiro和inspiratio的。 But the technical theological sense of inspiration, largely lost in the secular atmosphere of our time, is clearly asserted by the Scriptures with a special view to the sacred writers and their writings.但是,技術的神學意義上的靈感,在很大程度上失去了我們的時間在世俗的氣氛,是一個特別神聖的作家和他們的作品與“聖經”中明確指出。 Defined in this sense, inspiration is a supernatural influence of the Holy Spirit upon divinely chosen men in consequence of which their writings become trustworthy and authoritative.在這個意義上定義,靈感是一種超自然的影響,聖靈在神揀選的人,因此他們的著作成為可信賴的,權威的。

In the AV the noun appears twice: Job 32:8, "But there is a spirit in man; and the inspiration of the Almighty giveth them understanding"; and 11 Tim. AV名詞出現了兩次:就業32:8,“但有一個人的精神,和靈感的全能之神所賜他們的理解”;和11添。 3:16, "All scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness." 3:16,“聖經是神所默示的,並且是有利可圖的教訓,責備,矯正,教導人學義。” In the former instance both the ASV and the RSV substitute "breath" for "inspiration," an interchange which serves to remind us of the dramatic fact that the Scriptures refer the creation of the universe (Ps. 33:6), the creation of man for fellowship with God (Gen. 2:7), and the production of the sacred writings (11 Tim. 3:16) to the spiration of God.在前一種情況ASV和呼吸道合胞病毒的替代品“靈感”,這提醒我們的戲劇性事實上,“聖經”是指創造了宇宙(詩篇33:6),創建一個交換的“呼吸”獎學金與神(創2:7),以及生產神聖的著作(11添。3:16)神的劉永東,張忠元,鄧的男子。 In the latter instance, the ASV renders the text "Every scripture inspired of God is also profitable," a translation abandoned as doubtful by the RSV, "All scripture is inspired by God and profitable."在後一種情況下,ASV呈現的文字“每一個聖經的神的啟發也有利可圖”翻譯為可疑放棄,呼吸道合胞病毒,“聖經的靈感的神和盈利。”

Biblical Teaching聖經的教導

Although the term "inspiration" occurs infrequently in modern versions and paraphrases, the conception itself remains firmly embedded in the scriptural teaching.雖然“靈感”不常發生在現代的版本和釋義,仍然牢牢地嵌在聖經教導的概念本身。 The word theopneustos (11 Tim. 3:16), literally God, "spirated" or breathed out, affirms that the living God is the author of Scripture and that Scripture is the product of his creative breath.這個詞theopneustos(11添。3:16),從字面上看神,“spirated的”或吐了口氣,肯定是永生神是聖經的作者,聖經是他的創作氣息的產品。 The biblical sense, therefore, rises above the modern tendency to assign the term "inspiration" merely a dynamic or functional significance (largely through a critical dependence on Schleiermacher's artificial disjunction that God communicates life, not truths about himself).聖經的意義,因此,上升到高於現代傾向指定的“靈感”僅僅是一種動態或功能上的意義(主要是通過關鍵依賴於施萊爾馬赫的人工分離,上帝傳達的生活,而不是關於他自己的真理)。 Geoffrey W. Bromiley, translator of Karl Barth's Church Dogmatics, points out that whereas Barth emphasizes the "inspiring" of Scripture, that is, its present use by the Holy Spirit toward hearers and readers, the Bible itself begins further back with the very "inspiredness" of the sacred writings.卡爾·巴特的教會教義學,翻譯杰弗裡·羅米立,指出,而巴特強調,“鼓舞人心”,這是“聖經”,其目前使用的聖靈向聽眾和讀者,“聖經”本身開始進一步與非常“神聖的著作inspiredness“。 The writings themselves, as an end product, are assertedly God-breathed.自己的著作,作為最終產品,assertedly神所默示的。 Precisely this conception of inspired writings, and not simply of inspired men, sets the biblical conception of inspiration pointedly over against pagan representations of inspiration in which heavy stress is placed on the subjective psychological mood and condition of those individuals overmastered by divine afflatus.正是這種觀念的啟發著作,而不是簡單的啟發男子,將“聖經”概念的啟發,有針對性地超過對異教徒的靈感表示,在沉重的壓力被放置在這些的神聖靈感overmastered的個人主觀的心理情緒和狀態。

