Hail Mary, Ave Maria萬福瑪利亞,聖母瑪麗亞

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The Hail Mary (sometimes called the "Angelical salutation", sometimes, from the first words in its Latin form, the "Ave Maria") is the most familiar of all the prayers used by the Universal Church in honour of our Blessed Lady.萬福瑪利亞“(有時也被稱為”安琪儷卡稱呼“,有時,在它的拉丁文形式,”聖母頌“的第一句話)是最熟悉的普世教會在紀念我們的祝福夫人所使用的所有的祈禱。

It is commonly described as consisting of three parts.它通常被描述為包括三個部分。 The first, "Hail (Mary) full of grace, the Lord is with thee, blessed art thou amongst women", embodies the words used by the Angel Gabriel in saluting the Blessed Virgin (Luke, I, 28).第一,“冰雹(瑪麗)充滿恩寵者,上主與你同在,你在婦女中是有福的”,體現了天使加百列的話,敬禮,聖母(盧克,我,28歲)。 The second, "and blessed is the fruit of thy womb (Jesus)" , is borrowed from the Divinely inspired greeting of St. Elizabeth (Luke, i, 42), which attaches itself the more naturally to the first part, because the words "benedicta tu in mulieribus" (I, 28) or "inter mulieres" (I, 42) are common to both salutations.第二,“賜福與你的子宮(耶穌)”,是借用了神聖的聖伊麗莎白(盧克,我,42歲),重視自己的第一部分更自然的問候語是水果 ,因為“benedicta塗在mulieribus”(I,28)或“間mulieres”(I,42)常見的兩種致敬。 Finally, the petition "Holy Mary, Mother of God, pray for us sinners now and at the hour of our death. Amen." is stated by the official "Catechism of the Council of Trent" to have been framed by the Church itself.最後,請願書“聖母瑪利亞,天主之母,為我們罪人祈禱現在,在我們的死亡的小時,阿門。”官方“問答安理會的遄達”被誣陷教會本身所指出的。 "Most rightly", says the Catechism, "has the Holy Church of God added to this thanksgiving, petition also and the invocation of the most holy Mother of God, thereby implying that we should piously and suppliantly have recourse to her in order that by her intercession she may reconcile God with us sinners and obtainfor us the blessing we need both for this present life and for the life which has no end." “最正確”,要理問答說,“聖教會的神添加到今年的感恩節,請願書還和調用最聖潔的上帝之母,從而意味著我們應該虔誠和suppliantly她,有追索權她說情,她可以調和神與我們的罪人,並obtainfor我們的祝福,我們需要這兩種今生的生命還沒有結束。“

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It was antecedently probable that the striking words of the Angel's salutation would be adopted by the faithful as soon as personal devotion to the Mother of God manifested itself in the Church.這是可能先行,顯著天使的稱呼的話,將採取的忠實天主之母,在教會中表現出來的個人奉獻。 The Vulgate rendering, Ave gratia plena , "Hail full of grace", has often been criticized as too explicit a translation of the Greek chaire kecharitomene , but the words arein any case most striking, and the Anglican words are in any case most striking, and the Anglican Revised Version now supplements the "Hail, thouthat art highly favoured" of the original Authorized Version by the marginal alternative, "Hail thou, endued with grace".在武加大渲染, 大道特惠重瓣 ,“冰雹滿有恩典”,經常被批評為一翻譯的希臘chaire kecharitomene的太露骨,但在的話arein任何情況下,最引人注目的,和英國聖公會的話,在任何情況下,最引人注目的,和英國聖公會的修訂版本,現在補充了“冰雹,thouthat藝術的高度青睞”的邊際替代原來的授權版本,“恭喜你,理智與風度”。 We are not surprised, then, to find these or analogous words employed in a Syriac ritual attributed to Severus, Patriarch of Antioch (c. 513), or by Andrew of Crete and St. John Damascene, or again the "Liber Antiphonarious" of St. Gregory the Great as the offertory of the Mass for the fourth Sunday of Advent.我們並不感到驚訝,然後,找到這些或類似的話在敘利亞的儀式歸因於西弗勒斯,,牧安提(約513),或由安德魯的克里特島和聖約翰大馬士革,或再次“LIBER Antiphonarious”聖格雷戈里的群眾將臨期的第四個星期天作為奉獻儀式(Offertory)大。 But such examples hardly warrant the conclusion that the Hail Mary was at that early period used in the Church as a separate formula of Catholic devotion.但是,這樣的例子很難保證的結論是,萬福瑪利亞,初期教會中的天主教奉獻作為一個單獨的公式。 Similarly a story attributing the introduction of the Hail Mary to St. Ildephonsus of Toledo must probably be regarded as apocryphal.同樣歸咎於引進的冰雹瑪麗聖Ildephonsus的托萊多的一個故事,可能被視為杜撰的。 The legend narrates how St. Ildephonsus going to the church by night found our Blessed Lady seated in the apse in his own episcopal hair with a choir of virgins around her who were singing her praises.這個傳說講述聖Ildephonsus如何去教堂,晚上發現我們的祝福夫人坐在她身邊的人唱她的讚美合唱團的處女在他自己的主教頭髮的後殿。 Then St. Ildephonsus approached "making a series of genuflections and repeating at each of them those words of the angel's greeting: `Hail Mary full of grace the Lord is with thee, blessed art thou amongst women, and blessed is the fruit of thy womb' ".聖Ildephonsus接近“進行了一系列的genuflections,對每個人都重複這些話的天使的問候語: 萬福瑪利亞充滿恩典主與你同在,你是有福的,其中包括婦女和祝福是果你的子宮'“。 Our Lady then showed her pleasure at this homage and rewarded the saint with the gift of a beautiful chasuble (Mabillon, Acta SS. OSB, saec V, pref., no. 119).我們的夫人則表現了她的快樂,在此表示敬意和獎勵的聖人的禮物一個的美麗chasuble(馬畢倫,文獻SS。OSB,國家外匯管理局V,縣,第119頁)。 The story, however, in this explicit form cannot be traced further back than Hermann of Laon at the beginning of the twelfth century.這個故事,然而,在這個明確的形式不能被追踪進一步比赫爾曼拉昂在開始的12世紀。

In point of fact there is little or no trace of the Hail Mary as an accepted devotional formula before about from certain versicles and responsories occurring in the Little Office or Cursus of the Blessed Virgin which just at that time was coming into favour among the monastic orders.這一點,事實上是作為一個公認的虔誠的公式前約的某些versicles和的responsories發生在小辦公室或Cursus的聖母只是當時的青睞進入該寺院的訂單很少或根本沒有一絲的聖母。 Two Anglo-Saxon manuscripts at the British Museum, one of which may be as old as the year 1030, show that the words "Ave Maria" etc. and "benedicta tu in mulieribus et benedictus fructus ventris tui" occurred in almost every part of the Cursus, and though we cannot be sure that these clauses were at first joined together so as to make one prayer, there is conclusive evidence that this had come to pass only a very little later.盎格魯 - 撒克遜人的手稿在大英博物館,其中之一可能是一樣古老的一年1030,顯示將“聖母頌”等,以及“benedicta塗在水紅地利TUI mulieribus等逐日”發生在幾乎每一個部分Cursus,雖然我們不能確定這些條款是第一次在結合在一起,使一個禱告,有確鑿的證據表明,這已經到了通過只是一個很小。 (See "The Month", Nov., 1901, pp. 486-8.) The great collections of Mary-legends which began to be formed in the early years of the twelfth century (see Mussafia, "Marien-legenden") show us that this salutation of our Lady was fast becoming widely prevalent as a form of private devotion, though it is not quite certain how far it was customary to include the clause "and blessedis the fruit of thy womb". (見“月”,1901年11月,第486-8頁。)偉大的收藏開始形成的12世紀的最初幾年(見Mussafia,“馬里安legenden”)顯示瑪麗的傳說我們這個稱呼的聖母迅速成為廣為流行的私人奉獻的一種形式,但它是不是很肯定多遠,這是習慣,包括條款“和blessedis果你的子宮”。 But Abbot Baldwin, a Cistercian who was made Archbishop of Canterbury in 1184, wrote before this date a sort of paraphrase of the Ave Maria in which he says:但方丈是西坎特伯雷大主教在1184鮑德溫,在此日期之前,寫了一種釋義聖母頌他說:

To this salutation of the Angel, by which we daily greet the most Blessed Virgin, with such devotion as we may, we are accustomed to add the words, "and blessed is the fruit of thy womb," by which clause Elizabeth at a later time, on hearing the Virgin's salutation to her, caught up and completed, as it were, the Angel's words, saying: "Blessed are thou amongst women and blessed is the fruit of thy womb."這個稱呼的天使,我們每天迎接最幸福的處女,這樣的奉獻,我們可以,我們都習慣於添加的話,“祝福是果你的子宮”,其中條款在以後的伊麗莎白時間,一聽到處女的稱呼她,追了上來並完成,因為它是天使的話,說:“祝福你在婦女和祝福是果你的子宮。”

Not long after this (c. 1196) we meet a synodal decree of Eudes de Sully, Bishop of Paris, enjoining upon the clergy the see that the "Salutation of the Blessed Virgin" was familiarly known to their flocks as well as the Creed and the Lord's Prayer; and after this date similar enactments become frequent in every part of the world, beginning in England with the Synod of Durham in 1217.在這之後不久(約1196),我們滿足Eudes蘇利,巴黎主教的主教會議的法令,禁止在神職人員的“稱呼的聖母”親切的稱為他們的羊群,以及為信條,主禱文,以及在此日期之後,類似的成文法則頻繁在世界的每一個部分,英國的達勒姆主教會議在1217年的開始。


To understand the early developments of this devotion it is important to grasp the fact that those who first used this formula fully recognized that the Ave Maria was merely a form of greeting.要了解早期的發展對家庭的熱愛,重要的是要把握一個事實,即那些第一次使用這個公式充分認識到聖母頌僅僅是一種形式的問候語。 It was therefore long customary to accompany the words with some external gesture of homage, a genuflection, or least an inclination of the head.因此,這是長期習慣性地陪的話,一些外部的姿態表示敬意,膜拜,或至少一個傾斜的頭。 Of St. Aybert, in the twelfth century, it is recorded that he recited 150 Hail Marys daily, 100 with genfluctions and 50 with prostrations.的聖Aybert,在12世紀,它被記錄他背誦150聖母經,每天100 genfluctions禮拜50。 So Thierry tells us of St. Louis of France that "without counting his other prayers the holy King knelt down every evening fifty times and each time he stood upright then knelt again and repeated slowly an Ave Maria."因此,蒂埃里告訴我們的聖路易斯法國的聖景,“不計他的其他的祈禱跪了下來,每天晚上50次,每次他直立行走,然後跪再緩慢和反复的聖母頌”。 Kneeling at the Ave Maria was enjoined in several of the religious orders.跪在聖母瑪利亞的宗教命令責成在幾個。 So in the Ancren Riwle (qv), a treatise which an examination of the Corpus Christi manuscript 402 shows to be of older date than the year 1200, the sisters are instructed that, at the recitation both of the Gloria Patri and the Ave Maria in the Office, they are either to genuflect or to incline profoundly according to the ecclesiastical season.因此,在Ancren Riwle(請參閱),論文的科珀斯克里斯蒂手稿402考試是舊的日期比1200年,姐妹倆指示,在背誦的凱萊帕特里和聖母頌辦公室,他們是,跪或傾斜深刻根據教會賽季的。 In this way, owing to the fatigue of these repeated prostrations and genufletions, the recitation of a number of Hail Marys wasoften regarded as a penitential exercise, and it is recorded of certain canonized saints, eg the Dominican nun St. Margaret (d. 1292), daughterof the King of Hungary, that on certain days she recited the Ave a thousand times with a thousand prostrations.在這種方式中,由於這些反复的禮拜和genufletions的疲勞,背誦一些冰雹。Marys wasoften認為作為悔罪的工作,並且它被記錄一定的冊封聖人,例如,多米尼加修女聖瑪格麗特(卒於1292 ),daughterof匈牙利國王,在某些日子,她背誦了一千個禮拜大道一千倍。 This concept of the Hail Mary as a form of salutation explains in some measure the practice, which is certainly older than the epoch of St. Dominic, of repeating the greeting as many as 150 times in succession.這個概念的稱呼作為一種形式的聖母,在一定程度上解釋的做法,這肯定是年紀比時代的聖道,多達150次連續重複的問候語。 The idea is akin to that of the "Holy, Holy, Holy", which we are taught to think goes up continually before the throne of the Most High.我們的想法是類似的“聖哉,聖哉,聖哉”,我們被教導要認為不斷至高的寶座前。