While the Pauline passage already noted lays proximate emphasis on the spiritual value of Scripture, it conditions this unique ministry upon a divine origin, in direct consequence of which the sacred record is profitable (cf. opheleo, "to advantage") for teaching, reproof, correction, and instruction in righteousness.雖然寶蓮通道已經注意到奠定了近因重視對精神價值的經文,在神聖的起源的條件下,這種獨特的部,直接後果神聖的紀錄是有利可圖的(參見opheleo,“優勢”)的教學,責備,更正,教導人學義。 The apostle Paul does not hesitate to speak of the sacred Hebrew writings as the veritable "oracles of God" (Rom. 3:2).使徒保羅不猶豫發言的神聖希伯來語著作作為名副其實的“上帝的聖言”(羅3:2)。 James S. Stewart does not overstate the matter when he asserts that Paul as a Jew and later as a Christian held the high view that "every word" of the OT was "the authentic voice of God" (A Man in Christ, p. 39).詹姆斯·斯圖爾特不誇大此事時,他聲稱,保羅作為一個猶太人,作為一個基督徒舉行高認為,“每一個字的OT”是“正宗的神的聲音”(一個人在基督裡,P。 39)。

Emphasis on the divine origin of Scripture is found also in the Petrine writings.還發現,在聖彼得的著作,強調聖經的神聖起源的。 The "word of prophecy" is declared to be "more sure" than that even of the eyewitnesses of Christ's glory (11 Pet. 1:17ff.). “字的預言”被宣布為“確保”比,即使是基督的榮耀(11寵物。1:17 FF)。目擊者。 A supernatural quality all its own, therefore, inheres in Scripture.一個超自然的質量自己,因此,固有的聖經。 While involving the instrumentality of "holy men," Scripture is affirmed nonetheless to owe its origin not to human but to divine initiative in a series of statements whose proximate emphasis is the reliability of Scripture:雖然涉及工具性的“聖潔的人,”聖經是肯定仍然欠它的起源不是人類,但在一系列的語句,其最近的重點是聖經的可靠性神聖的倡議:

Jesus' View of Scripture耶穌的聖經觀

If the passages already cited indicate something not only of the nature but of the extent of inspiration ("all scripture"; "the word of prophecy," elsewhere a summary term for the entirety of Scripture), a verse from the Johannine writings indicates something of the intensity of inspiration and at the same time enables us to contemplate Jesus' view of Scripture.如果通道已經列舉表示什麼,不僅性質,但靈感的程度(“聖經”,“預言的話,”在別處聖經的全部術語的總結),一首詩歌從johannine著作指示強度的靈感,並在同一時間讓我們去思考耶穌的看法經文。 In John 10:34-35, Jesus singles out an obscure passage in the Psalms ("ye are gods," Ps. 82:6) to reinforce the point that "the Scripture cannot be broken."在約翰福音10:34-35,耶穌挑出一個不起眼的通道在詩篇(“你們是神”,詩82:6),以加強“聖經不能被打破。” The reference is doubly significant because it also discredits the modern bias against identifying Scripture as the word of God, on the ground that this assertedly dishonors the supreme revelation of God in the incarnate Christ.參考具有雙重意義重大,因為它確定聖經作為神的話,在地面上,也敗壞了現代化的偏見,這assertedly榮辱觀在道成肉身的基督至高無上的神的啟示。 But in John 10:35 Jesus of Nazareth, while speaking of himself as indeed the one "the Father consecrated and sent into the world," nonetheless refers to those in a past dispensation "to whom the word of God came (and scripture cannot be broken)."但在約翰福音10:35拿撒勒的耶穌,而說自己的確是一個“父奉獻和發送到世界各地,”仍然指的是那些在過去省卻“這個詞的時候,神人(和經文不能打破)。“ The unavoidable implication is that the whole of Scripture is of irrefragable authority.不可避免的含義是,整本聖經是不可辯駁的權威。

This is the viewpoint also of the Sermon on the Mount reported in Matthew's Gospel: "Think not that I have come to abolish the law and the prophets; I have come not to abolish them but to fulfil them. For truly, I say to you, till heaven and earth pass away, not an iota, not a dot, will pass from the law until all is accomplished. Whoever then relaxes one of the least of these commandments and teaches men so, shall be called least in the kingdom of heaven" (Matt. 5:17-19 RSV).這是也,在講道上的山報導在馬太福音的角度來看:“想想不,我已經來廢除的法律和先知的,我已經來不以取消它們,但為了實現這些。對於真正的,我說給你,直到天地廢去,並無絲毫,而不是一個點,將通過從法律上完成,直到所有的,不管是誰,然後放鬆這些誡命中最小的之一,並且教人這樣作,被稱為至少在天國的“(馬太福音5:17-19,RSV)。 Attempts to turn the repeated declarations, "You have heard that it was said...But I say to you" into a sustained criticism of the Mosaic law have not made their case convincingly against the probability that Jesus' protest is leveled rather against traditional reductions of the actual claim and inner intention of that law.企圖把一再聲明,“你聽說過,有人說......但我對你說”成為一個持續的批評鑲嵌法沒有作出令人信服地對他們的情況的概率,耶穌的抗議被夷為平地,而對傳統的該法的實際要求和內在意圖的減少。 Indeed, the necessary fulfillment of all that is written is a frequent theme on our Lord's lips (Matt. 26:31; 26:54; Mark 9:12-13; 14:19, 27; John 13:18; 17:12).事實上,被​​寫入所有必要的履行是一種常見的主題,我們的主的嘴唇上(太26:31; 26:54;馬可福音9:12-13; 14:19,27;約翰福音13:18; 17:12 )。 Whoever searches the Gospel narratives faithfully in view of Jesus' attitude toward the sacred writings will be driven again and again to the conclusion of Reinhold Seeberg: "Jesus himself describes and employs the Old Testament as an infallible authority (eg, Matt. 5:17; Luke 24:44)" (Text-book of the History of Doctrines, I, 82).誰搜索的福音敘述忠實鑑於耶穌的神聖的著作的態度將驅動一而再,再而萊因霍爾德西貝爾格的結論:“耶穌自己描述,並採用了舊約作為一個犯錯的權力(例如,馬特。5:17路加福音24:44)“(課本的歷史理論,I,82)。

OT View OT查看

In both speech and writing the OT prophets are marked off by their unswerving assurance that they were spokesmen for the living God.在演講和寫作舊約先知標記的鼎力保證,他們就是永生神的代言人。 They believed that the truths they uttered about the Most High and his works and will, and the commands and exhortations they voiced in his name, derived their origin from him and carried his authority.他們認為的真理,他們說出的最高級,他的作品,命令和囑託,他們表示在他的名字,獲得了他們的起源,他帶著他的權威。 The constantly repeated formula "thus saith the Lord" is so characteristic of the prophets as to leave no doubt that they considered themselves chosen agents of the divine self-communication.不斷重複的公式“,從而耶和華如此說”是的先知的特點,離開毫無疑問,他們認為自己選擇了代理神聖的自我溝通。 Emil Brunner acknowledges that in "the words of God which the Prophets proclaim as those which they have received directly from God, and have been commissioned to repeat, as they have received them...perhaps we find the closest analogy to the meaning of the theory of verbal inspiration" (Revelation and Reason, p. 122).埃米爾布承認,在“神的話語的先知宣布他們收到直接來自上帝,並已委託重複,因為他們也領受了...也許我們找到了最接近的比喻的含義論口頭靈感“(啟示錄和原因,第122頁)。 Whoever impugns the confidence of the prophets that they were instruments of the one true God in their disclosure of truths about his nature and dealings with man is driven, consistently if not necessarily, to the only possible alternative of their delusion.誰抨擊的先知,​​他們的信心一貫儀器的獨一真神的真理,他的本性和打交道的人是驅動披露,如果沒有一定的,唯一可行的辦法,他們的妄想。