In the time of St. Louis the Ave Maria ended with the words of St. Elizabeth: "benedictus fructus ventris tui"; it has since been extended by the introduction both of the Holy Name and of a clause of petition.在聖路易斯的時候,聖伊麗莎白的話:“本尼迪塔斯水紅地利堆”聖母頌結束,它已被延長引進的聖名的請願書的條款。 As regards the addition of the word "Jesus," or, as it usually ran in the fifteenth century, "Jesus Chrustus, Amen", it is commonly said that this was due to the initiative of Pope Urban IV (1261) and to the confirmation and indulgence of John XXII.至於此外的“耶穌”,或跑,因為它通常在15世紀,“耶穌Chrustus,阿門”,它通常是說,這是由​​於主動的教皇烏爾班IV(1261)和約翰二十二的確認和放縱。 The evidence does not seem sufficiently clear to warrant positive statement on the point.似乎並沒有足夠的證據明確的點,以保證積極的表態。 Still, there, can be no doubt that this was the widespread belief of the later Middle Ages.儘管如此,在那裡,可以毫無疑問的,這是人們普遍認為,中世紀晚期。 A popular German religious manual of the fifteenth century ("Der Selen Troïst", 1474) even divides the Hail Mary into four portions, and declares that the first part was composed by the Angel Gabriel, the second by St. Elizabeth, the third, consisting only of the Sacred Name, Jesus Christus, by the popes, and the last, ie the word Amen, by the Church.一種流行的15世紀德國宗教手冊(“德綸Troïst”,1474年),將萬福瑪利亞分為四個部分,並宣布組成,第一部分是由天使加布里埃爾,聖伊麗莎白的第二,第三,神聖的名字,耶穌CHRISTUS,由教皇,和最後組成,即的字阿門,經堂。


It was often made a subject of reproach against the Catholics by the Reformers that the Hail Mary which they so constantly repeated was not properly a prayer.它往往是一個受責備的話對天主教徒的改革者,他們如此不斷重複,萬福瑪利亞祈禱是不正確的。 It was a greeting which contained no petition (see. eg Latimer, Works, II, 229-230).這是一個問候語中沒有呈請(參看例如拉蒂默,工程,II 229-230)。 This objection would seem to have long been felt, and as a consequence it was uncommon during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries for those who recited their Aves privately to add some clause at the end, after the words "ventris tui Jesus".這種反對意見似乎早就已經感覺到,和作為一個結果,它是罕見的,對於那些誰背誦的鳥類私人子句的末尾,添加一些的話後,的“地利TUI耶穌”在第十四和第十五世紀。 Traces of this practice meet us particularly in the verse paraphrases of the Ave which date from this period.這種做法的痕跡,特別是在滿足我們的經文釋義的大街上起此期間。 The most famous of these is that attributed, though incorrectly, to Dante, and belonging in any case to the first half of the fourteenth century.其中最有名的是,歸因於,雖然不正確,但丁,在任何情況下,上半年的14世紀和歸屬感。 In this paraphrase the Hail Mary ends with the following words:在這種意譯萬福瑪利亞與下面的話結束:

O Vergin benedetta, sempre tu ØVergin benedetta,森帕塗
Ora per noi a Dio, che ci perdoni,吾每一個迪歐河內,枝詞perdoni,
E diaci grazia a viver si quaggiu Ëdiaci“GRAZIA一個viver SI quaggiu
Che'l paradiso al nostro fin ci doni; Che'l天堂人存放同業鰭詞多尼;