From this same prophetic tradition it is impossible to detach Moses.在這同一個先知的傳統,它是不可能脫離摩西。 Himself a prophet, rightly called "the founder of prophetic religion," he mediates the law and the priestly and sacrificial elements of revealed religion in the firm belief that he promulgates the veritable will of Jehovah.自己是先知,正確地稱為“先知的宗教的創始人,”他介導的法律和司鐸和犧牲的堅定信念,他頒布了名副其實的意志,耶和華的啟示宗教的元素。 God will be the prophet's mouth (Exod. 4:14ff.); Moses is to be God, as it were, to the prophet (Exod. 7:1).神將先知的口(出埃及記4:14 FF),摩西是神,因為它的先知(出埃及記7:1)。

The Old and the New舊的和新的

The NT observations about Scripture apply primarily, of course, to the OT writings, which existed in the form of a unitary canon.約聖經主要適用於NT觀察,當然,OT的著作,其中的形式存在於一個單一的佳能。 But the apostles extended the traditional claim to divine inspiration.但使徒擴展了傳統的要求,以神聖的靈感。 Jesus their Lord had not only validated the conception of a unique and authoritative corpus of sacred writings, but spoke of a further ministry of teaching by the Spirit (John 14:26; 16:13).耶穌是他們的主,不僅驗證了該概念的一個獨特的,權威的語料庫神聖的著作,但談到進一步的教學部的聖靈(約翰福音14:26; 16:13)。 The apostles assert confidently that they thus speak by the Spirit (I Pet. 1:12).使徒們斷言自信​​地說,他們這樣說的精神“(彼前1:12)。 They ascribe both the form and matter of their teaching to him (I Cor. 2:13).他們賦予自己的教學形式和物質他(林前2:13)。 They not only assume a divine authority (I Thess. 4:2, 14; II Thess. 3:6, 12), but they make acceptance of their written commands a test of spiritual obedience (I Cor. 14:37).他們不僅承擔一個神聖的權威(帖前4:2,14;帖撒羅尼迦前書3:6,12),但他們卻接受他們的書面命令測試的精神順從(林前14:37)。 They even refer to each other's writings with the same regard as for the OT (cf. the identification in I Tim. 5:18 of a passage from Luke's Gospel, "The laborer is worthy of his hire" [Luke 10:7] as Scripture, and the juxtaposition of the Pauline epistles in II Pet. 3:16 with "the other scriptures").他們甚至對方的著作,這方面的OT(參見識別在我添的一個通道,從路加福音5:18,“勞動者是值得他租”[路加福音10:7] “經文”)的經文,和並列的寶蓮書信II寵物。3:16。

Historical View歷史視野

The traditional theory, that the Bible as a whole and in every part is the word of God written, held currency until the rise of modern critical theories a century ago.傳統理論作為一個整體,每一個部分,聖經是神寫的,持有貨幣的話,直到一個世紀前的現代批評理論的崛起。 W. Sanday, affirming that the high view was the common Christian belief in the middle of the last century, comments that this view is "substantially not very different from that...held two centuries after the Birth of Christ," indeed, that "the same attributes" were predicated of the OT before the New (Inspiration, pp. 392-93). ·桑迪,肯定是高的觀點是在中間在上個世紀​​的共同的基督教信仰,意見,這種觀點是“基本上沒有很大的不同,舉行了兩個世紀的基督誕生後,”事實上, “相同的屬性”之前的OT前提的新的(靈感,頁392-93)。 Bromiley notes certain rationalizing tendencies that have arisen on the rim of the high view: the Pharisees' rejection of Jesus of Nazareth as the promised Messiah despite their formal acknowledgment of the divine inspiration of Scripture; the attribution of inspiration to the vowel points and punctuation by seventeenth century Lutheran dogmaticians; and a depreciation (eg, in the Middle Ages) of the role of illumination in the interpretation of Scripture ("The Church Doctrine of Inspiration" in Revelation and the Bible, ed. CFH Henry, pp. 213ff.).羅米立注意到一些合理化的傾向已出現在輪輞上的高看的法利賽人拒絕拿撒勒人耶穌的應許的彌賽亞,儘管他們的正式承認神的啟示的聖經靈感的歸屬元音點和標點符號17世紀路德dogmaticians;及折舊(例如,在中世紀)照明的作用,在解釋聖經(“教會教義的靈感”啟示錄“聖經”的。CFH亨利,第213ff)。 。

The Protestant Reformers guarded their view of the Bible from the errors of rationalism and mysticism.的的新教改革者守衛的理性主義和神秘主義的錯誤的聖經,從他們的觀點。 To prevent Christianity's decline to mere metaphysics they stressed that the Holy Spirit alone gives life.為了防止基督教的下降僅僅是形而上學的,他們強調,聖靈賦予生命。 And to prevent decline of the Christian religion to formless mysticism they emphasized the Scriptures as the only trustworthy source of the knowledge of God and his purposes.防止下降的基督教無形的神秘主義,他們強調“聖經”的知識的神,他的目的只有可信任的來源。 The historic evangelical view affirms that alongside the special divine revelation in saving acts, God's disclosure has taken the form also of truths and words.歷史悠久的福音派的觀點肯定的同時節約行為的特殊的神的啟示,神的披露已採​​取的形式的真理和文字。 This revelation is communicated in a restricted canon of trustworthy writings, deeding fallen man an authentic exposition of God and his relations with man.這個啟示傳達在禁區佳能值得信賴的著作,deeding墮落的人,一個真實的論述,上帝和他的關係人。 Scripture itself is viewed as an integral part of God's redemptive activity, a special form of revelation, a unique mode of divine disclosure.聖經本身被視為上帝的救贖活動的一個組成部分,一種特殊形式的啟示,一個獨特的模式神聖披露。 In fact, it becomes a decisive factor in God's redemptive activity, interpreting and unifying the whole series of redemptive deeds, and exhibiting their divine meaning and significance.事實上,在神的救贖活動成為一個決定性的因素,解釋和統一整個系列的救贖行動,並展示他們的神聖的意義和重要性。

Critical Theories批判理論

The postevolutionary criticism of the Bible carried on by Julius Wellhausen and other modern scholars narrowed the traditional confidence in infallibility by excluding matters of science and history.批評的“聖經”的postevolutionary進行朱利葉斯·豪森及其他現代學者縮小了傳統犯錯誤的信心,科學和歷史的事項除外。 How much was at stake in a weakening of trust in the historical reliability of Scripture was not at first obvious to those who placed the emphasis on reliability of the Bible in matters of faith and practice.多少的股權聖經的歷史可靠性一個削弱的信任,在第一個明顯的把重點放在“聖經”的信仰和實踐問題的可靠性。 For no distinction between historical and doctrinal matters is set up by the NT view of inspiration.對於沒有區分歷史和教義的事項成立由新台幣鑑於靈感。 No doubt this is due to the fact that the OT history is viewed as the unfolding of God's saving revelation; the historical elements are a central aspect of the revelation.毫無疑問,這是由於這樣的事實,舊約的歷史被視為展開神的拯救啟示,歷史元素的一個核心方面的啟示。 It was soon apparent that scholars who abandoned the trustworthiness of biblical history had furnished an entering wedge for the abandonment of doctrinal elements.很快誰拋棄了誠信的聖經歷史的學者提供進入放棄教義的元素的楔形。