(Oh blessed Virgin, pray to God for us always, that He may pardon us and give us grace, so to live here below that He may reward us with paradise at our death.) (哦,聖母瑪利亞,我們總是向上帝祈禱,他會原諒我們,並給我們的恩典,所以住在這裡下面,他可能會獎勵我們與天堂在我們的死亡。)

Comparing the versions of the Ave existing in various languages, eg Italian, Spanish, German, Provençal, we find that there is a general tendency to conclude with an appeal for sinners and especially for help at the hour of death.大道中存在的各種語言,如意大利語,西班牙語,德語,普羅旺斯的版本比較,我們發現,有一種普遍的傾向上訴的罪人,尤其是幫助結束在一小時死亡。 Still a good deal of variety prevailed in these forms of petition.仍然是一個很好的交易中盛行的各種形式的請願書。 At the close of the fifteenth century there was not any officially approved conclusion, though a form closely resembling our present one was sometimes designated as "the prayer of Pope Alexander VI" (see "Der Katholik", April, 1903, p. 334), and was engraved separately on bells (Beisesel, "Verehrung Maria", p. 460).截至收盤的15世紀,有沒有任何正式批准的結論,雖然形式非常類似於我們現在的人有時被指定為“祈禱,教宗亞歷山大六世”(見“明鏡Katholik”,月,1903年,第334) ,和上分別刻的鐘(Beisesel,“Verehrung瑪麗亞”,頁460)。 But for liturgical purposes the Ave down to the year 1568 ended with "Jesus, Amen", and an observation in the "Myroure of our Ldy" written for the Bridgettine nuns of Syon, clearly indicates the generally feeling.但為禮儀目的AVE下降到今年1568結束:“耶穌,阿門”,和LDY“的西昂的Bridgettine修女寫的”Myroure觀察,清楚地表明了一般的感覺。 "Some saye at the begynnyng of this salutacyon Ave benigne Jesu and some saye after `Maria mater Dei', with other addycyons at the ende also. And such thinges may be saide when folke saye their Aves of theyr own devocyon. But in the servyce of the chyrche, I trowe it to be moste sewer and moste medeful (ie meritorious) to obey the comon use of saying, as the chyrche hath set, without all such addicions." “有些薩耶。在begynnyng的這salutacyon大道benigne JESU和一些的薩耶後瑪麗亞母校台達電子,在恩德與其他addycyons的也可能是這樣的古董賽德福爾克·薩耶鳥類的theyr自己的devocyon,但在servyce在chyrche,我trowe,下水道moste,並moste medeful(即立功表現)服從的COMON說,作為chyrche所設立的,沒有所有這些addicions的。“

We meet the Ave as we know it now, printed in the breviary of the Camaldolese monks, and in that of the Order de Mercede c.因為我們現在知道了,我們遇見了大街印在breviary的Camaldolese僧侶,並在訂單MercedeÇ。 1514. 1514。 Probably this, the current form of Ave, came from Italy, and Esser asserts that it is to be found written exactly as we say it now in the handwriting of St. Antoninus of Florence who died in 1459.大概是這樣的,目前的形式大道,來自意大利,和Esser聲稱,它是書面正是因為我們說,現在在佛羅倫薩聖安東尼於1459年去世的筆跡。 This, however, is doubtful.然而,這是值得懷疑的。 What is certain is that an Ave Maria identical with our own, except for the omission of the single word nostrae , stands printed at the head of the little work of Savonarola's issued in 1495, of which there is a copy in the British Museum.可以肯定的是,與我們自己的聖母頌相同,但遺漏了一個字nostrae,看台上印在小工作薩沃納羅拉已發行於1495年,在大英博物館,其中有一個副本的頭。 Even earlier than this, in a French edition of the "Calendar of Shepherds" which appeared in is repeated in Pynson's English translation a few years later in the form: "Holy Mary moder of God praye for us synners. Amen. ".比他還要早,在法文版的“日曆”牧羊人“,出現在重複Pynson的英文翻譯,幾年後的形式:”聖母瑪利亞中等的神praye我們synners。阿們。“。 In an illustration which appears in the same book, the pope and the whole Church are depicted kneeling before our Lady and greeting her with this third part of the Ave.出現在同一本書的插圖中,教皇和整個教會被描繪跪在聖母和她打招呼,這三部分的AVE。 The official recognition of the Ave Maria in its complete form, though foreshadowed in the words of the Catechism of the Council of Trent, as quoted at the beginning of this article, was finally given in the Roman Breviary of 1568.官方認可的聖母頌埋下了伏筆問答安理會的遄達的話,其完整的形式,但在本文開頭所報,終於給在羅馬breviary 1568。