Theoretically such an outcome might perhaps have been avoided by an act of will, but in practice it was not.理論上,這樣的結局也許是可以避免的意志的行為,但在實踐中,這是不。 William Newton Clark's The Use of the Scriptures in Theology (1905) yielded biblical theology and ethics to the critics as well as biblical science and history, but reserved the teaching of Jesus Christ as authentic.威廉牛頓克拉克使用的聖經神學(1905年)中取得了聖經的神學和道德的批評,以及聖經的科學和歷史,但保留教學耶穌基督為真品。 British scholars went further.英國學者更進了一步。 Since Jesus' endorsement of creation, the patriarchs, Moses, and the giving of the law involved him in an acceptance of biblical science and history, some influential critics accepted only the theological and moral teaching of Jesus.由於耶穌通過創建,長者,摩西,並給予法律涉及他在接受聖經的科學和歷史,一些有影響力的評論家只接受耶穌神學和道德的教學。 Contemporaries swiftly erased even this remainder, asserting Jesus' theological fallibility.同時代的迅速抹去,甚至其餘部分,聲稱耶穌的神學易錯的。 Actual belief in Satan and demons was insufferable to the critical mind, and must therefore invalidate his theological integrity, while the feigned belief in them (as a concession to the times) would invalidate his moral integrity.實際的信仰撒旦和魔鬼的批判性思維是無法忍受的,因此必須作廢,他的神學的完整性,而虛偽的信念,他們的讓步時代,他的道德誠信無效。 Yet Jesus had represented his whole ministry as a conquest of Satan and appealed to his exorcism of demons in proof of his supernatural mission.然而,耶穌已經代表了他的整部作為一個征服撒旦,證明他的超自然的使命,並呼籲他的打鬼。 The critics could infer only his limited knowledge even of theological and moral truths.批評可以推斷,只有他的知識有限,甚至神學和道德的真理。 The so-called Chicago school of empirical theologians argued that respect for scientific method in theology disallows any defense whatever of Jesus' absoluteness and infallibility.所謂的芝加哥學派的實證神學家認為,尊重科學的方法,在神學不允許任何防禦無論耶穌的絕對性和正確性。 Harry Emerson Fosdick's The Modern Use of the Bible (1924) championed only "abidingly valid" experiences in Jesus' life that could be normatively relived by us.哈利艾默生福斯迪克的現代使用的“聖經”(1924年)倡導只有“自力更生有效的”耶穌的生活經驗,可以規範我們重溫。 Gerald Birney Smith went another step in Current Christian Thinking (1928); while we may gain inspiration from Jesus, our own experience determines doctrine and a valid outlook on life.杰拉爾德Birney史密斯去在目前的基督教思想(1928年)又邁進了一步,而我們可能獲得的靈感來自耶穌,我們自己的經驗判斷理論和有效的人生觀。

Simultaneously many critical writers sought to discredit the doctrine of an authoritative Scripture as a departure from the view of the biblical writers themselves, or of Jesus of Nazareth before them; or, if admittedly Jesus' view, they sought to dismiss it nonetheless as a theological accommodation, if not an indication of limited knowledge.同時許多重要的作家試圖抹黑的權威聖經的教義,作為一個出發從“聖經”的觀點,作家本人,或拿撒勒的耶穌面前,或者,如果無可否認耶穌的看法,他們試圖關閉它仍然作為一個神學住宿,如果沒有跡象顯示有限的知識。 The internal difficulties of such theories were stated with classic precision by Benjamin B. Warfield ("The Real Problem of Inspiration," in The Inspiration and Authority of the Bible).說明這種理論的內部困難與經典精度由Benjamin B.沃菲爾德的靈感“真正的問題”的啟示和權威的聖經。 This attempt to conform the biblical view of inspiration to the looser modern critical notions may now be said to have failed.這種嘗試的靈感寬鬆現代化的關鍵概念,以符合聖經的觀點,現在可以說已經失敗了。 The contemporary revolt strikes more deeply.當代起義罷工更加深入人心。 It attacks the historic view of revelation as well as of inspiration, affirming in deference to the dialectical philosophy that divine revelation does not assume the form of concepts and words, a premise that runs directly counter to the biblical witness.它的攻​​擊歷史性的看法啟示和靈感,肯定是考慮到辯證哲學的神的啟示不承擔形式的概念和詞語,一個前提,即直接違背聖經的見證。

Whatever must be said for the legitimate rights of criticism, it remains a fact that biblical criticism has met the test of objective scholarship with only qualified success.無論必須指出的合法權利的批評,但它仍然符合聖經批評一個事實,即客觀的獎學金只有合格的成功的測試。 Higher criticism has shown itself far more efficient in creating a naive faith in the existence of manuscripts for which there is no overt evidence (eg, J, E, P, D, Q, first century nonsupernaturalistic "gospels" and second century supernaturalistic redactions) than in sustaining the Christian community's confidence in the only manuscripts the church has received as a sacred trust.更高的批評,本身更有效地創建一個天真的信仰中存在的手稿,其中有沒有明顯的證據(例如,J,E,P,D,Q,至上世紀nonsupernaturalistic的“福音”和第二的世紀超自然刪節的)比維持基督教社會的信心,教會已收到的唯一手稿作為一種神聖的信任。 Perhaps the most significant gain in our generation is the new disposition to approach Scripture in terms of primitive witness instead of remote reconstruction.也許在我們這一代是最顯著的收益接近聖經中的原始證人,而不是遠程重建新的配置。

While it can shed no additional light on the mode of the Spirit's operation on the chosen writers, biblical criticism may provide a commentary on the nature and extent of that inspiration, and on the range of the trustworthiness of Scripture.雖然它可以擺脫額外的光,聖靈的操作模式,所選擇的作家,聖經批評可能提供的評注的性質和程度的靈感,並在範圍內的可信性聖經。 The admittedly biblical view has been assailed in our generation especially by an appeal to such textual phenomena of Scripture as the Synoptic problem and apparent discrepancies in the reporting of events and numbers.無可否認聖經的觀點在我們這一代人,特別是被攻擊的上訴這樣的文本現象的聖經,因為天氣問題和明顯的差異,在報告的事件和數字。 Evangelical scholars have recognized the danger of imputing twentieth century scientific criteria to the biblical writers.福音派的學者所認識到的危險歸咎於20世紀的科學標準,以聖經的作家。 They have noted also that the OT canon so unqualifiedly endorsed by Jesus contains many of the difficulties of the Synoptic problem in the features of the books of Kings and Chronicles.他們還指出,OT佳能不合格贊同耶穌的天氣問題,在功能列王記書包含了許多的困難。 And they concede the proper role of an inductive study of the actual phenomena of Scripture in detailing the doctrine of inspiration derived from the teaching of the Bible.此外,他們也承認了應有的作用的感應詳細的學說的靈感來自聖經的教導聖經中的實際現象的研究。

CFH Henry CFH亨利
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 參考書目
K. Barth, The Doctrine of the Word of God; C. Elliott, A Treatise on the Inspiration of the Holy Scriptures; T. Engelder, Scripture Cannot Be Broken; L. Gaussen, Theopneustia: The Plenary Inspiration of the Holy Scriptures; CFH Henry, God, Revelation, and Authority,4 vols., and (ed.), Revelation and the Bible; J. Orr, Revelation and Inspiration; NB Stonehouse and P. Woolley, eds., The Infallible Word; J. Urquhart, The Inspiration and Accuracy of the Holy Scriptures; JF Walvoord, ed., Inspiration and Interpretation; BB Warfield, The Inspiration and Authority of the Bible; JC Wenger, God's Word Written; JI Packer, God Has Spoken; HD McDonald, What the Bible Teaches About the Bible; P. Achtemeier, The Inspiration of Scripture; FE Greenspan, ed., Scripture in Jewish and Christian Tradition. K.巴特,神的話語的教義; C.埃利奧特,傷寒論聖經的啟示“,T.恩格爾德,聖經不能被打破; L.杉,Theopneustia全會聖經啟示; CFH亨利,上帝,啟示,和權威,4卷,(主編),啟示和聖經的J.奧爾,啟示和靈感; NB斯通豪斯和P Wo​​olley介紹,編,無謬誤的話語,J.厄克特的靈感和精度的聖經; JF Walvoord,靈感和解讀; BB沃菲爾德,的靈感和管理局的“聖經”; JC溫格,上帝的話語寫;巴刻(JI Packer),神已經說話;高清麥當勞,什麼聖經關於“聖經”的教導聖經的啟示P.阿克提美亞,FE格林斯潘,編輯。,在猶太教和基督教傳統的聖經。

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