One or two other points connected with the Hail Mary can only be briefly touched upon.萬福瑪利亞與一個或兩個點,只能進行簡單的上眼。 It would seem that in the Middle Ages the Ave often become so closely connected with the Pater noster, that it was treated as a sort of farsura , or insertion, before the words et ne nos inducas in tentationem when the Pater noster was said secreto (see several examples quoted in "The Month", Nov., 1901, p. 490).這似乎在中世紀的大道常常成為這樣緊密相連的父親noster的,它被視為一種的farsura,或插入,之前的話的時候,父親noster 等東北的NOS inducas在tentationem秘密的 (看幾個例子在“月”,11月,1901年,頁490)。 The practice of preachers interrupting their sermons near the beginning to say the Ave Maria seems to have been introduced in the Middle Ages and to be of Franciscan origin (Beissel, p. 254).在中世紀打斷他們的布道的起點附近的傳道人說聖母頌的做法似乎已被引入,方濟會起源(BEISSEL,第254頁)。 A curious illustration of its retention among English Catholics in the reign of James II may be found in the "Diary" of Mr. John Thoresby (I, 182).一位好奇的說明其保留在英國的天主教徒詹姆斯二世的統治的:約翰先生Thoresby(I,182)“日記”中可以找到。 It may also be noticed that although modern Catholic usage is agreed in favouring the form "the Lord is with thee", this is a comparatively recent development.它也可以注意到,雖然使用現代天主教同意在有利於形式的“主與你同在”,這是一個比較新的發展。 The more general custom a century ago was to say "our Lord is with thee", and Cardinal Wiseman in one of his essays strongly reprobates change (Essays on Various Subjects, I, 76), characterizing it as "stiff, cantish and destructive of the unction which the prayer breathes".一個世紀前,更普遍的習俗說:“我們的主與你同在”,樞機懷斯曼在他的雜文強烈棄絕的變化(各種主題的散文,I,76),“僵硬,cantish的和破​​壞性的特徵油膏的祈禱呼吸“。 Finally it may be noticed that in some places, and notably in Ireland, the feeling still survives that the Hail Mary is complete with the word Jesus.最後,它可能會注意到,在一些地方,特別是在愛爾蘭,感覺仍然生存,萬福瑪利亞的字,耶穌是完整的。 Indeed the writer is informed that within living memory it was not uncommon for Irish peasant, when bidden to say Hail Marys for a penance, to ask whether they were required to say the Holy Marys too.事實上,筆者獲悉,在人們的記憶中並不少見愛爾蘭農民,吩咐說聖母經苦行,問他們是否需要神聖的瑪利亞說。 Upon the Ave Maria in the sense of Angelus, see ANGELUS.在這個意義上的三鐘經祈禱後聖母頌“,看到ANGELUS。 On account of its connection with the Angelus, the Ave Maria was often inscribed on bells.在其連接的三鐘經,聖母瑪麗亞經常被刻在鐘聲。 One such bell at Eskild in Denmark, dating from about the year 1200, bears the Ave Maria engraved upon it in runic characters.一個這樣的鐘在Eskild在丹麥,距今大約1200年,承擔聖母頌在其上刻在符文字符。 (See Uldall, "Danmarks Middelalderlige Kirkeklokker", Copenhagen, 1906, p. 22.) (見Uldall,“馬爾克斯Middelalderlige Kirkeklokker”,哥本哈根,1906年,頁22。)

Herbert Thurston赫伯特·瑟斯頓

The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VII 天主教百科全書,第七卷

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